WorldWideScience

Sample records for unique transmissibility designated

  1. Tulane Student Designs Unique Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A Louisiana architect has created plans for a unique supplementary learning environment consisting of five circular buildings featuring a planetarium, an indoor display of small animals in their native habitat, an indoor pond, a library, a media center, and an auditorium. (Author/MLF)

  2. Transmission design in a multimode HFC network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, G. Keith

    1996-11-01

    Contemporary hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) networks are capable of supporting a wide range of services including traditional analog video, telephony, digital video, and data services. Each service has unique performance or service requirements. This contribution examines transmission design for one such network. Pacific Bell's advanced communications network (ACN). The design methodology begins with a set of end to end service quality objectives. Network impairments, such as noise, distortion and delay, are allocated across the network elements using a set of standard network models. These models are a representative set of the actual field designs and bound the network operating parameters. Network components, headend equipment, and customer premises equipment are specified analytically or characterized empirically in relationship to the chosen impairment set. The component parameters are then included in analytical models to estimate overall network performance. In addition to the forward path transmission considerations examined by traditional coaxial network designers, other dimensions including power consumption, traffic demand, and message latency are taken into account. Analytical models are used to estimate the effects of multiple modulation schemes within the unified network. The variability introduced by on demand services such as telephony and interactive digital services changes the base computational domain from deterministic models to stochastic ones. These models are then used to set operating parameters at measurable points throughout the network for proof of performance prior to turn up, and for ongoing performance monitoring. For closure, empirical results are compared with model projections as a way of verifying and improving the predictive models.

  3. High speed electrical transmission line design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Buytaert, J.; Eklund, L.; de Acedo, L. F. S.; Longstaff, I.; Naik, S.; Sullivan, S.; Wraight, K.

    2017-02-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments have unique requirements for data communication. High data speeds, combined with extreme restrictions on materials allowed, leads to custom transmission lines. This paper will present transmission line design theory, simulation and testing methods. Transmission line designs options like flexes and rigid PCBs as well as cables will be studied. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software packages simulate energy dissipation and quality of transmitted signals. The characterisation techniques of time-domain reflectometry and frequency-domain measurements are discussed and compared. Bit-error-rate testing is presented and its limitations for design discussed. Methods to improve quality, like three different types of equalization are described.

  4. Savonius wind turbines: Design and testing of unique blade designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul B.

    As the idea of implementing alternative energy systems into urbanized areas continues to gain popularity, there is a growing need to improve the efficiency of such systems. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine whether or not six unique blade designs, developed by the researcher, would lead to a more efficient vertical axis Savonius wind turbine. This report provides details regarding the study of aerodynamic forces, drag coefficients, and flow characteristics around each blade as well as information pertaining to the assembly and field testing of a turbine. The researcher began by conducting wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamic simulations on a single blade with the proposed designs. The data from these experiments was then used to calculate the driving and opposing forces and drag coefficients that would be present when each blade design is used in a fully assembled turbine. Lastly, the researcher determined the theoretical maximum efficiency of each turbine by multiplying the difference between the drag coefficients with the Betz Limit (4/27). Upon analyzing the results, the researcher discovered that the forces that were reported in the CFD analysis were more than double those measured in the wind tunnel. In addition, upon calculating the performance of each blade design when assembled into a full turbine, it was found that the turbines may not perform as well as the researcher initially expected; with only one having an efficiency of greater than 12%. However, because of the differences between the wind tunnel and CFD results, the researcher suggests that further experimentation and analysis needs to be completed to accurately justify the performance calculations.

  5. Information Transmission in Emerging Markets: The Case of a Unique Financing Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Hammad

    2008-01-01

    Information flows are necessary for well-functioning financial markets. However, in many emerging markets, the legal and institutional preconditions for proper information flow are not met. How do such markets respond? We argue that they respond by developing innovative information transmission mechanisms. We identify one such mechanism associated with the evolution of equity markets in South Asia. The mechanism operates through a financing instrument unique to India and Pakistan, called badl...

  6. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  7. Tornado risk model for transmission line design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milford, RV

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available is in combination with ice loading. The wind load used in most codes of practice and design recommendations for transmission line design have until recently been based almost exclusively on large-scale wind storms, which may include severe storms such as hurricanes...

  8. Combining multiple single-reference transmissibility functions in a unique matrix formulation for operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, C.; Weijtjens, W.; De Sitter, G.; Guillaume, P.

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the authors have proposed an innovative approach for Operational Modal Analysis based on transmissibility measurements. A method was proposed based on combining 2 single-reference transmissibility functions that were obtained during 2 different loading conditions. However in practice one in general has access to multiple transmissibility functions and perhaps even multiple loading conditions. In this paper a new method is introduced that combines all the measured single-reference transmissibility functions in a unique matrix formulation in order to identify system poles. It will be shown that each element of the pseudo-inverse of this matrix is a rational function with poles equal to the system poles. The proposed method reduces the risk to miss system poles and to identify extra non-physical poles. Therefore the method increases the usability and reliability of transmissibility based operational modal analysis (TOMA). The method will be demonstrated and validated by means of an experiment on a beam excited at multiple inputs for three different loading conditions.

  9. New Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Designed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2001-01-01

    The prime source of vibration and noise in a gear system is the transmission error between the meshing gears. Transmission error is caused by manufacturing inaccuracy, mounting errors, and elastic deflections under load. Gear designers often attempt to compensate for transmission error by modifying gear teeth. This is done traditionally by a rough "rule of thumb" or more recently under the guidance of an analytical code. In order for a designer to have confidence in a code, the code must be validated through experiment. NASA Glenn Research Center contracted with the Design Unit of the University of Newcastle in England for a system to measure the transmission error of spur and helical test gears in the NASA Gear Noise Rig. The new system measures transmission error optically by means of light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. A photodetector circuit converts the light to an analog electrical signal. To increase accuracy and reduce "noise" due to transverse vibration, there are parallel light paths at the top and bottom of the gears. The two signals are subtracted via differential amplifiers in the electronics package. The output of the system is 40 mV/mm, giving a resolution in the time domain of better than 0.1 mm, and discrimination in the frequency domain of better than 0.01 mm. The new system will be used to validate gear analytical codes and to investigate mechanisms that produce vibration and noise in parallel axis gears.

