WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit area lma

  1. Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Niinemets, U.; Poorter, L.; Wright, I.J.; Villar, H.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analysed a wide range of literature data on the leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA). In nature, LMA varies more than 100-fold among species. Part of this variation (c. 35%) can be ascribed to differences between functional groups, with evergreen species having the highest LMA, but most of the

  2. Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Hendrik; Niinemets, Ulo; Poorter, Lourens; Wright, Ian J; Villar, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analysed a wide range of literature data on the leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA). In nature, LMA varies more than 100-fold among species. Part of this variation (c. 35%) can be ascribed to differences between functional groups, with evergreen species having the highest LMA, but most of the variation is within groups or biomes. When grown in the same controlled environment, leaf succulents and woody evergreen, perennial or slow-growing species have inherently high LMA. Within most of the functional groups studied, high-LMA species show higher leaf tissue densities. However, differences between evergreen and deciduous species result from larger volumes per area (thickness). Response curves constructed from experiments under controlled conditions showed that LMA varied strongly with light, temperature and submergence, moderately with CO2 concentration and nutrient and water stress, and marginally under most other conditions. Functional groups differed in the plasticity of LMA to these gradients. The physiological regulation is still unclear, but the consequences of variation in LMA and the suite of traits interconnected with it are strong. This trait complex is an important factor determining the fitness of species in their environment and affects various ecosystem processes.

  3. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Tupayachi, Raul; Emerson, Ruth; Martinez, Paola; Sinca, Felipe; Powell, George V N; Wright, S Joseph; Lugo, Ariel E

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific Islands to quantify environmental and taxonomic drivers of LMA variation, and to advance remote-sensing measures of LMA. We uncovered strong taxonomic organization of LMA, with species accounting for 70% of the global variance and up to 62% of the variation within a forest stand. Climate, growth habit, and site conditions are secondary contributors (1-23%) to the observed LMA patterns. Intraspecific variation in LMA averages 16%, which is a fraction of the variation observed between species. We then used spectroscopic remote sensing (400-2500 nm) to estimate LMA with an absolute uncertainty of 14-15 g/m2 (r2 = 0.85), or approximately 10% of the global mean. With radiative transfer modeling, we demonstrated the scalability of spectroscopic remote sensing of LMA to the canopy level. Our study indicates that remotely sensed patterns of LMA will be driven by taxonomic variation against a backdrop of environmental controls expressed at site and regional levels.

  4. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Roberta E. Martin; Raul Tupayachi; Ruth Emerson; Paola Martinez; Felipe Sinca; George V.N. Powell; S. Joseph Wright; Ariel E. Lugo

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific...

  5. Leaf thickness controls variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) among grazing-adapted grasses in Serengeti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Daniel M; Quigley, Kathleen M; Anderson, T Michael

    2016-08-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a primary plant functional trait that represents the cost of constructing a leaf. Ultimately, plants modify LMA by altering leaf thickness (LT), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), or both. While LMA can be modified through both of these constituents, studies of LMA have found that there is variation in whether LT or LDMC changes are responsible for LMA-and the relationships change depending on the species or functional groups being compared. In this study, we used a phylogenetic framework to determine that evolutionary shifts in LMA are driven by LT, and not LDMC, among 45 Serengeti grass species. We considered two alternative hypotheses that could result in evolutionary correlation of LMA on LT but not LDMC: either (1) LT is more labile than LDMC-and is therefore a less costly means to change LMA or (2) LDMC is tightly coupled to a different dimension of leaf variation (e.g., leaf hydraulics), leaving LT as the source of variation in LMA. LT was not more labile than LDMC, leading us to conclude that the evolution of LMA has been shaped by LT because LDMC is responding to other demands on leaf physiology. We speculate that leaf hydraulics provide this constraint on LDMC. The decoupling of LDMC from LT may allow plants to better optimize resource allocation in ecosystems where gradients in light competition, herbivory, and aridity place competing demands on leaf economics.

  6. Leaf Mass per Area (LMA and Its Relationship with Leaf Structure and Anatomy in 34 Mediterranean Woody Species along a Water Availability Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G de la Riva

    Full Text Available Leaf mass per area (LMA is a morphological trait widely used as a good indicator of plant functioning (i.e. photosynthetic and respiratory rates, chemical composition, resistance to herbivory, etc.. The LMA can be broken down into the leaf density (LD and leaf volume to area ratio (LVA or thickness, which in turn are determined by anatomical tissues and chemical composition. The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical and chemical characteristics related to LMA variation in species growing in the field along a water availability gradient. We determined LMA and its components (LD, LVA and anatomical tissues for 34 Mediterranean (20 evergreen and 14 deciduous woody species. Variation in LMA was due to variation in both LD and LVA. For both deciduous and evergreen species LVA variation was strongly and positively related with mesophyll volume per area (VA or thickness, but for evergreen species positive relationships of LVA with the VA of epidermis, vascular plus sclerenchyma tissues and air spaces were found as well. The leaf carbon concentration was positively related with mesophyll VA in deciduous species, and with VA of vascular plus sclerenchymatic tissues in evergreens. Species occurring at the sites with lower water availability were generally characterised by a high LMA and LD.

  7. Leaf Mass per Area (LMA) and Its Relationship with Leaf Structure and Anatomy in 34 Mediterranean Woody Species along a Water Availability Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Riva, Enrique G; Olmo, Manuel; Poorter, Hendrik; Ubera, José Luis; Villar, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a morphological trait widely used as a good indicator of plant functioning (i.e. photosynthetic and respiratory rates, chemical composition, resistance to herbivory, etc.). The LMA can be broken down into the leaf density (LD) and leaf volume to area ratio (LVA or thickness), which in turn are determined by anatomical tissues and chemical composition. The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical and chemical characteristics related to LMA variation in species growing in the field along a water availability gradient. We determined LMA and its components (LD, LVA and anatomical tissues) for 34 Mediterranean (20 evergreen and 14 deciduous) woody species. Variation in LMA was due to variation in both LD and LVA. For both deciduous and evergreen species LVA variation was strongly and positively related with mesophyll volume per area (VA or thickness), but for evergreen species positive relationships of LVA with the VA of epidermis, vascular plus sclerenchyma tissues and air spaces were found as well. The leaf carbon concentration was positively related with mesophyll VA in deciduous species, and with VA of vascular plus sclerenchymatic tissues in evergreens. Species occurring at the sites with lower water availability were generally characterised by a high LMA and LD.

  8. [General anaesthesia with sevoflurane in dental surgery with use of LMA-Flexible and LMA-ProSeal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizar'eva, N L; Sysoliatin, P G; Kokhno, V N; Kolosov, A N; Palkin, S L; Baĭdik, O D

    2011-01-01

    To compare the laryngeal mask airways (LMA), LMA - Flexible (LMA-F) and LMA-ProSeal (PLMA) with respect to airway management in dental surgery. 35 patients, with the pathology of stomatological area (cysts of the lower jaw; diseases maxillary sinus) were investigated during the operation. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl and atracurium besylate. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and neuromuscular blockade with mechanical ventilation. The operation lasted 30-40 min. For airway management was used LMA-F in 20 patients, in 15 patients was made PLMA. There were no statistically significant differences between LMA-F/PLMA groups for SpO(2), ET CO(2) or airway pressure during anesthesia. As for the gas exchange no difference was noticed in both groups (pLMA-F and PLMA was absent. As for the gas exchange no difference was noticed in both groups (pLMA-F or PLMA during general anaesthesia with sevoflurane is effective for airway management in surgery.

  9. Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimla Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMAat tunes maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (eLMA. However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placementto assess the ventilatooy and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraopera-tively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.

  10. Solving Solar Neutrino Puzzle via LMA MSW Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the existing solar neutrino experiment data and show the allowed regions. The result from SNO's salt phase itself restricts quite a lot the allowed region's area. Reactor neutrinos play an important role in determining oscillation parameters. KamLAND gives decisive conclusion on the solution to the solar neutrino puzzle, in particular, the spectral distortion in the 766.3 Ty KamLAND data gives another new improvement in the constraint of solar MSW-LMA solutions. We confirm that at 99. 73% C.L. the high-LMA solution is excluded.

  11. [The analysis of the causes of variability of the relationship between leaf dry mass and area in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasfilov, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lamina dry mass: area ratio (LMA - Leaf Mass per Area) is a quite variable trait. Leaf dry mass consists of symplast mass (a set of all leaf protoplasts) and apoplast mass (a set of all cell walls in a leaf). The ratio between symplast and apoplast masses is positively related to any functional trait of leaf calculated per unit of dry mass. The value of this ratio is defined by cells size and their number per unit of leaf area, number of mesophyll cells layers and their differentiation between palisade and spongy ones, and also by density of cells packing. The LMA value is defined by leaf thickness and density. The extent and direction of variability in both leaf traits define the extent and direction of variability in LMA. Negative correlation between leaf thickness and density reduces the level of LMA variability. As a consequence of this correlation the following pattern emerges: the thinner a leaf, the denser it is. Changes in the traits that define the LMA value take place both within a species under the influence of environmental factors and between species that differ in leaf structure and functions. Light is the most powerful environmental factor that influences the LMA, increase in illumination leading to increase in LMA. This effect occurs during leaf growth at the expense of structural changes associated with the reduction of symplast/apoplast mass ratio. Under conditions of intense illumination, LMA may increase due to accumulation of starch. With regard to the majority of leaf functions, the mass of starch may be ascribed to apoplast. Starch accumulation in leaves is observed also under conditions of elevated CO2 concentration in the air. Under high illumination, however, LMA increases also due to increased apoplast contribution to leaf dry mass. Scarce mineral nutrition leads to LMA increase due to lowering of growth zones demands for phothosyntates and, therefore, to increase in starch content of leaves. High level of mineral nutrition during

  12. Anatomical basis of LMA variations drive to different photosynthetic and water storage strategies in two Sesleria species from mountain dry grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglielli, Giacomo; Fiore Crescente, Maria; Frattaroli, Anna Rita; Gratani, Loretta

    2016-04-01

    Plant and leaf traits directly affect ecosystem processes ensuring carbon, nutrient and water exchanges between soil and atmosphere through the photosynthetic activity. Nevertheless, a great within sites variation in plant and leaf traits can be found resulting in different adaptive strategies in coexisting species. Leaf mass per unit of leaf area (LMA) is an important trait to understand plant functional ecology being the outcome of leaf anatomy and related to photosynthesis. We hypothesized that LMA was the main predictor of the adaptive strategies of Sesleria nitida (S1) and Sesleria juncifolia (S2), growing on the screes and on the crests of the summit area, respectively, on Mount Terminillo (Central Apennines, Loc. Sella di Leonessa, 1895 m a.s.l.). To test our hypothesis we broke LMA down into anatomical components, leaf tissue density (LTD) and thickness (LT) and then relating them to gas exchange parameters on twenty plants per species cultivated ex situ. LTD explained 69% of LMA variations in S1 while the relationship with LT was not significant. Moreover, LTD was negatively correlated with LT in S1 driving to a 17% higher volume of the intercellular air spaces, which increases the CO2 partial pressure at the carboxylation sites. This result was also attested by the significant relationship between LTD and both net photosynthesis per unit leaf area (Aa) and mass (Am) (R= 0.56 and -0.49, respectively), highlighting the role of LTD in determining the photosynthetic process in S1. LMA scaled with both LTD and LT explaining 82% and 70% of LMA variations in S2. Moreover, the positive relationship between LTD and LT (R2 = 0.52) highlighted a coordination between the variables in controlling the photosynthetic process. In particular, LTD and LT controlled the transactions of carbon and water through the leaf surface, being positively related to Aa (R= 0.93 and 0.79 for LTD and LT, respectively). Nevertheless, an increase in LT and LTD decreased Am (R = -0.9 and

  13. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  14. Improving LMA predictions with non standard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the well established LMA solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for SuperKamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with non standard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the $\

  15. Comparison of LMA-ProSealTM with LMA ClassicTM in Anaesthetised Paralysed Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kanthed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA, though popular in anaesthesia practice provides low oropharyngeal seal pressure and there are concerns with its use during positive pressure ventilation for fear of gastric distension with subsequent gastric regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA is a modified LMA with a larger, wedge shaped cuff and a drain tube. This modification improves the seal around glottis when compared to a cLMA and its drain tube prevents gastric distension and offers protection against aspiration when properly placed. We compared PLMA and cLMA in 100 anaesthetized, paralysed children with 50 patients in each group with respect to ease of insertion, oropharyngeal seal pressure and pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. Gastric tube insertion was also assessed for the PLMA. The ease of insertion and the number of attempts at insertion were found to be comparable in the two groups while the oropharyngeal seal pressure was significantly higher in the PLMA group (P < 0.001. The pharyngolaryngeal morbidity was comparable in both the groups. There was no incidence of regurgitation or aspiration in either group. The PLMA offered high reliability of gastric tube placement and significantly increased oropharyngeal seal pressure over the cLMA. This might have an important implication for use of this device for positive pressure ventilation in children.

  16. LMA Extubation in Pediatric Patients: A Comparison of Inflated and Deflated LMA Cuff Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Extubating LMA (Laryngeal mask airway can be performed either with inflated or deflated cuff. In this study the effects and complications of these two methods were compared in children.Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 180 patients under 11 years old with ASA I/II who were scheduled for elective surgeries for less than one hour with no need for muscle relaxation were randomly divided into two groups. In group D, LMAs were extubated after oral cavity suctioning and cuff deflation. In group I, LMAs were extubated without suctioning and deflating the cuffs.Results: In group I after removing the LMA, mean heart rate significantly increased, mean diastolic blood pressure significantly increased, and mean arterial blood saturation significantly decreased. In Group D, none of these changes occurred. Despite a higher incidence of complications in the group I, difference was not significant.Conclusions: LMA removal with inflated cuff increases hemodynamic changes and decreases the arterial blood saturation. Hence, when hemodynamic stability and saturation of arterial blood is particularly important for us, extubating the LMA with deflated cuff is recommended. Keywords: LMA; Complication; Inflated; Deflated

  17. A Biologic Behavior Simulation:Living Migration Algorithm (LMA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dou-dou; SHAO Shi-huang; QI Jin-peng

    2008-01-01

    Biologic behaviors are the principal source for proposing new intelligent algorithms.Based on the mechanism of the bio-subsistence and the bio-migration,this paper proposes a novel algorithm-Living Migration Algorithm (LMA).The original contributions of LMA are three essential attributes of each individual:the minimal life-needs which ale the necessaries for survival,the migrating which is a basal action for searching new living space,and the judging which is an important ability of deciding whether to migrate or not.When living space of all individuals can satisfy the minimal life-needs at some generation,they are considered as the optimal living places where objective functions will obtain the optima.LMA may be employed in large-scale computation and engineering field.The paper mostly operates LMA to deal with four nonlinear and heterogeneous optimizations,and experiments prove LMA has better performances than Free Search algorithm.

  18. A prospective randomised controlled trial of the LMA Supreme vs cuffed tracheal tube as the airway device during percutaneous tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, G C; McLellan, S; Paterson, R L; Hay, A

    2014-07-01

    We studied the performance of the LMA Supreme against a cuffed tracheal tube, our standard method of airway control during percutaneous tracheostomy, in 50 consecutive patients from three general critical care units. The primary outcome measure was adequacy of ventilation calculated as the difference in arterial carbon dioxide tension before and after tracheostomy. On an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference in the increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension between groups, with a median (IQR [range]) for the LMA Supreme of 0.9 (0.3-1.6 [0-2.8]) kPa, and for the tracheal tube of 0.8 (0.4-1.2 [0-2.5]) kPa, p = 0.82. Eight patients out of 25 (32%) crossed over from the LMA Supreme group to the tracheal tube group before commencement of tracheostomy due to airway or ventilation problems, compared with none out of 25 in the tracheal tube group, p = 0.01, and tracheostomy was postponed in two patients in the LMA Supreme group due to poor oxygenation. There were more clinically important complications in the LMA Supreme group compared with the tracheal tube group.

  19. Design of triangular core LMA-PCF with low-bending loss and low non-linearity for laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Sumaiya; Khandokar, Md. Rezwanul Haque; Khan, Muhammad Abdul Goffar

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we characterize the design of a simple large-mode area photonic crystal fiber (LMA-PCF) with low bending loss and low non-linearity. The finite element method (FEM) with perfectly matched boundary layer (PML) is used to investigate the guiding properties. According to simulation the characterized four ring fluorine doped triangular core LMA-PCF achieves 1500 μm2 effective mode area with a low bending loss of 10-5dB/km at the wavelength of 1.064 μm and at a bending radius of 40 cm which is suitable for high power fiber laser.

  20. MALPOSITIONED LMA CONFUSED AS FOREIGN BODY IN NASAL CAVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sidharth; Mehta, Nitika; Mehta, Nandita; Mehta, Satish; Verma, Jayeeta

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of confusing white foreign body in the nasal cavity detected during Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) in a 35-yr-old male which turned out to be a malposition of classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Although malposition of LMA is a known entity to the anesthesiologist, if ventilation is adequate, back folded LMA in nasal cavity might not be recognized by the surgeon and lead to catastrophic consequences during endoscopic sinus surgery. In principle, misfolding and malpositioning can be reduced by pre usage testing, using appropriate sizes, minimizing cuff volume, and early identification and correction of malposition.

  1. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieble, Thomas [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Patel, Anuradha; Davidson, Melissa [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  2. LMA Supreme insertion by novices in manikins and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, B W; Wharton, N M; Gibbison, B; Cook, T M

    2010-04-01

    The LMA Supreme has been suggested for use in emergency situations by medical personnel with no experience in endotracheal intubation. We evaluated the LMA Supreme when inserted by non-anaesthetists, firstly in a manikin and then in patients. Fifty airway novices inserted a LMA Supreme in a manikin without any complications so we proceeded to the patient phase. Fifty airway novices inserted the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients undergoing elective surgery. First time insertion success rate was 86% and overall insertion success rate was 100%. Mechanical ventilation was successful in all cases. Median (IQR [range]) time to establish an airway was 34 s (26-40 [18-145] s). Median (IQR [range]) pharyngeal seal pressure was 23 cmH(2)O (19-28 [13-40] cmH(2)O). There were no important complications. Results are consistent with previous studies of use of the LMA Supreme by airway experts. We conclude that the LMA supreme is suitable for use by airway novices. Further research is needed before it may be recommended for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency airway use.

  3. NSI can improve LMA predictions: neutrino decay in solar matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Pulido, Joao

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for non-standard interactions (NSI) in solar neutrino propagation and detection and find that these may solve the tension between the observed flatness of the SuperKamiokande electron spectrum and its LMA prediction which has a clear negative slope. Also the Cl rate prediction from NSI comes within 1$\\sigma$ of its experimental value instead of the LMA one which lies more than 2$\\sigma$ above. A remarkable consequence of NSI for solar neutrinos is the possibility of neutrino decay into majorons and antineutrinos whose appearance probability is calculated but found to be rather small.

  4. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  5. Complete Chromosome Sequence of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum LMA 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Chaillou, Stéphane; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila;

    2013-01-01

    Within the lactic acid bacterium genus Carnobacterium, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is one of the most frequently isolated species from natural environments and food. It potentially plays a major role in food product biopreservation. We report here on the 3.649-Mb chromosome sequence of C. malta....... maltaromaticum LMA 28, which was isolated from ripened soft cheese....

  6. Developing Student's Notion of Measurement Unit for Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuberta, Kurnia Rahmi; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf; van Galen, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understanding area measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why the formula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement.…

  7. Low-NA single-mode LMA photonic crystal fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Enabling Single-Mode (SM) operation in Large-Mode-Area (LMA) fiber amplifiers and lasers is critical, since a SM output ensures high beam quality and excellent pointing stability. In this paper, we demonstrate and test a new design approach for achieving ultra-low NA SM rod fibers by using...... a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). This approach achieves SM performance in a short and straight rod fiber and allows preform tolerances to be compensated during draw. A low-NA SM rod fiber amplifier having a mode field diameter of ~60μm at 1064nm and a pump absorption of 27dB/m at 976nm...

  8. A randomised comparison of the single use LMA Flexible with the reusable LMA Flexible in paediatric dental day-case patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, P; Ahmed, F B; Mitchell, V; Patel, A; Clarke, S

    2007-12-01

    In this study we compared the performance of the single use flexible laryngeal mask airway (LMA Flexible) with the original reusable LMA Flexible in paediatric dento-alveolar day-case surgery. The aim of the study was to determine whether these two supraglottic airway devices were clinically equivalent when used for simple dental extractions in children under general anaesthesia. This randomised comparative trial in 100 healthy children used first attempt airway insertion success as its primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included the adequacy of ventilation, incidence of airway obstruction and the requirement for device manipulation and the incidence of adverse airway outcomes during recovery from anaesthesia. No difference was found between the devices in first attempt insertion success rate (94% with reusable LMA Flexible and 90% with single use LMA Flexible, p = 0.358), and ease of insertion was also similar (p = 0.5). Both devices performed equally well during surgery, with no significant differences in episodes of intra-operative airway compromise (p = 0.387), and both the single use and reusable LMA Flexible displayed excellent recovery characteristics, with no occurrences of emergence airway obstruction. No blood was discovered within the inner LMA tube shaft in either device, implying that both protected against tracheobronchial soiling. We conclude therefore that the single use LMA Flexible is an acceptable alternative to the reusable LMA Flexible.

  9. Testing the solar LMA region with KamLAND data

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, A; Gandhi, R; Goswami, S; Roy, D P; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Choubey, Sandhya; Gandhi, Raj; Goswami, Srubabati

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the potential of 1 and 3 kiloTon-years(kTy) of KamLAND data to further constrain the $\\Delta m^2$ and $\\tan^2\\theta$ values allowed by the post-SNO NC global solar data. We find that although an energy integrated oscillation to no oscillation event-rate ratio in the range $\\sim$ 0.3-0.8 observed in KamLAND can provide support for the Large-Mixing Angle (LMA) solution, sensitive determination of the oscillation parameters will have to wait until the spectrum data is made available. We study the extent, dependence and characteristics of this sensitivity in and around the LMA region. Our analysis with 3 kTy simulated spectra shows that KamLAND spectrum data by itself can constrain $\\Delta m^2$ with a high precision if the simulation point lies around the LMA best-fit from global solar analysis. For spectra generated at lower values of $\\tan^2\\theta$ or higher values of $\\Delta m^2$, multiple regions become allowed indicating a significantly reduced reconstruction efficiency if the tr...

  10. Urban Areas of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes a selection of urban areas in the United States derived from the urban areas layer of the Digital Chart of the World (DCW). This is a revised...

  11. Developing Student’s Notion of Measurement Unit For Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Rahmi Yuberta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understanding area measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why the formula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop activities that support students to know the attribute of area and the notion of measurement unit in learning area measurement. For this purpose, design research is chosen for achieving the research goal. Realistic Mathematics Education (RME underlies the design of context and activities. A teacher and students in grade 3 in elementary school (SDN 21 in Palembang Indonesia will be involved in this research.

  12. Student housing unit in a floor area without corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Cekić Nikola; Vasov Miomir; Bjelić Igor

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the issues of position and urbarchitectonic-functional organization of a housing unit in a floor area without corridors in a student hostel. The authors advocate a new, more rational and functional concept in which the student room is not in direct contact with the corridor communication, but belongs to the housing unit, student apartment for 4-6 users. In a more rational organized volume, the living of the students is more comfortable and has a different character. Th...

  13. Use of the LMA Supreme in the Special Operations Environment: A Retrospective Comparison of the LMA Supreme and King LT-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Travis J; Maani, Christopher V; Redman, Theodore T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of the LMA Supreme® (LAM) as a combat supraglottic airway for U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF). It is imperative to continuously evaluate and compare existing management options for airway control as requirements and technologies change. Providing our Special Operators with the most advanced and reliable medical equipment is of the utmost importance, and it is our intention here to compare the LMA Supreme with the currently fielded King LT-D® (King Systems) to determine whether the LMA Supreme may be a viable alternative supraglottic airway.

  14. Investigating Conceptual, Procedural, and Intuitive Aspects of Area Measurement with Non-Square Area Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project on area measurement. The study utilized structured, task-based interviews with students to (a) investigate the ways students enumerate and structure two-dimensional space with a variety of area units; (b) identify conceptual, procedural, and intuitive aspects of area…

  15. Error Analyses of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.; Christian, H. J.; Hall, J. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Krider, E. P.; Bateman, M. G.; Boccippio, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Two approaches are used to characterize how accurately the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) is able to locate lightning VHF sources in space and in time. The first method uses a Monte Carlo computer simulation to estimate source retrieval errors. The simulation applies a VHF source retrieval algorithm that was recently developed at the NASA-MSFC and that is similar, but not identical to, the standard New Mexico Tech retrieval algorithm. The second method uses a purely theoretical technique (i.e., chi-squared Curvature Matrix theory) to estimate retrieval errors. Both methods assume that the LMA system has an overall rms timing error of 50ns, but all other possible errors (e.g., multiple sources per retrieval attempt) are neglected. The detailed spatial distributions of retrieval errors are provided. Given that the two methods are completely independent of one another, it is shown that they provide remarkably similar results, except that the chi-squared theory produces larger altitude error estimates than the (more realistic) Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Predicting the HMA-LMA status in marine sponges by machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Steinert, Georg; Nielsen, Shaun; Hardoim, Cristiane C.P.; Wu, Yu Chen; McCormack, Grace P.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Marchant, Roman; Webster, Nicole; Thomas, Torsten; Hentschel, Ute

    2017-01-01

    The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been observed in sponge-microbe symbiosis, although the extent of this pattern remains poorly unknown. We characterized the differences between the microbiomes of HMA (n = 19) and LMA (n = 17)

  17. Developing Student’s Notion of Measurement Unit For Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Rahmi Yuberta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understandingarea measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why theformula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop activities that support students to know the attribute of area and  the notion of measurementunit in learning area measurement. For this purpose, design research is chosen for achieving the research goal. Realistic Mathematics Education (RME underlies the design of context and activities. A teacher and students in grade 3 in elementary school (SDN 21 in Palembang Indonesia will be involved in this research.Keywords: Area measurement, unit, design research, RME DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.775.173-184

  18. Inheritance of Late Maturity α-amylase (LMA) in a Recombinant Inbreed Lines of Chuanmai 42 Crossed with Chuannong 16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG En-nian; ZHANG Yu; LI Jun; TANG Yong-lu; YANG Wu-yun; ZOU Yu-chun

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the inheritance and possible molecular marker of α-LMA and their relations to falling number. [ Method] Recombined inbreed lines (RILS) of Chuanmai 42 (LMA genotype) crossed with Chuannong 16 (no LMA) were employed to test the late maturity α-amylase (LMA) by EL ISA kits, the Falling Number (FN), and three QTL, SSR markers ( Xgwm 577, Xwmc2.76, Xwmc273) of LMA gene.[ Result] Results suggested that LMA was controlled by a single, and the three SSR markers seemed to be not efficient to test LMA gene in this RILS. LMA was an important factor on FN, meanwhile FN was also affected by other factors. [Conclusion] The study could provide references for the breed of quality wheat.

  19. A randomised trial comparing the i-gel (TM) with the LMA Classic (TM) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-R; Kim, M-S; Kim, J-T; Byon, H-J; Park, Y-H; Kim, H-S; Kim, C-S

    2012-06-01

    We performed a prospective, randomised trial comparing the i-gel(TM) with the LMA Classic(TM) in children undergoing general anaesthesia. Ninety-nine healthy patients were randomly assigned to either the i-gel or the LMA Classic. The outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease of insertion, time taken for insertion, fibreoptic examination and complications. Median (IQR [range]) time to successful device placement was shorter with the i-gel (17.0 (13.8-20.0 [10.0-20.0]) s) compared with the LMA Classic (21.0 (17.5-25.0 [15.0-70.0]) s, p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in oropharyngeal leak pressure between the two devices. A good fibreoptic view of the glottis was obtained in 74% of the i-gel group and in 43% of the LMA Classic group (p LMA Classic in children.

  20. Leaf-age effects on seasonal variability in photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen concentration within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    In the temperate zone of Japan, Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. bears needles of up to three age classes in the upper crown and up to five age classes in the lower crown. To elucidate the effects of leaf age on photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen (N(l)) concentration on an area (N(a)) and mass (N(m)) basis, we measured seasonal variations in LMA, N(l), light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) in leaves of all age classes in the upper and lower crown. Leaf mass per unit area increased by 27% with increasing leaf age in the lower crown, but LMA did not depend on age in the upper crown. Leaf age had a significant effect on N(m) but not on N(a) in both crown positions, indicating that decreases in N(m) resulted from dilution. Photosynthetic parameters decreased significantly with leaf age in the lower crown (39% for A(max) and 43% for V(cmax)), but the effect of leaf age was not as great in the upper crown, although these parameters exhibited seasonal variation in both crown positions. Regression analysis indicated a close relationship between LMA and N(a), regardless of age class or when each age class was pooled (r(2) = 0.57-0.86). Relationships between LMA and N(a) and among A(max), V(cmax) and J(max) were weak or not significant when all age classes were examined by regression analysis. However, compared with older leaves, relationships among LMA, N(a) and A(max) were stronger in younger leaves. These results indicate that changes in LMA and N(l) mainly reflect light acclimation during leaf development, but they are only slightly affected by irradiance in mature leaves. In conclusion, LMA and N(l) are useful parameters for estimating photosynthetic capacity, but age-related effects need to be taken into account, especially in evergreen conifers.

  1. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events with laryngeal mask airway (LMA Supreme) in laparoscopic surgical procedures with cuff pressure limiting 25 cmH₂O: prospective, blind, and randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joo-Eun; Oh, Chung-Sik; Choi, Jae Won; Son, Il Soon; Kim, Seong-Hyop

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) manufacturers recommend maximum cuff pressures not exceeding 60 cmH₂O. We performed a prospective randomised study, comparing efficacy and adverse events among patients undergoing laparoscopic surgical procedures who were allocated randomly into low (limiting 25 cmH₂O, L group) and high (at 60 cmH₂O, H group) LMA cuff pressure groups with LMA Supreme. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events were evaluated at discharge from postanaesthetic care unit (PACU) (postoperative day 1, POD 1) and 24 hours after discharge from PACU (postoperative day 2, POD 2). All patients were well tolerated with LMA without ventilation failure. Before pneumoperitoneum, cuff volume and pressure and oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) showed significant differences. Postoperative sore throat at POD 2 (3 versus 12 patients) and postoperative dysphagia at POD 1 and POD 2 (0 versus 4 patients at POD 1; 0 versus 4 patients at POD 2) were significantly lower in L group, compared with H group. In conclusion, LMA with cuff pressure limiting 25 cmH₂O allowed both efficacy of airway management and lower incidence of postoperative adverse events in laparoscopic surgical procedures. This clinical trial is registered with KCT0000334.

  2. Postoperative Pharyngolaryngeal Adverse Events with Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA Supreme in Laparoscopic Surgical Procedures with Cuff Pressure Limiting 25 cmH2O: Prospective, Blind, and Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Eun Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events, laryngeal mask airway (LMA manufacturers recommend maximum cuff pressures not exceeding 60 cmH2O. We performed a prospective randomised study, comparing efficacy and adverse events among patients undergoing laparoscopic surgical procedures who were allocated randomly into low (limiting 25 cmH2O, L group and high (at 60 cmH2O, H group LMA cuff pressure groups with LMA Supreme. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events were evaluated at discharge from postanaesthetic care unit (PACU (postoperative day 1, POD 1 and 24 hours after discharge from PACU (postoperative day 2, POD 2. All patients were well tolerated with LMA without ventilation failure. Before pneumoperitoneum, cuff volume and pressure and oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP showed significant differences. Postoperative sore throat at POD 2 (3 versus 12 patients and postoperative dysphagia at POD 1 and POD 2 (0 versus 4 patients at POD 1; 0 versus 4 patients at POD 2 were significantly lower in L group, compared with H group. In conclusion, LMA with cuff pressure limiting 25 cmH2O allowed both efficacy of airway management and lower incidence of postoperative adverse events in laparoscopic surgical procedures. This clinical trial is registered with KCT0000334.