  10. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Anuar, A.; Mohd Arshad, A. D.; Idris, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  11. Design for robustness of unique, multi-component engineering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kenneth A.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to advance the science of conceptual designing for robustness in unique, multi-component engineering systems. Robustness is herein defined as the ability of an engineering system to operate within a desired performance range even if the actual configuration has differences from specifications within specified tolerances. These differences are caused by three sources, namely manufacturing errors, system degradation (operational wear and tear), and parts availability. Unique, multi-component engineering systems are defined as systems produced in unique or very small production numbers. They typically have design and manufacturing costs on the order of billions of dollars, and have multiple, competing performance objectives. Design time for these systems must be minimized due to competition, high manpower costs, long manufacturing times, technology obsolescence, and limited available manpower expertise. Most importantly, design mistakes cannot be easily corrected after the systems are operational. For all these reasons, robustness of these systems is absolutely critical. This research examines the space satellite industry in particular. Although inherent robustness assurance is absolutely critical, it is difficult to achieve in practice. The current state of the art for robustness in the industry is to overdesign components and subsystems with redundancy and margin. The shortfall is that it is not known if the added margins were either necessary or sufficient given the risk management preferences of the designer or engineering system customer. To address this shortcoming, new assessment criteria to evaluate robustness in design concepts have been developed. The criteria are comprised of the "Value Distance", addressing manufacturing errors and system degradation, and "Component Distance", addressing parts availability. They are based on an evolutionary computation format that uses a string of alleles to describe the components in the

  12. GENOMEMASKER package for designing unique genomic PCR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplinski Lauris

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of oligonucleotides and PCR primers for studying large genomes is complicated by the redundancy of sequences. The eukaryotic genomes are particularly difficult to study due to abundant repeats. The speed of most existing primer evaluation programs is not sufficient for large-scale experiments. Results In order to improve the efficiency and success rate of automatic primer/oligo design, we created a novel method which allows rapid masking of repeats in large sequence files, for example in eukaryotic genomes. It also allows the detection of all alternative binding sites of PCR primers and the prediction of PCR products. The new method was implemented in a collection of efficient programs, the GENOMEMASKER package. The performance of the programs was compared to other similar programs. We also modified the PRIMER3 program, to be able to design primers from lowercase-masked sequences. Conclusion The GENOMEMASKER package is able to mask the entire human genome for non-unique primers within 6 hours and find locations of all binding sites for 10 000 designed primer pairs within 10 minutes. Additionally, it predicts all alternative PCR products from large genomes for given primer pairs.

  13. The uniqueness in the inverse problem for transmission eigenvalues for the spherically symmetric variable-speed wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Gintides, Drossos; Papanicolaou, Vassilis G.

    2011-11-01

    The recovery of a spherically symmetric wave speed v is considered in a bounded spherical region of radius b from the set of the corresponding transmission eigenvalues for which the corresponding eigenfunctions are also spherically symmetric. If the integral of 1/v on the interval [0, b] is less than b, assuming that there exists at least one v corresponding to the data, it is shown that v is uniquely determined by the data consisting of such transmission eigenvalues and their ‘multiplicities’, where the ‘multiplicity’ is defined as the multiplicity of the transmission eigenvalue as a zero of a key quantity. When that integral is equal to b, the unique recovery is obtained when the data contain one additional piece of information. Some similar results are presented for the unique determination of the potential from the transmission eigenvalues with ‘multiplicities’ for a related Schrödinger equation.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy of Tuberculina species (Helicobasidiales) reveals an unique mode of conidiogenesis within Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayeva, Dilzara N; Lutz, Matthias; Piątek, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculina species represent the asexual life stage of the plant-parasitic sexual genus Helicobasidium. Tuberculina species are distributed all over the world, living in antagonistic symbiosis with over 150 rust species from at least 15 genera. Within the Basidiomycota, besides the spermogonia of rust fungi, only Tuberculina species develop distinct fructifications in the haplophase. However, the knowledge of conidiogenesis in Tuberculina is meagre. Therefore, conidial development in Tuberculina maxima, Tuberculina persicina, and Tuberculina sbrozzii was studied using transmission electron microscopy, and compared to each other as well as to spermatia formation in rust fungi. Significant ultrastructural characteristics such as the movement of nuclei in the process of conidium formation, and formation of the initial and late stages of conidiogenesis are documented. The mode of conidiogenesis of Tuberculina species is unique within the Basidiomycota in that (1) it is realized by haploid fructifications, (2) it is holoblastic, without annellidic proliferation, (3) the nucleus of the conidiogenous cell moves towards the forming conidium, divides, and no daughter nucleus remains inside the conidiogenous cell, and (4) the conidiogenous cell retains only cytoplasmic residues after the development of a single conidium, and a successive conidium is not produced.

  15. Design of synchromesh mechanism to optimization manual transmission's electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri, Fuad; Sumarsono, Danardono A.; Adhitya, Muhammad; Siregar, Rolan

    2017-03-01

    Significant research has been attempted on a vehicle that lead to the development of transmission that can reduce energy consumption and improve vehicle efficiency. Consumers also expect safety, convenience, and competitive prices. Automatic transmission (AT), continuously variable transmission (CVT), and dual clutch transmission (DCT) is the latest transmission developed for road vehicle. From literature reviews that have been done that this transmission is less effective on electric cars which use batteries as a power source compared to type manual transmission, this is due to the large power losses when making gear changes. Zeroshift system is the transmission can do shift gears with no time (zero time). It was developed for the automatic manual transmission, and this transmission has been used on racing vehicles to eliminate deceleration when gear shift. Zeroshift transmission still use the clutch to change gear in which electromechanical be used to replace the clutch pedal. Therefore, the transmission is too complex for the transmission of electric vehicles, but its mechanism is considered very suitable to increase the transmission efficiency. From this idea, a new innovation design transmission will be created to electric car. The combination synchromesh with zeroshift mechanism for the manual transmission is a transmission that is ideal for improving the transmission efficiency. Installation synchromesh on zeroshift mechanism is expected to replace the function of the clutch MT, and assisted with the motor torque setting when to change gear. Additionally to consider is the weight of the transmission, ease of manufacturing, ease of installation with an electric motor, as well as ease of use by drivers is a matter that must be done to obtain a new transmission system that is suitable for electric cars.

  16. Unique features of creative designing at the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilа Iryna Mykolayivna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to studying the specificity of creative designing at the preschool age. The author identifies the systematic approach on the design work and creative designing, knowledge adjustment, as well as the assessment criteria and performance indicators of creative designing by children at the preschool age. The article considers the psychological structure of the design activity, clarifies its characteristics and defines the role of each component of creative designing process at the preschool age. As a result of the empirical study it was proved that in the process of understanding the challenges pre-schoolers’s mind makes mental acts of comparison predominant. Their creative intention is determined by the focus on the structural and structural-functional characteristics of the subjects. The whole structure of the pre-schooler’s solution in the process of working with creative tasks on designing is integrated with the individual and regulatory aspect of creative designing that appears in the subjective mental actions, trends, and practice.

  17. Optimization of transmission system design based on genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbing Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system is a crucial precision mechanism for twin-screw chemi-mechanical pulping equipment. The structure of the system designed by traditional method is not optimal because the structure designed by the traditional methods is easy to fall into the local optimum. To achieve the global optimum, this article applies the genetic algorithm which has grown in recent years in the field of structure optimization. The article uses the volume of transmission system as the objective function to optimize the structure designed by traditional method. Compared to the simulation results, the original structure is not optimal, and the optimized structure is tighter and more reasonable. Based on the optimized results, the transmission shafts in the transmission system are designed and checked, and the parameters of the twin screw are selected and calculated. The article provided an effective method to design the structure of transmission system.

  18. Energy-Efficient Full Diversity Collaborative Unitary Space-Time Block Code Design via Unique Factorization of Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Dong; Dumitrescu, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel concept called a \\textit{uniquely factorable constellation pair} (UFCP) is proposed for the systematic design of a noncoherent full diversity collaborative unitary space-time block code by normalizing two Alamouti codes for a wireless communication system having two transmitter antennas and a single receiver antenna. It is proved that such a unitary UFCP code assures the unique identification of both channel coefficients and transmitted signals in a noise-free case as well as full diversity for the noncoherent maximum likelihood (ML) receiver in a noise case. To further improve error performance, an optimal unitary UFCP code is designed by appropriately and uniquely factorizing a pair of energy-efficient cross quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations to maximize the coding gain subject to a transmission bit rate constraint. After a deep investigation of the fractional coding gain function, a technical approach developed in this paper to maximizing the coding gain is to caref...

  19. WIFI and WIMAX Optimization Design of Transmission and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Xian Li

    WIFI (Wireless Fidelity) and WIMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) using OFDM / OFDMA, MIMO technology to achieve speeds in a unified platform for data, voice, high-definition video and other wireless transmission, For many industries of wireless communication may be short, very considerable practical prospect. This paper focuses on WIFI and WIMAX transmission optimization design, including space-time coding (abbreviated as: STC), multiple-access control (MAC) protocol of the mathematical model; traffic channel terminal mobility cross-layer design to achieve multi-layer co-optimization, improve the WIFI and WIMAX, transmission efficiency, making WIFI and WIMAX transmission are more reasonable.

  20. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  1. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  2. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  3. Design of Flexure-based Precision Transmission Mechanisms using Screw Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, J B; Panas, R M

    2011-02-07

    This paper enables the synthesis of flexure-based transmission mechanisms that possess multiple decoupled inputs and outputs of any type (e.g. rotations, translations, and/or screw motions), which are linked by designer-specified transmission ratios. A comprehensive library of geometric shapes is utilized from which every feasible concept that possesses the desired transmission characteristics may be rapidly conceptualized and compared before an optimal concept is selected. These geometric shapes represent the rigorous mathematics of screw theory and uniquely link a body's desired motions to the flexible constraints that enable those motions. This paper's impact is most significant to the design of nano-positioners, microscopy stages, optical mounts, and sensors. A flexure-based microscopy stage was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the utility of the theory.

  4. Inverse design of periodic metallic slits for extraordinary optical transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihui

    2016-01-01

    The inverse design methodology of periodic metallic slits for extraordinary optical transmission is presented based on the topology optimization method. Several topological configurations of periodic metallic slits with typical subwavelength size are derived with transmission peaks at the prescribed incident wavelengths in the visible light region, where the transmissivity is enhanced by effective excitation of surface-plasmon-polariton at the inlet side of the slit, Fabry-P\\'erot resonance of surface-plasmon-polariton inside the slit and radiation of the electromagnetic energy at the outlet side of the slit. The transmission peaks of the derived metallic configurations are raised along with the red shift of the incident wavelength, because of the reduction of the energy absorption and increase of the propagation distance of surface-plasmon-polariton. And the shift of transmission peak is controlled by prescribing a different incident wavelength in the corresponding topology optimization problem. To reduce th...

  5. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.J. [NDT Engineering, Inc., Shrewbury, MA (United States); Dabkowski, J. [Electro-Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States); Hauth, R.L. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

  6. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  7. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  8. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) of Danish Transmission System - Concept design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Lund, P.

    2014-01-01

    , objectives, constraints, algorithms for optimal power flow and some special functions in particular systems, which inspires the concept design of a Danish AVC system to address the future challenges of voltage control. In the concept, the Danish AVC design is based on a centralized control scheme. All....... Another consequence is the public way of generally thinking green which have led to a national decision of undergrounding not only all of the Danish distribution system but also the future transmission system. These issues initiate the infrastructure constructions of the transmission system i.e. a large...... the substation loses the telecommunications to the control center. RPCs will be integrated to the AVC system as normative regulators in the later stage. Distributed generation units can be organized as virtual power plants and participate in voltage control at transmission level. Energinet.dk as the Danish TSO...

  9. Statistiscal Experimental Design for Quantitative Atomic Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aert, S.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical experimental design is applied to set up quantitative atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments. In such experiments, observations of the atomic structure of the object under study are always subject to spontaneous fluctuations. As a result of these fluctuations, the

  10. Safe design and operation of tank reactors for multiple reactions: Uniqueness and multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Jansma, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method is developed to design a tank reactor for unique operation and for two simultaneous or consecutive reactions of the first order. Dimensionless groups are introduced which are either exclusively representative for the properties of the reaction system or exclusively for the design and

  11. Very fast transmissive spectrograph designs for highly multiplexed fiber spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Will

    2016-01-01

    Very fast (f/1.2 and f/1.35) transmissive spectrograph designs are presented for Hector and MSE. The designs have 61mm x 61mm detectors, 4 or 5 camera lenses of aperture less than 228mm, with just 6 air/glass surfaces, and rely on extreme aspheres for their imaging performance. The throughput is excellent, because of the i-line glasses used, the small number of air/glass surfaces.

  12. Design of UAV high resolution image transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Pang, Lan; Jiang, Wen-tao; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingcheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of the bandwidth limitation of the image transmission system on UAV, a scheme with image compression technology for mini UAV is proposed, based on the requirements of High-definition image transmission system of UAV. The video codec standard H.264 coding module and key technology was analyzed and studied for UAV area video communication. Based on the research of high-resolution image encoding and decoding technique and wireless transmit method, The high-resolution image transmission system was designed on architecture of Android and video codec chip; the constructed system was confirmed by experimentation in laboratory, the bit-rate could be controlled easily, QoS is stable, the low latency could meets most applied requirement not only for military use but also for industrial applications.

  13. The design and analysis of single flank transmission error tester for loaded gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Duane E.; Houser, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    To strengthen the understanding of gear transmission error and to verify mathematical models which predict them, a test stand that will measure the transmission error of gear pairs under design loads has been investigated. While most transmission error testers have been used to test gear pairs under unloaded conditions, the goal of this report was to design and perform dynamic analysis of a unique tester with the capability of measuring the transmission error of gears under load. This test stand will have the capability to continuously load a gear pair at torques up to 16,000 in-lb at shaft speeds from 0 to 5 rpm. Error measurement will be accomplished with high resolution optical encoders and the accompanying signal processing unit from an existing unloaded transmission error tester. Input power to the test gear box will be supplied by a dc torque motor while the load will be applied with a similar torque motor. A dual input, dual output control system will regulate the speed and torque of the system. This control system's accuracy and dynamic response were analyzed and it was determined that proportional plus derivative speed control is needed in order to provide the precisely constant torque necessary for error-free measurement.

  14. Atlas transmission line/transition design and fabrication status

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, E O; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Parker, G V; Ricketts, R L; Valdez, G A

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. Design has been completed for this new generation pulsed-power machine consisting of an azimuthal array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current to the load region at the machine center. The transmission line consists of a cable header, load protection switch, and tri-plate assembly interfacing to the center transition section. The cable header interface to the Marx module provides a mechanism to remove the Marx module for maintenance without removing other components of the transmission line. The load protection switch provides a mechanism for protecting the load during charging of the Marx in the event of a pre-fire condition. The aluminum tri-plate is a low-inductance transmission line that carries radial current flow from the Marx energy storage system at the machine periphery toward the load. All transmission line components are oil insulated except the...