  3. Postoperative Pharyngolaryngeal Adverse Events with Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA Supreme) in Laparoscopic Surgical Procedures with Cuff Pressure Limiting 25 cmH2O: Prospective, Blind, and Randomised Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joo-Eun; Choi, Jae Won; Son, Il Soon

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) manufacturers recommend maximum cuff pressures not exceeding 60 cmH2O. We performed a prospective randomised study, comparing efficacy and adverse events among patients undergoing laparoscopic surgical procedures who were allocated randomly into low (limiting 25 cmH2O, L group) and high (at 60 cmH2O, H group) LMA cuff pressure groups with LMA Supreme. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events were evaluated at discharge from postanaesthetic care unit (PACU) (postoperative day 1, POD 1) and 24 hours after discharge from PACU (postoperative day 2, POD 2). All patients were well tolerated with LMA without ventilation failure. Before pneumoperitoneum, cuff volume and pressure and oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) showed significant differences. Postoperative sore throat at POD 2 (3 versus 12 patients) and postoperative dysphagia at POD 1 and POD 2 (0 versus 4 patients at POD 1; 0 versus 4 patients at POD 2) were significantly lower in L group, compared with H group. In conclusion, LMA with cuff pressure limiting 25 cmH2O allowed both efficacy of airway management and lower incidence of postoperative adverse events in laparoscopic surgical procedures. This clinical trial is registered with KCT0000334. PMID:24778598

  4. Large-area landslide susceptibility with optimized slope-units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    A Slope-Unit (SU) is a type of morphological terrain unit bounded by drainage and divide lines that maximize the within-unit homogeneity and the between-unit heterogeneity across distinct physical and geographical boundaries [1]. Compared to other terrain subdivisions, SU are morphological terrain unit well related to the natural (i.e., geological, geomorphological, hydrological) processes that shape and characterize natural slopes. This makes SU easily recognizable in the field or in topographic base maps, and well suited for environmental and geomorphological analysis, in particular for landslide susceptibility (LS) modelling. An optimal subdivision of an area into a set of SU depends on multiple factors: size and complexity of the study area, quality and resolution of the available terrain elevation data, purpose of the terrain subdivision, scale and resolution of the phenomena for which SU are delineated. We use the recently developed r.slopeunits software [2,3] for the automatic, parametric delineation of SU within the open source GRASS GIS based on terrain elevation data and a small number of user-defined parameters. The software provides subdivisions consisting of SU with different shapes and sizes, as a function of the input parameters. In this work, we describe a procedure for the optimal selection of the user parameters through the production of a large number of realizations of the LS model. We tested the software and the optimization procedure in a 2,000 km2 area in Umbria, Central Italy. For LS zonation we adopt a logistic regression model implemented in an well-known software [4,5], using about 50 independent variables. To select the optimal SU partition for LS zonation, we want to define a metric which is able to quantify simultaneously: (i) slope-unit internal homogeneity (ii) slope-unit external heterogeneity (iii) landslide susceptibility model performance. To this end, we define a comprehensive objective function S, as the product of three

  5. LMA Supreme™ vs i-gel™--a comparison of insertion success in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, R; Finessi, L; Farinelli, I; Alvisi, R; Volta, C A

    2012-04-01

    Two new supraglottic airway devices, the LMA Supreme™ (LMA) and the i-gel™, offer potential benefits when inserted by inexperienced operators. This study compared the insertion success rate and ventilation profile between the LMA Supreme and the i-gel when inserted by operators without previous airway management expertise. Following a short lecture and manikin training, airway novices were randomly allocated to insert either the LMA Supreme or the i-gel into 80 patients undergoing breast surgery. The primary outcome was first-time success rate, and secondary outcomes were overall success rate, insertion time, airway leak pressure, tidal volume during pressure controlled ventilation at 17 cmH(2)O, and adverse events. First-time insertion success rate was significantly higher for the LMA Supreme than the i-gel (30/39 (77%) vs 22/41 (54%); p = 0.029). Significantly more placement failures occurred with the i-gel (6 vs 0, p = 0.025). Mean (SD) leak pressure (29 (8) vs 23 (11) cmH(2)O, p = 0.007) and expired tidal volume (PCV 17 cmH(2)O) (785 (198) vs 654 (91), p = 0.001) were significantly greater with the LMA Supreme than with the i-gel, respectively. More patients complained of pharyngolaryngeal pain with the LMA Supreme than with the i-gel (17/39 (44%) vs 8/41 (20%); p = 0.053). We found better first time success rate, fewer failures, and a better seal with the LMA Supreme compared with the i-gel, indicating that the LMA Supreme may be preferable for emergency airway use by novices.

  6. Training for neonatal resuscitation with the laryngeal mask airway: a comparison of the LMA-ProSeal and the LMA-Classic in an airway management manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micaglio, Massimo; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Parotto, Matteo; Zanardo, Vincenzo; Ori, Carlo; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2006-10-01

    Neonatal resuscitation is a mandatory skill for healthcare professionals involved in maternity suites. For ethical reasons, it is impossible to teach and practice airway management skills on neonates, and manikins are used for this purpose. The Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway TM (cLMA) is accepted as an effective device for airway management during neonatal resuscitation. A neonatal size of the LMA-ProSeal (PLMA) was recently produced, but there are no comparative data on its performance. We describe the comparison of the performances of the neonatal cLMA and the neonatal PLMA when used by different healthcare professionals in a dedicated airway management manikin. Thirty-five healthcare professionals, were given a brief description of the two devices followed by 15 min of supervised insertions on a single manikin. Every trainee was then instructed to insert both devices four times. The time from insertion to the first inflation of the artificial lungs (insertion time, IT) was recorded by a single unblinded observer. No failed insertions were recorded. The success rates of the first attempt were higher with the PLMA than the cLMA (97.1% vs 92.1%; Ptraining reduces the IT significantly. The longer IT of PLMA vs cLMA is without clinical relevance.

  7. THE LMA PROSEAL: AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO TRACHEAL INTUBATION FOR LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Sarma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An Anaesthesiologist has the fundamental responsibility to maintain a patent airway during surgical procedures. Although the tracheal tube is considered ideal for laparoscopic procedures, there is consistent flow of reports highlighting the safety of LMA ProSeal in laparoscopic surgeries. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of insertion and removal of LMA ProSeal and Endotracheal tube on haemodynamic responses, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of use of LMA ProSeal as an airway device for Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to note other observations, if any. Sixty patients undergoing elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy of 35-45 minutes duration were randomly divided into two groups comprising of 30 patients in each. Group E: Patients receiving EndoTracheal Tube (ETT. Group P: Patients receiving LMA ProSeal (LMA-PS. A standard General Anaesthesia protocol and routine monitoring was applied in all patients. Monitoring of Heart Rate (HR, Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP, Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP and SPO2 preoperatively (As baseline, after intubation or placement of LMA-PS, at 1min, 3mins, 5mins and every 5mins thereafter till the reading at removal and after 5mins of removal of ETT or LMA-PS. For both the groups, baseline value for ETCO2 was taken from connection of ETCO2 cable following placement of airway devices (ETT/LMA-PS.All data were analyzed by specific statistical methods applicable to the various sets of data. Tests employed were Student T test, Fisher’s exact test which were performed on SPSS software. Microsoft Word and Excel have been used to generate graphs, tables etc. SpO2 was well maintained in both the groups throughout the procedure. On statistical analysis, it was found that the increase in HR,SBP,DBP, MAP were highly significant after instrumentation, at 1 min and 3 mins with Group E showing a greater rise than Group P. It became insignificant at 5 mins and there after

  8. Efficient Buffering Scheme in the LMA for Seamless Handover in PMIPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryoul; Lee, Hyo-Beom; Choi, Hyon-Young; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Youn-Hee

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is proposed as a new network-based local mobility protocol which does not involve the Mobile Node (MN) in mobility management. PMIPv6, which uses link-layer attachment information, reduces the movement detection time and eliminates duplicate address detection procedures in order to provide faster handover than Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). To eliminate packet loss during the handover period, the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) buffering scheme is proposed. In this scheme, the LMA buffers lost packets of the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the MN during the handover and recovers them after handover. A new Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) handler is defined which efficiently manages the LMA buffer. The ARQ handler relays ARQ result between the MAG and the MN to the LMA. The LMA removes any buffered packets which have been successfully delivered to the MN. The ARQ handler recovers the packet loss during the handover using buffered packets in the LMA. The ARQ information, between the MAG and LMA, is inserted in the outer header of IP-in-IP encapsulated packets of a standard PMIPv6 tunnel. Since the proposed scheme simply adds information to the standard operation of an IP-in-IP tunnel between the LMA and the MAG, it can be implemented seamlessly without modification to the original PMIPv6 messages and signaling sequence. Unlike other Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) based enhancement for PMIPv6, the proposed scheme does not require any handover related information before the actual handover.

  9. A COMPARISON OF CLINICAL PERFORMANCE OF I-GEL WITH PROSEAL LMA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING MASTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer Padinhare Madathil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM To assess the ease of insertion of I-gel and ProSeal LMA and incidence of post op complications. Study design-A prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the clinical performance of I-gel and ProSeal LMA. METHODS After induction and good muscle relaxation LMA/I-gel was introduced as per randomised computer allocation. After insertion, nasogastric tube was inserted through the gastric channel. Parameters monitored were heart rate, nubp, SpO2, ETCO2 at 1, 5 minutes after insertion of the device and thereafter every 5 minutes till the end of surgery. In case of failure, airway was secured with an endotracheal tube. Ease of gastric tube insertion was noted at the end of surgery; postop complications were noted. Blood staining of the device, injury to the lips, teeth, and tongue were noted. Incidence of sore throat 24 hrs. after surgery was also noted. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software. RESULTS Age, height, weight and BMI were comparable in both groups. The airway characteristics was also comparable in both the groups. Ease of introduction was also the same for both the groups, but the time taken was much lesser for I-gel group. The ease of insertion of gastric tube was much easier for the I-gel group. Blood staining of the device was more with the ProSeal LMA group. There was no injury to any of the structures mentioned above. Postop sore throat was more in the ProSeal LMA group. CONCLUSION From our study, we conclude that the airway can be secured much faster with I-gel than ProSeal LMA. Postop sore throat was much less for I-gel than ProSeal LMA. Both were comparable in number of attempts of insertion, gastric tube introduction. Trauma to the airway structures was also minimum with both I-gel and ProSeal LMA.

  10. The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, Volker; Wehrl, Markus; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Gernert, Christine; Schupp, Peter; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-08-01

    The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as belonging to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses.

  11. Comparison of guided insertion of the LMA ProSeal vs the i-gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, L; Brimacombe, J; Perkhofer, D; Kaufmann, M; Keller, C

    2010-09-01

    In a randomised, non-crossover study, we tested the hypothesis that the ease of insertion using a duodenal tube guided insertion technique and the oropharyngeal leak pressure differ between the LMA ProSeal and the i-gel in non-paralysed, anesthetised female subjects. One hundred and fifty-two females aged 19-70 years were studied. Insertion success rate, insertion time and oropharyngeal leak pressure were measured. First attempt and overall insertion success were similar (LMA ProSeal, 75/76 (99%) and 76/76 (100%); i-gel 73/75 (97%) and 75 (100%), respectively). Mean (SD) insertion times were similar (LMA ProSeal, 40 (16) s; i-gel 43 (21) s). Mean oropharyngeal leak pressure was 7 cmH(2) O higher with the LMA ProSeal (p LMA ProSeal and i-gel is similarly easy using a duodenal tube guided technique, but the LMA ProSeal forms a more effective seal for ventilation.

  12. A randomised comparison of the LMA SupremeTM and LMAProSealTM in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, N; Sohn, L E; Sawardekar, A; Gordon, J; Langen, K E; Anderson, K

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a randomised trial comparing the size-2 LMA Supreme™ with the LMA ProSeal™ in 60 children undergoing surgery. The outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease and time for insertion, fibreoptic examination, incidence of gastric insufflation, ease of gastric tube placement, quality of the airway during anaesthetic maintenance and complications. There were no statistically significant differences between the LMA Supreme and LMA ProSeal in median (IQR [range]) insertion time (12 (10-15 [7-18]) s vs 12 (10-13 [8-25]) s; p = 0.90), airway leak pressures (19 (16-21 [12-30]) cmH(2) O vs 18 (16-24 [10-34]) cmH(2) O; p = 0.55), fibreoptic position of the airway or drain tube, ease of gastric access and complications. Both devices provided effective ventilation requiring minimal airway manipulation. The LMA Supreme can be a useful alternative to the LMA ProSeal when single-use supraglottic devices with gastric access capabilities are required.

  13. A fluorinated quinuclidine benzamide named LMA 10203 acts as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; Lapied, Bruno; Lebreton, Jacques; Thany, Steeve H

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we take advantage of the fact that cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons express different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to demonstrate that simple quinuclidine benzamides such as the 2-fluorinated benzamide LMA 10203, could act as an agonist of cockroach α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype, called nAChR2. Indeed, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced ionic currents which were partially blocked by 0.5 μM α-bungarotoxin and methyllycaconitine and completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. Moreover, the current-voltage curve revealed that the ionic current induced by LMA 10203 increased from -30 mV to +20 mV confirming that it acted as an agonist of α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2. In addition, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced a depolarization of the sixth abdominal ganglion and this neuroexcitatory activity was completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. These data suggest that nAChR2 was also expressed at the postsynaptic level on the synapse between the cercal afferent nerve and the giant interneurons. Interestingly, despite LMA 10203 being an agonist of cockroach nicotinic receptors, it had a poor insecticidal activity. We conclude that LMA 10203 could be used as an interesting compound to identify specific insect nAChR subtypes.

  14. Testing the solar LMA region with KamLAND data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700064 (India); Choubey, Sandhya [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati I-34014, Trieste (Italy); Goswami, Srubabati [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Gandhi, Raj [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Roy, D P [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2003-11-01

    We investigate the potential of 3 kiloton-years (kTy) of KamLAND data to further constrain the {delta}m{sup 2} and tan{sup 2}{theta} values compared to those presently allowed by existing KamLAND and global solar data. We study the extent, dependence and characteristics of this sensitivity in and around the two parts of the LMA region that are currently allowed. Our analysis with 3 kTy simulated spectra shows that KamLAND spectrum data by itself can constrain {delta}m{sup 2} with high precision. Combining the spectrum with global solar data further tightens the constraints on allowed values of tan{sup 2}{theta} and {delta}m{sup 2}. We also study the effects of future neutral current data with a total error of 7% from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. We find that these future measurements offer the potential of considerable precision in determining the oscillation parameters (specially the mass parameter)

  15. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit level...

  16. Controlled mechanical ventilation with LMA Sureme versus i-gel in anesthetized adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed Z; Ebied, Reeham S; El-Tawdy, Amr F; Refaat, Ahmed I; Kamal, Nabawya M

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy, safety and ease of insertion of LMA Supreme and the i-gel in adult cases undergoing elective surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia with controlled mechanical ventilation. This study included 60 ASA physical status I-II adult patients of both sexes scheduled for elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into one of two groups; LMA-S GI (n=30) and i-gel GII (n=30). A size 4 LMA Supreme and a size 4 i-gel were used with standard monitoring. Number of insertion attempts, ease of insertion, presence of gastric insufflation, laryngeal leak, leak pressure, ease of gastric tube insertion, ventilatory parameters, complications as well as hemodynamic variables was recorded. The results showed no clinically significant changes of heart rate, MAP, SpO2 or P(ET)CO2 in GI & GII. The i-gel showed higher frequency of ease of insertion (p=0.048) and gastric tube (pLMA-S GI and 73.3% of the i-gel GII (p=0.460) without failures in both groups. Leak pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel (25.5 +/- 4.8 cm H2O) compared to the LMA-S (21.1 +/- 7.6 cm H2O) (p=0.010) while both peak and plateau pressures were significantly lower in i-gel GI (19.35 +/- 2.25 cm H2O & 17.75 +/- 2.07 cm H2O) compared to LMA-S GII (30.05 +/- 3.82 cm H2O & 28.80 +/- 3.99cm H2O) (p<0.001) respectively. There was no significant difference between both groups in the frequency of complications encountered during insertion or recovery.

  17. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  18. Feasibility of LMA Supreme for airway management in unconscious patients by ALS paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Länkimäki, Sami; Alahuhta, Seppo; Silfvast, Tom; Kurola, Jouni

    2015-02-26

    Airway management to ensure sufficient gas exchange is of major importance in emergency care. The accepted basic technique is to maintain an open airway and perform artificial ventilation in emergency situations is bag-valve mask (BVM) ventilation with manual airway management without airway adjuncts or with an oropharyngeal tube (OPA) only. Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is often referred to as the golden standard of airway management, but is associated with low success rates and significant insertion-related complications when performed by non-anaesthetists. Supraglottic devices (SADs) are one alternative to ETI in these situations, but there is limited evidence regarding the use of SAD in non-cardiac arrest situations. LMA Supreme (LMA-S) is a new SAD which theoretically has an advantage concerning the risk of aspiration due to an oesophageal inlet gastric tube port. Forty paramedics were recruited to participate in the study. Adult (>18 years) patients, unconscious due to medical or traumatic cause with a GCS score corresponding to 3-5 and needed airway management were included in the study. Our aim was to study the feasibility of LMA-S as a primary airway method in unconscious patients by advanced life support (ALS) trained paramedics in prehospital care. Three regional Emergency Medical Service (EMS) services participated and 21 patients were treated during the survey. The LMA-S was placed correctly on the first attempt in all instances 21/21 (100%), with a median time to first ventilation of 9.8 s. Paramedics evaluated the insertion to be easy in every case 21/21 (100%). Because of air leak later in the patient care, the LMA-S was exchanged to an LT-D in two cases and to ETI in three cases (23.81%) by the paramedics. Regurgitation occurred after insertion two times out of 21 (9.52%) and in one of these cases (4.76%), paramedics reported regurgitation inside the LMA-S. We conclude that the LMA-S seems to be relatively easy and quick to insert in unconscious

  19. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Grasslands Management Plan : North Marsh Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is designed to serve as the initial Fish and Wildlife Service habitat management proposal for the North Marsh grazing unit of Stillwater National Wildlife...

  20. Comparison of the LMA Supreme vs the i-gel in paralysed patients undergoing gynaecological laparoscopic surgery with controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, W H L; Lee, K M; Suhitharan, T; Yahaya, Z; Teo, M M; Sia, A T H

    2010-12-01

    We compared the efficacy of the inflatable cuff of the LMA Supreme against the non-inflatable i-gel cuff in providing an adequate seal for laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position in 100 female patients. There was no difference in our primary outcome, oropharyngeal leak pressure, between the LMA Supreme and the i-gel (mean (SD) 26.4 (5.1) vs 25.0 (5.7) cmH(2) O, respectively; p = 0.18). Forty-seven (94%) LMA Supremes and 48 (96%) i-gels were successfully inserted on the first attempt, with similar ease, and comparable times to the first capnograph trace (mean (SD) 14.3 (4.7) s for the LMA Supreme vs 15.4 (8.2) s for the i-gel; p = 0.4). Gastric tube insertion was easier and achieved more quickly with the LMA Supreme vs the i-gel (9.0 (2.5) s vs 15.1 (7.3) s, respectively; p LMA Supreme (21.5 (15.2) ml) than with the i-gel (31.2 (23.5) ml; p = 0.009). There was blood on removal of two LMA Supremes and one i-gel. Four patients in the LMA Supreme group and one patient in the i-gel group experienced mild postoperative sore throat.

  1. Q-switching and efficient harmonic generation from a single-mode LMA photonic bandgap rod fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Saby, Julien; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.;

    2011-01-01

    with a Mode-Field-Diameter (MFD) of 59 mu m. We further demonstrate high pulse energy Second-Harmonic-Generation (SHG) and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) using a simple Q-switched single-stage rod fiber laser cavity architecture reaching pulse energies up to 1mJ at 515nm and 0.5mJ at 343nm. (C) 2011 Optical......We demonstrate a Single-Mode (SM) Large-Mode-Area (LMA) ytterbium-doped PCF rod fiber laser with stable and close to diffraction limited beam quality with 110W output power. Distributed-Mode-Filtering (DMF) elements integrated in the cladding of the rod fiber provide a robust spatial mode...

  2. Q-switching and efficient harmonic generation from a single-mode LMA photonic bandgap rod fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marko; Saby, Julien; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Scolari, Lara; Cocquelin, Benjamin; Salin, Francois; Broeng, Jes; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate a Single-Mode (SM) Large-Mode-Area (LMA) ytterbium-doped PCF rod fiber laser with stable and close to diffraction limited beam quality with 110W output power. Distributed-Mode-Filtering (DMF) elements integrated in the cladding of the rod fiber provide a robust spatial mode with a Mode-Field-Diameter (MFD) of 59μm. We further demonstrate high pulse energy Second-Harmonic-Generation (SHG) and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) using a simple Q-switched single-stage rod fiber laser cavity architecture reaching pulse energies up to 1mJ at 515nm and 0.5mJ at 343nm.

  3. Classification of evapotranspiration units in major discharge areas of Death Valley regional

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The raster-based classification of evapotranspiration (ET) units is for nine major discharge areas in the Death Valley regional flow system. The ET units delineate...

  4. Variation Character of Grain Yield per Unit Area in Main Grain-producing Area of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yeqing; ZHANG Pingyu; ZHANG Huimin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the surveys and the statistic data during 1980-2003, the variation character of grain yield per unit area in Northeast China and its main factors have been discussed by the methods of statistics and grey correlation analysis. The results show that: 1) the grain yield per unit area has been taking on an increasing trend in the recent 20 years. It increased from 2519.80kg/ha in 1980 to 4216.11 kg/ha in 2003, with an increasing rate of 67.32%; 2) the variation of grain yield per unit area is considerably prominent and its range is also very great, with the maximal increase rate of 42.59% and maximal decrease rate of 21.13%, respectively, which are far above the whole Chinese average level; 3) the variation of main crops' yield per unit area is remarkable, which takes on the character that the yield of corn is much higher than that of soybean and rice; and 4) the grey correlation analysis shows that the most important factors impacting the variation of grain yield per unit area are the total power of agricultural machinery, the consumption of chemical fertilizer and effective irrigated area. However, the influence of natural disaster and income level should not be ignored. Effective ways to improve grain yield per unit area are to construct farmland improvement groundwork, reclaim the middle- and low-yield farmland, etc.

  5. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    with a patch test and a repeated open application test (ROAT). Nickel was applied on small and large areas. The varying parameters were area, total dose and dose per unit area. RESULTS: In the patch test, at a low concentration [15 microg nickel (microg Ni)/cm(2)], there were significantly higher scores...... concentrations, even though the same dose per unit area is applied.......BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...

  6. Debris Control at Hydraulic Structures in Selected Areas of the United States and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Selected Areas of the United States and Europe by N. Wallerstein , C. R. Thome, University of Nottingham S. R. Abt, Colorado State University Approved...December 1997 Debris Control at Hydraulic Structures in Selected Areas of the United States and Europe by N. Wallerstein , C. R. Thome Department... Wallerstein , N. Debris control at hydraulic structures in selected areas of the United States and Europe / by N. Wallerstein , C.R. Thome, S.R. Abt

  7. Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1988-01-01

    This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

  8. Defacto Marine Protected Areas of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data provide the spatial boundaries of DeFacto Marine Protected Areas in U.S. Waters. With nearly 1200 sites (for which GIS data are available), DFMPAs cover...

  9. Eesti ja Venemaa uue külma sõja õhutamise avangardis / Herbert Vainu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainu, Herbert, 1929-2011

    2008-01-01

    Eesti ja Venemaa juhtide mängimine rahvustundel tõstab rahvusvahelist pinget, mis võib viia külma sõja taastekkimisele. Autor kritiseerib muuhulgas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poliitilist tegevust ja esinemist Hantõ-Manskiiskis toimunud soome-ugri maailmakongressil. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  10. Eesti ja Venemaa uue külma sõja õhutamise avangardis / Herbert Vainu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainu, Herbert, 1929-2011

    2008-01-01

    Eesti ja Venemaa juhtide mängimine rahvustundel tõstab rahvusvahelist pinget, mis võib viia külma sõja taastekkimisele. Autor kritiseerib muuhulgas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poliitilist tegevust ja esinemist Hantõ-Manskiiskis toimunud soome-ugri maailmakongressil. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  11. Project LMA: Learning Media Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments. Facilitator's Manual and Participant Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alan J.; Holbrook, M. Cay

    This document is comprised of the facilitator's manual and the participant's workbook for a 1- or 2-day workshop for inservice and preservice teachers on the process of learning media assessment (LMA) for students with visual impairments. The manual and workbook are intended for use in a complete program that also includes videotapes and…

  12. Effect of genotype, sex and slaughter weight on veal Longissimus muscle area measured by ultrasound and planimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Luković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine effect of genotype (Holstein, Simmental and their crossbreeds, sex and slaughter weight groups (SW1=150-160kg and SW2=190-200kg on veal Longissimus muscle area (LMA. Between the12th and the13th rib, two ultrasound LMA (ULMA images were taken from each animal and carcass LMA (CLMA traced on transparent foil was measured by planimeter. For both measures, Simmental calves had larger LMA than Holstein (P<0.001 and crossbreeds (P<0.05. Male and female calves did not differ significantly in ULMA and CLMA. Calves of SW2 group had larger LMA (P<0.0001 than SW1 group. High correlation coefficient between ULMA and CLMA was determined in this research. Veal LMA was significantly affected by genotype and slaughter weight. According to high correlation coefficients, ultrasound can be useful in estimating carcass traits of cattle at early age.

  13. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land protection for mitigating GHG emissions. Results The analysis of related national-level datasets shows that during the period of 1992–2001 net forest losses in protected areas were small as compared to those in unprotected areas: -0.74% and −4.07%, respectively. If forest loss rates in protected and unprotected area had been similar, then forest losses in the protected forestlands would be larger by 870 km2/yr forests, that corresponds to release of 7 Tg C/yr (1 Tg=1012 g). Conversely, and continuing to assume no leakage effects or interactions of prices and harvest levels, about 1,200 km2/yr forests could have remained forest during the period of 1992–2001 if net area loss rate in the forestland outside protected areas was reduced by 20%. Not counting carbon in harvested wood products, this is equivalent to reducing fossil-fuel based carbon emissions by 10 Tg C/yr during this period. The South and West had much higher potentials to mitigate GHG emission from reducing loss rates in unprotected forests than that of North region. Spatially, rates of forest loss were higher across the coastal states in the southeastern US than would be expected from their population change, while interior states in the northern US experienced less forest area loss than would have been expected given their demographic characteristics. Conclusions The estimated carbon benefit from the reduced forest loss based on current protected areas is 7 Tg C/yr, equivalent to the average carbon benefit per year for a previously proposed ten-year $110 million per year tree planting program scenario in the US. If there

  14. A minimal hydrophobicity is needed to employ amphiphilic p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) random copolymers in membrane research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Michael; Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Allmeroth, Mareli; Zentel, Rudolf; Schneider, Dirk

    2014-03-11

    Because a polymer environment might be milder than a detergent micelle, amphiphilic polymers have attracted attention as alternatives to detergents in membrane biochemistry. The polymer poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamid] [p(HPMA)] has recently been modified with hydrophobic lauryl methacrylate (LMA) moieties, resulting in the synthesis of amphiphilic p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) polymers. p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) polymers with a LMA content of 5 or 15% have unstable hydrophobic cores. This, on one hand, promotes interactions of the hydrophobic LMA moieties with membranes, resulting in membrane rupture, but at the same time prevents formation of a hydrophobic, membrane mimetic environment that is sufficiently stable for the incorporation of transmembrane proteins. On the other hand, the p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) polymer with a LMA content of 25% forms a stable hydrophobic core structure, which prevents hydrophobic interactions with membrane lipids but allows stable incorporation of membrane proteins. On the basis of our data, it becomes obvious that amphiphilic polymers have to have threshold hydrophobicities should an application in membrane protein research be anticipated.

  15. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of...-by-case basis to permit exportation to, or transshipment through, the United Nations Protected Areas... permit importation from, exportation to, or transshipment through the United Nations Protected Areas...

  16. Ozone in rural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer A.

    1989-06-01

    I present the results of an analysis of ozone data from rural locations in the United States. Ozone concentrations above 80 ppb are common in the east in spring and summer, but they are unusual in the west, and ozone shows considerably more day-to-day variability in the east. Variations in ozone levels are highly correlated over distances of several hundred kilometers in the east, indicating that high values are associated with episodes of large spatial scale, >600,000 km2. There were 10 and seven such episodes in 1978 and 1979 respectively, between the months of April and September; they persisted for 3-4 days, on average, with a range of 2-8 days, and were most common in June. Daily maximum ozone values exceeded 90 ppb at over half the sites during these episodes and were often greater than 120 ppb at one or more sites. An analysis of the meteorology for each episode shows that they occurred preferentially in the presence of weak, slow-moving, and persistent high-pressure systems. Two episodes that occurred outside the summer half of the year were associated with unseasonably warm weather; only one episode, in March 1978, appeared to reflect a major stratospheric intrusion. Concentrations of NOx at rural locations in the east are frequently high enough (>1 ppb) to permit significant photochemical formation of ozone. It is clear that rural ozone in the east in spring and summer is severely impacted by anthropogenic emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, and that ozone episodes occur when the weather is particularly conducive to photochemical formation of ozone. Ozone episodes were present on 23% of days in May-August in the east in 1978-1979. The effect of these pollution episodes on vegetation cannot be assessed with current information on dose-response characteristics, which is based primarily on exposure of crops to a given level of ozone for 7 hours a day. The results presented here may be used to design studies that account for the periodic exposure of vegetation

  17. United States of America (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    reconciled with the principle that all couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsably the number and spacing of their children and to have the information and means to do so. Voluntarism is an essential element in population programs because family planning touches the most intimate areas of the lives of couples, because longterm change in fertility behavior is achieved only when the choices reflect the free decisions of couples, because user-preferences and the motivation of providers to improve program acceptability are compromised by coercion, and because voluntarism is a basic human right.

  18. Airway Rescue using the LMA Supreme™ in the prone position: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Sorbello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgery in prone positioning may pose considerable challenges to Anesthesiologists because of general accessibility to the patient; this is particularly true if referring to airway management, because the airway could be relatively inaccessible while the patient is lying prone.We report a case of an obese women scheduled for lower limbs surgery in the prone position in which the initial anesthetic choice for spinal anesthesia needed to be switched to general anesthesia during the procedure both for the occurrence of surgical complications and because the patient began to become uncooperative. We successfully managed this problem by inserting a LMA SupremeTM leaving the patient in the same prone position, and maintaining anesthesia in mechanical ventilation, thus allowing surgical procedure to be completed uneventfully. The possible options in similar cases and the specific features of LMA SupremeTM which allowed such a choice are discussed.

  19. Total Lightning Observations within Electrified Snowfall using Polarimetric Radar, LMA, and NLDN Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Brunning, Eric C.; Blakeslee, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Four electrified snowfall cases are examined using total lightning measurements from lightning mapping arrays (LMAs), and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) from Huntsville, AL and Washington D.C. In each of these events, electrical activity was in conjunction with heavy snowfall rates, sometimes exceeding 5-8 cm hr-1. A combination of LMA, and NLDN data also indicate that many of these flashes initiated from tall communications towers and traveled over large horizontal distances. During events near Huntsville, AL, the Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) C-band polarimetric radar was collecting range height indicators (RHIs) through regions of heavy snowfall. The combination of ARMOR polarimetric radar and VHF LMA observations suggested contiguous layer changes in height between sloping aggregate-dominated layers and horizontally-oriented crystals. These layers may have provided ideal conditions for the development of extensive regions of charge and resultant horizontal propagation of the lightning flashes over large distances.

  20. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  1. Improving LMA predictions with non-standard interactions: neutrino decay in solar matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the well established LMA solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for SuperKamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with non standard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the $\

  2. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  3. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, V.C.; Stewart, S.I.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Gimmi, U.; Pidgeon, A.M.; Flather, C.H.; Hammer, R.B.; Helmers, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  4. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) - Combined: Version 1.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by U. S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program, that illustrates and describes...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Percent Large, Medium, and Small Natural Areas for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains the percentage of small, medium, and large natural areas for each Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit Code...