  15. Fiber-Optic Transmission Networks Efficient Design and Dynamic Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Pachnicke, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Next generation optical communication systems will have to transport a significantly increased data volume at a reduced cost per transmitted bit. To achieve these ambitious goals optimum design is crucial in combination with dynamic adaptation to actual traffic demands and improved energy efficiency. In the first part of the book the author elaborates on the design of optical transmission systems. Several methods for efficient numerical simulation are presented ranging from meta-model based optimization to parallelization techniques for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, fast analytical and semi-analytical models are described to estimate the various degradation effects occurring on the transmission line. In the second part of the book operational aspects of optical networks are investigated. Physical layer impairment-aware routing and regenerator placement are studied. Finally, it is analyzed how the energy efficiency of a multi-layer optical core network can be increased by dynamic ad...

  16. Design of an advanced 500-HP helicopter transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    A 500-hp Advanced Technology Demonstrator helicopter transmission was designed by an American aerospace company under a NASA contract. The project was mainly concerned with designing a 500-hp version of the OH-58C 317-hp transmission which would have the capabilities for a long, quiet life at a minimum increase in cost, weight, and space, which usually increase along with power increases. This objective was accomplished by implementing advanced technology which has been developed during the last decade and by making improvements dictated by field experience. The improvements are related to bearings made of cleaner gear steels, spiral bevel gears made of cleaner gear steels, high contact ratio spur gear teeth in the planetary which will reduce noise level and increase gear life, and modifications concerning the sun gear.

  17. Safe design and operation of tank reactors for multiple-reaction networks: uniqueness and multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Westerink, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A method is developed to design a tank reactor in which a network of reactions is carried out. The network is a combination of parallel and consecutive reactions. The method ensures unique operation. Dimensionless groups are used which are either representative of properties of the reaction system

  18. Lessons Learned in High Frequency Data Transmissions Design

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Stephanie W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Requirements of HEP experiments lead to highly integrated systems with many electrical, mechanical and thermal constraints. A complex performance optimisation is therefore required. High speed data transmission lines are designed, while simultaneously minimising radiation length. Methods to improve the signal integrity of point to point links and multi-drop configurations are described. FEA calculations are an essential guide to the optimisation which allow data rates of 640 Mbps for point to point links over a length of up to 1.4m, as well as 160 Mbps for multi-drop configuration. The designs were validated using laboratory measurements of S-parameters and direct BER tests.

  19. Designing and Implementing a Unique Website Design Project in an Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, George

    2016-01-01

    The following paper describes a distinctive collaborative service-learning project done in an undergraduate class on web design. In this project, students in a web design class contacted local community non-profit organizations to create websites (collections of web pages) to benefit these organizations. The two phases of creating a website,…

  20. [Design of a Component and Transmission Imaging Spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-peng; Zhang, Yi; Yue, Jiang; Han, Jing; Bai, Lian-fa

    2015-05-01

    In the reflection-based imaging spectrometer, multiple reflection(diffraction) produces stray light and it is difficult to assemble. To address that, a high performance transmission spectral imaging system based on general optical components was developed. On the basis of simple structure, the system is easy to assemble. And it has wide application and low cost compared to traditional imaging spectrometers. All components in the design can be replaced according to different application situations, having high degree of freedom. In order to reduce the influence of stray light, a method based on transmission was introduced. Two sets of optical systems with different objective lenses were simulated; the parameters such as distortion, MTF and aberration.were analyzed and optimized in the ZEMAX software. By comparing the performance of system with different objective len 25 and 50 mm, it can be concluded that the replacement of telescope lens has little effect on imaging quality of whole system. An imaging spectrometer is developed successfully according design parameters. The telescope lens uses double Gauss structures, which is beneficial to reduce field curvature and distortion. As the craftsmanship of transmission-type plane diffraction grating is mature, it can be used without modification and it is easy to assemble, so it is used as beam-split. component of the imaging spectrometer. In addition, the real imaging spectrometer was tested for spectral resolution and distortion. The result demonstrates that the system has good ability in distortion control, and spectral resolution is 2 nm. These data satisfy the design requirement, and obtained spectrum of deuterium lamp through calibrated system are ideal results.

  1. Low-Power Design of Ethernet Data Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ming Pan; Qin Zhang; Jia-Feng Chen; Hao-Yuan Wang; Jia-Chong Kan

    2014-01-01

    For the reliability and power consumption issues of Ethernet data transmission based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA), a low-power consumption design method is proposed, which is suitable for FPGA implementation. To reduce the dynamic power consumption of integrated circuit (IC) design, the proposed method adopts the dynamic control of the clock frequency. For most of the time, when the port is in the idle state or lower-rate state, users can reduce or even turn off the reading clock frequency and reduce the clock flip frequency in order to reduce the dynamic power consumption. When the receiving rate is high, the reading clock frequency will be improved timely to ensure that no data will lost. Simulated and verified by Modelsim, the proposed method can dynamically control the clock frequency, including the dynamic switching of high-speed and low-speed clock flip rates, or stop of the clock flip.

  2. Design of Optically Path Length Matched, Three-Dimensional Photonic Circuits Comprising Uniquely Routed Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, Ned; Gross, Simon; Stewart, Paul; Norris, Barnaby; O'Byrne, John; Lawrence, Jon S; Withford, Michael J; Tuthill, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    A method for designing physically path length matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits is described. We focus specifically on the case where all the waveguides are uniquely routed from the input to output; a problem which has not been addressed to date and allows for the waveguides to be used in interferometric measurements. Circuit elements were fabricated via the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. We demonstrate via interferometric methods that the fabricated circuits were indeed optically path length matched to within 45 um which is within the coherence length required for many applications.

  3. Design of plate directional heat transmission structure based on layered thermal metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Invisibility cloaks based on transformation optics are often closed structures; however, such a structure limits the kinds of objects that can be placed in the cloak. In this work, we adopt a transformation thermodynamics approach to design an “open cloak”, called a plate directional heat transmission structure, which is capable of guiding heat fluxes to the flank region of the metamaterial device. The most fascinating and unique feature of the device is that the lower surface can remain at a lower temperature compared with the SiO2 aerogel thermal insulation material. Our results are expected to markedly enhance capabilities in thermal protection, thermal-energy utilization, and domains beyond. In addition to the theoretical analysis, the present design is demonstrated in numerical simulations based on finite element calculations.

  4. Transceiver Design Concept for Cellular and Multispot Diffusing Regimes of Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivkova S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made in an effort to combine the advantages of line-of-sight and diffuse configurations for indoor optical wireless communications via sophisticated combinations of elements that are characteristic for these architectures. A different approach has been followed in the present investigation, namely, developing a transceiver capable of operating in both configurations. It is proposed that the transceiver design be based on the utilization of two-dimensional arrays of infrared light-emitting devices and photodetectors. Basic design parameters of transceiver optics are derived from considerations about link blockage and system compliance with the unique features of line-of-sight and diffuse methods of transmission.

  5. Design of plate directional heat transmission structure based on layered thermal metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L. K.; Yu, Z. F.; Huang, J., E-mail: slk-0-1999@163.com [China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Invisibility cloaks based on transformation optics are often closed structures; however, such a structure limits the kinds of objects that can be placed in the cloak. In this work, we adopt a transformation thermodynamics approach to design an “open cloak”, called a plate directional heat transmission structure, which is capable of guiding heat fluxes to the flank region of the metamaterial device. The most fascinating and unique feature of the device is that the lower surface can remain at a lower temperature compared with the SiO{sub 2} aerogel thermal insulation material. Our results are expected to markedly enhance capabilities in thermal protection, thermal-energy utilization, and domains beyond. In addition to the theoretical analysis, the present design is demonstrated in numerical simulations based on finite element calculations.

  6. DESIGN OF MODULATION AND COMPRESSION CODING IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC IMAGE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程恩; 余丽敏; 林耿超

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design of modulation, compression coding and transmission control in underwater acoustic color image transmission system. This design adapts a special system of modulation and transmission control based on a DSP(Digital Signal Processing) chip, to cope with the complex underwater acoustic channel. The hardware block diagram and software flow chart are presented.

  7. 3D Printing of Medicines: Engineering Novel Oral Devices with Unique Design and Drug Release Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Wang, Jie; Buanz, Asma; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Telford, Richard; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-11-02

    Three dimensional printing (3D printing) was used to fabricate novel oral drug delivery devices with specialized design configurations. Each device was loaded with multiple actives, with the intent of applying this process to the production of personalized medicines tailored at the point of dispensing or use. A filament extruder was used to obtain drug-loaded--paracetamol (acetaminophen) or caffeine--filaments of poly(vinyl alcohol) with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modeling 3D printing. A multinozzle 3D printer enabled fabrication of capsule-shaped solid devices containing the drug with different internal structures. The design configurations included a multilayer device, with each layer containing drug, whose identity was different to the drug in the adjacent layers, and a two-compartment device comprising a caplet embedded within a larger caplet (DuoCaplet), with each compartment containing a different drug. Raman spectroscopy was used to collect 2-dimensional hyper spectral arrays across the entire surface of the devices. Processing of the arrays using direct classical least-squares component matching to produce false color representations of distribution of the drugs was used. This clearly showed a definitive separation between the drug layers of paracetamol and caffeine. Drug release tests in biorelevant bicarbonate media showed unique drug release profiles dependent on the macrostructure of the devices. In the case of the multilayer devices, release of both paracetamol and caffeine was simultaneous and independent of drug solubility. With the DuoCaplet design, it was possible to engineer either rapid drug release or delayed release by selecting the site of incorporation of the drug in the device; the lag-time for release from the internal compartment was dependent on the characteristics of the external layer. The study confirms the potential of 3D printing to fabricate multiple-drug containing devices with specialized design

  8. Load Sharing Multiobjective Optimization Design of a Split Torque Helicopter Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Split torque designs can offer significant advantages over the traditional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. However, it has two unique properties, gap and phase differences, which result in the risk of unequal load sharing. Various methods have been proposed to eliminate the effect of gap and promote load sharing to a certain extent. In this paper, system design parameters will be optimized to change the phase difference, thereby further improving load sharing. A nonlinear dynamic model is established to measure the load sharing with dynamic mesh forces quantitatively. Afterwards, a multiobjective optimization of a reference split torque design is conducted with the promoting of load sharing property, lightweight, and safety considered as the objectives. The load sharing property, which is measured by load sharing coefficient, is evaluated under multiple operating conditions with dynamic analysis method. To solve the multiobjective model with NSGA-II, an improvement is done to overcome the problem of time consuming. Finally, a satisfied optimal solution is picked up as the final design from the Pareto optimal front, which achieves improvements in all the three objectives compared with the reference design.

  9. Putative and unique gene sequence utilization for the design of species specific probes as modeled by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of utilizing putative and unique gene sequences for the design of species specific probes was tested. The abundance profile of assigned functions within the Lactobacillus plantarum genome was used for the identification of the putative and unique gene sequence, csh. The targeted gene (cs...

  10. Design and Transmission Analysis of an Asymmetrical Spherical Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Caro, Stéphane; Wang, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an asymmetrical spherical parallel manipulator and its transmissibility analysis. This manipulator contains a center shaft to both generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and support the mobile platform for high positioning accuracy. This work addresses the transmission ...

  11. Design of MAGLEV Information Transmission System by Radio Inductive Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Kweun [Taejon National University of Technology (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seok Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Yang Mo [Chungnam National University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Soo [ACE Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the information transmission between on-board and ground-site in MAGLEV Considering safety and high speed operation and density operation and density operation information, transmission between them is necessary. Therefore it is necessary for transmission system to ensure high speed transmission, low error rate, massive information, and reliability of information. To provide above conditions, 1.1km signal line assembly was constructed and Frequency Shift Keying(FSK) modulation and Open System Interconnection(OSI) based high-level data link control(HDLC) protocol are applied, To modulate digital signal for transmission from ground-site to on-board, carrier frequency of 70khz is used and 90khz is used for transmission from on-board to ground-site. Transmission speed is 2400bps for consideration of train speed, quantity of information, and data error rate. And this paper introduces information monitoring considering user interface and presents the method for an effective data transmission in MAGLEV which is now being tested and intends to provide for an intelligent train operation in future. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Design and simulation of on-chip lossy transmission line pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Demeester, Thomas; De Zutter, Daniël

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-TM reciprocity based multi-conductor transmission line model is used to investigate the influence of the geometry on the performance of on-chip transmission line pairs for high-frequency differential signal transmission. It is shown that both the knowledge of the fundamental transmission line modes and of the internal impedance of both connected circuits, are essential for a good design.

  13. Analysis, Design and Application of Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Seelan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. This allows the engine to operate more time in the optimum range. In contrast, traditional automatic and manual transmissions have several fixed transmission ratios forcing the engine to operate outside the optimum range. The need for a transmission system and the working principle of CVT has been discussed in depth. An attempt has been made to understand the contribution of Hydraulic Actuators, which is an integral part of a CVT. Furthermore, the question of how and why a Torque Converter has effectively replaced a conventional clutch has been answered. The materials used, constructional aspects and stress analysis of the belt has been discussed in detail. A graphical comparison of fuel efficiency between a manual transmission and a CVT in different high end vehicles is included. Recent developments in clamping force control for the push belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT have resulted in increased efficiency in combination with improved robustness. Current control strategies attempt to prevent macro slip between elements and pulleys at all times for maximum robustness.

  14. Design and Preparation of a Unique Segregated Double Network with Excellent Thermal Conductive Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Lei, Chuxin; Huang, Rui; Yang, Weixing; Chai, Songgang; Geng, Chengzhen; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    It is still a challenge to fabricate polymer-based composites with excellent thermal conductive property because of the well-known difficulties such as insufficient conductive pathways and inefficient filler-filler contact. To address this issue, a synergistic segregated double network by using two fillers with different dimensions has been designed and prepared by taking graphene nanoplates (GNPs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in polystyrene for example. In this structure, GNPs form the segregated network to largely increase the filler-filler contact areas while MWCNT are embedded within the network to improve the network-density. The segregated network and the randomly dispersed hybrid network by using GNPs and MWCNT together were also prepared for comparison. It was found that the thermal conductivity of segregated double network can achieve almost 1.8-fold as high as that of the randomly dispersed hybrid network, and 2.2-fold as that of the segregated network. Meanwhile, much higher synergistic efficiency (f) of 2 can be obtained, even greater than that of other synergistic systems reported previously. The excellent thermal conductive property and higher f are ascribed to the unique effect of segregated double network: (1) extensive GNPs-GNPs contact areas via overlapped interconnections within segregated GNPs network; (2) efficient synergistic effect between MWCNT network and GNPs network based on bridge effect as well as increasing the network-density.