  6. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PADUS) - Combined: Version 1.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by U. S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program, that illustrates and describes...

  7. Tax Area Boundaries, Tax units, Published in unknown, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tax Area Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. It is described as 'Tax units'. Data by this publisher...

  8. Experimental evidence of electron neutrino oscillations and validation of MSW-LMA model with Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, M. Buizza

    2011-04-01

    We report the real time measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrino fluxes performed with the Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The achievement of these measurements was possible thanks to the excellent levels of the radiopurity reached. The measurement of the 7Be in real time is the first direct measurements of the survival probability for solar electron neutrinos in the vacuum region. For 8B we reached a threshold energy of 3MeV which is the lowest achieved so far in real time. For the first time, the same apparatus can measure two different oscillation regions (vacuum-driven and matter-enhanced) predicted by the MSW-LMA model. Borexino also quotes the ratio between the survival probabilities, corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.75, and validates the presence of the transition region between the two oscillation regimes, according to the MSW-LMA solution.In addition, a preliminary result on the Day-Night Asymmetry (ADN) for the 7Be neutrino flux is presented and corresponds to 0.007 ± 0.073. This measurement makes Borexino able to give once more an independent confirmation of the MSW-LMA solution.

  9. Spatial and spectral imaging of LMA photonic crystal fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate modal characterization using spatial and spectral resolved (S2) imaging, on an Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) amplifier and compare results with conventional cut-off methods. We apply numerical simulations and step-index fiber experiments to calibrate...

  10. A Lightning Channel Retrieval Algorithm for the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new multi-station VHF time-of-arrival (TOA) antenna network is, at the time of this writing, coming on-line in Northern Alabama. The network, called the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), employs GPS timing and detects VHF radiation from discrete segments (effectively point emitters) that comprise the channel of lightning strokes within cloud and ground flashes. The network will support on-going ground validation activities of the low Earth orbiting Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellite developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. It will also provide for many interesting and detailed studies of the distribution and evolution of thunderstorms and lightning in the Tennessee Valley, and will offer many interesting comparisons with other meteorological/geophysical wets associated with lightning and thunderstorms. In order to take full advantage of these benefits, it is essential that the LMA channel mapping accuracy (in both space and time) be fully characterized and optimized. In this study, a new revised channel mapping retrieval algorithm is introduced. The algorithm is an extension of earlier work provided in Koshak and Solakiewicz (1996) in the analysis of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system. As in the 1996 study, direct algebraic solutions are obtained by inverting a simple linear system of equations, thereby making computer searches through a multi-dimensional parameter domain of a Chi-Squared function unnecessary. However, the new algorithm is developed completely in spherical Earth-centered coordinates (longitude, latitude, altitude), rather than in the (x, y, z) cartesian coordinates employed in the 1996 study. Hence, no mathematical transformations from (x, y, z) into spherical coordinates are required (such transformations involve more numerical error propagation, more computer program coding, and slightly more CPU computing time). The new algorithm also has a more realistic

  11. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Urban Areas of the United States 201504 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes urban areas in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from the 2010 TIGER/Line Urban Areas data...

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  13. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in...

  14. Engineering report on the Grayburg Cooperative and unit area, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, John A.; Soyster, Merwin H.

    1945-01-01

    This report covers the area committed to the Grayburg Cooperative and Unit Agreement (I-Sec. 370) approved by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior on October 5, 1943, hereafter referred to as the "unit area", embracing 4,769.44 acres of public land in T. 17 S., Rs. 29 and 30 E., Eddy County, New Mexico. The area includes portions of the Anderson, Grayburg-Jackson, and Leonard oil fields as defined for proration purposes by the New Mexico Oil Conservation Commission. The unit area is covered by Federal oil and gas leases owned by the Grayburg Oil Company of New Mexico and the Western Production Company, Inc. The Grayburg Unit Association has been formed and designated to conduct and manage all operations in the unit area. As of December 31, 1943, there were forty-six producing oil wells within the unit area. The report has been prepared for the purpose of assisting the Grayburg Unit Association in determining the proper locations of gas-injection wells and the best methods for future operation of the pressure-maintenance system that is being installed for the purpose of retarding the reservoir pressure decline and increasing the ultimate recovery of oil from the Grayburg Zone defined in the above-mentioned agreement as formations not more than 3300 feet below the surface. Data used in the report were obtained from records on file in the Geological Survey office at Roswell, New Mexico, and from the records of the Western Production Company and the Grayburg Oil Company. All data were carefully checked as to accuracy with engineers and field representatives of both companies.

  15. Comparison of the effect of LMA and ETT on ventilation and intragastric pressure in pediatric laparoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, D; Güvenç, B H; Toker, K; Solak, M; Ekingen, G

    2010-08-01

    The aim of our study was to compare classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA-C) with the endotracheal tube (ETT) in pediatric laparoscopic surgery to evaluate the intragastric pressures (IGP) using intragastric pressure monitoring. We also sought to investigate the related influence on respiratory parameters. The Ethics Committee of the Health Institution approved the study protocol. A total of 40 patients, ASA I-II, three and a half months to 12 years old were included in this randomized study. Two study groups were formed: the ETT group and the LMA-C group. A nasogastric tube was inserted following induction to evacuate any intragastric gas and fluid before application of either LMA-C or ETT. The change in IGP was measured with a transducer, which was attached to the nasogastric tube. IGP, peak airway pressures (PAP), SPO2 and ETCO2 were recorded. Repeated ANOVA measures were used to evaluate the change in IGP, PAP, SPO2 and ETCO2 times in both groups. The change in IGP was not significant among the groups except at 15 and 30 minutes (P<0.05). The changes in PAP, SPO2, and ETCO2 levels were not significant. The perioperative intragastric pressure evaluation failed to show any significant change in intragastric pressures and ventilation parameters due to the application of LMA-C in this study. We advocate LMA-C application as a feasible anesthetic device in pediatric laparoscopic surgery.

  16. Comparison of insertion of the modified i-gel airway for oral surgery with the LMA Flexible: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Takuro; Sugioka, Shingo; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Kotani, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously modified the i-gel airway to enable its use in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery and reported its fabrication methods. In general, the standard i-gel airway is quick to insert and has a high success rate, but the modified i-gel airway has yet to be assessed for these attributes. We, therefore, set out to compare the ease of insertion of the modified i-gel airway with the LMA Flexible to investigate the usefulness of the modified i-gel airway. The study participants, who included 20 new interns with no experience using either the LMA Flexible or the modified i-gel airway, inserted each device 3 times into an intubation practice manikin. The variables measured in this study were insertion time and rate of successful insertions. Mean insertion time over 3 attempts was significantly shorter for the modified i-gel™ airway (18.9 ± 4.7 seconds) than the LMA Flexible (24.9 ± 5.1 seconds, P LMA Flexible (45/60 times, 75%; P = .012). When used by an inexperienced operator, the modified i-gel™ airway is faster and has a higher success rate than the LMA Flexible, suggesting that it can be easily manipulated during insertion.

  17. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  18. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Following use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Bayraktar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE following upper airway obstruction is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The first cause in the etiology of NPPE is developed laryngospasm after intubation or extubation, while the other causes are epiglotitis, croup, hiccups, foreign body aspiration, pharyngeal hematoma and oropharyngeal tumors.The Late diagnosis and treatment causes high morbidity and mortality. The protection of the airway and maintainance of arterial oxygenation will be life saving.In this article we aimed to report  a case of negative pressure pulmonary edema, resolved succesfully after treatment, following use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA.

  19. 喉罩(LMA)在急救抢救中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素玉; 翁艳琛

    2006-01-01

    由于喉罩装置(LMA)在快速建立通气方面具有技术要求不高、操作简便、盲插成功率等优越性,所以近年来不但得到专业人员的认可和推崇,更适宜在各种急救单位进行普及和推广.本文重点介绍了LMA的结构、分类、临床应用和安全护理.

  20. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  1. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  3. Amphiphilic HPMA-LMA copolymers increase the transport of Rhodamine 123 across a BBB model without harming its barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Metz, Verena V; Koynov, Kaloian; Blank, Kerstin; Postina, Rolf; Zentel, Rudolf

    2012-10-28

    The successful non-invasive treatment of diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS) is generally limited by poor brain permeability of various developed drugs. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the passage of therapeutics to their site of action. Polymeric drug delivery systems are promising solutions to effectively transport drugs into the brain. We recently showed that amphiphilic random copolymers based on the hydrophilic p(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide), pHPMA, possessing randomly distributed hydrophobic p(laurylmethacrylate), pLMA, are able to mediate delivery of domperidone into the brain of mice in vivo. To gain further insight into structure-property relations, a library of carefully designed polymers based on p(HPMA) and p(LMA) was synthesized and tested applying an in vitro BBB model which consisted of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Our model drug Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) exhibits, like domperidone, a low brain permeability since both substances are recognized by efflux transporters at the BBB. Transport studies investigating the impact of the polymer architecture in relation to the content of hydrophobic LMA revealed that random p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) having 10mol% LMA is the most auspicious system. The copolymer significantly increased the permeability of Rh123 across the HBMEC monolayer whereas transcytosis of the polymer was very low. Further investigations on the mechanism of transport showed that integrity and barrier function of the BBB model were not harmed by the polymer. According to our results, p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers are a promising delivery system for neurological therapeutics and their application might open alternative treatment strategies.

  4. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  5. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  6. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  7. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  8. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  9. Testing the MSW-LMA oscillation model with the LENA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellenberg, Randolph; Appel, Simon; Beischler, German; Hellgartner, Dominikus; Lewke, Timo; Meindl, Quirin; Oberauer, Lothar; Pfahler, Patrick; Prade, Ludwig; Tippmann, Marc; Winter, Juergen; Zimmer, Vincenz [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: LAGUNA-LENA Working Group

    2013-07-01

    Up to now, the solar electron neutrino survival probability was only measured in energy regions, where the neutrino oscillations are either vacuum (E{sub ν}<1 MeV) or matter dominated (E{sub ν}>3.2 MeV). With the proposed 50 kt LENA detector, a high statistic measurement of the {sup 8}B-ν{sub e} flux down to ∝ 2 MeV is possible. Non standard neutrino interactions could influence P{sub ee} in the transition region between vacuum and matter dominated neutrino oscillations. Thus, a detailed GEANT4 based Monte Carlo study was performed, to analyze how precise the MSW-LMA solution can be tested with LENA. As there are several models for non standard neutrino interactions, a simple test model with constant P{sub ee} was used, to see how efficient this model can be discriminated from the MSW-LMA solution. Using the elastic neutrino electron scattering channel and the charged current reaction of ν{sub e} on {sup 13}C (ν{sub e} + {sup 13}C → {sup 13}N + e{sup -}), the constant P{sub ee} scenario can be excluded with 5 σ significance after 7 years measuring time.

  10. Constraining Majorana neutrino electromagnetic properties from the LMA-MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem

    CERN Document Server

    Grimus, Walter; Schwetz, T; Tortola, M A; Valle, José W F

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use solar neutrino data to derive stringent bounds on Majorana neutrino transition moments (TMs). Should such be present, they would contribute to the neutrino--electron scattering cross section and hence alter the signal observed in Super-Kamiokande. Motivated by the growing robustness of the LMA-MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem indicated by recent data, and also by the prospects of its possible confirmation at KamLAND, we assume the validity of this solution, and we constrain neutrino TMs by using the latest global solar neutrino data. We find that all elements of the TM matrix can be bounded at the same time. Furthermore, we show how reactor data play a complementary role to the solar neutrino data, and use the combination of both data sets to improve the current bounds. Performing a simultaneous fit of LMA-MSW oscillation parameters and TMs we find that $6.3 \\times 10^{-10}\\mu_B$ and $2.0 \\times 10^{-10}\\mu_B$ are the 90% C.L. bounds from solar and combined solar + reactor data,...

  11. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 is located in Areas 18 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises the five corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on October 20, 2009, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 374.

  13. Soil Moisture Mapping in an Arid Area Using a Land Unit Area (LUA Sampling Approach and Geostatistical Interpolation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Gharechelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM plays a key role in many environmental processes and has a high spatial and temporal variability. Collecting sample SM data through field surveys (e.g., for validation of remote sensing-derived products can be very expensive and time consuming if a study area is large, and producing accurate SM maps from the sample point data is a difficult task as well. In this study, geospatial processing techniques are used to combine several geo-environmental layers relevant to SM (soil, geology, rainfall, land cover, etc. into a land unit area (LUA map, which delineates regions with relatively homogeneous geological/geomorphological, land use/land cover, and climate characteristics. This LUA map is used to guide the collection of sample SM data in the field, and the field data is finally spatially interpolated to create a wall-to-wall map of SM in the study area (Garmsar, Iran. The main goal of this research is to create a SM map in an arid area, using a land unit area (LUA approach to obtain the most appropriate sample locations for collecting SM field data. Several environmental GIS layers, which have an impact on SM, were combined to generate a LUA map, and then field surveying was done in each class of the LUA map. A SM map was produced based on LUA, remote sensing data indexes, and spatial interpolation of the field survey sample data. The several interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, kriging, and co-kriging were evaluated for generating SM maps from the sample data. The produced maps were compared to each other and validated using ground truth data. The results show that the LUA approach is a reasonable method to create the homogenous field to introduce a representative sample for field soil surveying. The geostatistical SM map achieved adequate accuracy; however, trend analysis and distribution of the soil sample point locations within the LUA types should be further investigated to achieve even better results. Co

  14. Bioactive polyketides isolated from agar-supported fermentation of Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA, taking advantage of the scale-up device, Platotex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelin, Emilie; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Cortial, Sylvie; Retailleau, Pascal; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2013-09-01

    Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA was cultivated on agar-supported fermentation (Ag-SF) using the scale-up prototype Platotex. In total nine compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture. Among them, compounds LMA-P1, Sch-642305, DHTO and LMA-P2 had already been reported in our previous work on liquid state fermentation. The trihydroxybenzene lactone cytosporone D and dothiorelone A has been recently isolated from Phomopsis and Magnaporthe species. In addition, three compounds were isolated consisting in the reduced methoxy derivative of Sch-642305 (1), a hydroxylated derivative of LMA-P2 (2) and a linear ethyl ester polyketide (3) similar to the previously reported LMA-P3. Antimicrobial activity and inhibition of Escherichia coli DnaG primase were investigated. Cytosporone D inhibited the E. coli DnaG primase, a Gram-negative antimicrobial target, with an IC50 of 0.25 mM.

  15. Comparison of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique laryngeal mask airway in patients with mild to moderate obesity during elective short-term surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, U; Oguz, R; Potura, L A; Kimberger, O; Kober, A; Tschernko, E

    2011-06-01

    The aim of our study was to compare leakage pressure, ease and time of insertion of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique laryngeal mask airway in patients with mild to moderate obesity during elective short-term surgery. In this prospective, randomised crossover trial, we included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >25 and 18 years, undergoing elective surgery in the supine position with an expected duration of surgery 25 and 30 and LMA-Unique) (pLMA-Unique) (p=0.013) in the mild subgroup, and 25.7 (8.6) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.0 (6.2) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (pLMA-Unique in mildly and moderately obese patients.

  16. 喉罩临床应用相关问题%Clinical Application of LMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士通

    2006-01-01

    喉罩(Laryngeal Mask Airway,LMA)的逐步改进和使用经验的不断积累,使其临床应用越来越广泛.最初用于一般患者、短小手术麻醉中保持自主呼吸时的气道管理,但现在已发展到困难气道的处理.喉罩已有不少改进型,LMA ProSeal有食道通道,有利于吸引和置入胃管;LMA Fastract系插管型LMA,插管成功率为90%;装有光纤的LMA可用于明视指导插管和观察甲状腺手术中(保持自主呼吸)声带活动情况;一次性喉罩、低压套囊喉罩也已逐渐得到应用.数以亿计的临床应用经验证明喉罩使用是安全可靠的,但仍有问题存在和发生.与喉罩相关的问题可以分为:(1)功能性问题即喉罩不能正常发挥功能;(2)干扰循环呼吸等生理功能等问题;(3)气道病变(咽喉部不适、组织损伤以及对血管、管道和神经的压迫);(4)术后恶心呕吐;(5)疾病的传播;(6)环境污染;(7)喉罩损坏等.绝大多数的问题与LMA使用不当有关,但有一些问题反映了设计上的局限性,而另一小部分则原因不明.随着经验的积累,出现这些问题的机会明显减少.

  17. Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-2 container storage unit RCRA closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodman, D.W.; Spry, M.J.; Nolte, E.P.; Barry, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plans for closure of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-2 container storage unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the unit are described. Future plans for the unit include incorporating the earthen-covered portion of the TSA-2 pad into a TSA retrieval enclosure along with the TSA-1 and TSAR pads, and closure of the portion of the TSA-2 pad under the Air Support Weather Shield (ASWS-2). This plan addresses closure of the ASWS-2 by decontaminating structures and equipment that may have contacted the waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all closure activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart.

  18. Tracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: a comparison of the Airwayscope, LMA CTrach, and the Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M A

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Pentax AWS, and the LMA CTrach, in comparison with the Macintosh laryngoscope, when performing tracheal intubation in patients with neck immobilization using manual in-line axial cervical spine stabilization.

  19. lma sõja piirid Ida-Aasias ajaloolaste pilgu läbi / Jaanika Erne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erne, Jaanika, 1967-

    2016-01-01

    Raamatuülevaade: The Cold War in East Asia 1945–1991. T. Hasegawa (Ed.). Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press 2011, Stanford: Stanford University Press 2011, viii + 340 lk. Külma sõja aegsetest poliitilistest sündmustest

  20. Isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of metabolites from Sch-642305-producing endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelin, Emilie; Servy, Claudine; Cortial, Sylvie; Lévaique, Hélène; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Retailleau, Pascal; Le Goff, Géraldine; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2011-12-01

    Eight polyketide compounds were isolated from the cultivation broth of Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA. We have recently described LMA-P1, a bicyclic 10-membered macrolide, obtained as a bioconversion derivative of Sch-642305, the major compound isolated in this study. Benquinol is the ethyl ester derivative of the 13-dihydroxytetradeca-2,4,8-trienoic acid produced by Valsa ambiens. This compound is concomitantly produced with the 6,13-dihydroxytetradeca-2,4,8-trienoic acid (DHTTA) previously isolated from Mycosphaerellarubella. The absolute configuration of the new compound, (2R,3R,4S,5R)-3-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-5-[(S,Z)-3-methylpentenyl]-tetrahydro-pyranone LMA-P2 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The δ-lactone 2,3-dihydroxytetradecan-5-olide (DHTO) was previously isolated from Seiridium unicorne. This compound may form through the cyclization of the methyl-2,3,5-trihydroxytridecanoate LMA-P3, a new linear polyketide isolated in this study. Benquoine, a new 14-membered lactone generated from the cyclization of benquinol, is proposed as the key precursor for the biosynthesis of Sch-642305. Antimicrobial activity and cancer cell viability inhibition by the new compounds were investigated. Benquoine exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, and cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cancer cell line.

  1. Aggregation behavior of amphiphilic p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers studied by FCS and EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Kurzbach, Dennis; Koynov, Kaloian; Hinderberger, Dariush; Zentel, Rudolf

    2012-12-10

    A combined study of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy gave a unique picture of p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers in aqueous solutions, ranging from the size of micelles and aggregates to the composition of the interior of these self-assembled systems. P(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers have shown high potential as brain drug delivery systems, and a detailed study of their physicochemical properties can help to elucidate their mechanism of action. Applying two complementary techniques, we found that the self-assembly behavior as well as the strength of hydrophobic attraction of the amphiphilic copolymers can be tuned by the hydrophobic LMA content or the presence of hydrophobic molecules or domains. Studies on the dependence of the hydrophobic lauryl side chain content on the aggregation behavior revealed that above 5 mol % laury side-chain copolymers self-assemble into intrachain micelles and larger aggregates. Above this critical alkyl chain content, p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers can solubilize the model drug domperidone and exhibit the tendency to interact with model cell membranes.

  2. A randomised comparison of the self-pressurised air-QTM intubating laryngeal airway with the LMA Unique™ in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, N; Sohn, L E; Sawardekar, A; Shah, R; Ryan, K; Jagannathan, R; Anderson, K

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a randomised trial comparing the self-pressurised air-Q™ intubating laryngeal airway (air-Q SP) with the LMA-Unique in 60 children undergoing surgery. Outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease and time for insertion, fibreoptic examination, incidence of gastric insufflation and complications. Median (IQR [range]) time to successful device placement was faster with the air-Q SP (12 (10-15 [5-18])) s than with the LMA-Unique (14 (12-17 [6-22]) s; p=0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the air-Q SP and LMA-Unique in initial airway leak pressures (16 (14-18 [10-29]) compared with 18 (15-20 [10-30]) cmH2 O, p=0.12), an airway leak pressures at 10 min (19 (16-22 [12-30]) compared with 20 (16-22 [10-30]) cmH2 O, p=0.81); fibreoptic position, incidence of gastric insufflation, or complications. Both devices provided effective ventilation without the need for airway manipulation. The air-Q SP is an alternative to the LMA-Unique should the clinician prefer a device not requiring cuff monitoring during anaesthesia.

  3. A model for large non-standard interactions of neutrinos leading to the LMA-Dark solution

    CERN Document Server

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that in addition to the standard LMA solution to solar anomaly, there is another solution called LMA-Dark which requires Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) with effective couplings as large as the Fermi coupling. Although this solution satisfies all the bounds from various neutrino oscillation observations and even provides a better fit to low energy solar neutrino spectrum, it is not as popular as the LMA solution mainly because no model compatible with the existing bounds has been so far constructed to give rise to this solution. We introduce a model that provides a foundation for such large NSI with strength and flavor structure required for the LMA-Dark solution. This model is based on a new $U(1)^\\prime$ gauge interaction with a gauge boson of mass $\\sim 10$ MeV under which quarks as well as the second and third generations of leptons are charged. We show that observable effects can appear in the spectrum of supernova and high energy cosmic neutrinos. Our model predicts a new contribution t...

  4. A model for large non-standard interactions of neutrinos leading to the LMA-Dark solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2015-09-01

    It is well-known that in addition to the standard LMA solution to solar anomaly, there is another solution called LMA-Dark which requires Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) with effective couplings as large as the Fermi coupling. Although this solution satisfies all the bounds from various neutrino oscillation observations and even provides a better fit to low energy solar neutrino spectrum, it is not as popular as the LMA solution mainly because no model compatible with the existing bounds has been so far constructed to give rise to this solution. We introduce a model that provides a foundation for such large NSI with strength and flavor structure required for the LMA-Dark solution. This model is based on a new U(1) ‧ gauge interaction with a gauge boson of mass ∼ 10 MeV under which quarks as well as the second and third generations of leptons are charged. We show that observable effects can appear in the spectrum of supernova and high energy cosmic neutrinos. Our model predicts a new contribution to the muon magnetic dipole moment and new rare meson decay modes.

  5. lma sõja piirid Ida-Aasias ajaloolaste pilgu läbi / Jaanika Erne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erne, Jaanika, 1967-

    2016-01-01

    Raamatuülevaade: The Cold War in East Asia 1945–1991. T. Hasegawa (Ed.). Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press 2011, Stanford: Stanford University Press 2011, viii + 340 lk. Külma sõja aegsetest poliitilistest sündmustest

  6. Comparative study between LMA-Proseal™ and Air-Q® Blocker for ventilation in adult eye trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M.I. Youssef

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The Air-Q® Blocker demonstrated to be remarkably good as a ventilatory device, with adequate airway seal pressure, and improved facilitation of gastric tube insertion compared to LMA-Proseal™. Minimal pressor response was achieved after insertion with no statistical significance.

  7. A model for large non-standard interactions of neutrinos leading to the LMA-Dark solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Farzan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that in addition to the standard LMA solution to solar anomaly, there is another solution called LMA-Dark which requires Non-Standard Interactions (NSI with effective couplings as large as the Fermi coupling. Although this solution satisfies all the bounds from various neutrino oscillation observations and even provides a better fit to low energy solar neutrino spectrum, it is not as popular as the LMA solution mainly because no model compatible with the existing bounds has been so far constructed to give rise to this solution. We introduce a model that provides a foundation for such large NSI with strength and flavor structure required for the LMA-Dark solution. This model is based on a new U(1′ gauge interaction with a gauge boson of mass ∼10 MeV under which quarks as well as the second and third generations of leptons are charged. We show that observable effects can appear in the spectrum of supernova and high energy cosmic neutrinos. Our model predicts a new contribution to the muon magnetic dipole moment and new rare meson decay modes.

  8. CORRELATIONS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BETWEEN STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS IN THE BROADER AREA OF ZAGREB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Kovačić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity (KTV of geological formations is one of the parameters responsible for the propagation of the heat under the earth surface. During geothermal investigations in the broader area of the Croatian capital of Zagreb the thermal conductivity was measured on the rock samples from the surface and the boreholes. The results of the measurements are presented in this work and used as a basis for calculations of the thermal conductivity of distinct geological formations within the investigated area. It was found out that the values of the thermal conductivity of the rocks in the investigated area vary greatly. The measurements are within the well known scope for certain rock types. The thermal conductivity of the rocks from the Tertiary units corresponds with the average values being typical for such kind of rocks, while the basement carbonate rocks are characterized by the values being by 1 W/K-1m-1 higher than the average. After comparing the thermal conductivity of the stratigraphic units in the broader area of Zagreb it has been established that the values of the thermal conductivity of geological formations in the investigated area are also very different, and that they generally rise with their age. The relative relationships show that the Quaternary, Pliocene and Tertiary sedimentary rocks act as thermal insulators, while Triassic rocks behave as the heat conductor (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 375 is located in Areas 25 and 30 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises the two corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site • 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination present at the CAU 375 CASs is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). This document details an investigation plan that will provide for the gathering of sufficient information to evaluate and recommend CAAs. Corrective Action Site 25-23-22 is composed of the releases associated with nuclear rocket testing at Test Cell A (TCA). Test Cell A was used to test and develop nuclear rocket motors as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station from its construction in 1958 until 1966, when rocket testing began being conducted at Test Cell C. The rocket motors were built with an unshielded nuclear reactor that produced as much as 1,100 kilowatts (at full power) to heat liquid hydrogen to 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit, at which time the expanded gases were focused out a nozzle to produce thrust. The fuel rods in the reactor were not clad and were designed to release fission fragments to the atmosphere, but due to vibrations and loss of cooling during some operational tests, fuel fragments in excess of planned releases became entrained in the exhaust and spread in the immediate surrounding area. Cleanup efforts have been undertaken at times to collect the fuel rod fragments and other contamination. Previous environmental investigations in the TCA area have resulted in the creation of a number of use restrictions. The industrial area of TCA is encompassed by a fence and is currently posted as a radioactive material area. Corrective Action Site 30-45-01 (releases associated with the Buggy Plowshare test) is located in Area 30 on Chukar Mesa. It was a

  11. Current status of chrono stratigraphic units named from Belgium and adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Léon Dejonghe

    2007-01-01

    @@ The recommendations of the InternationalCommission on Stratigraphy edited in 1976by Hedberg and in 1994 by Salvador havegenerally been well accepted by the Belgiancommunity of geologists as represented bynational stratigraphic subcommissions set upunder the Belgian National Committee ofGeological Sciences. However, the applica-tion of these recommendations has takensome time and the need has been felt for doc-uments to synthesise the current situationregarding stratigraphic units named fromBelgium and adjacent areas.

  12. RISK FOR MALARIA IN UNITED STATES DONORS DEFERRED FOR TRAVEL TO MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Steele, Whitney; Custer, Brian; Kleinman, Steven; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan; Wright, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deferral for travel to malaria-endemic areas excludes many blood donors in the United States. Most transfusion-transmitted malaria is associated with lengthy residence in malaria-endemic areas rather than routine travel. This study compares the impact of existing deferral requirements to the risk that a presenting donor with malaria travel history harbors malaria parasites under current and hypothetical alternate regulations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Deferred donors from six blood centers were sampled to estimate a national cohort of donors deferred annually for malaria travel to different geographic regions. Risk for malaria infection following travel to each region, and distribution of incubation periods for each malaria species were estimated for U.S. travelers. Region-specific travel risks were used to estimate the risk that a presenting blood donor with malaria travel might asymptomatically harbor malaria parasites at different intervals following return to the United States. RESULTS Travel to Africa presents risk for malaria infection >1000 times that of travel to malaria-endemic parts of Mexico, yet Mexico accounts for >10 times as many deferred donors. Shortening the deferral period from 12 to 3 months for travelers to Mexico increases the risk of collecting a contaminated unit by only 1 unit per 57 years (sensitivity analysis, 1 every 29 - 114 years), at annual gain of >56,000 donations. CONCLUSION This study provides the first systematic appraisal of the U.S. requirements for donor qualification regarding travel to malarial areas. Consideration should be given to relaxing the guidelines for travel to very low-risk areas such as Mexico. PMID:19903290

  13. A new single-mode LMA optical fiber based on an anti-resonance in the cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Avidan; Sheintop, Uzziel; Goldin, Shlomo

    2016-03-01

    A novel single-mode large-mode-area (LMA) optical fiber is proposed. The primary part of the cladding is a thin layer with high refractive index. The layer possesses a periodic array of holes (or intrusions) which are either drawn in the propagation direction or drilled in the radial direction. When the holes (or intrusions) are drawn in the propagation direction, the periodicity of their array is in the azimuthal direction. The core may be hollow. The light confinement is achieved via a transmission anti-resonance. Namely, the array of holes allows coupling between an optical mode inside the primary cladding layer and the light both in the core and in the outer space. The light then sees two channels to penetrate the cladding: direct transmission and holes-assisted transmission. A distractive interference between these channels is achieved at an appropriate combination of fiber parameters. The fiber can be designed to hold nearly anyone of TE/TMnm modes. Computer simulations of the fiber were performed using COMSOL. The open boundary was simulated using a perfectly matched layer and the attenuation constants of different modes were determined via the imaginary parts of their propagation constants. As an example, a fiber holding a single TE01 mode inside a core of 100 μm diameter for the vacuum wavelength 1.55 μm was designed. The attenuation constant of the TE01 mode was found to be 5.8 ṡ 10-6 [dB/cm] while the other modes had attenuation of at least 4 orders of magnitude larger. Required fabrication tolerances were calculated and the fabrication of fibers of lengths 10 - 1000 m was found to be feasible. The bandwidth of the fiber was found to be in the range of 5 - 35 nm, depending on its length. Possible applications include high-power CW and pulsed lasers and amplifiers, sensors and others.

  14. LMA MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem and first KamLAND results

    CERN Document Server

    De Holanda, P C

    2003-01-01

    The first KamLAND results are in a very good agreement with the predictions made on the basis of the solar neutrino data and the LMA realization of the MSW mechanism. We perform a combined analysis of the KamLAND (rate, spectrum) and the solar neutrino data with a free boron neutrino flux f_B. The best fit values of neutrino parameters are Delta m^2 = 7.3e-5 eV^2, tg^2 theta = 0.41 and f_B = 1.05 with the 1 sigma intervals: Delta m^2 = (6.2 - 8.4)e-5 eV^2, tg^2 theta = 0.33 - 0.54. We find the 3 sigma upper bounds: Delta m^2 4e-5 eV^2. At 99% C.L. the KamLAND spectral result splits the LMA region into two parts with the preferred one at Delta m^2 < 1e-4 eV^2. The higher Delta m^2 region is accepted at about 2 sigma level. We show that effects of non-zero 13-mixing, sin^2 theta_{13} < 0.04, are small leading to slight improvement of the fit in higher Delta m^2 region. In the best fit point we predict for SNO: CC/NC = 0.33 +0.05-0.03 and A_{DN}(SNO) = 2.8+-0.8 % (68% C.L.), and A_{DN}(SNO) < 9 % at th...