  15. DESIGN OF MODULATION AND COMPRESSION CODING IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC IMAGE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程恩; 余丽敏; 林耿超

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design of modulation, compression coding and transmissi on control in underwater acoustic color image transmission system. This design adap ts a special system of modulation and transmission control based on a DSP(Digital Signal Processing) chip, to cope with the complex underwater acoustic channel. The hardware block diagram and software flow chart are presented.

  16. NOVEL METHOD OF REALIZING THE OPTIMAL TRANSMISSION OF THE CRANK-AND-ROCKER MECHANISM DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel method of realizing the optimal transmission of the crank-and-rocker mechanism is presented. The optimal combination design is made by finding the related optimal transmission parameters. The diagram of the optimal transmission is drawn. In the diagram, the relation among minimum transmission angle, the coefficient of travel speed variation, the oscillating angle of the rocker and the length of the bars is shown, concisely, conveniently and directly. The method possesses the main characteristic. That it is to achieve the optimal transmission parameters under the transmission angle by directly choosing in the diagram, according to the given requirements. The characteristics of the mechanical transmission can be improved to gain the optimal transmission effect by the method. Especially, the method is simple and convenient in practical use.

  17. Design and Realization of Phased Array Radar Optical Fiber Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shan-qing; LIU Feng; LONG Teng

    2007-01-01

    One optical fiber transmission system is designed.The modularization optical fiber transmission adapters were utilized in the system,so the system structure could be flexibly scalable.The sub-array adapter and signal processor adapter were designed and realized utilizing the new field programmable gate array (FPGA) which could drive the optical transceiver.The transmission agreement was designed based on the data stream.In order to solve the signal synchronization problem of the optical fiber transmitted phased array radar,a method named synchronous clock was designed.The fiber transmission error code rate of the system was zero with an experimental transmission velocity of 800 Mbit/s.The phased array radar system has detected the airplane target,thus validated the feasibility of the design method.

  18. Design formulas of transmission coefficients for permeable breakwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-xiang ZHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New empirical formulas of the transmission coefficient for permeable breakwaters were suggested based on available experimental data regarding the low-crest structure (LCS, including the permeable rubble mound breakwater and pile-type breakwater. The rationality of the present formulas was verified by their comparison with existing empirical and analytical formulas. Numerical flume results were obtained by solving the modified Boussinessq-type wave equations (MBEs, and a new expression relating the friction coefficient to the relative submerged depth was also derived. Comparative analysis shows that the results of the present formulas agree with the numerical flume results as well as available experimental data, and the present formulas are superior to the existing empirical and analytical expressions in estimating the transmission coefficient. The present formulas can provide references for estimation of the transmission coefficient in engineering practice.

  19. Design formulas of transmission coefficients for permeable breakwaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-xiang ZHANG; Xi LI

    2014-01-01

    Newempirical formulas of the transmission coefficient for permeable breakwaters were suggested based on available experimental data regarding the low-crest structure (LCS), including the permeable rubble mound breakwater and pile-type breakwater. The rationality of the present formulas was verified by their comparison with existing empirical and analytical formulas. Numerical flume results were obtained by solving the modified Boussinessq-type wave equations (MBEs), and a new expression relating the friction coefficientαto the relative submerged depth tsRHwas also derived. Comparative analysis shows that the results of the present formulas agree with the numerical flume results as well as available experimental data, and the present formulas are superior to the existing empirical and analytical expressions in estimating the transmission coefficient. The present formulas can provide references for estimation of the transmission coefficient in engineering practice.

  20. Design of 1000-kV AC Single-Circuit Overhead Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li

    2010-01-01

    The UHVAC 1 000-kV transmission system is so far the one with the most advanced transmission technique applied and highest operation voltage. There are no guidelines or standards available for the design of 1 000-kV overhead transmission line in China. Study on key technologies and design schemes shall be carried out to ascertain the technical principles and construction standards for project construction, which are presented in this paper based on the Southeast Shanxi-Nanyang-Jingmen test and demonstration transmission line. A comparison and analysis of technical data and economic indices between UHV line and other lines are also described.

  1. Simulation Study on Coil Design of Wireless Power Transfer System for Optimal Transmission Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Qiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging research field, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT has attracted wide spread attention recently. In this study, the coil design of WPT system for optimal transmission efficiency is investigated. We deduce Tthe design criteria are deduced to meet various conditions of transmission distance and load. The results of simulation and experiment show the transmission efficiency from transmitting coil to receiving coil can keep high when the corresponding optimal condition is achieved. Thusen it can improve the overall transmission efficiency of the WPT system and it makes it suitable for the practical application of WPT system.

  2. Innovative air vessel design for long distance transmission pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruth, P.; Pothof, I.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Shuweihat Water Transmission Scheme (SWTS, UAE) consists of a twin DN1600 DI PN25 pipeline transmitting 150 MIGD over 250 km from Shuweihat Desalination plant to Mussafah (Abu Dhabi city). The Scheme is divided in two subsequent systems, each with a tank farm and a pump station delivering water

  3. A New Design of Video Streaming Capture and Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Geng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to solve some existing problems such as low video streaming rate, high cost and complex set-up, a new video streaming capture and transmission system based on servfox is proposed. This system uses servfox to invoke V4L APIs to capture video streaming in Linux operating system, and then transmits the data to a remote monitoring client through Internet which can display the video streaming. Remote client can be either a software or a web browser. The experimental results show that the image captured by this system is high-quality and the streaming rate is high. At the same time, the system possesses high reliability and low cost. Compared with existing methods, this system can be widely used in the process of video streaming capture and transmission

  4. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms in China-Myanmar border: implication for HIV-1 transmission to Myanmar from Dehong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Jia, Yanhui; Xu, Qinggang; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Chiyu

    2012-12-01

    China-Myanmar border plays a crucial role in HIV-1 transmission in Asia. Here, we performed Bayesian phylodynamics analyses on p17 gene using BEAST to investigate HIV-1 transmission in this region. Maximum clade credibility trees of subtype C and CRF01_AE show that majority of unique recombinant forms (URFs) and pure subtype strains from Dehong and Myanmar cluster together, forming large clades with ancestral geographical states of Dehong. Bayes factor tests support the statistically significant geographic diffusion link between Dehong and Myanmar. The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor of Myanmar URFs_BC (1999.2) was later than that of Dehong URFs_BC (1998.0), but earlier than that of Myanmar URFs_01BC (2004.3). Since 1998, HIV-1 recombination between subtypes B, C and CRF01_AE has been continuously occurring in China-Myanmar border region. These results suggest that HIV-1 subtypes B, C and CRF01_AE were most likely transmitted from Dehong to Myanmar, and predict that URFs_01BC should be also prevalent in Dehong, Yunnan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parameter design and performance analysis of zero inertia continuously variable transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 吉毅; 晏玖江

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of weak power performance of vehicle equipped with continuously variable transmission (CVT) system working under transient operating conditions, a new CVT equipped with planetary gear mechanism and flywheel was researched, a design method of transmission parameter optimization was proposed, and the comprehensive matching control strategy was established for the new transmission system. Fuzzy controllers for throttle opening and CVT speed ratio were designed, and power performance and fuel economy of both vehicles respectively equipped with conventional CVT system and new transmission system wrere compared and analyzed by simulation. The results show that power performance and fuel economy of the vehicle equipped with new transmission system are better than that equipped with conventional CVT, thus the rationality of the parameter design method and control algorithm are verified.