  15. Comparison of three different insertion techniques with LMA-UniqueTM in adults: results of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Eglen

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The triple airway maneuver insertion technique allowed faster insertion of the LMA. This study compared three different insertion techniques of the laryngeal mask airway-UniqueTM. Methods One hundred and eighty ASA I-II patients aged 18-65 years were included into the study. Patients were randomly allocated to the standard, rotational and triple airway maneuver (triple group. In the standard group (n = 60, the LMA (Laryngeal Mask Airway was inserted with digital intraoral manipulation. In the triple group (n = 60, the LMA was inserted with triple airway maneuver (mouth opening, head extension and jaw thrust. In the rotational group (n = 60, LMA was inserted back-to-front, like a Guedel airway. Successful insertion at first attempt, time for successful insertion, fiber optic assessment, airway morbidity and hemodynamic responses were assessed. Results Successful insertion at the first attempt was 88.3% for the standard, 78.3% for the rotational and 88.3% for the triple group. Overall success rate (defined as successful insertion at first and second attempt was 93% for the standard, 90% for the rotational and 95% for the triple group. Time for successful insertion was significantly shorter in the triple group (mean [range] 8.63 [5-19]s compared with the standard (11.78 [6-24]s and rotational group (11.57 [5-31]s. Fiber optic assessment, airway morbidity and hemodynamic responses were similar in all groups. Conclusions Rotational and triple airway maneuver insertion techniques are acceptable alternatives. Triple airway maneuver technique shows higher overall success rates and allows shorter insertion time for LMA insertion and should therefore be kept in mind for emergent situations.

  16. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  17. A LMA Reliability Guaranteeing Scheme in PMIPv6%一种PMIPv6的LMA可靠性保证机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱型檑; 郜帅; 王利利; 高德云

    2012-01-01

    PMIPv6是基于网络的移动性管理协议,作为其核心实体,本地移动锚点(Local Mobility Anchor,LMA)功能的可靠性直接关系到整个网络的稳定运行.文中提出了一种保证LMA可靠性的机制,该机制定义一个由备用LMA组成的冗余集,通过对当前活跃LMA和冗余集中备用LMA之间的切换管理,实现在LMA失效情况下移动性管理功能的延续性和服务状态的一致性,从而保证整个PMIPv6网络的稳定运行.通过对机制开销的理论分析,表明所提机制最适合LMA失效概率小,PMIPv6域小的应用场景.%PMIPv6 is a network-based mobility protocol and the reliability of its core entity. Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) ,directly affects the stability of the whole network. It proposes a LMA reliability scheme, which defines a redundancy consisting of some standby LMAs. By the means of the switching management between the active LMA and a standby LMA, the scheme reaches the aim that the LMA can always remain function and the service can keep consistent in case that the active LMA fails. Then,conduct an analysis of the performance for the scheme. The result of the analysis shows the protocol is perfect for the scene that LMA's failure probability is low and the domain of PMTPv6 is small.

  18. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  19. Agriculture, Crops - CULTIVATED_AREAS_USDA_IN: Cultivated Areas in Indiana in 2004 (United States Department of Agriculture, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) area sampling frame is a delineation of all parcels of land for...

  20. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  1. Single-Frequency, Yb-Free, Resonantly Cladding-Pumped Large Mode Area Er Fiber Amplifier for Power Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-25

    report results for a single-frequency SF resonantly cladding-pumped Yb-free large mode area LMA erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA with nearly 50...original demonstration of a SF resonantly cladding-pumped LMA EDFA . We obtained a diffraction-limited SF output of 9.3 W, which is also a record power...output obtained for resonantly cladding-pumped LMA EDFA . © 2008 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2964189 Recent advances in eye-safe 1.5

  2. Comparison of high power large mode area and single mode 1908nm Tm-doped fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Benjamin R.; Creeden, Daniel; Limongelli, Julia; Pretorius, Herman; Blanchard, Jon; Setzler, Scott D.

    2016-03-01

    We compare large mode area (LMA) and single-mode (SM) double-clad fiber geometries for use in high power 1908nm fiber lasers. With a simple end-pumped architecture, we have generated 100W of 1908nm power with LMA fiber at 40% optical efficiency and 117W at 52.2% optical efficiency with single-mode fiber. We show the LMA fiber is capable of generating >200W and the SM fiber is capable of >300W at 1908nm. In all cases, the fiber lasers are monolithic power-oscillators with no free-space coupling.

  3. Airborne Gravimetry Survey for the Marine Area of the United Arab Emirates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Alshamsi, Adel

    2012-01-01

    The Military Survey Department (MSD) of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) undertook an airborne gravity survey project for the marine area of the country in 2009, especially to strengthen the marine and coastal geoid in the near-shore regions. For the airborne gravity survey, 5 km spacing coast-para...... for the airborne gravity data is better than 2.0 mGal r.m.s., as judged from the airborne track crossovers. The new airborne gravimetry data changed the UAE coastal geoid by up to 30 cm in some regions, highlighting the importance of airborne gravity coastal surveys....

  4. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  5. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  7. ProSeal versus Classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamarul Hoda, Muhammad; Samad, Khalid; Ullah, Hameed

    2017-07-20

    The development of supraglottic airway devices has revolutionized airway management during general anaesthesia. Two devices are widely used in clinical practice to facilitate positive pressure ventilation: the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (pLMA) and the Classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). It is not clear whether these devices have important clinical differences in terms of efficacy or complications. To compare the effectiveness of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (pLMA) and the Classic LMA (cLMA) for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1997 to April 2017); Embase (Ovid SP, 1997 to April 2017); the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1946 to April 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCO host, 1982 to April 2017).We searched trial registries for ongoing studies to April 2017.We did not impose language restrictions. We restricted our search to the time from 1997 to April 2017 because pLMA was introduced into clinical practice in the year 2000. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effectiveness of pLMA and cLMA for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery. We planned to include only data related to the first phase of cross-over RCTs. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We included eight RCTs that involved a total of 829 participants (416 and 413 participants in the pLMA and cLMA groups, respectively). We identified six cross-over studies that are awaiting classification; one is completed but has not been published, and data related to the first treatment period for the other five studies were not yet available. Seven included studies provided data related to the primary outcome, and eight studies provided data related to more than

  8. Area racism and birth outcomes among Blacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Clouston, Sean; Martz, Connor D; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Turpin, Rodman; Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-04-13

    There is increasing evidence that racism is a cause of poor health outcomes in the United States, including adverse birth outcomes among Blacks. However, research on the health consequences of racism has faced measurement challenges due to the more subtle nature of contemporary racism, which is not necessarily amenable to assessment through traditionally used survey methods. In this study, we circumvent some of these limitations by examining a previously developed Internet query-based proxy of area racism (Stephens-Davidowitz, 2014) in relation to preterm birth and low birthweight among Blacks. Area racism was measured in 196 designated market areas as the proportion of total Google searches conducted between 2004 and 2007 containing the "n-word." This measure was linked to county-level birth data among Blacks between 2005 and 2008, which were compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics; preterm birth and low birthweight were defined as racism was associated with relative increases of 5% in the prevalence of preterm birth and 5% in the prevalence of low birthweight among Blacks. Our study provides evidence for the utility of an Internet query-based measure as a proxy for racism at the area-level in epidemiologic studies, and is also suggestive of the role of racism in contributing to poor birth outcomes among Blacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Breast with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; Patel, Deesha A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Johnson, Jason M.; Chicoine, Rachael E.; Herschorn, Sally D.; Shepherd, John A.; Wang, Jeff; Malkov, Serghei; Vacek, Pamela M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Fan, Bo; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Palakal, Maya; Xiang, Jackie; Oh, Hannah; Horne, Hisani N.; Sprague, Brian L.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated mammographic density (MD) is an established breast cancer risk factor. Reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the histologic source of most breast cancers, has been associated with higher MD and breast cancer risk. We investigated relationships of TDLU involution with area and volumetric MD, measured throughout the breast and surrounding biopsy targets (peri-lesional). Three measures inversely related to TDLU involution (TDLU count/mm2, median TDLU span, median acini count/TDLU) assessed in benign diagnostic biopsies from 348 women, ages 40–65, were related to MD area (quantified with thresholding software) and volume (assessed with a density phantom) by analysis of covariance, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, TDLU count was directly associated with percent peri-lesional MD (P-trend=0.03), but not with absolute dense area/volume. Greater TDLU span was associated with elevated percent dense area/volume (P-trendbreast cancer risk suggest that associations of MD with breast cancer may partly reflect amounts of at-risk epithelium. If confirmed, these results could suggest a prevention paradigm based on enhancing TDLU involution and monitoring efficacy by assessing MD reduction. PMID:26645278

  10. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  11. A randomised, non-crossover study of the GuardianCPV Laryngeal Mask versus the LMA Supreme in paralysed, anaesthetised female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenthaler, W; Eschertzhuber, S; Brimacombe, J; Fricke, E; Keller, C; Kaufmann, M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the oropharyngeal leak pressure would differ between the GuardianCPV™ and the LMA Supreme™ in anaesthetised patients. We randomly assigned 120 patients to receive either the GuardianCPV or the LMA Supreme for airway management. Oropharyngeal leak pressure was measured during cuff inflation from 0 to 40 ml in 10-ml steps. In addition, intracuff pressure, fibreoptic position of the airway and drain tube, device insertion success, ventilation success, blood staining and airway morbidity were determined. Mean (SD) oropharyngeal leak pressures for clinically acceptable cuff volumes of 20-40 ml were 31 (7) cmH2O for the GuardianCPV and 27 (7) cmH2O for the LMA Supreme (p LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-03-01

    The Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU consists of thee Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01 - Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02 - Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03 - Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). Characterization activities indicated that only CAS 25-07-02 (F and J Roads Pad) contained constituents of concern (COCs) above action levels and required remediation. The COCs detected were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel, cesium-137, and strontium-90. The F and J Roads Pad may have been used for the decontamination of vehicles and possibly disassembled engine and reactor parts from Test Cell C. Activities occurred there during the 1960s through early 1970s. The F and J Roads Pad consisted of a 9- by 5-meter (m) (30- by 15-foot [ft]) concrete pad and a 14- by 13-m (46-by 43-ft) gravel sump. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Closure activities began on August 21, 2000, and ended on September 19, 2000. Waste disposal activities were completed on December 12, 2000. A total of 172 cubic meters (223 cubic yards) of impacted soil was excavated and disposed. The concrete pad was also removed and disposed. Verification samples were collected from the bottom and sidewalls of the excavation and analyzed for TPH diesel and 20-minute gamma spectroscopy. The sample results indicated that all impacted soil above remediation standards was removed. The closure was completed following the approved Corrective Action Plan. All impacted waste was disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill. All non-impacted debris was disposed in the Area 9 Construction Landfill and the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill.

  13. Passively Q-switched 1.33 μm Nd:GAGG laser with Co2+:LMA saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, C.-H.; Zhang, B.-T.; He, J.-L.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 (Co2+:LMA) crystals as the saturable absorber, the efficient passively Q-switched laser performance of a diode-end-pumped Nd:Gd3AlxGa5-xO12 (Nd:GAGG) laser at 1.33 μm has been realized. Under the absorbed pump power of 8.2 W, a maximum average output power of 450 mW was recorded with a Co2+:LMA crystal with an initial transmission of 90%. The minimum pulse duration was 14.6 ns, corresponding to the repetition rate of 3 kHz, the single pulse energy of 110 μJ and the pulse peak power of 7.1 kW.

  14. Soybean Area and Yield Estimation Using MODIS and Landsat Data in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. P.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Stehman, S. V.; Krylov, A.; King, L.; Adusei, B.

    2015-12-01

    The world's population is projected to grow to 9 billion by 2050. The increasing population, amplified by people's increasing consumption of animal products will create a massive demand for food and feed from grain production. As such, global food security will remain a worldwide concern for the next half century. Addressing the food security issue requires data and information support, including research and operational programs for crop monitoring, modeling and yield forecasting. Satellite observations, owing to their synoptic and repetitive nature, have the unique advantage of providing timely information on crop growth at regional to global scales. However, it remains a challenge to accurately identify crop type, estimate areal extent and forecast crop yield with satellite data. Here we employ a stratified random sampling framework for estimating soybean area and yield in the conterminous United States using satellite data collected by the MODIS and Landsat sensors. Complementing each other, the temporally-rich MODIS data are used to capture rapid phenological transitions of soybean crops, whereas the moderate-resolution Landsat data are used to delineate more spatial details for accurate area estimation. For every sample, we derive generic phenological metrics from MODIS and Landsat data and employ machine learning algorithms to identify soybean pixels with reference data generated from RapidEye images and verified by extensive field visits. We also characterize empirical relationships between satellite metrics and soybean yield compiled by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). Preliminary results suggest that MODIS data alone underestimate soybean area considerably, whereas Landsat data can provide accurate estimate on soybean area. However, soybean yield can be predicted using MODIS-based reflectance metrics. Our sample depict well the spatial variation of soybean yield over the conterminous United States. In addition, the area

  15. Comparison of clinical safety and effectiveness of LMA supreme and standard LMA for different body mass index patients%双管喉罩与普通喉罩用于不同体质指数成人患者麻醉安全性与有效性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳丽; 谢芳; 韩雪萍; 弓胜凯

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare the applications of LMA supreme and standard LMA in patients with different body mass index. Methods:Three hundred cases were to accept urology and breast surgery,with ASA I — H were allocated into group L, group M and group H according to their body mass index. Each group was randomly allocated into either LMA-S group or LMA group. The insertion time, success rate,leak rate and sliding position rate were recorded. Results:In group H,success rate was significantly higher in LMA-S group than that of LMA group (x2 = 10. 667,P <0. 001 ), while the leak rate was lower in LMA-S group(x2 =4. 110,P =0. 043 ). However, in group L, LMA-S group had lower sliding position rate compared with that of LMA group( x2= 3. 934,P = 0. 047 ). Conclusion: It is more satisfactory and safer to use LMA-S in high body mass index patients.%目的:探讨双管喉罩与普通喉罩用于不同体质指数成人患者麻醉的安全性与有效性.方法:择期全麻仰卧位泌尿外科及乳腺外科手术患者300例,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,根据体质指数的不同,采用分层随机的方法分为低体质指数组(L组)、中等体质指数组(M组)、高体质指数组(H组),组内随机分为双管喉罩组(LMA-S组)和普通喉罩组(LMA组),每组50例,麻醉后分别置入双管喉罩或普通喉罩.评价2种喉罩置入时间、一次性置入成功率、机械通气漏气率及术中移位情况.结果:H组:LMA-S组一次性置入成功率高于LMA组(χ2=10.667,P<0.001,漏气率较LMA组降低(χ2=4.110,P=0.043).L组:LMA-S组移位率低于LMA组(χ2=3.934,P=0.047).结论:对于高体质指数成人患者,双管喉罩较普通喉罩通气满意率高,且安全.

  16. The effect of a cervical collar on the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme™: a prospective, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, V; Spitzner, T; Schwandner, T; Mann, S T W; Müller, M; Ahlbrandt, J; Weigand, M A; Röhrig, R

    2012-11-01

    For personnel inexperienced in airway management, supraglottic airway devices may be the first choice in an emergency. Changing head position is known to reduce the seal pressure of a laryngeal mask airway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a cervical collar improves the stability of airways secured with the LMA Supreme™ (The Laryngeal Mask Company Limited, Mahé, Seychelles). In this crossover trial, the primary endpoint was the difference in the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients in maximum passive extension of the neck, with and without a cervical collar. The median (IQR [range]) seal pressure was 18 (13.8-22.1 [0-30]) cmH(2) O in maximum passive extension without a cervical collar. With a cervical collar in place, the seal pressure increased to 28 (22.8-30 [17-30]) cmH(2) O (pcervical collar in place (pcervical collar stabilises the airway with an LMA Supreme in place and we recommend this combination for (pre-hospital) emergency cases.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  18. Geometrical Dependence of Electrical Energy dissipated for Intra-Cloud Flashes using LMA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, V.; Bruning, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data were used to estimate total electrical energy dissipation for 73 intra-cloud flashes from a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) that occurred near Lubbock, TX on June 6th, 2013. Charge volumes and spacing were estimated from the convex hull of VHF sources emitted by positive and negative breakdown. Energy was obtained by solving for the electric field and potential in two ways. For reference, a three-dimensional Poisson solver was used with the observed convex hull geometry. Analytical estimates were then made by applying the same charge volumes to simplified geometries: charged spheres, cylinders, and plane parallel discs. Charge density was retrieved by applying constraints of charge conservation and the presence of a breakeven electric field. The analytic geometries were compared to the convex hull method in order to quantify and evaluate the geometric dependence of the total energy dissipated. Preliminary results showed the cylindrical geometry produced values within the range of other values reported in the literature, and in close agreement with solutions for the convex-hull geometry.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  20. Overview of electromagnetic methods applied in active volcanic areas of western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokan, Catherine K.

    1993-06-01

    A better understanding of active volcanic areas in the United States through electromagnetic geophysical studies received foundation from the many surveys done for geothermal exploration in the 1970's. Investigations by governmental, industrial, and academic agencies include (but are not limited to) mapping of the Cascades. Long Valley/Mono area, the Jemez volcanic field, Yellowstone Park, and an area in Colorado. For one example — Mt. Konocti in the Mayacamas Mountains, California — gravity, magnetic, and seismic, as well as electromagnetic methods have all been used in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the subsurface structure. In each of these volcanic regions, anomalous zones were mapped. When conductive, these anomalies were interpreted to be correlated with hydrothermal activity and not to represent a magma chamber. Electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can offer valuable information in the understanding of volcanoes by being the method which is most sensitive to change in temperature and, therefore, can best map heat budget and hydrological character to aid in prediction of eruptions.

  1. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This closure report documents that the closure activities performed at Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, were in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 358.

  3. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  4. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  5. United States Pharmacopeia activities in the area of vaccines, virology and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tina S

    2005-03-18

    The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) develops public standards for medical products that are enforceable by FDA. USP general information chapters have been providing industrial and academic researchers alike with crucial guidance especially in areas where there is absence of regulatory guidance. In an effort to meet the challenge of rapid advances in vaccine research and manufacturing, the Council of Experts Committee for Vaccines, Virology, and Immunology of the US Pharmacopeia has recently initiated two new general chapters to provide advice for researchers and manufacturers in the vaccine and virology fields and beyond. Chapter 1235 Vaccines and Vaccine Test Methods will focus on manufacturing and analytical requirements for the different types of vaccines currently in manufacture and development. Chapter 1237 Virology Test Methods will discuss modern diagnostic virology techniques and a variety of tests as applicable to vaccine and biologics manufacturing.

  6. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  7. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  8. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  9. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes).

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada - Revision 0 - March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit 214, Bunkers and Storage Areas, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The Nevada Test Site is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. Corrective Action Unit 214 was previously characterized in 2004, and results were presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for 214. Site characterization indicated that soil and/or debris exceeded clean-up criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, pesticides, metals, and radiological contamination.

  14. Determination of the relationship among capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area: a pore unit assembly approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikooee E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three state variables namely, degree of saturation (Sw, capillary pressure (Pc and specific air-water interfacial area (aaw are indispensable for modelling coupled processes relevant to unsaturated soils mechanics, agriculture, and contaminant hydrology. They play a key role in simulating various phenomena and the determination of various parameters and physical characteristics such as the unsaturated soil shear strength, field capacity, wilting point, air and water diffusivity and the rate of dissolution of contaminants. The determination of soil water retention curve (Sw-Pc as well as the specific interfacial area (aaw using available experimental techniques is a challenging and time consuming task. Therefore, a numerical technique that employs basic soil properties to obtain these variables is of much value and high practical and theoretical importance. In the current study, the porous network extracted from a discrete element model (the so-called pore unit-assembly has been used to directly model the drying and wetting processes inside a granular soil packing and to obtain the values of Pc, Sw and aaw. The results of the simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data, which points to the efficacy and adequacy of the introduced algorithms and involved assumptions for this purpose.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-08-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities conducted for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites. CAU 346 is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8 and 10 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): (1) CAS 08-22-04: Drums (2); (2) CAS 08-22-11: Drums; Bucket; (3) CAS 08-24-02: Battery; (4) CAS 10-14-01: Transformer; (5) CAS 10-22-06: Drum (Gas Block); (6) CAS 10-22-10: Drum (Gas Block); (7) CAS 10-22-12: Drum (Gas Block); (8) CAS 10-22-13: Drum (Gas Block); (9) CAS 10-22-16: Drum (Gas Block); (10) CAS 10-22-22: Drum; (11) CAS 10-22-25: Drum; (12) CAS 10-22-36: Paint Can; (13) CAS 10-22-37: Gas Block; and (14) CAS 10-24-11: Battery. Closure activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or material, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each site was clean-closed by visual inspection and/or laboratory analysis of soil verification samples.

  16. Selection of organic Rankine cycle working fluid based on unit-heat-exchange-area net power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美茹; 朱启的; 孙志强; 周天; 周孑民

    2015-01-01

    To improve energy conversion efficiency, optimization of the working fluids in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) was explored in the range of low-temperature heat sources. The concept of unit-heat-exchange-area (UHEA) net power, embodying the cost/performance ratio of an ORC system, was proposed as a new indicator to judge the suitability of ORC working fluids on a given condition. The heat exchange area was computed by an improved evaporator model without fixing the minimum temperature difference between working fluid and hot fluid, and the flow pattern transition during heat exchange was also taken into account. The maximum UHEA net powers obtained show that dry organic fluids are more suitable for ORCs than wet organic fluids to recover low-temperature heat. The organic fluid 1-butene is recommended if the inlet temperature of hot fluid is 353.15−363.15 K or 443.15−453.15 K, heptane is more suitable at 373.15−423.15 K, and R245ca is a good option at 483.15−503.15 K.

  17. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Urban Areas of the United States 201504 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes urban areas in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from the 2010 TIGER/Line Urban Areas data...

  18. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Areas 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110 in accordance with the reissued (November 2000) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B operational permit NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 2000) and the Federal Facility and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP et al., 1996). CAU 110 consists of one Corrective Action Site 03-23-04, described as the U-3ax/bl Subsidence Crater. Certifications of closure are located in Appendix A. The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 RWMS located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit was closed under the RCRA, as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]) of waste. NTS atmospheric nuclear device testing generated approximately 95% of the total waste volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl; 80% of the total volume was generated from the Waste Consolidation Project. Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is normally in a state of moisture deficit.

  20. Evaluating LMA and CLAMP: Using information criteria to choose a model for estimating elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I.; Green, W.; Zaitchik, B.; Brandon, M.; Hickey, L.

    2005-12-01

    The morphology of leaves and composition of the flora respond strongly to the moisture and temperature of their environment. Elevation and latitude correlate, at first order, to these atmospheric parameters. An obvious modern example of this relationship between leaf morphology and environment is the tree line, where boreal forests give way to artic (high latitude) or alpine (high elevation) tundra. Several quantitative methods, all of which rely on uniformitarianism, have been developed to estimate paleoelevation using fossil leaf morphology. These include 1) the univariate leaf-margin analysis (LMA), which estimates mean annual temperature (MAT) by the positive linear correlation between MAT and P, the proportion of entire or smooth to non-entire or toothed margined woody dicot angiosperm leaves within a flora and 2) the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP) which uses Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to estimate MAT, moist enthalpy, and other atmospheric parameters using 31 explanatory leaf characters from woody dicot angiosperms. Given a difference in leaf-estimated MAT or moist enthalpy between contemporaneous, synlatitudinal fossil floras-one at sea-level, the other at an unknown paleoelevation-paleoelevation may be estimated. These methods have been widely applied to orogenic settings and concentrate particularly in the Western US. We introduce the use of information criteria to compare different models for estimating elevation and show how the additional complexity of the CLAMP analytical methodology does not necessarily improve on the elevation estimates produced by simpler regression models. In addition, we discuss the signal-to-noise ratio in the data, give confidence intervals for detecting elevations, and address the problem of spatial autocorrelation and irregular sampling in the data.

  1. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  2. The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, P.

    The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

  3. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  4. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  5. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  6. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  7. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  8. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  9. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  10. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  11. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  12. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  13. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  14. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  18. Characterizing Leaf Area Index (LAI and Vertical Foliage Profile (VFP over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and vertical foliage profile (VFP are among the important canopy structural variables. Recent advances in lidar remote sensing technology have demonstrated the capability of accurately mapping LAI and VFP over large areas. The primary objective of this study was to derive and validate a LAI and VFP product over the contiguous United States using spaceborne waveform lidar data. This product was derived at the footprint level from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS using a biophysical model. We validated GLAS derived LAI and VFP across major forest biomes using airborne waveform lidar. The comparison results showed that GLAS retrievals of total LAI were generally accurate with little bias (r2 = 0.67, bias = −0.13, RMSE = 0.75. The derivations of GLAS retrievals of VFP within layers was not as accurate overall (r2 = 0.36, bias = −0.04, RMSE = 0.26, and these varied as a function of height, increasing from understory to overstory −0 to 5 m layer: r2 = 0.04, bias = 0.09, RMSE = 0.31; 10 to 15 m layer: r2 = 0.53, bias = −0.08, RMSE = 0.22; and 15 to 20 m layer: r2 = 0.66, bias =−0.05, RMSE = 0.20. Significant relationships were also found between GLAS LAI products and different environmental factors, in particular elevation and annual precipitation. In summary, our results provide a unique insight into vertical canopy structure distribution across North American ecosystems. This data set is a first step towards a baseline of canopy structure needed for evaluating climate and land use induced forest changes at continental scale in the future and should help deepen our understanding of the role of vertical canopy structure on terrestrial ecosystem processes across varying scales.

  19. Characterizing leaf area index (LAI) and vertical foliage profile (VFP) over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Ganguly, S.; Zhang, G.; Hofton, M. A.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and vertical foliage profile (VFP) are among the important canopy structural variables. Recent advances in lidar remote sensing technology have demonstrated the capability of accurately mapping LAI and VFP over large areas. The primary objective of this study was to derive and validate a LAI and VFP product over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using spaceborne waveform lidar data. This product was derived at the footprint level from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) using a biophysical model. We validated GLAS-derived LAI and VFP across major forest biomes using airborne waveform lidar. The comparison results showed that GLAS retrievals of total LAI were generally accurate with little bias (r2 = 0.67, bias = -0.13, RMSE = 0.75). The derivations of GLAS retrievals of VFP within layers were not as accurate overall (r2 = 0.36, bias = -0.04, RMSE = 0.26), and these varied as a function of height, increasing from understory to overstory - 0 to 5 m layer: r2 = 0.04, bias = 0.09, RMSE = 0.31; 10 to 15 m layer: r2 = 0.53, bias = -0.08, RMSE = 0.22; and 15 to 20 m layer: r2 = 0.66, bias = -0.05, RMSE = 0.20. Significant relationships were also found between GLAS LAI products and different environmental factors, in particular elevation and annual precipitation. In summary, our results provide a unique insight into vertical canopy structure distribution across North American ecosystems. This data set is a first step towards a baseline of canopy structure needed for evaluating climate and land use induced forest changes at the continental scale in the future, and should help deepen our understanding of the role of vertical canopy structure in terrestrial ecosystem processes across varying scales.

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  1. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996. The post-closure requirements for CAU 90 are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW0021, dated November 2005. Post-closure activities consist of the following: Semiannual inspections of the site using inspection checklists; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an annual Post-Closure Inspection Report. This annual report covers the period of July 2006 to June 2007 and consists of a summary of the results of the inspections, copies of the inspection checklists and field notes, maintenance and repair records (if any), photographs, and conclusions and recommendations. The inspection checklists are provided in Appendix A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Appendix B, and copies of photographs taken during the inspections are provided in Appendix C.

  2. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  3. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  4. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  5. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  6. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  7. Closure Report Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443 January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Closure Report for the subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nevada, Site. CNTA was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. Responsibility for the site’s environmental restoration was transferred from the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended 2011) and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. This Closure Report provides justification for closure of CAU 443 and provides a summary of completed closure activities; describes the selected corrective action alternative; provides an implementation plan for long-term monitoring with well network maintenance and approaches/policies for institutional controls (ICs); and presents the contaminant, compliance, and use-restriction boundaries for the site.

  8. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  9. Randomized comparison of the i-gel™, the LMA Supreme™, and the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D using clinical and fibreoptic assessments in elective patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Sebastian G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The i-gel™, LMA-Supreme (LMA-S and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (LTS-D are single-use supraglottic airway devices with an inbuilt drainage channel. We compared them with regard to their position in situ as well as to clinical performance data during elective surgery. Methods Prospective, randomized, comparative study of three groups of 40 elective surgical patients each. Speed of insertion and success rates, leak pressures (LP at different cuff pressures, dynamic airway compliance, and signs of postoperative airway morbidity were recorded. Fibreoptic evaluation was used to determine the devices’ position in situ. Results Leak pressures were similar (i-gel™ 25.9, LMA-S 27.1, LTS-D 24.0 cmH2O; the latter two at 60 cmH2O cuff pressure as were insertion times (i-gel™ 10, LMA-S 11, LTS-D 14 sec. LP of the LMA-S was higher than that of the LTS-D at lower cuff pressures (p p p 0.05. Airway morbidity was more pronounced with the LTS-D (p 0.01. Conclusion All devices were suitable for ventilating the patients’ lungs during elective surgery. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00000760

  10. Validation of the USGS Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Fairaux, Nicole; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), capitalizes on the long temporal availability of Landsat imagery to identify burned areas across the conterminous United States (CONUS) (1984–2015). Adequate validation of such products is critical for their proper usage and interpretation. Validation of coarse-resolution products often relies on independent data derived from moderate-resolution sensors (e.g., Landsat). Validation of Landsat products, in turn, is challenging because there is no corresponding source of high-resolution, multispectral imagery that has been systematically collected in space and time over the entire temporal extent of the Landsat archive. Because of this, comparison between high-resolution images and Landsat science products can help increase user's confidence in the Landsat science products, but may not, alone, be adequate. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to systematically validate the Landsat-derived BAECV product. Burned area extent was mapped for Landsat image pairs using a manually trained semi-automated algorithm that was manually edited across 28 path/rows and five different years (1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008). Three datasets were independently developed by three analysts and the datasets were integrated on a pixel by pixel basis in which at least one to all three analysts were required to agree a pixel was burned. We found that errors within our Landsat reference dataset could be minimized by using the rendition of the dataset in which pixels were mapped as burned if at least two of the three analysts agreed. BAECV errors of omission and commission for the detection of burned pixels averaged 42% and 33%, respectively for CONUS across all five validation years. Errors of omission and commission were lowest across the western CONUS, for example in the shrub and scrublands of the Arid West (31% and 24%, respectively), and highest in the grasslands and

  11. The Lma MSW Solution of the Solar Neutrino Problem, Inverted Neutrino Mass Hierarchy and Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Petcov, S T

    2002-01-01

    In the context of three-neutrino oscillations, we study the possibility of using antineutrinos from nuclear reactors to explore the $10^-4 eV^2 < \\Delta m^2_{\\odot} \\ltap 8\\times 10^-4 eV^2$ region of the LMA MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem. The KamLAND experiment is not expected to determine $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ if the latter happens to lie in the indicated region. By analysing both the total event rate suppression and the energy spectrum distortion caused by $\\bar{\

  12. Design of area and power efficient Radix-4 DIT FFT butterfly unit using floating point fused arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu E; Mangalam H; Karthick S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, power efficient butterfly unit based FFT architecture is presented. The butterfly unit is designed using floating-point fused arithmetic units. The fused arithmetic units include two-term dot product unit and add-subtract unit. In these arithmetic units, operations are performed over complex data values. A modified fused floating-point two-term dot product and an enhanced model for the Radix-4 FFT butterfly unit are proposed. The modified fused two-term dot product is designed using Radix-16 booth multiplier. Radix-16 booth multiplier will reduce the switching activities compared to Radix-8 booth multiplier in existing system and also will reduce the area required. The proposed architecture is implemented efficiently for Radix-4 decimation in time (DIT) FFT butterfly with the two floating-point fused arithmetic units. The proposed enhanced architecture is synthesized, implemented, placed and routed on a FPGA device using Xilinx ISE tool. It is observed that the Radix-4 DIT fused floating-point FFT butterfly requires 50.17% less space and 12.16% reduced power compared to the existing methods and the proposed enhanced model requires 49.82% less space on the FPGA device compared to the proposed design. Also, reduced power consumption is addressed by utilizing the reusability technique, which results in 11.42% of power reduction of the enhanced model compared to the proposed design.

  13. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and

  14. Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-27

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  16. A two-stage approach to induction and intubation of two infants with Pierre Robin Sequence using a LMA Classic™ and Air-Q®: two cases report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, T Wesley; Bryan, Yvon F

    2016-08-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic™ and Air-Q® are supralaryngeal devices used for airway management in routine and difficult pediatric airways. We describe a novel two-stage technique of insertion of the LMA Classic™ awake prior to induction of anesthesia, to assure oxygenation and ventilation, and after induction removal and placement of the Air-Q® for intubation using the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The LMA Classic's™ pliable design and relatively small size allow it to be easily placed in awake infants. In contrast, the Air-Q® is an excellent device for intubation because of its larger internal diameter and removable 9 mm adapter. Our goal was to reduce unpredictability and potentially increase the safety of induction of anesthesia and intubation in infants with Pierre Robin sequence. By using these devices in a two-stage approach we created a technique for consistent oxygenation, ventilation, and intubation in these infants.

  17. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  18. A prospective randomised comparison of the LMA ProSeal™ versus endotracheal tube on the severity of postoperative pain following gynaecological laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J D; Nguyen, M; Lau, H; Grant, S; Williams, D I

    2013-01-01

    Pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common problems after gynaecologic laparoscopy. Two recent studies have shown that morphine requirements and PONV are lower when an LMA ProSeal™ is used, rather than an endotracheal tube (ETT), for female patients undergoing breast and gynaecological surgery. We conducted a patient and observer-blinded randomised controlled trial, recruiting non-obese women without gastro-oesophageal reflux undergoing laparoscopic gynaecological surgery. Patients received a standardised relaxant general anaesthetic and then were randomised to receive either an LMA ProSeal or an endotracheal tube. Patients were assessed at two and 24 hours post-anaesthesia. The primary outcome was postoperative pain score and secondary endpoints included morphine consumption, postoperative emesis and adverse upper airway symptoms. We recruited 116 patients to the study, 57 patients in the ETT group and 59 patients in the LMA ProSeal group. The patients were similar in demographic and surgical characteristics. At two hours, the ETT group was similar to the LMA ProSeal group in regards to pain scores (Visual Analogue Scale 3.0 vs 3.5, P=0.86), morphine consumption (7.2 vs 7.4 mg, P=0.56) and PONV (47.4 vs 47.5%, P=0.99). After 24 hours, pain scores and PONV rates were also similar. No significant difference in rates of sore throat or dysphagia was observed between the ETT and LMA ProSeal groups. No significant complications were attributable to either airway device. The LMA ProSeal did not decrease pain or PONV in patients undergoing gynaecological laparoscopy when compared to endotracheal intubation.

  19. Correlated Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and Radar Observations of the Initial Stages of Florida Triggered Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Uman, M, A.; Jordan, D. M.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Rison, W.; Blakeslee, R.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the geometrical and electrical characteristics of the initial stages of nine Florida triggered lightning discharges using a Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), a C-band SMART radar, and measured channel-base currents. We determine initial channel and subsequent branch lengths, average initial channel and branch propagation speeds, and channel-base current at the time of each branch initiation. The channel-base current is found to not change significantly when branching occurs, an unexpected result. The initial stage of Florida triggered lightning typically transitions from vertical to horizontal propagation at altitudes of 3-6 km, near the typical 0 C level of 4-5 km and several kilometers below the expected center of the negative cloud-charge region at 7-8 km. The data presented potentially provide information on thunderstorm electrical and hydrometeor structure and discharge propagation physics. LMA source locations were obtained from VHF sources of positive impulsive currents as small as 10 A, in contrast to expectations found in the literature.

  20. The Hydrogeologic Character of the Lower Tuff Confining Unit and the Oak Springs Butte Confining Unit in the Tuff Pile Area of Central Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drellack, Jr., Sigmund L.; Prothro, Lance B.; Gonzales, Jose L.; Mercadante, Jennifer M.

    2010-07-30

    The lower tuff confining unit (LTCU) in the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) consists of a monotonous sequence of pervasively zeolitized volcanic tuff (i.e., mostly bedded with lesser nonwelded to poorly welded tuff; not fractured) (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). The LTCU is an important confining unit beneath Yucca Flat because it separates the alluvial and volcanic aquifers, where many underground nuclear tests were conducted, from the regional lower carbonate aquifer. Recent sub-CAU-scale modeling by Los Alamos National Laboratory in the Tuff Pile area of Yucca Flat (Boryta, et al., in review) includes postulated low-porosity, high-permeability zones (i.e., fractured welded-tuff aquifers) within the LTCU. This scenario indicates that such postulated low-porosity, high-permeability zones could provide fast-path lateral conduits to faults, and eventually to the lower carbonate aquifer. A fractured and faulted lower carbonate aquifer is postulated to provide a flow path(s) for underground test-derived contaminants to potential offsite receptors. The ramifications of such a scenario are obvious for groundwater flow and contaminant migration beneath Yucca Flat. This paper describes the reasoning for not including postulated low-porosity, high-permeability zones within the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area or within the LTCU in the Yucca Flat CAU-scale model. Both observational and analytical data clearly indicate that the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area consists of pervasively zeolitic, nonwelded to poorly welded tuffs that are classified as tuff confining units (i.e., high-porosity, low-permeability). The position regarding the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area is summarized as follows: • The LTCU in the Tuff Pile area consists of a monotonous sequence of predominantly zeolitic nonwelded to poorly welded tuffs, and thus is accurately characterized hydrogeologically as a tuff confining unit (aquitard) in the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine hydrostratigraphic framework model (Bechtel Nevada

  1. The AMBU® Aura-i™ Laryngeal Mask and LMA Supreme™: A Randomized Trial of Clinical Performance and Fibreoptic Positioning in Unparalysed, Anaesthetised Patients by Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Zanahriah; Dintan, Nora A.; Agrawal, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Manikin studies' data cannot accurately be extrapolated to real-life scenarios and inherent differences in design and materials of newer products may affect their clinical performance. Methods. Hence, we compared the AMBU® Aura-i™ and LMA Supreme™ in this randomized trial involving 100 ASA 1-2 unparalysed anaesthetised patients undergoing minor gynaecological surgery. Investigators had epiglottis. In 5 patients (10%), the vocal cords were not seen, but ventilatory function was unaffected. Conclusions. The Aura-i handled well in novices hands, with comparable times to insert and establish ventilation, similar leak pressures, and successful first attempt insertion rates compared to the LMA Supreme. PMID:27847515

  2. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, L.; Caringella, M.; Scoffoni, C.; Rawls, M.; Markesteijn, L.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users lo

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography--Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of the Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter)...

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography--Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of the Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter)...

  5. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... status of a portion of Eagle River within the boundaries of Fort Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the restricted area is to include...

  6. Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas- United States, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ernest; Garcia, Macarena C; Bastian, Brigham; Rossen, Lauren M; Ingram, Deborah D; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Yoon, Paula W; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    Higher rates of death in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas have been described but not systematically assessed. 1999-2014 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate age-adjusted death rates and potentially excess deaths for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas for the five leading causes of death. Age-adjusted death rates included all ages and were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population by the direct method. Potentially excess deaths are defined as deaths among persons aged leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. For example, approximately half of deaths from unintentional injury and chronic lower respiratory disease in nonmetropolitan areas were potentially excess deaths, compared with 39.2% and 30.9%, respectively, in metropolitan areas. Potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions; within regions, nonmetropolitan areas tended to have higher percentages of potentially excess deaths than metropolitan areas. Compared with metropolitan areas, nonmetropolitan areas have higher age-adjusted death rates and greater percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death, nationally and across public health regions. Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths in nonmetropolitan areas might help public health departments identify emerging health problems, monitor known problems, and focus interventions to reduce preventable deaths in these areas.

  7. Spatial-temporal Variation Characteristics of Grain Yield per Unit Area and its Balanced Increasing Potential in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide assistance decision for grain yield in China, which can provide basis for reasonable layout of grain production project. Based on the statistical data of 2301 counties in China, using spatial autocorrelation analysis method, spatial changes of grain yield per unit area at county level in China during 1990-2010 were discussed and then the increase potential of grain yield per hectare and total yield at regional scale were calculated. The results showed that: (1 Grain yield per unit area at county level showed the evident pattern “High in the northern while low in the southern” and “High in the eastern and western while low in the middle”; The average grain yield per hectare increased by 1040.74 kg/hm2 during 1990-2010 and the increment of grain yield per unit area descended from North to South at county level. (2 Grain yield per unit area at county level in China had a strong spatial autocorrelation. The counties with "High-High" and "Low-Low" correlation were the majority. Counties with significant "High-High" correlation in 2010 were mostly located in plain area, while counties with significant "Low-Low" correlation were mainly distributed in Hengduan Mountainous Area, Inner Mongolia steppe Area, etc. (3 Two thousand three hundred and one counties were divided into 41 first-grade regions and 115 sec-grade regions according to the coupled conditions of cultivation system regionalization and LISA cluster map. The total potential output of China was 1.77×108 tons.

  8. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT165: AREA 25 AND 26 DRY WELL AND WASH DOWN AREAS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165, Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. CAU 165 consists of 8 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. Site closure activities were performed according to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 165. CAU 165 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; (2) CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; (3) CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; (4) CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain; (5) CAS 25-51-02, Drywell; (6) CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; (7) CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and (8) CAS 26-59-01, Septic System. CAU 165, Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, consists of eight CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The approved closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls.

  9. 100-N Area Decision Unit Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-N Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  10. M. Hartley Dodge Unit : Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Wilderness area proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on the M. Hartley Dodge Unit of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge and its suitability for wilderness designation. Topics...

  11. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Areas of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. States and the...

  12. The utilization of a midwifery obstetrical unit in a metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Cur. In this study a qualitative design which is explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature is followed. The objective of the study is three-fold: firstly, to explore and describe the opinions of members of the community about the reasons for the under-utilization of the Midwifery Obstetrical Unit ; secondly, to explore and describe the suggestions of the community for improving the utilization of the Midwifery Obstetrical Unit and, thirdly, to formulate intervention strategies fo...

  13. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  14. Metro U.S.A. Data Sheet: Population Estimates and Selected Demographic Indicators for the Metropolitan Areas of the United States. Special edition of the United States Population Data Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This poster-size data sheet presents population estimates and selected demographic indicators for the nation's 281 metropolitan areas. These areas are divided into 261 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), reporting units which replace the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs)…

  15. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Candidate Areas for Ecological Restoration for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the candidate areas for ecological restoration, identified as close but geographically disjunct vegetated regions. Ecological...

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick and Sloop, Christy

    2011-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372, Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, located within Areas 18 and 20 at the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 372 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 372 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at all CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 9, 2009, through December 10, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 372 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL was established of 25 millirem per year based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present at all four CASs. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present within the Little Feller I and Cabriolet high

  18. Stable symbionts across the HMA-LMA dichotomy: low seasonal and interannual variation in sponge-associated bacteria from taxonomically diverse hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Patrick M; Coma, Rafel; López-Sendino, Paula; Serrano, Eduard; Ribes, Marta

    2015-10-01

    Marine sponges host bacterial communities with important ecological and economic roles in nature and society, yet these benefits depend largely on the stability of host-symbiont interactions and their susceptibility to changing environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the temporal stability of complex host-microbe symbioses in a temperate, seasonal environment over three years, targeting sponges across a range of symbiont density (high and low microbial abundance, HMA and LMA) and host taxonomy (six orders). Symbiont profiling by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that bacterial communities in all sponges exhibited a high degree of host specificity, low seasonal dynamics and low interannual variability: results that represent an emerging trend in the field of sponge microbiology and contrast sharply with the seasonal dynamics of free-living bacterioplankton. Further, HMA sponges hosted more diverse, even and similar symbiont communities than LMA sponges and these differences in community structure extended to core members of the microbiome. Together, these findings show clear distinctions in symbiont structure between HMA and LMA sponges while resolving notable similarities in their stability over seasonal and inter-annual scales, thus providing insight into the ecological consequences of the HMA-LMA dichotomy and the temporal stability of complex host-microbe symbioses.

  19. Laryngeal Mask Airway for neonatal resuscitation in a developing country: evaluation of an educational intervention. Neonatal LMA: an educational intervention in DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanardo Vincenzo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies carried out in developing countries have indicated that training courses in newborn resuscitation are efficacious in teaching local birth attendants how to properly utilize simple resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and expertise gained by physicians and midwifes who participated in a Neonatal Resuscitation Course and workshop organized in a Third World Country on the use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA. Methods A 28-item questionnaire, derived from the standard test contained in the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Manual, was administered to 21 physicians and 7 midwifes before and after a course, which included a practical, hands-on workshop focusing on LMA positioning and bag-ventilation in a neonatal manikin. Results The knowledge gained by the physicians was superior to that demonstrated by the midwifes. The physicians, in fact, demonstrated a significant improvement with respect to their pre-course knowledge. Both the physicians and the midwives showed a good level of expertise in manipulating the manipulating the manikin during the practical trial session. The midwifes and physicians almost unanimously manifested a high degree of approval of neonatal resuscitation by LMA, as they defined it a sustainable and cost-effective method requiring minimal expertise. Conclusions Further studies are warranted to test the advantages and limits of the neonatal LMA training courses in developing countries.

  20. Single-unit studies of visual motion processing in cat extrastriate areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajda, Ildiko

    2003-01-01

    Motion vision has high survival value and is a fundamental property of all visual systems. The old Greeks already studied motion vision, but the physiological basis of it first came under scrutiny in the late nineteenth century. Later, with the introduction of single-cell (single-unit) recordings ar

  1. Single-unit studies of visual motion processing in cat extrastriate areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajda, Ildiko

    2003-01-01

    Motion vision has high survival value and is a fundamental property of all visual systems. The old Greeks already studied motion vision, but the physiological basis of it first came under scrutiny in the late nineteenth century. Later, with the introduction of single-cell (single-unit) recordings ar

  2. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  3. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  4. LMA C Trach aided endotracheal intubation in simulated cases of cervical spine injury: A series of 30 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha C Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laryngeal mask airway (LMA C Trach is a novel device designed to intubate trachea without conventional laryngoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of C trach in the simulated scenario of cervical spine injury where conventional laryngoscopy is not desirable. Methods: This prospective pilot study was carried out in 30 consenting adults of either gender, ASAPS I or II, scheduled for surgery requiring endotracheal intubation. An appropriate sized rigid cervical collar was positioned around the patient′s neck to restrict the neck movements and simulate the scenario of cervical spine injury. After induction of anesthesia, various technical aspects of C Trach facilitated endotracheal intubation, changes in hemodynamic variables, and complications were recorded. Results: Mask ventilation was easy in all the patients. Successful insertion of C Trach was achieved in 27 patients at first attempt, while 3 patients required second attempt. Majority of patients required one of the adjusting maneuvers to obtain acceptable view of glottis (POGO score >50%. Intubation success rate was 100% with 26 patients intubated at first attempt and the rest required second attempt. Mean intubation time was 69.8±27.40 sec. With experience, significant decrease in mean intubation time was observed in last 10 patients as compared to first 10 (46±15.77 sec vs. 101.3±22.91 sec. Minor mucosal injury was noted in four patients. Conclusion: LMA C Trach facilitates endotracheal intubation under direct vision and can be a useful technique in patients with cervical spine injury with cervical collar in situ.

  5. Computational methods for reactive transport modeling: An extended law of mass-action, xLMA, method for multiphase equilibrium calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Allan M. M.; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-10-01

    We present an extended law of mass-action (xLMA) method for multiphase equilibrium calculations and apply it in the context of reactive transport modeling. This extended LMA formulation differs from its conventional counterpart in that (i) it is directly derived from the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) problem (i.e., the fundamental problem that describes the state of equilibrium of a chemical system under constant temperature and pressure); and (ii) it extends the conventional mass-action equations with Lagrange multipliers from the Gibbs energy minimization problem, which can be interpreted as stability indices of the chemical species. Accounting for these multipliers enables the method to determine all stable phases without presuming their types (e.g., aqueous, gaseous) or their presence in the equilibrium state. Therefore, the here proposed xLMA method inherits traits of Gibbs energy minimization algorithms that allow it to naturally detect the phases present in equilibrium, which can be single-component phases (e.g., pure solids or liquids) or non-ideal multi-component phases (e.g., aqueous, melts, gaseous, solid solutions, adsorption, or ion exchange). Moreover, our xLMA method requires no technique that tentatively adds or removes reactions based on phase stability indices (e.g., saturation indices for minerals), since the extended mass-action equations are valid even when their corresponding reactions involve unstable species. We successfully apply the proposed method to a reactive transport modeling problem in which we use PHREEQC and GEMS as alternative backends for the calculation of thermodynamic properties such as equilibrium constants of reactions, standard chemical potentials of species, and activity coefficients. Our tests show that our algorithm is efficient and robust for demanding applications, such as reactive transport modeling, where it converges within 1-3 iterations in most cases. The proposed xLMA method is implemented in Reaktoro, a

  6. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  7. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  8. Photographs used to verify ET units classified in the major discharge areas of Death Valley regional

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digital data set provides point locations and general descriptions of areas photographed to document sites visited during a study to refine current estimates of...

  9. LandCarbon Conterminous United States Burned Area and Severity Mosaics 2001-2050 Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The burn area and severity data were stochastically generated using a probabilistic ignition model and mechanistic fire-spread model. The ignition model consisted of...

  10. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Urban Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  11. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  12. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  13. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  14. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  15. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  16. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  17. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Urban Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  18. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  19. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  20. Danger Zones and Restricted Areas in the United States as of July 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the location of Danger Zones and Restricted Areas within coastal and marine waters, as outlined by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and the...

  1. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  2. Ground-water resources of the Bengasi area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, William Watson; Maguire, Frank J.

    1964-01-01

    The Benpsi area of Libya, in the northwestern part of the Province of Cyrenaica (Wilayat Barqah), is semiarid, and available ground-water supplies in the area are relatively small. Potable ground water from known sources is reserved for the present and future needs of the city, and no surface-water supplies are available in the area. This investigation to evaluate known, as well as potential, water supplies in the area was undertaken as part of a larger program of ground-water investigations in Libya under the auspices of the U. S. Operations Mission to Libya and the Government of Libya. A ground-water reservoir underlies the Bengasi area, in which the water occurs in solution channels, cavities, and other openings in Miocene limestone. The reservoir is recharged directly by rainfall on the area and by infiltration from ephemeral streams (wadis) rising in Al Jabal al Akhar to the east. In the Baninah and Al Fuwayhit areas the ground-water reservoir yields water of fair quality and in sufficient quantity for the current (1959) needs. of the Bengasi city supply. The test-drilling program in the area south and southeast of Bengasi indicates that water in sufficient quantity for additional public supply probably can be obtained in some localities from wells. The water, however, is moderately to highly mineralized and would require treatment or demineralization before it could be used for additional public supply. Much of the water could be used directly for irrigation, but careful attention would have to be given to cultivation, drainage, and cropping practices. The hazard of saltwater encroachment also exists if large-scale withdrawals are undertaken in the coastal zones.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372 is located in Areas 18 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 372 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 10, 2009, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; Desert Research Institute, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 372.

  4. Quantifying the risk of nosocomial infection within Ebola Holding Units: a retrospective cohort study of negative patients discharged from five Ebola Holding Units in Western Area, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Paul; Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Kamara, Abdul; Kamara, Thaim B; Johnson, Oliver; Lado, Marta; George, Viginia; Koroma, Fatmata; King, Matilda B; Parker, Benson E; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A central pillar in the response to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Sierra Leone was the role of Ebola Holding Units (EHUs). These units isolated patients meeting a suspect case definition, tested them for EVD, initiated appropriate early treatment and discharged negative patients to onward inpatient care or home. Positive patients were referred to Ebola Treatment Centres. We aimed to estimate the risk of nosocomial transmission within these EHUs. We followed up a cohort of 543 patients discharged with a negative EVD test from five EHUs in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, and examined all line-listed subsequent EVD tests from any facility in the Western Area to see whether the patient was retested within 30 days, matching by name, age and address. We defined possible readmissions as having the same name and age but uncertain address, and confirmed readmissions where name, age and address matched. We found a positive readmission rate of 3.3% (18 cases), which included 1.5% confirmed readmissions (8 cases) and 1.8% possible readmissions (10 cases). This is lower than rates previously reported. We cannot ascertain whether EVD was acquired within the EHUs or from re-exposure in the community. No demographic or clinical variables were identified as risk factors for positive readmission, likely due to our small sample size. These findings support the EHU model as a safe method for isolation of suspect EVD patients and their role in limiting the spread of EVD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of Water Pollution on the Condition Factor, Mortality, Exploitation Ratio and Catch per Unit Effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water pollution on the condition factor, mortality, exploitation ratio and catch per unit effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria was investigated from April 2012 to May 2012; following an oil blow out in the area. To show the impact of the spill on the environment, catch rates are seasonally dependent and vary between 15-120 kg/day. About 120 wooden canoes were sighted in the communities studied. The canoes are basically in two categories namely, small sized boats of less than 5 m length and medium-sized ones ranging between 5 and 7 m long. There was no temporal variation in the condition of the fish with condition index value ranging from 0.86-1.00 and condition factor value of 0.98. The K value of 0.98 estimated from this study shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus from the study area was in extremely poor condition. Total mortality (Z value was 1.5 yrG1. Natural Mortality (M value was 0.97; Fishing mortality (F value was 0.52. Value for the rate of exploitation was 0.35 with corresponding percentage value of 35%. The result shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus with an exploitation rate of 0.35 is below the optimal value for sustainable yield, for the exploitation of the fishery. These populations therefore stand the risk of under exploitation if urgent measures are not taken to develop the fishery.

  6. Creating healing intensive care unit environments: physical and psychological considerations in designing critical care areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazuin, Doug; Cardon, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    A number of elements contribute to a healing ICU environment. The layout of a critical care unit helps create an environment that supports caregiving, which helps alleviate a host of work-related stresses. A quieter environment, one that includes family and friends, dotted with windows and natural light, creates a space that makes people feel balanced and reassured. A healing environment responds to the needs of all the people within a critical care unit-those who receive or give care and those who support patients and staff. Critical care units should be designed to focus on healing the body, the mind, and the senses. The design and policies of that department can be created in such a way to provide a sense of calm and balance. The physical environment has an impact on patient outcomes; the psychological environment can, too. A healing ICU environment will balance both. The authors discuss the ways in which architecture, interior design, and behavior contribute to a healing ICU environment.

  7. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases.

  8. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 is located in Area 10 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The CASs in CAU 367 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive contaminants may be present in concentrations that exceed risk-based corrective action (RBCA) levels. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend CAAs for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting CAAs. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 367 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine the area where TED at the site exceeds FALs (i.e., corrective action boundary). • Evaluate TED to potential receptors in areas along Mercury Highway that have been impacted by a release of radionuclides from the Sedan test. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis related to the drilling mud within CAS 10-09-03, Mud Pit, and any encountered stains or waste as necessary to determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. • Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management purposes.

  10. SUPPLEMENTAL PACKAGE FOR THE SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-23

    Arsenic and selenium were tentatively identified as ecological RCOCs for the PAOU Ash Basin (PAOU Post-Characterization/Problem Identification Scoping Meeting, March 2007). Core Team agreed to consider eliminating these constituents as RCOCs based on a revised uncertainty discussion. The ecological risk tables and revised text (in its entirety) for the PAOU Ash Basin are provided in the Supplemental Information Package for the FS Scoping Meeting (June 2007). Arsenic and selenium have been traditionally carried through as ecological RCOCs (D-Area Ash Basin, A-Area Ash Pile).

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  13. 76 FR 30024 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Corporation, as shipbuilder of Littoral Combat Ships, has requested on behalf of the Department of Navy, that... this rule. List of Subjects in 33 CFR Part 334 Danger zones, Marine safety, Navigation (water... read as follows: PART 334--DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 0 1. The authority citation for...

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-01-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

  15. Ground water in the Sirte area, Tripolitania, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilbee, William

    1964-01-01

    The present study of the ground-water conditions in the Sirte area was made during December 1961 and March-April 1962 at the request of officials of the Government of Libya. Particular attention was given to the potential of the fresh-water aquifer near Qasr Bu Itadi as a source of water for Sirte. The Sirte area lies on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea about 450 kilometers east-southeast of Tripoli, cocapital of Libya. Although the area receives some winter precipitation, the climate is arid. The surface rocks of the area are chiefly Miocene limestone containing marl, clay, and some sandstone, though Quaternary deposits occur along the wadis and mantle the Miocene rocks in the coastal plain. Fresh ground water occurs locally in Recent sand dunes near Zaafran and in Miocene limestone near Qasr Bu Hadi, south of a probable fault. Elsewhere in the Sirte area, ground water occurs generally in Tertiary rocks but contains 3,000 or more parts per million of dissolved solids. To establish the hydraulic characteristics of the fresh-water aquifer in the Qasr Bu Itadi area, two test wells were drilled and a controlled pumping test was made. The coefficient of transmissibility was found to be about 25,000 gallons per day per foot (13.68 cubic meters per hour per meter), and the coefficient of storage, about 0.00055. The pumping test also established the presence of two barrier-type hydraulic boundaries for the aquifer, one about 250 meters westward and another about 535 meters northward from well 9a. The first boundary is probably the small anticline on which stands the fort of Qasr Bu Itadi; the second boundary is probably a northwest trending fault. Using the transmissibility and storage coefficients derived from the pumping test, the writer concludes that (1) the total draft from the fresh-water aquifer should not exceed 13.5 cubic meters per hour and (2) production wells should be at least 3 kilometers south of well 9a.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-06-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 551 is located in Area 12 of the NTS, which is approximately 110 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Area 12 is approximately 40 miles beyond the main gate to the NTS. Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; (2) 12-06-05, Muckpile; (3) 12-06-07, Muckpile; and (4) 12-06-08, Muckpile. Corrective Action Site 12-01-09 is located in Area 12 and consists of an above ground storage tank (AST) and associated stain. Corrective Action Site 12-06-05 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. Corrective Action Site 12-06-07 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. Corrective Action Site 12-06-08 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. In keeping with common convention, the U12B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels will be referred to as the B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and sampling of media, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-06-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 551 is located in Area 12 of the NTS, which is approximately 110 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Area 12 is approximately 40 miles beyond the main gate to the NTS. Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; (2) 12-06-05, Muckpile; (3) 12-06-07, Muckpile; and (4) 12-06-08, Muckpile. Corrective Action Site 12-01-09 is located in Area 12 and consists of an above ground storage tank (AST) and associated stain. Corrective Action Site 12-06-05 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. Corrective Action Site 12-06-07 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. Corrective Action Site 12-06-08 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. In keeping with common convention, the U12B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels will be referred to as the B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and sampling of media, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions.

  18. Carbon dioxide sources and oilfields in a nine-state area of the southwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, R.E.; Heath, L.J.

    1977-04-01

    Data on the prospective available CO/sub 2/ in a nine-state area of the Southwest were collected from scattered sources and compiled to make the information readily available to operators who may be interested in using CO/sub 2/ techniques for enhanced oilfield recoveries. Maps of the oilfields in the area studied are provided so that location of supply source can be related to possible point of use. The best potential sources of CO/sub 2/ are flue gas from electric generating plants, flue gas from cement plants, output from ammonia plants and natural gas reservoirs. The CO/sub 2/ sources are listed by states and include the operator's name, location name, county, and average available amounts of CO/sub 2/.

  19. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  20. Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Metropolitan Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Tang, Tian; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    The majority of persons infected with HIV live in large metropolitan areas and many such areas have implemented intensified HIV testing programs. A national indicator of HIV testing outcomes is late diagnosis of HIV infection (stage 3, AIDS). Based on National HIV Surveillance System data, 23.3 % of persons with HIV diagnosed in 2012 had a late diagnosis in large MSAs, 26.3 % in smaller MSAs, and 29.6 % in non-metropolitan areas. In the 105 large MSAs, the percentage diagnosed late ranged from 13.2 to 47.4 %. During 2003-2012, the percentage diagnosed late decreased in large MSAs (32.2-23.3 %), with significant decreases in 41 of 105 MSAs overall and among men who have sex with men. Sustained testing efforts may help to continue the decreasing trend in late-stage HIV diagnosis and provide opportunities for early care and treatment and potential reduction in HIV transmission.

  1. Factors controlling threshold friction velocity in semiarid and arid areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticorena, Beatrice; Bergametti, Gilles; Gillette, Dale; Belnap, Jayne

    1997-10-01

    A physical model was developed to explain threshold friction velocities u*t for particles of the size 60-120 μm lying on a rough surface in loose soils for semiarid and arid parts of the United States. The model corrected for the effect of momentum absorption by the nonerodible roughness. For loose or disturbed soils the most important parameter that controls u*t is the aerodynamic roughness height z0. For physical crusts damaged by wind the size of erodible crust pieces is important along with the roughness. The presence of cyanobacteriallichen soil crusts roughens the surface, and the biological fibrous growth aggregates soil particles. Only undisturbed sandy soils and disturbed soils of all types would be expected to be erodible in normal wind storms. Therefore disturbance of soils by both cattle and humans is very important in predicting wind erosion as confirmed by our measurements.

  2. Modal sensitivity analysis for single mode operation in large mode area fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Benoit; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Garneau, Marc; Faucher, Mathieu; Lizé, Yannick Keith; Holehouse, Nigel

    2008-02-01

    Most of the current large mode area (LMA) fibers are few-moded designs using a large, low numerical aperture (N.A.) core, which promotes mode coupling between core modes and increases bending losses (coupling with claddingmodes), which is undesirable both in terms ofmode area and beamquality. Furthermore, short LMA fiber lengths and small cladding diameters are needed to minimize nonlinear effects and maximize pump absorption respectively in high-power pulsed laser systems. Although gain fiber coiling is a widely used technique to filter-out unwanted modes in LMA fibers, coupling between modes can still occur in component leads and relay fibers. In relay fiber, light coupled into higher-order modes can subsequently be lost in the coiling or continue as higher-order modes, which has the overall effect of reducing the effective transmission of the LP 01 mode and degrading the beam quality. However, maximum transmission of the LP 01 mode is often required in order to have the best possible beam quality (minimal M2). Launching in an LMA fiber with a mode field adapter (MFA)1 provides an excellent way of ensuring maximum LP 01 coupling, but preservation of this mode requires highmodal stability in the output fiber. Small cladding, low N.A. LMA fibers have the disadvantage of being extremely sensitive to external forces in real-life applications, which is unwanted for systems where highly sensitive mode coupling can occur. In this paper, we present a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of mode coupling sensitivity in LMA fibers as a function of fiber parameters such as N.A., core diameter and cladding diameter. Furthermore, we present the impact of higher N.A. as a solution to increase mode stability in terms of its effect on peak power, effective mode area and coupling efficiency.

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 383: Area E-Tunnel Sites, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is the joint responsibility of DTRA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 383 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and two adjacent areas: • CAS 12-06-06, Muckpile • CAS 12-25-02, Oil Spill • CAS 12-28-02, Radioactive Material • Drainage below the Muckpile • Ponds 1, 2, and 3 The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation to support the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions at the three CASs and two adjacent areas of CAU 383.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Air port Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  8. Anatomical basis of the change in leaf mass per area and nitrogen investment with relative irradiance within the canopy of eight temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, I.; Pardo, F.; Gil, L.; Pardos, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    Changes in leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen content on a mass-basis (N m) and on an area basis (N a) with relative irradiance were assessed in leaves of eight temperate species harvested at different depths in a canopy. Relative irradiance (GSF) at the points of leaf sampling was estimated by hemispheric photographs. There was a strong species-dependent positive relationship between LMA and GSF for all species. Shade-tolerant species such as Fagus sylvatica showed lower LMA for the same GSF than less tolerant species as Quercus pyrenaica or Quercus petraea. The only evergreen species in the study, Ilex aquifollium, had the highest LMA, independent of light environment, with minimum values much higher than the rest of the broad-leaved species studied. There was no relation between N m and GSF for most species studied and only a very weak relation for the relative shade-intolerant species Q. pyrenaica. Within each species, the pattern of N a investment with regard to GSF was linked mainly to LMA. At the same relative irradiance, differences in N a among species were conditioned both by the LMA-GSF relationship and by the species N m value. The lowest N m value was measured in I. aquifollium (14.3 ± 0.6 mg g -1); intermediate values in Crataegus monogyna (16.9 ± 0.6 mg g -1) and Prunus avium (19.1 ± 0.6 mg g -1) and higher values, all in a narrow range (21.3 ± 0.6 to 23 ± 0.6 mg g -1), were measured for the other five species. Changes in LMA with the relative irradiance were linked both to lamina thickness (LT) and to palisade/spongy parenchyma ratio (PP/SP). In the second case, the LMA changes may be related to an increase in lamina density as palisade parenchyma involves higher cell packing than spongy parenchyma. However, since PP/SP ratio showed a weak species-specific relationship with LMA, the increase in LT should be the main cause of LMA variation.