  6. Innovative air vessel design for long distance transmission pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Leruth, P.; Pothof, I. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Shuweihat Water Transmission Scheme (SWTS, UAE) consists of a twin DN1600 DI PN25 pipeline transmitting 150 MIGD over 250 km from Shuweihat Desalination plant to Mussafah (Abu Dhabi city). The Scheme is divided in two subsequent systems, each with a tank farm and a pump station delivering water to downstream terminal reservoirs and direct consumers. The first system (Lot A) transmits water from Shuweihat to Mirfa (100 km). The second (Lot C) is from Mirfa to Mussafah (150 km). The pipelin...

  7. [Design and optimization of wireless power and data transmission for visual prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuping; Wu, Kaijie; Zhao, Lei; Chai, Xinyu

    2013-11-01

    Boosting spatial resolution of visual prostheses is an effective method to improve implant subjects' visual perception. However, power consumption of visual implants greatly rises with the increasing number of implanted electrodes. In respond to this trend, visual prostheses need to develop high-efficiency wireless power transmission and high-speed data transmission. This paper presents a review of current research progress on wireless power and data transmission for visual prostheses, analyzes relative principles and requirement, and introduces design methods of power and data transmission.

  8. Design and Development of Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    and microstrip transmission lines. .................................... 36 Table 6. Average power at different circuit nodes in the transient...GHz. Efficiencies of 55 to 66 percent were predicted for various circuit designs. However, with microstrip lines, the maximum output power can be...

  9. Design of wireless video transmission system based on STM32 microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ma, Chunting; Li, Haoyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of a wireless video transmission system based on STM32, the system uses the STM32F103VET6 microprocessor as the core, through the video acquisition module collects video data, video data will be sent to the receiver through the wireless transmitting module, receiving data will be displayed on the LCD screen. The software design process of receiver and transmitter is introduced. The experiment proves that the system realizes wireless video transmission function.

  10. Design, control and application of modular multilevel converters for HVDC transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharifabadi, Kamran; Nee, Hans-Peter; Norrga, Staffan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems is a comprehensive guide to semiconductor technologies applicable for MMC design, component sizing control, modulation, and application of the MMC technology for HVDC transmission. Separated into three distinct parts, the first offers an overview of MMC technology, including information on converter component sizing, Control and Communication, Protection and Fault Management, and Generic Modelling and Simulation. The second covers the applications of MMC in offshore WPP, including planning, technical and economic requirements and optimization options, fault management, dynamic and transient stability. Finally, the third chapter explores the applications of MMC in HVDC transmission and Multi Terminal configurations, including Supergrids.

  11. TGCat, The Chandra Transmission Grating Catalog and Archive: Systems, Design and Accessibility

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschang, Arik W; Nichols, Joy S

    2010-01-01

    The recently released Chandra Transmission Grating Catalog and Archive, TGCat, presents a fully dynamic on-line catalog allowing users to browse and categorize Chandra gratings observations quickly and easily, generate custom plots of resulting response corrected spectra on-line without the need for special software and to download analysis ready products from multiple observations in one convenient operation. TGCat has been registered as a VO resource with the NVO providing direct access to the catalogs interface. The catalog is supported by a back-end designed to automatically fetch newly public data, process, archive and catalog them, At the same time utilizing an advanced queue system integrated into the archive's MySQL database allowing large processing projects to take advantage of an unlimited number of CPUs across a network for rapid completion. A unique feature of the catalog is that all of the high level functions used to retrieve inputs from the Chandra archive and to generate the final data produc...

  12. Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.

  13. Robotized semiautomatic motorcycle transmission development. Electronic and software design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neghină Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an electrical design (implemented on a PCB board and an accompanying software design for controlling the automatic gear change. The designs complement the mechanical solutions developed in Part 1. The paper also analyses the issues encountered during the intermediate steps of the development of the electronic module, which is expected to be small and adaptable enough to be installed on a motorcycle without changing its ergonomics. The control software runs on the Arduino Nano board and is built as a state machine with one idle state, five active states that cover different stages of the gear change and one error state for preventing malfunctions in case of an unexpected event. The sketch uses 5,760 bytes (or 18% of program storage space and 706 bytes (or 34% of the dynamic memory.

  14. Unique properties of the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strain and its emergence from H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy substantiated by VM transmission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencsik, Anna; Leboidre, Mikael; Debeer, Sabine; Aufauvre, Claire; Baron, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    In addition to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), which is recognized as being at the origin of the human variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 2 rare phenotypes of BSE (H-type BSE [H-BSE] and L-type BSE [L-BSE]) were identified in 2004. H-type BSE and L-BSE are considered to be sporadic forms of prion disease in cattle because they differ from C-BSE with respect to incubation period, vacuolar pathology in the brain, and biochemical properties of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) in natural hosts and in some mouse models that have been tested. Recently, we showed that H-BSE transmitted to C57Bl/6 mice resulted in a dissociation of the phenotypic features, that is, some mice showed an H-BSE phenotype, whereas others had a C-BSE phenotype. Here, these 2 phenotypes were further studied in VM mice and compared with cattle C-BSE, H-BSE, and L-BSE. Serial passages from the C-BSE-like phenotype on VM mice retained similarities with C-BSE. Moreover, our results indicate that strains 301V and 301C derived from C-BSE transmitted to VM and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, are fundamentally the same strain. These VM transmission studies confirm the unique properties of the C-BSE strain and support the emergence of a strain that resembles C-BSE from H-BSE.

  15. Design of the Eelectron Cyclotron Resonance Heating Transmission System for HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 刘永

    2004-01-01

    HL-2A will be equipped with a 75 GHz/1 MW/1s electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system. The paper describes the design of the transmission system, which is made up of a transmission line, an equatorial launcher and a measureing system. The paper describes in detail the design of main components of the system such as, waveguides, ellipsoidal surface mirrors, chemical vapor (CVD) diamond window, steering mirror, and new directional coupler with a k-spectrometer. The newly-designed launcher can make the beam steer poloidally to deposit energy in different locations.