  9. Public Parks and Wellbeing in Urban Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lincoln R; Jennings, Viniece; Cloutier, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of subjective wellbeing at the city level. Using 2014 data from 44 U.S. cities, we evaluated the relationship between urban park quantity, quality, and accessibility and aggregate self-reported scores on the Gallup-Healthways Wellbeing Index (WBI), which considers five different domains of wellbeing (e.g., physical, community, social, financial, and purpose). In addition to park-related variables, our best-fitting OLS regression models selected using an information theory approach controlled for a variety of other typical geographic and socio-demographic correlates of wellbeing. Park quantity (measured as the percentage of city area covered by public parks) was among the strongest predictors of overall wellbeing, and the strength of this relationship appeared to be driven by parks' contributions to physical and community wellbeing. Park quality (measured as per capita spending on parks) and accessibility (measured as the overall percentage of a city's population within ½ mile of parks) were also positively associated with wellbeing, though these relationships were not significant. Results suggest that expansive park networks are linked to multiple aspects of health and wellbeing in cities and positively impact urban quality of life.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 366 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended).

  11. A Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit for Long-Term Monitoring in the Dependency Care Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Català

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU, which are wearable and comfortable devices with long battery life. The IMU’s movement signals might be, on the one hand, stored in a digital support, in which an analysis is performed a posteriori. On the other hand, the signal analysis might take place in the same IMU at the same time as the signal acquisition through online classifiers. The new sensor system presented in this paper is designed for both collecting movement signals and analyzing them in real-time. This system is a flexible platform useful for collecting data via a triaxial accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, with the possibility to incorporate other information sources in real-time. A µSD card can store all inertial data and a Bluetooth module is able to send information to other external devices and receive data from other sources. The system presented is being used in the real-time detection and analysis of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, in gait analysis, and in a fall detection system.

  12. [Ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN): review of 10 years of operation in the Grenoble area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Moreaud, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Truche, Anne-Sophie; Zaoui, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The existence of an ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN) gives to the nephrologist the collegiality required to meet the difficulties of therapeutic choice on a legislative level, particularly in indications of stop dialysis. The discussion conducted, outside the emergency, is guided by a tool for reflexion that details successive steps necessary to the identification of elements required for decision-making. Thanks to complementary skills provided by the participants and training acquired, the UCEN can approach other ethic issues encountered during practice such as contrindication for a kidney transplantation or maintenance of conservative treatment, or performing invasive procedures on patients refusing transfusion. Propositions are not always relevant due to opposition or ambivalence of some patients, their relatives, an external or disagreements between teams or a mismatch between the technical and the patient's condition. These non-conformities decrypted always have an explanation, sometimes they are understood and accepted by the teams, and sometimes they became source of regrets when they extend life in very poor conditions. The UCEN, if it does not solve every single point, remains a place and a time of sharing that face difficult situations, help the nephrologist positioning himself on maintaining treatments that were first to avoid and prevent the realization of unreasonable acts and accept their limits.

  13. Estimating occupancy dynamics for large-scale monitoring networks: amphibian breeding occupancy across protected areas in the northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Regional monitoring strategies frequently employ a nested sampling design where a finite set of study areas from throughout a region are selected within which intensive sub-sampling occurs. This sampling protocol naturally lends itself to a hierarchical analysis to account for dependence among sub-samples. Implementing such an analysis within a classic likelihood framework is computationally prohibitive with species occurrence data when accounting for detection probabilities. Bayesian methods offer an alternative framework to make this analysis feasible. We demonstrate a general approach for estimating occupancy when data come from a nested sampling design. Using data from a regional monitoring program of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in vernal pools, we analyzed data using static and dynamic occupancy frameworks. We analyzed observations from 2004-2013collected within 14 protected areas located throughout the northeast United States . We use the data set to estimate trends in occupancy at both the regional and individual protected area level. We show that occupancy at the regional level was relatively stable for both species. Much more variation occurred within individual study areas, with some populations declining and some increasing for both species. We found some evidence for a latitudinal gradient in trends among protected areas. However, support for this pattern is overestimated when the hierarchical nature of the data collection is not controlled for in the analysis. For both species, occupancy appeared to be declining in the most southern areas, while occupancy was stable or increasing in more northern areas. These results shed light on the range-level population status of these pond-breeding amphibians and our approach provides a framework that can be used to examine drivers of change including among-year and among-site variation in occurrence dynamics, while properly accounting for nested structure of

  14. Hydrogeologic framework and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system and intermediate confining unit in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    The successful implementation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) as a water-management tool requires detailed information on the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of the potential water storage zones. This report presents stratigraphic and hydrogeologic sections of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system and the overlying confining unit or aquifer system in the Lake Okeechobee area, and contour maps of the upper contacts of the Ocala Limestone and the Arcadia Formation, which are represented in the sections. The sections and maps illustrate hydrogeologic factors such as confinement of potential storage zones, the distribution of permeability within the zones, and geologic features that may control the efficiency of injection, storage, and recovery of water, and thus may influence decisions on ASR activities in areas of interest to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  15. Seroprevalence in Chickens against Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Capping Protein (FliD) in Selected Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H-Y; Hiett, K L; Line, J E; Jagne, J F; Lauer, D C

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a causative pathogen of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Infected poultry products are regarded as a major source for human C. jejuni infection. The flagellar capping protein (FliD) is highly conserved among C. jejuni strains/isolates and is antigenic as analysed by immunoblot. In this study, we used the FliD protein as a probe to survey the prevalence of C. jejuni antibodies in chickens from two areas in the United States. A total of 394 samples were tested. Sera from layer breeders of 44-52 weeks of age tested 100% positive, while 4- to 6-week broilers from 22 premises showed 7-100% positivity. These results demonstrate that anti-FliD antibodies were prevalent in the poultry population in the areas of serum samples collected. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  18. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant

  19. Limited occurrence of denitrification in four shallow aquifers in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.T.; Puckett, L.J.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bekins, B.A.; Phillips, S.P.; Kauffman, L.J.; Denver, J.M.; Johnson, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of natural attenuation to mitigate agricultural nitrate contamination in recharging aquifers was investigated in four important agricultural settings in the United States. The study used laboratory analyses, field measurements, and flow and transport modeling for monitoring well transects (0.5 to 2.5 km in length) in the San Joaquin watershed, California, the Elkhorn watershed, Nebraska, the Yakima watershed, Washington, and the Chester watershed, Maryland. Ground water analyses included major ion chemistry, dissolved gases, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes, and estimates of recharge date. Sediment analyses included potential electron donors and stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Within each site and among aquifer-based medians, dissolved oxygen decreases with ground water age, and excess N2 from denitrification increases with age. Stable isotopes and excess N2 imply minimal denitrifying activity at the Maryland and Washington sites, partial denitrification at the California site, and total denitrification across portions of the Nebraska site. At all sites, recharging electron donor concentrations are not sufficient to account for the losses of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, implying that relict, solid phase electron donors drive redox reactions. Zero-order rates of denitrification range from 0 to 0.14 ??mol N L-1d-1, comparable to observations of other studies using the same methods. Many values reported in the literature are, however, orders of magnitude higher, which is attributed to a combination of method limitations and bias for selection of sites with rapid denitrification. In the shallow aquifers below these agricultural fields, denitrification is limited in extent and will require residence times of decades or longer to mitigate modern nitrate contamination. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Ground-water exploration in Al Marj area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, T.G.; Haddor, Yousef

    1963-01-01

    The present report, based largely on fieldwork during 1959-61, describes the results of reconnaissance hydrogeologic studies and exploratory drilling to evaluate the general water-bearing properties of the rocks and the availability of groundwater supplies for irrigation, stock, and village uses in Al Marj area. These studies and the drilling were conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Operations Mission of the International Cooperation Administration. Al Marj area, located in the Province of Cyrenaica on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, contains a land area of about 6,770 square kilometers. Along the Mediterranean shore is a narrow coastal plain that rises evenly to the base of an escarpment that forms the seaward front of an undulating plateau known as. Al Jabal al Akhgiar. The climate is semiarid; seasonal rainfall occurs during the winter months. Owing to orographic effects, the rainfall is somewhat higher in the Jabal than in the coastal plain. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 250 millimeters in the coastal plain to 450 millimeters on the Jabal. All the streams (wadis) of the area are ephemeral and flow only in response to heavy rains of the winter season. From a drainage divide on the Jabal some streams flow north and northwest toward the sea and the others, south and southeast to the interior desert. Solution features, such as limestone sink holes, are common in the coastal plain and a large solution depression occurs near Al Marj. The rocks of A1 Marj area consist predominantly of limestone and some sandstone and shale; they range from Cretaceous to Miocene age. On the coastal plain Miocene limestone is locally mantled by Quaternary alluvial, beach and lagoonal deposits. The Miocene and older beds have a regional southerly dip. These rocks are broken by northeast-trending normal faults in the coastal and inland escarpments. The ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in fractures, bedding planes, and solution openings in the

  1. Radiation-hardened Erbium doped LMA fiber with AlP composition from solution doping process

    OpenAIRE

    Canat, G.; Sahu, J.K.S.; Le Gouët, J.; Lombard, L.; NILSSON, J.; Duzellier, S.; Boivin, D.; Renard, W.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We report on Erbium doped large-mode-area fibers based on the phosphoaluminosilicates. The radiation induced attenuation are reduced compared to standard highly doped fibers. We measured 22% power conversion efficiency for core pumping at 1532 nm.

  2. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 390: AREAS 9, 10, AND 12 SPILL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 390 consists four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 9, 10, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The closure activities performed at the CASs include: (1) CAS 09-99-03, Wax, Paraffin: 2 cubic yards of drilling polymer was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (2) CAS 10-99-01, Epoxy Tar Spill: 2 cubic feet of asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (3) CAS 10-99-03, Tar Spills: 3 cubic yards of deteriorated asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (4) CAS 12-25-03, Oil Stains (2); Container: Approximately 16 ounces of used oil were removed from ventilation equipment on June 28,2005, and recycled. One CAS 10-22-19, Drums, Stains, was originally part of CAU 390 but was transferred out of CAU 390 and into CAU 550, Drums, Batteries, and Lead Materials. The transfer was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on August 19,2005, and a copy of the approval letter is included in Appendix D of this report.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-01-25

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 240, Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, which is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    The following site closure activities were performed at the 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) comprising Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 and are documented in this report: (1) No closure action was taken at 13 CASs (17 sites): 58-05-01,58-07-01,58-05-04, 58-09-05 (Mud Pits C and D only), 58-35-01,58-05-02,58-09-06 (Mud Pits A, B, C, and D), 58-10-06,58-19-01,58-35-02,58-44-04,58-05-04, and 58-09-03 (Mud Pit E only). (2) Housekeeping activities, collecting scrap materials, and transporting to approved landfill sites at the NTS were used to close seven CASs: 58-44-01,58-44-02,58-44-05, 58-98-03,58-98-01,58-98-02, and 58-98-04. (3) Two CASs (58-05-03 and 58-99-01) were closed by excavation and removal of USTs. (4) Two septic tanks (CASs 58-05-05 and 58-05-06) were closed by backfilling with clean fill. (5) Site posting with above-grade monuments and attached warning signs and land-use restrictions were used to close seven CASs (nine sites): 58-09-02,58-09-05 (Mud Pit E only), 58-09-06 (Mud Pit E only), 58-10-01,58-25-01,58-09-03 (Mud Pits A, B, and D), and 58-10-05. (6) Clean closure by excavation soil with TPH levels greater than the NDEP action level of 100 mg/kg and limited regrading was used to close five CASs: 58-10-03,58-44-06, 58-44-03,58-10-02, and 58-10-04. (7) Construction of engineered covers was used to close in place two CASs: 58-09-01 and 58-09-03 (Mud Pit C only). Following construction, a fence was constructed around each cover to prevent damage to the cover or intrusion by wildlife.

  5. The utilization of a Midwifery Obstetrical Unit (MOU) in a Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashazi, M I; Roos, S D

    2000-12-01

    In this study an explorative, descriptive design which is contextual in nature, is utilized. The objective of the study is three-fold: Firstly, to describe the opinions of members of the community about the reasons for the under-utilization of the Midwifery Obstetrical Unit (MOU); secondly, to describe the suggestions of the community for improving the utilization of the MOU and thirdly, to describe intervention strategies for community nurses to improve the utilization of the MOU. Data was collected by means of focus group interviews, and was analysed using Tesch's (in Cresswell, 1994: 154-155) method of data analysis. Trustworthiness was ensured by using the method of Guba and Lincoln (1985). The respondents were mothers who delivered their babies at the hospital, mothers who delivered their babies at the MOU, members of the Community Health Committee and MOU nurses. Data was collected in two phases. Phase I dealt with the first question: What is your opinion about the reasons for the under-utilization of the MOU? Phase II dealt with the second question: What are your suggestions for improving the utilization of the MOU? The four groups participated in Phase I as well as in Phase II, the reason being to involve the groups in identifying problems and finding solutions with which they would be comfortable, since it would be their ideas. This whole exercise was, however, carried out in line with the RDP principle of people driven approach or community involvement. The investigation revealed that the community was not utilizing the MOU because of the following reasons: Negative attitudes of nurses. Lack of material and human resources. Poor safety and security measures. Lack of community involvement/participation. The focus groups then identified the following suggestions for improving the utilization of the MOU: Change of attitudes by nurses towards the patients. Availability of material and human resources. Proper safety and security measures in the MOU. Community

  6. The utilisation of a midwifery obstetrical unit (mou in a metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M I Mashazi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study an explorative, descriptive design which is contextual in nature, is utilized. The objective of the study is three-fold: Firstly, to describe the opinions of members of the community about the reasons for the under-utilization of the Midwifery Obstetrical Unit (MOU; secondly, to describe the suggestions of the community for improving the utilization of the MOU and thirdly, to describe intervention strategies for community nurses to improve the utilization of the MOU. Data was collected by means of focus group interviews, and was analysed using Tesch’s (in Cresswell, 1994: 154-155 method of data analysis. Trustworthiness was ensured by using the method of Guba and Lincoln (1985. The respondents were mothers who delivered their babies at the hospital, mothers who delivered their babies at the MOU, members of the Community Health Committee and MOU nurses. Data was collected in two phases. Phase I dealt with the first question: What is your opinion about the reasons for the under-utilization of the MOU? Phase II dealt with the second question: What are your suggestions for improving the utilization of the MOU? The four groups participated in Phase I as well as in Phase II, the reason being to involve the groups in identifying problems and finding solutions with which they would be comfortable, since it would be their ideas. This whole exercise was, however, carried out in line with the RDP principle of people driven approach or community involvement. The investigation revealed that the community was not utilizing the MOU because of the following reasons: • Negative attitudes of nurses. • Lack of material and human resources. • Poor safety and security measures. • Lack of community involvement/participation. The focus groups then identified the following suggestions for improving the utilization of the MOU: • Change of attitudes by nurses towards the patients. • Availability of material and human resources. • Proper

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    The following site closure activities were performed at the 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) comprising Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 and are documented in this report: (1) No closure action was taken at 13 CASs (17 sites): 58-05-01,58-07-01,58-05-04, 58-09-05 (Mud Pits C and D only), 58-35-01,58-05-02,58-09-06 (Mud Pits A, B, C, and D), 58-10-06,58-19-01,58-35-02,58-44-04,58-05-04, and 58-09-03 (Mud Pit E only). (2) Housekeeping activities, collecting scrap materials, and transporting to approved landfill sites at the NTS were used to close seven CASs: 58-44-01,58-44-02,58-44-05, 58-98-03,58-98-01,58-98-02, and 58-98-04. (3) Two CASs (58-05-03 and 58-99-01) were closed by excavation and removal of USTs. (4) Two septic tanks (CASs 58-05-05 and 58-05-06) were closed by backfilling with clean fill. (5) Site posting with above-grade monuments and attached warning signs and land-use restrictions were used to close seven CASs (nine sites): 58-09-02,58-09-05 (Mud Pit E only), 58-09-06 (Mud Pit E only), 58-10-01,58-25-01,58-09-03 (Mud Pits A, B, and D), and 58-10-05. (6) Clean closure by excavation soil with TPH levels greater than the NDEP action level of 100 mg/kg and limited regrading was used to close five CASs: 58-10-03,58-44-06, 58-44-03,58-10-02, and 58-10-04. (7) Construction of engineered covers was used to close in place two CASs: 58-09-01 and 58-09-03 (Mud Pit C only). Following construction, a fence was constructed around each cover to prevent damage to the cover or intrusion by wildlife.

  8. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  10. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Wickline

    2007-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: •19-99-01, Mud Spill •19-99-11, Mud Spill •20-09-09, Mud Spill •20-99-03, Mud Spill The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: •Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. •Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. •Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. •Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  12. Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel, E-mail: aly21@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Gormally, Alexandra [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Cruickshank, Heather [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: > Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. > The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. > A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. > External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.

  13. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian.

  14. Transfer of airway skills from manikin training to patient: success of ventilation with facemask or LMA-Supreme(TM) by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S G; Bollinger, M; Strack, M; Crozier, T A; Bauer, M; Heuer, J F

    2013-11-01

    During emergency care, the ability to ventilate the patient's lungs is a crucial skill. Supraglottic airway devices have an established role in emergency care, and manikin trials have shown that placement is easy even for inexperienced users. However, there is current discussion as to what extent these results can be transferred to patients. We studied the transfer of skills learnt on a manikin to the clinical situation in novice medical students during their anaesthesia rotation. They were required to ventilate the lungs of a manikin using a facemask and then position a supraglottic airway device (LMA-Supreme™) and ventilate the lungs. This process was then repeated on anaesthetised patients, with standard ventilator settings to assess adequacy of ventilation. Sixty-three students participated in the manikin study. The success rate for ventilating the lungs was 100% for both devices, but the mean (SD) time to achieve successful ventilation was 27.8 (24.4) s with the facemask compared with 38.6 (22.0) s with the LMA-Supreme (p = 0.008). Fifty-one of the students progressed to the second part of the study. In anaesthetised patients, the success rate for ventilating the lungs was lower for the facemask, 27/41 (66%) compared with the LMA-Supreme 37/41 (90%, p = 0.006). For 26 students who succeeded with both devices, the tidal volume was lower using the facemask, 431 (192) ml compared with the LMA-Supreme 751 (221) ml (p = 0.001), but the time to successful ventilation did not differ, 60.0 (26.2) s vs 57.3 (26.6) s (p = 0.71). We conclude that the results obtained in manikin studies cannot be transferred directly to the clinical situation and that guidelines should take this into account. Based on our findings, a supraglottic airway device may be preferable to a facemask as the first choice for inexperienced emergency caregivers.

  15. Relationship Between Respiratory Dynamics and Body Mass Index in Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia with Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and Comparison Between Lithotomy and Supine Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Huang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhaomin; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare respiratory dynamics in patients undergoing general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in lithotomy and supine positions and to validate the impact of operational position on effectiveness of LMA ventilation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 90 patients (age range, 18-65 years) who underwent general anesthesia were selected and divided into supine position (SP group) and lithotomy position groups (LP group). Vital signs and respiratory dynamic parameters of the 2 groups were measured at different time points and after implantation of an LMA. The arterial blood gas was monitored at 15 min after induction. The intraoperative changes of hemodynamic indexes and postoperative adverse reactions of LMA were recorded. The possible correlation between body mass index (BMI) and respiratory dynamic indexes was analyzed. RESULTS With prolonged duration of the operation, the inspiratory plateau pressure (Pplat), inspiratory resistance (RI), and work of breathing (WOB) gradually increased, while chest-lung compliance (Compl) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in end-expiratory gas (PetCO2) gradually decreased (all P value <0.05). The mean airway pressure (Pmean), Pplat, and expiratory resistance (Re) in the LP group were significantly higher than in the SP group (P<0.05), while the peak inspiratory flow (FImax), peak expiratory flow (FEmax), WOB, and Compl in the LP group were significantly lower than in the SP group (P<0.05). BMI was positively correlated with peak airway pressure (PIP/Ppeak), Pplat, and airway resistance (Raw) and was negatively correlated with Compl; the differences among patients in lithotomy position were more remarkable (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The inspiratory plateau pressure and airway resistance increased with prolonged duration of the operation, accompanied by decreased chest-lung compliance. Peak airway pressure and airway resistance were positively correlated with BMI, and chest-lung compliance was

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  18. Tight Integration of Digital Map and In-Vehicle Positioning Unit for Car Navigation in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wu; Yu Meng; Li Zhi-lin; Chen Yong-qi; J. Chao

    2003-01-01

    Now GPS has been widely used for land, sea and air navigation.However, due to signal blockage and severe multipath environments in urban areas, such as in Hong Kong, GPS alone can not satisfy most land vehicle navigation requirements. Dead Reckoning (DR) systems have been widely used to bridge the gaps of GPS and to smooth GPS position errors. However,the DR drift errors increase with time rapidly and frequent calibration is required. Under the normal situation, GPS is sufficient to provide the calibration to the DR unit. However, GPS may not be available in urban areas for more than 20 min, and the DR position errors can reach hundreds of meters during the period. As land vehicles have to be on roads, digital map can be used to constrain the locations of vehicles, known as map-matching.One of the main problems for map-matching techniques is mis-matching, that may be caused by the positioning sensor errors and the complexity of city road network. In this paper, a newly developed model to tightly integrate digital map and in-vehicle positioning unit for car navigation is introduced.With this method, it improves the position accuracy by constraining the vehicle location on the roads. Moreover it provides the close-loop controls for the DR drift errors by feeding back the coordinates of the feature points of the road network and road bearings to the DR unit and therefore the navigation system can be used for longer period when GPS is not available.Extensive tests have been carried out in Hong Kong. It demonstrates that this close-loop approach is much better on the reliability of map-matching, as the positioning sensor errors are constantly calibrated by the digital map.

  19. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 309, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Corrective Action Unit 309 is located in Area 12 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Area 12 is approximately 40 mi beyond the main gate to the NTS. Corrective Action Unit 309 is comprised of the three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: CAS 12-06-09, Muckpile; CAS 12-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump (CWD); and CAS 12-28-01, I, J, and K-Tunnel Debris. Corrective Action Sites 12-06-09 and 12-08-02 will be collectively referred to as muckpiles in this document. Corrective Action Site 12-28-01 will be referred to as the fallout plume because of the extensive lateral area of debris and fallout contamination resulting from the containment failures of the J-and K-Tunnels. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and media sampling, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 309 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination at these sites are insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a CAI prior to evaluating corrective action

  1. Termodinamik kısılma olayında Joule-Thomson katsayısı ve inversiyon eğrileri

    OpenAIRE

    KON, Okan

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışma, termodinamikte Joule-Thomson etkisi olarak da bilinen kısılma olayı ve bu olay sonucu elde edilen Joule-Thomson katsayısı hakkında bilgi vermek, ideal ve gerçek gazların kısılma olayındaki durumlarını incelenmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmada, mühendislik bilimlerinden özellikle makine mühendisliğinde çok geniş alanlarda kullanılan, kısılma olayını karakterize eden Joule-Thomson katsayısı ve bu katsayının alacağı değerlerden elde edilen inversiyon eğrilerinin farklı gazlar için t...

  2. Comparison of Second-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices (i-gel versus LMA ProSeal) During Elective Surgery in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanket, Bhargavi; Ramavakoda, Chandrika Yabagodu; Nishtala, Madhavi Ravindra; Ravishankar, Chandrakala Kunigal; Ganigara, Anuradha

    2015-08-01

    Second-generation supraglottic airway devices i-gel (Intersurgical Ltd) and LMA ProSeal (Teleflex Inc) are designed for a superior airway seal with a high success rate in adults. This study compared the efficacy of i-gel and LMA ProSeal (sizes 1, 1.5, and 2) as an airway device in a pediatric population, especially infants. The study included 163 ASA class 1 and 2 children, aged up to 10 years and weighing 2 to 25 kg, undergoing elective surgeries lasting less than 1 hour under general anesthesia on spontaneous respiration. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: i-gel and LMA ProSeal. With each device, the ease of insertion, time of insertion, manipulations required for placement of the device, and oropharyngeal leak pressure were recorded. A lubricated gastric tube of the recommended size was passed through each device, and ease of insertion was noted. At the end of surgery, the device was removed and complications were noted, including laryngospasm, breath holding, and blood-stains. Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 tests were used to compare collected data. Both devices were found to be comparable in effectively securing the airway in children, even in infants. The insertion time was significantly faster with i-gel.

  3. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2010, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the Baneberry site. The primary release associated with Corrective Action Unit 365 was radiological contamination from the Baneberry nuclear test. Baneberry was an underground weapons-related test that vented significant quantities of radioactive gases from a fissure located in close proximity to ground zero. A crater formed shortly after detonation, which stemmed part of the flow from the fissure. The scope of this investigation includes surface and shallow subsurface (less than 15 feet below ground surface) soils. Radionuclides from the Baneberry test with the potential to impact groundwater are included within the Underground Test Area Subproject. Investigations and corrective actions associated with the Underground Test Area Subproject include the radiological inventory resulting from the Baneberry test.

  5. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-08-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning site is located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 23, 2001. Because of questionable representativeness and precision of the results, the site was resampled on June 12, 2001. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the December 1997 Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1997). If after six years the rate of degradation appears to be so slow that the greatest concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) present at the site would not decay within 30 years of the site closure, the site will be reevaluated with consideration to enriching the impacted soil at the site to enhance the degradation process. A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report, samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in TPH concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, the data results from 2000 were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2001 consisted of the following: Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2); Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay

  6. Combining Interferometer, LMA, and ΔE measurements on positive cloud-to-ground flashes over Langmuir Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Lapierre, J. L.; Edens, H. E.; Jensen, D.; Stock, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning flashes are considerably lesscommon than -CG flashes, and the +CG/-CG ratio has a geographicaldependence. +CG flashes are much more common in supercell storms in Oklahomaand Colorado, for example, than in the small convective cellscharacteristic of New Mexico mountain storms.Since +CG flashes in New Mexico are relatively rare, they have been muchless studied here. In this study, we combined a digital interferometer(INTF) operating in the 20--80~MHz band with cost-reduced flat plateantennae (based on the recently published design by Stock, et al.) witha lightning mapping array. The INTF provides only 2-dimensional maps oflightning, but can be interpolated to 3-D with the integration of lightningmapping array (LMA) data. Finally, we combined ΔE-field(slow-antenna) sensors to characterize the gross charge motion of theflashes (and pre-select positive CG candidates).By combining these data sets, we expect to learn more about therelationship between continuing current and M-components during CG flashesand the in-cloud activity associated with these phenomena. Early resultsseem to indicate that positive CG's with continuing currents reveal channelgrowth in the clouds associated with the production of continuing current.This stands in contrast to prior findings on negative CG's which showed nocorrelation between in-cloud channel development and the presence orabsence of continuing current.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-09-29

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). CAU 116 consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 consisted of Building 3210 and the attached concrete shield wall. CAS 25-23-20 consisted of the nuclear furnace piping and tanks. Closure activities began in January 2007 and were completed in August 2011. Activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 116 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2008). This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provides data confirming that closure objectives for CAU 116 were met. Site characterization data and process knowledge indicated that surface areas were radiologically contaminated above release limits and that regulated and/or hazardous wastes were present in the facility.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-06

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach for collecting the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 12 on the NTS, CAU 552 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 12-06-04, Muckpile; 12-23-05, Ponds. Corrective Action Site 12-06-04 in Area 12 consists of the G-Tunnel muckpile, which is the result of tunneling activities. Corrective Action Site 12-23-05 consists of three dry ponds adjacent to the muckpile. The toe of the muckpile extends into one of the ponds creating an overlap of two CASs. The purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technic ally viable corrective actions. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-30

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 366 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 11 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump #1 · CAS 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump #2 · CAS 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A · CAS 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B · CAS 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C · CAS 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D Site characterization activities were performed in 2011 and 2012, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for CAU 366 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2012a). The following closure alternatives were recommended in the CADD: · No further action for CAS 11-23-01 · Closure in place for CASs 11-08-01, 11-08-02, 11-23-02, 11-23-03, and 11-23-04 The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives includes the following: · Non-engineered soil covers approximately 3 feet thick will be constructed at CAS 11-08-01 over contaminated waste dump (CWD) #1 and at CAS 11-08-02 over CWD #2. · FFACO use restrictions (URs) will be implemented for the areas where the total effective dose (TED) exceeds the final action level (FAL) of 25 millirems per Occasional Use Area year (mrem/OU-yr). The FAL is based on an assumption that the future use of the site includes occasional work activities and that workers will not be assigned to the area on a regular basis. A site worker under this scenario is assumed to be on site for a maximum of 80 hours per year for 5 years. The FFACO UR boundaries will encompass the areas where a worker would be exposed to 25 millirems of radioactivity per year if they are present for 80

  11. Presence of Fungicides Used to Control Asian Soybean Rust in Streams in Agricultural Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, M. W.; Battaglin, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 11 fungicides were measured in stream samples during 2 years in agricultural areas in the United States that grow predominantly corn and soybean. The fungicides are registered for control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), which entered the United States in 2004. Many of these fungicides were registered under an emergency exemption because evaluation of environmental risks related to their widespread use on soybeans had not been completed. Some of these fungicides are considered moderately to highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. We developed a solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determining the fungicides at low concentrations (ng/L). Stream samples were collected 2 to 4 times at study areas during the late spring through fall season when fungicides are applied. Six fungicides registered for control of ASR (Phakospora pachyrhizi) in 2005 were measured in streams in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Mississippi during August-November, 2005. One or more fungicides were detected in 8 of the 12 streams sampled. Azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and myclobutanil were found in at least one of the 40 samples collected, while chlorothalonil was not found. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently, in 35 percent of the samples. In 2006, five additional fungicides registered for use in control of ASR were included in the analytical method. One or more of the fungicides (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, metconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, myclobutanil) were detected in 12 of the 16 streams sampled from areas in the South and Midwest during May-September, 2006. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (40 percent of the samples) and the highest concentration was 1.1 μg/L in a small predominantly cotton and soybean watershed. The highest concentrations of azoxystrobin were measured prior to the spread of ASR in 2006, and the detections

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation of the corrective actions and site closure activities implemented at CAU 367. A corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions was completed at each of the three crater CASs (10-45-01, 10-45-02, and 10-45-03); corrective actions were not required at CAS 10-09-03. In addition, a limited soil removal corrective action was conducted at the location of a potential source material release. Based on completion of these correction actions, no additional corrective action is required at CAU 367, and site closure is considered complete. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 2010 through March 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of non-test or other releases (e.g., migration in washes and potential source material). Based on the proximity of the Uncle, Ess, and Sedan craters, the impact of the Sedan test on the fallout deposited from the two earlier tests, and aerial radiological surveys, the CAU 367 investigation was designed to study the releases from the three crater CASs as one combined release (primary release). Corrective Action Site 10-09-03, Mud Pit, consists of two mud pits identified at CAU 367. The mud pits are considered non-test releases or other releases and were investigated independent of the three crater CASs. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 367 dataset of

  14. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  16. Barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Rakestraw, Vivian

    2009-07-01

    This study explored barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States. The authors utilized a phenomenological approach and focus group methodology. Participants (n = 9) were enrolled in a teen parent program, an option of the public school system. The metaphor of a merry-go-round emerged from the data and represented the ups and downs that the adolescent mothers experience as they struggle to adjust to the role of mother. Their knowledge of postpartum depression and depression treatment occurred in the context of their demographics and their desire to create a family for their baby, their fears, and surprise at the reality of mothering. Childbirth education for adolescent mothers should include information on depression and the process of depression treatment.

  17. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-06-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  18. On hydrologic similarity: A dimensionless flood frequency model using a generalized geomorphologic unit hydrograph and partial area runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Wood, Eric F.; Beven, Keith J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the shortcomings of the original theory of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph (GUH) is that it assumes that runoff is generated uniformly from the entire catchment area. It is now recognized that in many catchments much of the runoff during storm events is produced on partial areas which usually form on narrow bands along the stream network. A storm response model that includes runoff generation on partial areas by both Hortonian and Dunne mechanisms was recently developed by the authors. In this paper a methodology for integrating this partial area runoff generation model with the GUH-based runoff routing model is presented; this leads to a generalized GUH. The generalized GUH and the storm response model are then used to estimate physically based flood frequency distributions. In most previous work the initial moisture state of the catchment had been assumed to be constant for all the storms. In this paper we relax this assumption and allow the initial moisture conditions to vary between storms. The resulting flood frequency distributions are cast in a scaled dimensionless framework where issues such as catchment scale and similarity can be conveniently addressed. A number of experiments are performed to study the sensitivity of the flood frequency response to some of the 'similarity' parameters identified in this formulation. The results indicate that one of the most important components of the derived flood frequency model relates to the specification of processes within the runoff generation model; specifically the inclusion of both saturation excess and Horton infiltration excess runoff production mechanisms. The dominance of these mechanisms over different return periods of the flood frequency distribution can significantly affect the distributional shape and confidence limits about the distribution. Comparisons with observed flood distributions seem to indicate that such mixed runoff production mechanisms influence flood distribution shape. The

  19. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wolock, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L-1. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities

  20. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  1. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  2. Well Installation Report for Corrective Action Unit 443, Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Echelard

    2006-01-01

    A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites, Corrective Action Unit 443'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first phase involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data, and inputting the data into a three-dimensional numerical model to depict groundwater flow. The output from the groundwater flow model was used in a transport model to simulate the migration of a radionuclide release (Pohlmann et al., 2000). The second phase of modeling (known as a Data Decision Analysis [DDA]) occurred after NDEP reviewed the first model. This phase was designed to respond to concerns regarding model uncertainty (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). The third phase of modeling updated the original flow and transport model to incorporate the uncertainty identified in the DDA, and focused the model domain on the region of interest to the transport predictions. This third phase culminated in the calculation of contaminant boundaries for the site (Pohll et al., 2003). Corrective action alternatives were evaluated and an alternative was submitted in the ''Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred alternative for CAU 443 is Proof-of-Concept and Monitoring with Institutional Controls. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated and will control inadvertent exposure to contaminated groundwater at CAU 443.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  4. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  5. Geological studies of the COST No. B-3 Well, United States Mid-Atlantic continental slope area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1980-01-01

    The COST No. B-3 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled on the Continental Slope off the Eastern United States. The well was drilled in 2,686 ft (819 m) of water in the Baltimore Canyon trough area to a total depth of 15,820 ft (4,844 m) below the drill platform. It penetrated a section composed of mudstones, calcareous mudstones, and limestones of generally deep water origin to a depth of about 8.200 ft (2,500 m) below the drill floor. Light-colored, medium- to coarse-grained sandstones with intercalated gray and brown shales, micritic limestones, and minor coal and dolomite predominate from about 8,200 to 12,300 ft (2,500 to 3,750 m). From about 12,300 ft (3,750 m) to the bottom, the section consists of limestones (including oolitic and intraclastic grainstones) with interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstones, dark-colored fissile shales, and numerous coal seams. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 6,000 ft (1,830 m) is Tertiary. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous sections is placed between 8,600 and 9,200 ft (2,620 and 2,800 m) by various workers. Placement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary shows an even greater range based on different organisms; it is placed variously between 12,250 and 13,450 ft (3,730 and 5,000 m). The oldest unit penetrated in the well is considered to be Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) by some workers and Middle Jurassic (Callovian) by others. The Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic parts of the section represent nonmarine to shallow-marine shelf sedimentation. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units reflect generally deeper water conditions at the B-3 well site and show a general transition from deposition at shelf to slope water depths. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs indicates that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous section. Porous and moderately permeable limestones and sandstones have been

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-06-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 117 comprises Corrective Action Site (CAS) 26-41-01, Pluto Disassembly Facility, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CAU 117 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 117 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From May 2008 through February 2009, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117, Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, and properly dispose of wastes. Analytes detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to determine COCs for CAU 117. Assessment of the data generated from closure activities indicated that the final action levels were exceeded for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reported as total Aroclor and

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well.

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Obi

    2000-12-01

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document.

  9. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  10. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 539: Area 25 and Area 26 Railroad Tracks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 539, Areas 25 and 26 Railroad Tracks, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A modification to the FFACOwas approved in May 2010 to transfer the two Railroad Tracks corrective action sites (CASs) from CAU 114 into CAU539. The two CASs are located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-21, Area 25 Railroad Tracks • 26-99-05, Area 26 Railroad Tracks This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of the CAU 539 Railroad Tracks CASs using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation should support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 14, 2009, by representatives of U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, LLC (NNES); and National Security Technologies

  13. Chloride in Groundwater and Surface Water in Areas Underlain by the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.; Lorenz, David L.; Arntson, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    A study of chloride in groundwater and surface water was conducted for the glacial aquifer system of the northern United States in forested, agricultural, and urban areas by analyzing data collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program from 1991 to 2004. Groundwater-quality data from a sampling of 1,329 wells in 19 states were analyzed. Chloride concentrations were greater than the secondary maximum contaminant level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 250 milligrams per liter in 2.5 percent of samples from 797 shallow monitoring wells and in 1.7 percent of samples from 532 drinking-water supply wells. Water samples from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest concentration of chloride, followed by water samples from agricultural and forested areas (medians of 46, 12, and 2.9 milligrams per liter, respectively). An analysis of chloride:bromide ratios, by mass, and chloride concentrations compared to binary mixing curves for dilute groundwater, halite, sewage and animal waste, potassium chloride fertilizer, basin brines, seawater, and landfill leachate in samples from monitoring wells indicated multiple sources of chloride in samples from wells in urban areas and agricultural areas. Water from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest chloride:bromide ratio, and samples with chloride:bromide ratios greater than 1,000 and chloride concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per liter were dominated by halite; however, the samples commonly contained mixtures that indicated input from sewage or animal waste. Chloride:bromide ratios were significantly larger in samples from public-supply drinking-water wells than from private drinking-water wells, and ratios were significantly larger in all drinking-water wells in eastern and central regions of the glacial aquifer system than in west-central and western regions of the glacial aquifer system. Surface-water-quality data collected regularly during varying

  14. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  15. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  16. Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 91: Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well with Errata Sheet and Certification, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    The closure report for CAU 91 has no Use Restriction Form or drawing/map included in the document to describe the use restricted area, however, Section 3.3.3 states that the site will be fenced and signage placed indicating the area as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Unit. The drawing that was placed in the FFACO indicating the use restricted area lists the coordinates for the RCRA Unit in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. In the ensuing years the reporting of coordinates has been standardized so that all coordinates are reported in the same manner, which is: NAD 27 UTM Zone 11 N, meters. This Errata Sheet updates the coordinate reporting to the currently accepted method and includes an aerial photo showing the RCRA Unit with the coordinates listed showing the use restricted area.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 326, Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) Plan for CAU 326 (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV, 2001]). CAU 326 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 06-25-01, 06-25-02, 06-25-04, and 27-25-01. CAS 06-25-01 is a release site associated with an underground pipeline that carried heating oil from the heating oil underground storage tank (UST), Tank 6-CP-1, located to the west of Building CP-70 to the boiler in Building CP-1 located in the Area 6 Control Point (CP) compound. This site was closed in place administratively by implementing use restrictions. CAS 06-25-02 is a hydrocarbon release associated with an active heating oil UST, Tank 6-DAF-5, located west of Building 500 at the Area 6 Device Assembly Facility. This site was closed in place administratively by implementing use restrictions. CAS 06-25-04 was a hydrocarbon release associated with Tank 6-619-4. This site was successfully remediated when Tank 6-619-4 was removed. No further action was taken at this site. CAS 27-25-01 is an excavation that was created in an attempt to remove hydrocarbon-impacted soil from the Site Maintenance Yard in Area 27. Approximately 53 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (70 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated from the site in August of 1994. Clean closure of this site was completed in 2002 by the excavation and disposal of approximately 160 m{sup 3} (210 yd{sup 3}) of PCB-impacted soil.

  18. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E; Barbash, Jack E; Gilliom, Robert J; Stone, Wesley W; Wolock, David M

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro--ethyl--(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro--(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities among

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-27

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 104, Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 104 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 104 consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 7 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C · CAS 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 · CAS 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site · CAS 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a · CAS 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) · CAS 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) · CAS 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) · CAS 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) · CAS 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) · CAS 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth · CAS 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 · CAS 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b · CAS 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax Closure activities began in October 2012 and were completed in April 2013. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for CAU 104. The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste, mixed waste, and recyclable material. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite landfills. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-41-03. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for CAS 25-41-03. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of corrective actions will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The CAS will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 25-41-03. The following text summarizes the SAFER

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 309, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The general purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective actions. Corrective Action Unit 309 is comprised of the following three corrective action sites (CASs) in Area 12 of the NTS: (1) CAS 12-06-09, Muckpile; (2) CAS 12-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump (CWD); and (3) CAS 12-28-01, I-, J-, and K-Tunnel Debris. Corrective Action Site 12-06-09 consists of a muckpile and debris located on the hillside in front of the I-, J-, and K-Tunnels on the eastern slopes of Rainier Mesa in Area 12. The muckpile includes mining debris (muck) and debris generated during the excavation and construction of the I-, J-, and K-Tunnels. Corrective Action Site 12-08-02, CWD, consists of a muckpile and debris and is located on the hillside in front of the re-entry tunnel for K-Tunnel. For the purpose of this investigation CAS 12-28-01 is defined as debris ejected by containment failures during the Des Moines and Platte Tests and the associated contamination that is not covered in the two muckpile CASs. This site consists of debris scattered south of the I-, J-, and K-Tunnel muckpiles and extends down the hillside, across the valley, and onto the adjacent hillside to the south. In addition, the site will cover the potential contamination associated with ''ventings'' along the fault, fractures, and various boreholes on the mesa top and face. One conceptual site model was developed for all three CASs to address possible contamination migration pathways associated with CAU

  3. Solid Waste Management Units And Areas Of Concern Annual Long-Term Monitoring & Maintenance Report For Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Long-term controls were maintained at 21 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in accordance with the requirements of the “Long-Term Monitoring and Maintenance Plan for SWMUs and AOCs Granted Corrective Action Complete with Controls” in Attachment M of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit, which took effect February 26, 2015. Maintenance and controls at these SWMUs and AOCs are described and documented in this report. Conditions requiring maintenance or repair activities were not identified for any of the inspected SWMUs or AOCs. Based upon the inspections performed and site conditions observed, the administrative and physical institutional controls in place at the SWMUs and AOCs are effectively providing continued protection of human health and the environment. This report does not present monitoring and maintenance activities for SWMU 76, the Mixed Waste Landfill; those activities adhere to the approved MWL LTMM Plan, Section 4.8.1 requiring a separate annual report which will be submitted to the NMED by June 30, 2017.

  4. Bisphenol analogues in sediments from industrialized areas in the United States, Japan, and Korea: spatial and temporal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yun, Sehun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-11-06

    Bisphenol analogues are used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Despite the widespread use of bisphenols, few studies have reported the occurrence of compounds other than bisphenol A (BPA) in sediment. In this study, concentrations and profiles of eight bisphenol analogues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in sediments collected from several industrialized areas in the United States (U.S.), Japan, and Korea. The total concentrations of bisphenols (ΣBPs; sum of eight bisphenols) in sediment ranged from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 25,300 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 201 ng/g dw. Sediment samples from Lake Shihwa, Korea, contained the highest concentrations of both individual and total bisphenols. Among individual bisphenols, BPA and bisphenol F (BPF) were the predominant compounds, accounting for 64% and 30% of the total bisphenol concentrations in sediment. We also examined vertical profiles of concentrations of bisphenol analogues in sediment cores from the U.S. and Japan. Sediment cores from the U.S. showed a gradual decline in the concentrations of bisphenols as compared to the past decade. BPA concentrations were found to decline in a sediment core from Tokyo Bay, but bisphenol S (BPS) was more frequently detected in core sections that represent the most recent decade, which is consistent with the replacement of BPA with BPS in some applications since 2001 in Japan.

  5. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Caringella, Marissa; Scoffoni, Christine; Mason, Chase; Rawls, Michael; Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-10-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users locate veins by digital tracing, but recent articles introduced software by which users can locate veins using thresholding (i.e. based on the contrasting of veins in the image). Based on the use of this method, a recent study argued against the existence of a fixed VLA value for a given leaf, proposing instead that VLA increases with the magnification of the image due to intrinsic properties of the vein system, and recommended that future measurements use a common, low image magnification for measurements. We tested these claims with new measurements using the software LEAFGUI in comparison with digital tracing using ImageJ software. We found that the apparent increase of VLA with magnification was an artifact of (1) using low-quality and low-magnification images and (2) errors in the algorithms of LEAFGUI. Given the use of images of sufficient magnification and quality, and analysis with error-free software, the VLA can be measured precisely and accurately. These findings point to important principles for improving the quantity and quality of important information gathered from leaf vein systems.

  6. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  7. 2014 Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447 Project Shoal Area Churchill County, Nevada October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States).Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the drilling program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Shoal was the location of an underground nuclear test conducted on October 26, 1963, as part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor to DOE). The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device in granitic rock at a depth of approximately 1,211 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (AEC 1964). The corrective action strategy for the site is focused on revising the site conceptual model and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network at the site. Field activities associated with the project were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended) and applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations.

  8. The AMBU® Aura-i™ Laryngeal Mask and LMA Supreme™: A Randomized Trial of Clinical Performance and Fibreoptic Positioning in Unparalysed, Anaesthetised Patients by Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanahriah Yahaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Manikin studies’ data cannot accurately be extrapolated to real-life scenarios and inherent differences in design and materials of newer products may affect their clinical performance. Methods. Hence, we compared the AMBU® Aura-i™ and LMA Supreme™ in this randomized trial involving 100 ASA 1-2 unparalysed anaesthetised patients undergoing minor gynaecological surgery. Investigators had <20 Aura-i insertions. Primary outcome was time to achieve effective ventilation and secondarily insertion parameters, oropharyngeal leak pressures (OLP, fibreoptic positioning, and pharyngeal morbidity. The position of the Ambu Aura-i was evaluated with the Ascope; the fiberoptic view of the glottis was scored on a five-point scale. Results. 43 (86% AMBU Aura-i and 44 (88% LMA Supremes were successfully inserted on first attempt (p=0.59, with similar ease (p=0.79, and comparable times to first capnogram, mean (SD 18.2 (6.0 versus 17.3 (6.4 sec, p=0.9. The Aura-i needed significantly less volume of air to inflate its cuff to 60 cmH2O on the manometer, 17.7 (3.5 versus 23.1 (4.4 mL, p<0.001. Both devices exhibited similar OLP, Aura-i versus LMA Supreme, mean (SD 28.8 (7.1 versus 27.3 (5.3 cmH2O, p=0.24. There was no difference in ease of insertion or adjustment manoeuvres to aid ventilation. 90% of patients had good positioning of Aura-i on fibreoptic check, yielding a view of the vocal cords and epiglottis. In 5 patients (10%, the vocal cords were not seen, but ventilatory function was unaffected. Conclusions. The Aura-i handled well in novices hands, with comparable times to insert and establish ventilation, similar leak pressures, and successful first attempt insertion rates compared to the LMA Supreme.

  9. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results and inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 Waste Management Division U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inpsections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at Corrective Action Unit 110, for the annual period July 2005 thrugh June 2006.

  10. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  11. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  12. National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2014-08-29

    In the United States, among children born during 1994-2013, vaccination will prevent an estimated 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 732,000 deaths during their lifetimes. Since 1994, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. This report describes national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born January 2010-May 2012, based on results from the 2013 NIS. In 2013, vaccination coverage achieved the 90% national Healthy People 2020 target for ≥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.9%); ≥ 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90.8%); ≥ 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); and ≥ 1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.2%). Coverage was below the Healthy People 2020 targets for ≥ 4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (83.1%; target 90%); ≥ 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (82.0%; target 90%); the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (82.0%; target 90%); ≥ 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) (54.7%; target 85%); rotavirus vaccine (72.6%; target 80%); and the HepB birth dose (74.2%; target 85%). Coverage remained stable relative to 2012 for all of the vaccinations with Healthy People 2020 objectives except for increases in the HepB birth dose (by 2.6 percentage points) and rotavirus vaccination (by 4.0 percentage points). The percentage of children who received no vaccinations remained below 1.0% (0.7%). Children living below the federal poverty level had lower vaccination coverage compared with children living at or above the poverty level for many vaccines, with the largest disparities for ≥ 4 doses of DTaP (by 8.2 percentage points), full series of Hib (by 9.5 percentage points), ≥ 4 doses of PCV (by 11.6 percentage points), and rotavirus (by 12.6 percentage points). MMR coverage was below 90% for 17 states. Reaching and

  13. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  14. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25 R-MAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-02-24

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25, Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Building 3110, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--891-VOL I-Rev. 1, dated July 2003, provides details of demolition, waste disposal, and use restriction (UR) modification for Corrective Action Unit 113, Area 25 R-MAD Facility. Demolition was completed on July 15, 2010, when the last of the building debris was disposed. Final field activities were concluded on August 30, 2010, after all equipment was demobilized and UR signs were posted. This work was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  16. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  17. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  18. Analisis Penerapan Metode Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU Upgrading Untuk Mengatasi Traffic Congestion Jaringan GSM Pada BTS Area Purwokerto Kota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Hikmaturokhman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Semakin banyaknya pengguna selular maka akan semakin banyak trafik yang akan tertampung. Trafik yang melebihi kapasitas kanal yang disediakan dapat menyebabkan kondisi Traffic Congestion. Untuk menanganinya diperlukan metode penambahan kapasitas kanal agar semua trafik dapat tertampung dengan baik. Metode ini disebut dengan TRU Upgrading. Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU adalah hardware yang terletak pada Radio Base Station dalam BTS yang berisi slot-slot kanal sedangkan metode TRU Upgrading adalah metode dengan menambahkan/upgrade kapasitas kanal yang tersedia dari konfigurasi TRU yang telah ada sebelumnya, misalkan pada BTS Pabuaran memiliki konfigurasi 3x2x3 karena terjadi kejenuhan pelanggan maka konfigurasi TRU diupgrade menjadi 3x4x3. Perubahan konfigurasi TRU maka merubah konfigurasi BTS-nya serta menambah kapasitas kanalnya. Key Performance Indicator (KPI yang baik pada Indosat adalah menggunakan batas GoS 2%. Nilai GoS ini dikaitkan dengan tabel Erlang untuk mendapatkan sebuah nilai intensitas trafik. Jika nilai intensitas trafik konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan kurang dari nilai intensitas trafik pelanggan maka disebut traffic congestion. Sebagai akibat dari traffic congestion adalah kondisi blocking. TRU Upgrading ini dilakukan dengan harapan nilai blocking panggilan menjadi 0 %. Pada Purwokerto kota, diterapkan  TRU Upgrading untuk cell Grendeng 3, Pabuaran 2, dan Unsoed 1 karena trafik pelanggan yang terjadi melebihi nilai intensitas trafik dari konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan.   Untuk cell Unsoed 1 dan Grendeng 3 meski telah dilakukan TRU Upgrading menjadi 4 buah TRU tetap terjadi traffic congestion sebesar 8 sampai dengan 15 Erlang dikarenakan pada cell-cell ini mengcover area yang padat penduduk. Sedang untuk Pabuaran 2 penerapan TRU upgrading mencapai keefektifan sebesar 100%.

  19. Yorulma testinin, üç farklı tam seramik yapım sistemi vertikal kırılma Direnci üzerine etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Aguloglu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of fatiguing test on the fracture strength of all-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress II, Conventional InCeram and Celay InCeram.

    Material and Methods: Twenty crown; shapes 8mm in diameter and 7mm in height were fabricated for each all-ceramic system. For each ceramic system, 10 specimens were tested for fracture strength without fatiguing. A secondly, remaining specimens was submitted to a fatiguing and then fractured using a universal testing machine for each systems. The results were statically analyzed using a one way ANOVA and Student t test.

    Results: When comparing the fracture strength of all-ceramic crowns with and without the fatiguing test, the strength was lower after fatiguing (p<0.05. The strength of conventional InCeram specimens was significantly affected after fatiguing test.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that although the conventional In Ceram system has high fracture strength, it is more sensitive to fatiguing test within the three all ceramic systems.

    ÖZET

    Amaç: Yorulma testinin tam seramiklerin (IPS Empress II, Geleneksel InCeram ve Celay InCeram kırılma direnci üzerine etkisinin araştrılması.

    Gereç ve Yöntem: Her seramik sistemi için 8 mm çapında 7 mm yüksekli'inde 20 adet master die hazırlandı. Her seramik sistemi için 10 adet örneğin kırılma direnci yorulma testi uygulanmadan test edildi. İkinci olarak, her gruba ait kalan örneklere yorulma testi uygulandı ve universal test cihazı kullanılarak kırılma testi yapıldı. Elde edilen sonuçlar tek yönlü ANOVA ve student t testi kullanılarak değerlendirildi.

    Bulgular: Yorulma testi uygulanan ve uygulanmayan tam seramik kronlar karşılaştırıldığı zaman, yorulma testi sonrası bütün gruplarda kırılma direnci de

  20. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, American Indian Area/Alaska Native Area/Hawaiian Home Land for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  1. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, American Indian Area/Alaska Native Area/Hawaiian Home Land for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  2. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, American Indian Area/Alaska Native Area/Hawaiian Home Land for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  3. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, American Indian Area/Alaska Native Area/Hawaiian Home Land for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  4. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  5. The Costs of Providing Instruction in French Language Instructional Units: In-Depth Study of Eight Areas Where There Exists a High Concentration of Francophones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Lionel

    The purpose of this study was to determine the costs of providing instruction in French to students enrolled in French-language instructional units in areas of high concentration of Francophones. Chapter 1, which makes up most of the study, consists of separate case studies of eight educational jurisdictions that encompass a major proportion of…

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  7. A cluster analytic examination of acculturation and health status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC metropolitan area, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range:-1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box

  9. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    In Appendix 0, Use Restriction (UR) Form, the drawing of the use restricted area shows the incorrect coordinates for the use restricted area, the coordinates on the drawing do not match the approved UR Form. The coordinates have been verified and this Errata Sheet replaces the drawing of the use restricted area with an aerial photo showing the use restricted area and the correct coordinates that match the approved UR Form.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2012-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 is located in Areas 7, 8, and 10 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 550, Smoky Contamination Area, comprises 19 corrective action sites (CASs). Based on process knowledge of the releases associated with the nuclear tests and radiological survey information about the location and shape of the resulting contamination plumes, it was determined that some of the CAS releases are co-located and will be investigated as study groups. This document describes the planned investigation of the following CASs (by study group): (1) Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test - CAS 08-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T-2C; (2) Study Group 2, Safety Experiments - CAS 08-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-8B - CAS 08-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T-8A - CAS 08-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site T-8C; (3) Study Group 3, Washes - Potential stormwater migration of contaminants from CASs; (4) Study Group 4, Debris - CAS 08-01-01, Storage Tank - CAS 08-22-05, Drum - CAS 08-22-07, Drum - CAS 08-22-08, Drums (3) - CAS 08-22-09, Drum - CAS 08-24-03, Battery - CAS 08-24-04, Battery - CAS 08-24-07, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-24-08, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-26-01, Lead Bricks (200) - CAS 10-22-17, Buckets (3) - CAS 10-22-18, Gas Block/Drum - CAS 10-22-19, Drum; Stains - CAS 10-22-20, Drum - CAS 10-24-10, Battery. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each study group. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed

  13. Final Remedial Investigation Sampling Plan Addendum. Milan Army Ammunition Plant Remedial Investigation Southern Study Area (Operable Unit No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    planned to address these areas. Other field activities will consist of documenting (mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection...mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection & field measurements. All sampling activities will be performed with site clearance

  14. 腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者ALMA喉罩和Supreme喉罩气道管理效果的比较:多中心、随机、对照研究%Comparison of LMA-Advance with LMA-Supreme in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华震; 左明章; 石妤; 张晔; 田鸣; 巍新川; 刘进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of laryngeal mask airway-Advance (ALMA) and laryngeal mask airway-Supreme (S-LMA) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Methods Two hundred and forty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients,aged 18-64 yr,weighing 50-70 kg,undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy,were randomly divided into2 groups (n=120 each):group S-LMA (group S) and group A-LMA (group A).LMA was inserted after induction of general anesthesia with propofol 2.0-2.5 mg/kg,sufentanil 0.2 μg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg.After LMA was placed,the rim was immediately inflated and positive pressure was applied to the reservoir bag of anesthesia machine circuit to check for leaks.The plateau pressure at which leaks occurred was recorded.BP,HR,SpO2,PErCO2 and Ppeak were monitored during operation.Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed and the placement was scored (0 =unable to see the vocal cords and the ventilation of the lungs was inadequate,4=vocal cords were clearly seen and ventilation was adequate).The rate of successful placement,placement time,the incidence of leaks during operation,duration of anesthesia and surgery,extubation time,emergence time,blood stain on the LMA after being removed,backflow after extubation and postoperatve complacations including sore throat,hoarseness and dysphagia were recorded.The efficacy for airway management and the difficulty of placement were scored.Results There was no significant difference in the rate of successful placement,difficulty of placement scores,blood stain on the LMA after being removed,incidence of backflow,sore throat,hoarseness and dysphogia,anesthesia time,duration of surgery,extubation time and emergence time between the two groups.The placement time was shorter in group S than in group A,but the airway sealing pressure,FOB scores and efficacy for airway management scores were significantly higher and the incidence of leaks during operation was significantly lower in group A than in group S.Conclusion Both A-LMA and S-LMA

  15. Characterization of Solids Collected from H-Area Injection Wells and Injection Tank Chemistry from both F- and H-Area Water Treatment Units (WTUs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-04-15

    This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-09-01

    CAU 366 comprises six corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump #1 • 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump #2 • 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A • 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B • 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C • 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAA) for the six CASs within CAU 366. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 12, 2011, to May 14, 2012, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites.

  17. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras Menor, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Santos, dos Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S.; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P.; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of s

  18. Examining variation in the leaf mass per area of dominant species across two contrasting tropical gradients in light of community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyret, Margot; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Oliveras, Imma; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar; Barbosa Passos, Fábio; Castro Ccoscco, Rosa; Dos Santos, Josias; Matias Reis, Simone; Morandi, Paulo S; Rayme Paucar, Gloria; Robles Cáceres, Arturo; Valdez Tejeira, Yolvi; Yllanes Choque, Yovana; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Asner, Gregory P; Díaz, Sandra; Enquist, Brian J; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-08-01

    Understanding variation in key functional traits across gradients in high diversity systems and the ecology of community changes along gradients in these systems is crucial in light of conservation and climate change. We examined inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) of sun and shade leaves along a 3330-m elevation gradient in Peru, and in sun leaves across a forest-savanna vegetation gradient in Brazil. We also compared LMA variance ratios (T-statistics metrics) to null models to explore internal (i.e., abiotic) and environmental filtering on community structure along the gradients. Community-weighted LMA increased with decreasing forest cover in Brazil, likely due to increased light availability and water stress, and increased with elevation in Peru, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum strategy expected in colder, less productive environments. A very high species turnover was observed along both environmental gradients, and consequently, the first source of variation in LMA was species turnover. Variation in LMA at the genus or family levels was greater in Peru than in Brazil. Using dominant trees to examine possible filters on community assembly, we found that in Brazil, internal filtering was strongest in the forest, while environmental filtering was observed in the dry savanna. In Peru, internal filtering was observed along 80% of the gradient, perhaps due to variation in taxa or interspecific competition. Environmental filtering was observed at cloud zone edges and in lowlands, possibly due to water and nutrient availability, respectively. These results related to variation in LMA indicate that biodiversity in species rich tropical assemblages may be structured by differential niche-based processes. In the future, specific mechanisms generating these patterns of variation in leaf functional traits across tropical environmental gradients should be explored.

  19. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  20. Development and Dissemination of a Multimedia Instructional Package for Use in Preservice and Inservice Training To Address Selection of Appropriate Literacy Media for Students with Visual Impairments. Project LMA Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alan J.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a project that addressed the need for comprehensive and sequential instructional materials to teach preservice and inservice teachers strategies for selecting appropriate literacy media for students with visual impairments. In this three-year project, called Project LMA (Learning Media Assessment),…

  1. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  2. Occurrence and Environmental Effects of Boscalid and Other Fungicides in Three Targeted Use Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T. J.; Smalling, K. L.; Wilson, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fungicides are typically used to control the outbreak of persistent, historically significant plant diseases like late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans and responsible for the Irish Potato famine of 1846) and newer plant diseases like Asian Soy Rust, both of which are potentially devastating if not controlled. Of the more than 67,000 pesticide products currently registered for use in the United States, over 3,600 are used to combat fungal diseases. Although they are widely used, relatively little is known about the fate and potential secondary effects of fungicides in the aquatic environment. Even less is known about the fate and environmental occurrence of recently registered fungicides including boscalid, which was first registered for use in the US in 2003. Unlike most other pesticides, multiple fungicides are typically applied as a prophylactic crop protectant upwards of ten times per season (depending upon conditions and crop type), but at lower application rates than herbicides or insecticides. This difference in usage increases the likelihood of chronic exposure of aquatic ecosystems to low concentrations of fungicides. Using a newly developed analytical method, the U.S. Geological Survey measured 33 fungicides in surface water and shallow groundwater in three geographic areas of intense fungicide use across the US. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of the crop type and their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters (n=60) and 58% of the groundwater (n=12) samples. Twelve fungicides were detected in surface- and groundwater including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid was the most frequently detected pesticide and has not been previously documented in the aquatic environment. In this study, an average of 44% of the pesticide concentration in a water sample

  3. 76 FR 75508 - United States Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; Restricted Area AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers... parties for the restricted area around the AUSTAL, USA shipbuilding facility located in Mobile, Alabama... Gulf Coast) assumed the duties of administering new construction contracts at AUSTAL USA in...

  4. 78 FR 15802 - United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act; Re-Designation of Qualifying Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Qualifying Industrial Zones AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... industrial zones (QIZs) encompassing portions of Israel and Jordan or Israel and Egypt are eligible to... certain tariff treatment for articles of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and qualifying industrial...

  5. Projected tree species redistribution under climate change: Implications for ecosystem vulnerability across protected areas in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott G. Zolkos; Patrick Jantz; Tina Cormier; Louis R. Iverson; Daniel W. McKenney; Scott J. Goetz

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which tree species will shift in response to climate change is uncertain yet critical to understand for assessing ecosystem vulnerability. We analyze results from recent studies that model potential tree species habitat across the eastern United States during the coming century. Our goals were to quantify and spatially analyze habitat projections and...

  6. Five-year survival of 3-unit fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial dentures in the posterior area.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heumen, C.C.M. van; Tanner, J.; Dijken, J.W.V. van; Pikaar, R.; Lassila, L.V.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Vallittu, P.K.; Kreulen, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of three-unit posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs) made of fiber-reinforced resin composite (FRC), and to identify design factors influencing the survival rate. METHODS: 77 patients (52 females, 25 males) receive

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 120 of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which are approximately 130 kilometers (80 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter (12,100-gallon) aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 consists of two ASTs and two tanker trailers (all portable) that were originally located at the Area 6 Cp-50 Hot Park and which had been moved to the Area 6 Waste Handling Facility. All of the items in CAU 120 have been used to contain or convey radiologically contaminated fluid that was generated during post-nuclear event activities at the NTS.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 478: Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 478, Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 478 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): • 12-23-01, Ponds (5) RAD Area The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 478.

  9. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that are shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: CAS 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; CAS 12-06-05, U-12b Muckpile; CAS 12-06-07, Muckpile; and CAS 12-06-08, Muckpile. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 551 in place with administrative controls. This justification is based upon process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The CAIP provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, this information will not be repeated in the CADD/CR. Corrective Action Unit 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, consists of four inactive sites located in the southwestern portion of Area 12. The four CAU 551 sites consist of three muckpiles, and an aboveground storage tank (AST) and stain. The CAU 551 sites were all used during underground nuclear testing at the B-, C-, D- and F-Tunnels in the late 1950s and early 1960s and have mostly remained inactive since that period.

  11. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 kilograms per second per square meter (42.6 (lb/sec)/sq ft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

  12. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  13. Area- and Depth-Weighted Averages of Selected SSURGO Variables for the Conterminous United States and District of Columbia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data release consists of seven national data files of area- and depth-weighted averages of select soil attributes for every available county in the...

  14. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  15. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  16. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  17. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  18. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  19. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  20. Tax Area Boundaries, Tax unit boundries, Published in Not Provided, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Rice County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tax Area Boundaries dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of Not Provided. It...

  1. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  2. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  3. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  4. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States,1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  5. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  6. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  7. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  8. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-06-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental corrective action alternatives. Corrective Action Unit 151 is located in Areas 2, 12, 18, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CAS) listed below: (1) 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; (8) 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed); and (9) 20-19-02, Photochemical Drain. The CASs within CAU 151 are discharge and collection systems. Corrective Action Site 02-05-01 is located in Area 2 and is a well-water collection pond used as a part of the Nash test. Corrective Action Sites 12-03-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, and 12-47-01 are located in Area 12 and are comprised of sewage lagoons, septic tanks, associated piping, and two sumps. The features are a part of the Area 12 Camp housing and administrative septic systems. Corrective Action Sites 18-03-01 and 18-99-09 are located in the Area 17 Camp in Area 18. These sites are sewage lagoons and associated piping. The origin and terminus of CAS 18-99-09 are unknown; however, the type and configuration of the pipe indicates that it may be a part of the septic systems in Area 18. Corrective Action Site 20-19-02 is located in the Area 20 Camp. This site is comprised of a surface discharge of photoprocessing chemicals.

  10. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-31

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  11. The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Weary, David J.; Kaufmann, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was $125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than $300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and maintains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.

  12. The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Weary, David J.; Kaufmann, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was 125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than 300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and maintains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.

  13. Ultra-large Mode Area Microstructured Core Chalcogenide Fiber Design for Mid-IR Beam Delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, R K; Pal, Bishnu P

    2013-01-01

    An all solid large modearea (LMA) chalcogenide based microstructured core optical fiber (MCOF) is designed and proposed for high power handling in the mid IR spectral regime, covering the entire second transparency window of the atmosphere (3 to 5 microns). The core of the proposed specialty fiber is composed of a few rings of high index rods arranged in a pattern of hexagon. Dependence of effective mode area on the pitch and radius of high index rods are studied. Ultra high effective mode area up to 75000 micron square can be achieved over this specific wavelength range while retaining its single mode characteristic. A negligible confinement loss along with a low dispersion slope (near 0.03 ps/km-nm square) and a good beam quality factor (M2 1.17) should make this LMA fiber design attractive for fabrication as a potential candidate suitable for high power, passive applications at the mid IR wavelength regime.

  14. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  15. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Areas quarantined in the...

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison Urban

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site.

  18. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  19. Saving energy in the make-up air unit (MAU) for semiconductor clean rooms in subtropical areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jhy-Ming; Hu, Shih-Cheng [Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd. Taipei 106 (China); Chan, David Yih-Liang; Hsu, Rich Tsung-Chi; Lee, Jane Car-Cheng [Energy and Environment Research Labs, Industrial Technology Research Institute Bldg 51, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd, Chutung, Hinchu 106 Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    The energy requirements to cool, dehumidify, preheat and/or humidify outdoor air are significant in the make-up air unit (MAU) of clean room air-conditioning systems, and can represent 30% to 65% of the total thermal energy required to maintain a clean room environment. Because of these high-energy requirements, cost-effective means to reduce energy costs can influence unit production costs. Reducing or displacing mechanical cooling or electrical heating requirements can achieve the greatest opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the MAU system by properly arranging compositions of components of a typical MAU applied in a semiconductor clean room. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the fan location (draft-through type vs. push-through type), chilled water system (single-chilled water temperature system vs. two chilled water temperature system) and reheating scheme (electrical heating vs. hot water provided by heat recovery chiller). The result shows that the draw-through type accompanied by two chilled water temperature system with heat recovery function exhibits the lowest electrical power consumption. (author)

  20. 经Ⅰ-gelTM喉罩气管插管与LMA FastrachTM喉罩气管插管的比较:一项随机对照临床试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antoine Elie Halwagi; Nathalie Massicotte; Alexandre Lallo; Alain Gauthier; Daniel Boudreault; Monique Ruel; Fran(c)ois Girard; 罗洁; 沈一维

    2013-01-01

    背景 Ⅰ-gel喉罩是一种不带充气套囊的声门上通气道,其设计允许气管导管无障碍通过,且既往研究已表明其能与声门进行良好对位.在本前瞻性随机临床试验中,我们比较了经i-gel喉罩和LMA Fastrach喉罩辅助进行气管插管盲插的成功率.方法 将160例需行全身麻醉和气道管理的患者随机分为2组,每组分别进行经i-gel喉罩或LMA Fastrach喉罩辅助的气管插管.全麻诱导后,每组患者置入相应喉罩并确认有效肺通气,随后进行气管导管盲插.观测气管插管次数并计算首次插管成功率和最终插管成功率.结果 每组各入选80例患者.i-gel喉罩辅助插管组首次插管成功率为69%,而LMA Fastrach喉罩辅助插管组为74%(差异的95%可信区间CI为-9% ~19%,P=0.60).Ⅰ-gel喉罩组的最终插管成功率低于LMA Fastrach喉罩组(分别为73%和91%,差异的95% CI为7% ~31%,P<0.0001).结论 经i-gel喉罩或LMA Fastrach喉罩辅助气管导管盲插首次成功率相近,但首次插管失败后,i-gel喉罩并不提高后续插管成功率,且其最终插管成功率低于LMA Fastrach喉罩.

  1. Corrective action investigation plan: Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Unit 332. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains a detailed description and plan for an environmental investigation of the Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit. The site is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. The Photo Skid Wastewater Pit was used for disposal of photochemical process waste, and there is a concern that such disposal may have released photochemicals and metals to the soil beneath the pit and adjacent to it. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the presence and nature of contamination present in and adjacent to the wastewater pit and to determine the appropriate course of environmental response action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure through remediation, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Drellack, Sigmund [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Townsend, Margaret [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Unburned Areas within Fire Perimeters in the Northwestern United States from 1984 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Kolden, C.; Lutz, J. A.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Hudak, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been concern about increasing extent and severity of wildfires across the globe given rapid climate change. Areas that do not burn within fire perimeters can act as fire refugia, providing (1) protection from the detrimental effects of the fire, (2) seed sources, and (3) post-fire habitat on the landscape. However, recent studies have mainly focused on the higher end of the burn severity spectrum whereas the lower end of the burn severity spectrum has been largely ignored. We developed a spatially explicit database for 2,200 fires across the inland northwestern USA, delineating unburned areas within fire perimeters from 1984 to 2014. We used 1,600 Landsat scenes with one or two scenes before and one or two scenes after the fires to capture the unburned proportion of the fire. Subsequently, we characterized the spatial and temporal patterns of unburned areas and related the unburned proportion to interannual climate variability. The overall classification accuracy detecting unburned locations was 89.2% using a 10-fold cross-validation classification tree approach in combination with 719 randomly located field plots. The unburned proportion ranged from 2% to 58% with an average of 19% for a select number of fires. We find that using both an immediate post-fire image and a one-year post fire image improves classification accuracy of unburned islands over using just a single post-fire image. The spatial characteristics of the unburned islands differ between forested and non-forested regions with a larger amount of unburned area within non-forest. In addition, we show trends of unburned proportion related primarily to concurrent climatic drought conditions across the entire region. This database is important for subsequent analyses of fire refugia prioritization, vegetation recovery studies, ecosystem resilience, and forest management to facilitate unburned islands through fuels breaks, prescribed burning, and fire suppression strategies.

  4. Limited Field Investigation Report for Uranium Contamination in the 300 Area, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.; Brown, Christopher F.; Um, Wooyong; Nimmons, Michael J.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Spane, Frank A.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2007-11-01

    Four new CERCLA groundwater monitoring wells were installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit in FY 2006 to fulfill commitments for well installations proposed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-24-57. Wells were installed to collect data to determine the distribution of process uranium and other contaminants of potential concern in groundwater. These data will also support uranium contaminant transport simulations and the wells will supplement the water quality monitoring network for the 300-FF-5 OU. This report supplies the information obtained during drilling, characterization, and installation of the new groundwater monitoring wells. This document also provides a compilation of hydrogeologic, geochemical, and well construction information obtained during drilling, well development, and sample collection/analysis activities.

  5. Epidemiology of colds in military units during a German out-of-area mission in Kosovo (former Yugoslavia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Hans-Ullrich

    2007-08-01

    In the opinion of soldiers and unit surgeons, specific environmental and climatic conditions in the mission in the former Yugoslavia increase the incidence of severe infections of the respiratory tract (so-called "Kosovo Cough"). Proof is pending. Thus, colds were analyzed during Bundeswehr operations in the province of Kosovo. Over a period of 4 weeks in January 2003, all German soldiers who reported for medical treatment or requested medicine were registered. Patients provided information about their disease as well as information about smoking habits, etc. Two hundred three soldiers (9.2% of all) were treated for a cold. Although 72 soldiers (35.5%) complained about a subjectively perceived unusually long and severe clinical course, all infections proved uncomplicated from an objective viewpoint. The findings are inconsistent with an increased incidence of colds. There was no indication of the existence of the so-called "Kosovo Cough."

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 476: Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 476, Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 476 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-06-02, Muckpile The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 476.

  8. Patients’ perception of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merks P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients’ opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s to enhance patients’ awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0% and 33 men (32.0%, aged 16–85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents. Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents, primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (p<0.05; OR=0.33. Conclusions: Only a few pharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas.

  9. Patients’ perception of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients’ opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s) to enhance patients’ awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0%) and 33 men (32.0%), aged 16–85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents) and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents). Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents), primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (ppharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas. PMID:27785163

  10. Patients' perception of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merks, Piotr; ŚWieczkowski, Damian; Jaguszewski, Miłosz J

    2016-01-01

    Patients' opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s) to enhance patients' awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0%) and 33 men (32.0%), aged 16-85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents) and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents). Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents), primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (ppharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  12. Public health costs accounting of inorganic PM2.5 pollution in metropolitan areas of the United States using a risk-based source-receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinhyok; Adams, Peter J; Gao, H Oliver

    2017-09-01

    In order to design effective strategies to reduce the public health burden of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) imposed in an area, it is necessary to identify the emissions sources affecting that location and quantify their contributions. However, it is challenging because PM2.5 travels long distances and most constituents are the result of complex chemical processes. We developed a reduced-form source-receptor model for estimating locations and magnitudes of downwind health costs from a source or, conversely, the upwind sources that contribute to health costs at a receptor location. Built upon outputs from a state-of-the-art air quality model, our model produces comprehensive risk-based source apportionment results with trivial computational costs. Using the model, we analyzed all the sources contributing to the inorganic PM2.5 health burden in 14 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. Our analysis for 12 source categories shows that 80-90% of the burden borne by these areas originates from emissions sources outside of the area and that emissions sources up to 800 km away need to be included to account for 80% of the burden. Conversely, 60-80% of the impacts of an MSA's emissions occurs outside of that MSA. The results demonstrate the importance of regionally coordinated measures to improve air quality in metropolitan areas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-11-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 309, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 309 is comprised of the three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1-1) listed below: (1) CAS 12-06-09, Muckpile; (2) CAS 12-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump (CWD); and (3) CAS 12-28-01, I-, J-, and K-Tunnel Debris. Corrective Action Sites 12-06-09 and 12-08-02 will be collectively referred to as muckpiles in this document. Corrective Action Site 12-28-01 will be referred to as the fallout plume because of the extensive lateral area of debris and fallout contamination resulting from the containment failures of the J- and K-Tunnels. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada.'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 309 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted according to the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004), which provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CADD/CR.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  17. Valuing shifts in the distribution of visibility in national parks and wilderness areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kevin J; Paterson, Robert; Carson, Richard; Leggett, Christopher; Kanninen, Barbara; Molenar, John; Neumann, James

    2016-05-15

    Environmental regulations often have the objective of eliminating the lower tail of an index of environmental quality. That part of the distribution of environmental quality moves somewhere above a threshold and where in the original distribution it moves is a function of the control strategy chosen. This paper provides an approach for estimating the economic benefits of different distributional changes as the worst environmental conditions are removed. The proposed approach is illustrated by examining shifts in visibility at Class I visibility areas (National Parks and wilderness areas) that would occur with implementation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Haze Program. In this application we show that people value shifts in the distribution of visibility and place a higher value on the removal of a low visibility day than on the addition of a high visibility day. We found that respondents would pay about $120 per year in the Southeast U.S. and about $80 per year in the Southwest U.S. for improvement programs that remove the 20% worst visibility days.

  18. Size-frequency analysis of petroleum accumulations in selected United States plays: potential analogues for frontier areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the petroleum accumulation size-frequency relationships of selected mature plays assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey?s 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. The plays provide assessors with potential analogue models from which to estimate the numbers of undiscovered accumulations in medium and smaller size categories. Each play selected was required to have at least 50 discovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations plus the mean number of undiscovered accumulations equals the total accumulations assessed at the play level. There were 36 plays that met the criteria for oil accumulations and 25 plays that met the criteria for gas accumulations. Other properties of the plays such as primary trap type, lithology, depth, and hydrocarbon characteristics are also provided to assist the geologist in choosing an appropriate analogue. The text explains how the analogue size-frequency relationships can be used to estimate the number of small and medium size accumulations for frontier-area plays or partially explored plays in high cost areas. Although this document has been written in support of the Alaska North Slope Assessment, the basic size?frequency relationships provided are applicable elsewhere.

  19. Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Susan L; Russell, Kate; Hennessey, Morgan; Williams, Charnetta; Oster, Alexandra M; Fischer, Marc; Mead, Paul

    2016-03-04

    Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported, and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia. On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus. Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23. During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women. Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Pastor

    2005-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552, Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 552 is comprised of the corrective action site (CAS) that is shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: 12-23-05, Ponds. The ponds were originally constructed to catch runoff from the muckpile. As the muckpile continued to be extended to the north and to the east, it became impossible to ensure that all of the runoff from the muckpile was funneled into the pond. Some of the runoff from the muckpile continues to be caught in the upper pond, but portions of the muckpile have eroded, diverting much of the runoff away from the ponds. Regarding the other ponds, there is no evidence that any of the overflow ponds ever received runoff from overflow of the upper pond. The muckpile was removed from CAU 552 because an active leachfield exists within the muckpile and there are current activities at G-Tunnel. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', Rev. 1 (NNSA/NSO, 2005). Corrective Action Unit 552, Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, consists of one site located in the southern portion of Area 12. Corrective Action Site 12-23-05 consists of dry ponds adjacent to the G-Tunnel muckpile. The ponds were used to contain effluent from the G-Tunnel. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification for the closure of CAU 552 with no further

  1. Underground Test Area (UGTA) Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1 ROTC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada. The Frenchman Flat CAU was the site of 10 underground nuclear tests, some of which have impacted groundwater near the tests. This work was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CR describes the selected corrective action to be implemented during closure to protect human health and the environment from the impacted groundwater

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  3. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 198 kilograms per second per square meter (40.6(lb/sec)/sq ft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The purpose of the CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed.

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area, surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in June 2009. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new fractures were identified in the soil cover and were filled with bentonite chips during the inspection. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations

  7. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities.

  8. Archaeological investigations at a toolstone source area and temporary camp: Sample Unit 19-25, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Technical report No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.C.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Pippin, L.C.; Beck, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    Archaeological investigations were initiated at Sample Unit 19--25 to retrieve information concerning settlement and subsistence data on the aboriginal hunter and gatherers in the area. Studies included collection and mapping of 35.4 acres at site 26NY1408 and excavation and mapping of 0.02 acres at site 26NY7847. Cultural resources include two rock and brush structures and associated caches and a large lithic toolstone source area and lithic artifact scatter. Temporally diagnostic artifacts indicate periodic use throughout the last 12,000 years; however dates associated with projectile points indicate most use was in the Middle and Late Archaic. Radiocarbon dates from the rock and brush structures at site 26NY7847 indicate a construction date of A.D. 1640 and repair between A.D. 1800 and 1950 for feature 1 and between A.D. 1330 and 1390 and repair at A.D. 1410 for feature 2. The dates associated with feature 2 place its construction significantly earlier than similar structures found elsewhere on Pahute Mesa. Activity areas appear to reflect temporary use of the area for procurement of available lithic and faunal resources and the manufacture of tools.

  9. Dynamical Downscaling of Climate Change Impacts on Wind Energy Resources in the Contiguous United States by Using a Limited-Area Model with Scale-Selective Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a limited-area model (LAM in combination with the scale-selective data assimilation (SSDA approach, wind energy resources in the contiguous United States (CONUS were downscaled from IPCC CCSM3 global model projections for both current and future climate conditions. An assessment of climate change impacts on wind energy resources in the CONUS region was then conducted. Based on the downscaling results, when projecting into future climate under IPCC’s A1B scenario, the average annual wind speed experiences an overall shift across the CONUS region. From the current climate to the 2040s, the average annual wind speed is expected to increase from 0.1 to 0.2 m s−1 over the Great Plains, Northern Great Lakes Region, and Southwestern United States located southwest of the Rocky Mountains. When projecting into the 2090s from current climate, there is an overall increase in the Great Plains Region and Southwestern United States located southwest of the Rockies with a mean wind speed increase between 0 and 0.1 m s−1, while, the Northern Great Lakes Region experiences an even greater increase from current climate to 2090s than over the first few decades with an increase of mean wind speed from 0.1 to 0.4 m s−1.

  10. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 115: AREA 25 TEST CELL A FACILITY, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2006-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the activities performed to close CAU 115, Area 25 Test Cell A Facility, as presented in the NDEP-approved SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The SAFER Plan includes a summary of the site history, process knowledge, and closure standards. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical and radiological data to confirm that the remediation goals were met and to document final site conditions. The approved closure alternative as presented in the SAFER Plan for CAU 115 (NNSA/NSO, 2004) was clean closure; however, closure in place was implemented under a Record of Technical Change (ROTC) to the SAFER Plan when radiological surveys indicated that the concrete reactor pad was radiologically activated and could not be decontaminated to meet free release levels. The ROTC is included as Appendix G of this report. The objectives of closure were to remove any trapped residual liquids and gases, dispose regulated and hazardous waste, decontaminate removable radiological contamination, demolish and dispose aboveground structures, remove the dewar as a best management practice (BMP), and characterize and restrict access to all remaining radiological contamination. Radiological contaminants of concern (COCs) included cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, uranium-234/235/236/238, and plutonium-239/240. Additional COCs included Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and asbestos.

  11. Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian; Erickson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, nesting in 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Great Lakes basin was assessed from 2010 to 2014 to assist managers and regulators in their assessments of Great Lakes AOCs. Contaminant concentrations in nestlings from AOCs were compared with those in nestlings from nearby non-AOC sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in tree swallow nestling carcasses at 30% and 33% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in nestling stomach contents and perfluorinated compound concentrations in nestling plasma at 67% and 64% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Concentrations of PCBs in nestling carcasses were elevated at some AOCs but modest compared with highly PCB-contaminated sites where reproductive effects have been documented. Concentrations of PAHs in diet were sufficiently elevated at some AOCs to elicit a measurable physiological response. Among AOCs, concentrations of the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctane sulfonate in plasma were the highest on the River Raisin (MI, USA; geometric mean 330 ng/mL) but well below an estimated toxicity reference value (1700 ng/mL). Both PAH and PCB concentrations in nestling stomach contents and PCBs in carcasses were significantly correlated with concentrations in sediment previously reported, thereby reinforcing the utility of tree swallows to assess bioavailability of sediment contamination.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550: Smoky Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 550 includes 19 corrective action sites (CASs), which consist of one weapons-related atmospheric test (Smoky), three safety experiments (Ceres, Oberon, Titania), and 15 debris sites (Table ES-1). The CASs were sorted into the following study groups based on release potential and technical similarities: • Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test • Study Group 2, Safety Experiments • Study Group 3, Washes • Study Group 4, Debris The purpose of this document is to provide justification and documentation supporting the conclusion that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 550 based on implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-1. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed between August 2012 and October 2013 as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The approach for the CAI was to investigate and make data quality objective (DQO) decisions based on the types of releases present. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 550 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 105 comprises the following five corrective action sites (CASs): -02-23-04 Atmospheric Test Site - Whitney Closure In Place -02-23-05 Atmospheric Test Site T-2A Closure In Place -02-23-06 Atmospheric Test Site T-2B Clean Closure -02-23-08 Atmospheric Test Site T-2 Closure In Place -02-23-09 Atmospheric Test Site - Turk Closure In Place The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews; Christy Sloop

    2012-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 569 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 569 comprises the nine numbered corrective action sites (CASs) and one newly identified site listed below: (1) 03-23-09, T-3 Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Annie, Franklin, George, and Moth); (2) 03-23-10, T-3A Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Harry and Hornet); (3) 03-23-11, T-3B Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Fizeau); (4) 03-23-12, T-3S Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Rio Arriba); (5) 03-23-13, T-3T Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Catron); (6) 03-23-14, T-3V Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Humboldt); (7) 03-23-15, S-3G Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Coulomb-B); (8) 03-23-16, S-3H Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Coulomb-A); (9) 03-23-21, Pike Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Pike); and (10) Waste Consolidation Site 3A. Because CAU 569 is a complicated site containing many types of releases, it was agreed during the data quality objectives (DQO) process that these sites will be grouped. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each study group. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the DQOs developed on September 26, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO

  15. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 365 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with a use restriction (UR). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18, 2011, through August 2, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 365 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in supporting the DQO decisions. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present to the southwest of the Baneberry crater. It was also assumed that radionuclide levels present within the crater and fissure exceed the FAL. Corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of establishing a UR and posting warning signs for the crater, fissure, and the area located to the southwest of the crater where soil concentrations exceeded the FAL. These URs were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further corrective actions beyond what are described in this document are necessary for CAU 365. (2) A Notice of Completion to

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 106: Area 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews and Dawn Peterson

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 106 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 05-20-02, Evaporation Pond; (2) 05-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site - Able; (3) 05-45-04, 306 GZ Rad Contaminated Area; (4) 05-45-05, 307 GZ Rad Contaminated Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 106 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of clean closure was implemented at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05, while no corrective action was necessary at CASs 05-20-02 and 05-23-05. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 20, 2010, through June 1, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 106: Areas 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (mechanical displacement and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 106 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Industrial Area exposure scenario (2,250 hours of annual exposure). The only radiological dose exceeding the FAL was at CAS 05-45-05 and was associated with potential source material (PSM). It is also assumed that additional PSM in the form of depleted uranium (DU) and DU-contaminated debris at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05 exceed the FAL. Therefore, corrective actions were undertaken at these CASs that consisted of removing PSM and collecting verification

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2005-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 552 is being investigated because man-made radionuclides and chemical contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. The CAI will be conducted following the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The DQOs are used to identify the type, amount, and quality of data needed to define the nature and extent of contamination and identify and evaluate the most appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 552. The primary problem statement for the investigation is: ''Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 12-23-05.'' To address this problem statement, the resolution of the following two decision statements is required: (1) The Decision I statement is: ''Is a contaminant present within the CAU at a concentration that could pose an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment?'' Any site-related contaminant detected at a concentration exceeding the corresponding preliminary action level (PAL), as defined in Section A.1.4.2, will be considered a contaminant of concern (COC). A COC is defined as a site-related constituent that exceeds the screening criteria (PAL). The presence of a contaminant within each CAS is defined as the analytical detection of a COC. (2) The Decision II statement is: ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs.'' This decision will be achieved by the collection of data that are adequate to define the extent of COCs. Decision II samples are used to determine the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination as well as the likelihood of COCs to migrate outside of the site

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 165: Areas 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, and 3) (January 2002, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 165 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; CAS 25-51-02, Dry Well; CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; CAS 26-59-01, Septic System; CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain. All eight CASs are located in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Six of these CASs are located in Area 25 facilities and two CASs are located in Area 26 facilities. The eight CASs at CAU 165 consist of dry wells, septic systems, decontamination pads, and a reservoir. The six CASs in Area 25 are associated with the Nuclear Rocket Development Station that operated from 1958 to 1973. The two CASs in Area 26 are associated with facilities constructed for Project Pluto, a series of nuclear reactor tests conducted between 1961 to 1964 to develop a nuclear-powered ramjet engine. Based on site history, the scope of this plan will be a two-phased approach to investigate the possible presence of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The Phase I analytical program for most CASs will include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radionuclides. If laboratory data obtained from the Phase I investigation indicates the presence of contaminants of concern, the process will continue with a Phase II investigation to define the extent of contamination. Based on the

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 326, Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites. This CAU is currently listed in the January 2001, Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 326 is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASS) (Figure 1): CAS 06-25-01--Is a rupture in an underground pipe that carried heating oil (diesel) from the underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-CP-1) located to the west of Building CP-70 to the boiler in Building CP-1 in the Area 6 Control Point (CP) compound. CAS 06-25-02--A heating oil spill that is a result of overfilling an underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-DAF-5) located at the Area 6 Device Assembly Facility (DAF). CAS 06-25-04--A release of waste oil that occurred while removing used oil to from Tank 6-619-4. Tank 6-619-4 is located northwest of Building 6-619 at the Area 6 Gas Station. CAS 27-25-01--Consists of an excavation that was created in an attempt to remove impacted stained soil from the Site Maintenance Yard in Area 27. Approximately 53.5 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (70 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated before the excavation activities were halted. The excavation activities were stopped because the volume of impacted soil exceeded estimated quantities and budget.

  1. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 112: AREA 23 HAZARDOUS WASTE TRENCHES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA; FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 2003 - SEPTEMBER 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit located in Area 23 of the NTS. This annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results of inspections and monitoring for CAU 112. This report includes a summary and analysis of the site inspections, repair and maintenance, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 112 for the current monitoring period, October 2003 through September 2004. Inspections of the CAU 112 RCRA unit were performed quarterly to identify any significant physical changes to the site that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit. The overall condition of the covers and facility was good, and no significant findings were observed. The annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted on August 23, 2004, and the results indicated that no cover subsidence4 has occurred at any of the markers. The elevations of the markers have been consistent for the past 11 years. The total precipitation for the current reporting period, october 2003 to September 2004, was 14.0 centimeters (cm) (5.5 inches [in]) (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Air Resources Laboratory, Special Operations and Research Division, 2004). This is slightly below the average rainfall of 14.7 cm (5.79 in) over the same period from 1972 to 2004. Post-closure monitoring verifies that the CAU 112 trench covers are performing properly and that no water is infiltrating into or out of the waste trenches. Sail moisture measurements are obtained in the soil directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions for the first year of post-closure monitoring, which began in october 1993. neutron logging was performed twice during this monitoring period along 30 neutron access tubes to obtain soil moisture data and detect any changes that may indicate moisture movement

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 575: Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 575, Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 575 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 15 of the Nevada National Security Site: • 15-19-02, Waste Burial Pit • 15-30-01, Surface Features at Borehole Sites • 15-64-01, Decontamination Area • 15-99-03, Aggregate Plant This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 575 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, to affirm the predicted corrective action decisions, and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective actions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  3. Waste Management Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) supplements the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project WMP and defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing and characterizing waste generated during activities associated with the RI of 23 wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF). These wells are within the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 area of contamination (AOC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Field activities for the limited RI of Operable Unit (OU) 3 of WAG 10 will involve sampling and measurement of various environmental media (e.g., liquids and gases). Many of these activities will occur in areas known to be contaminated with radioactive materials or hazardous chemical substances, and it is anticipated that contaminated solid and liquid wastes and noncontaminated wastes will be generated as a result of these activities. On a project-wide basis, handling of these waste materials will be accomplished in accordance with the RI/FS Project WMP and the procedures referenced throughout the plan.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 575: Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 575, Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 575 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 15 of the Nevada National Security Site: 15-19-02, Waste Burial Pit, 15-30-01, Surface Features at Borehole Sites, 15-64-01, Decontamination Area, 15-99-03, Aggregate Plant This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 575 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, to affirm the predicted corrective action decisions, and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective actions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  5. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU.

  6. 4th February 2011- Polish Ambassador to the United Nations Office R. A. Henczel visiting CMS control room and underground experimental area with his daughter, guided by Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    4th February 2011- Polish Ambassador to the United Nations Office R. A. Henczel visiting CMS control room and underground experimental area with his daughter, guided by Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  7. CORRRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 427: AREA 3 SEPTIC WASTE SYSTEMS 2 AND 6, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1998-06-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit 427) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 427 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites, each an individual septic waste system (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Septic Waste System 2 is Corrective Action Site Number 03-05-002-SW02. (2) Septic Waste System 6 is Corrective Action Site Number 03-05-002-SW06. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. From November 1997 through January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 427: Area 3 Septic Waste System Numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997b). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated that contamination is present in some portions of the CAU and not in others as described in Table ES-1 and shown in Figure A.2-2 of Appendix A. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 427: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing TPH at concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per kilogram (NAC

  8. Strain and temperature characterization of LPGs written by CO2 laser in pure silica LMA photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Roberta Cardoso; Pohl, Alexandre de Almeida Prado; Abe, Ilda; Sebem, Renan; Paterno, Aleksander

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the writing of long period gratings (LPGs) in a six-ring pure silica solid core, and large mode area photonic crystal fiber (fiber core diameter ρ = 10.1 μm) using a CO2 laser system, and the characterization of their strain and temperature sensitivities. Temperature and strain sensitivities in the order of -19.6 pm/°C and -88 pm/μɛ, respectively, were obtained, which were comparable or surpassed values of the similar photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based LPG or sensor configurations found in the literature.

  9. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-02-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 529 consists of one Corrective Action Site (25-23-17). For the purpose of this investigation, the Corrective Action Site has been divided into nine parcels based on the separate and distinct releases. A conceptual site model was developed for each parcel to address the translocation of contaminants from each release. The results of this investigation will be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  11. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working

  12. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 552 is comprised of the one Corrective Action Site which is 12-23-05, Ponds. One additional CAS, 12-06-04, Muckpile (G-Tunnel Muckpile), was removed from this CAU when it was determined that the muckpile is an active site. A modification to the FFACO to remove CAS 12-06-04 was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on December 16, 2004. The G-Tunnel ponds were first identified in the 1991 Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. document entitled, ''Nevada Test Site Inventory of Inactive and Abandoned Facilities and Waste Sites'' (REECo, 1991). Corrective Action Unit 552 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating and selecting the corrective action alternatives for the site. The CAI will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and sampling of appropriate media. Data will also be obtained to support investigation-derived waste (IDW) disposal and potential future waste management decisions.

  14. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI. More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©. The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs. The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  15. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-02-12

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  16. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  18. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions. PMID:28208684

  19. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2017-07-16

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km(2) of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700-2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001-2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 consists of twelve corrective action sites (CASs). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 24, 2003, through May 2, 2003, with additional sampling conducted on June 6, 2003, June 9, 2003, and June 24, 2003. Analytes detected during these investigation activities were evaluated against preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS, resulting in the determination that only two of the CASs did not have COCs exceeding regulatory levels. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action is the preferred corrective action for the two CASs (25-02-13, 26-02-01) identified with no COCs; (2) Clean Closure is the preferred corrective action for eight of the CASs (25-01-05, 25-23-11, 25-12-01, 25-01-06, 26-01-01, 26-01-02, 26-99-01, 26-23-01); and (3) Closure in Place is the preferred corrective action for the remaining two CASs (25-01-07, 25-02-02). These three alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, these alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites at CAU 127 and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media.