  16. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration and Five Years in Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Canizares, C R; Dewey, D; Flanagan, K A; Galton, E B; Huenemoerder, D P; Ishibashi, K; Markert, T H; Marshall, H L; McGuirk, M; Schattenburg, M L; Schulz, N S; Smith, H I; Wise, M; Canizares, Claude R.; Davis, John E.; Dewey, Daniel; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Galton, Eugene B.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Markert, Thomas H.; Marshall, Herman L.; Guirk, Michael Mc; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Henry I.; Wise, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Details of the design, fabrication, ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating, HETG, on the Chandra X-ray Observatory are presented after five years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication techniques, and the results of ground testing and calibration of the HETG. For nearly six years the HETG has operated essentially as designed, although it has presented some subtle flight calibration effects.

  17. New approaches to the design and economics of EHV transmission plant

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Brian

    1972-01-01

    New Approaches to the Design and Economics of EHV Transmission Plant examines the limitations of EHV transmission plant. Analysis is also covered in the book to correct these limitations. The concept behind EHV is that allowable transfer of electricity is related to the square of the voltage. Factors such as the expense of supplying a certain volume of electricity over a given distance and creations of power stations are examined. The book provides economic studies of alternative design policies based on estimation of costs and benefits of the design parameters. The text also focuses on the pr

  18. Research on Preference Polyhedron Model Based Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization Method for Multilink Transmission Mechanism Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To make the optimal design of the multilink transmission mechanism applied in mechanical press, the intelligent optimization techniques are explored in this paper. A preference polyhedron model and new domination relationships evaluation methodology are proposed for the purpose of reaching balance among kinematic performance, dynamic performance, and other performances of the multilink transmission mechanism during the conceptual design phase. Based on the traditional evaluation index of single target of multicriteria design optimization, the robust metrics of the mechanism system and preference metrics of decision-maker are taken into consideration in this preference polyhedron model and reflected by geometrical characteristic of the model. At last, two optimized multilink transmission mechanisms are designed based on the proposed preference polyhedron model with different evolutionary algorithms, and the result verifies the validity of the proposed optimization method.

  19. The design and analysis of single flank transmission error testor for loaded gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, D. R.; Bassett, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Due to geometrical imperfections in gears and finite tooth stiffnesses, the motion transmitted from an input gear shaft to an output gear shaft will not have conjugate action. In order to strengthen the understanding of transmission error and to verify mathematical models of gear transmission error, a test stand that will measure the transmission error of a gear pair at operating loads, but at reduced speeds would be desirable. This document describes the design and development of a loaded transmission error tester. For a gear box with a gear ratio of one, few tooth meshing combinations will occur during a single test. In order to observe the effects of different tooth mesh combinations and to increase the ability to load test gear pairs with higher gear ratios, the system was designed around a gear box with a gear ratio of two.

  20. Design of communication module based on Zigbee wireless transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Cheng, Ronglong; Hu, Weiquan

    2010-07-01

    For modern medical monitoring systems data acquisition is very important. To achieve the strict requirements and communication we design the Zigbee-based wireless infusion monitoring system, which has the following excellent features: It adopts a high performance price ratio chip CC2530, which was integrated of AD converter, strengthened MCU, and wireless RF unit. It can also communicate with peripheral device via serial ports and then instruct infusion equipments to realize system real time control. The communication module based on Zigbee has a simple structure, low power consumption. The system can obtain high control precision but also adjust infusion parameters accurately.

  1. Design of Chebychev’s Low Pass Filters Using Nonuniform Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Attamimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission lines are utilized in many applications to convey energy as well as information. Nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs are obtained through variation of the characteristic quantities along the axial direction. Such NTLs can be used to design network elements, like matching circuits, delay equalizers, filters, VLSI interconnections, etc. In this work, NTLs were analyzed with a numerical method based on the implementation of method of moment. In order to approximate the voltage and current distribution along the transmission line, a sum of basis functions with unknown amplitudes was introduced. As basis function, a constant function was used. In this work, we observed several cases such as lossless and lossy uniform transmission lines with matching and arbitrary load. These cases verified the algorithm developed in this work. The second example consists of nonuniform transmission lines in the form of abruptly changing transmission lines. This structure was used to design a Chebychev’s low pass filter. The calculated reflection and transmission factors of the filters showed some coincidences with the measurements.

  2. Application of a case–control study design to investigate genotypic signatures of HIV-1 transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Talia M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of HIV-1 transmission strains may inform the design of an effective vaccine. Shorter variable loops with fewer predicted glycosites have been suggested as signatures enriched in envelope sequences derived during acute HIV-1 infection. Specifically, a transmission-linked lack of glycosites within the V1 and V2 loops of gp120 provides greater access to an α4β7 binding motif, which promotes the establishment of infection. Also, a histidine at position 12 in the leader sequence of Env has been described as a transmission signature that is selected against during chronic infection. The purpose of this study is to measure the association of the presence of an α4β7 binding motif, the number of N-linked glycosites, the length of the variable loops, and the prevalence of histidine at position 12 with HIV-1 transmission. A case–control study design was used to measure the prevalence of these variables between subtype B and C transmission sequences and frequency-matched randomly-selected sequences derived from chronically infected controls. Results Subtype B transmission strains had shorter V3 regions than chronic strains (p = 0.031; subtype C transmission strains had shorter V1 loops than chronic strains (p = 0.047; subtype B transmission strains had more V3 loop glycosites (p = 0.024 than chronic strains. Further investigation showed that these statistically significant results were unlikely to be biologically meaningful. Also, there was no difference observed in the prevalence of a histidine at position 12 among transmission strains and controls of either subtype. Conclusions Although a genetic bottleneck is observed after HIV-1 transmission, our results indicate that summary characteristics of Env hypothesised to be important in transmission are not divergent between transmission and chronic strains of either subtype. The success of a transmission strain to initiate infection may be a random

  3. Noise and signal interference in optical fiber transmission systems an optimum design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bottacchi, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to noise and signal interference in optical fiber communications Noise and Signal Interference in Optical Fiber Transmission Systems is a compendium on specific topics within optical fiber transmission and the optimization process of the system design. It offers comprehensive treatment of noise and intersymbol interference (ISI) components affecting optical fiber communications systems, containing coverage on noise from the light source, the fiber and the receiver. The ISI is modeled with a statistical approach, leading to new useful computational m

  4. Flexible displays as key for high-value and unique automotive design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isele, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Within the last few years' car industry changed very fast. Information and Communication became more important and displays are now standard in nearly every car. But this is not the only trend which could be recognized in this industry. CO2 emission, fuel price as well as the increasing traffic inside the Mega Cities initialized a big change in the behavior of the customers. The big battle for the car industry will enter the interior extremely fast, and the premium cars need ore innovative design icons. Flexible Displays are one big step that enables totally different designs and a new value of the driver experience.

  5. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Didouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, electrical, and technological characteristics of the antennas arrays. The proposed transmission line model showed its interest in the design of different multilayered bow-tie antennas and predicted the correct resonance frequency for different applications in telecommunications. To validate the proposed transmission line model, the simulation results obtained are compared with those obtained by the method of moments. The results of simulations are presented and discussed. Using this transmission line approach, the resonant frequency, input impedance, and return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  6. Design and simulation of a cable-pulley-based transmission for artificial ankle joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaxin; Ceccarelli, Marco; Huang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a mechanical transmission based on cable pulley is proposed for human-like actuation in the artificial ankle joints of human-scale. The anatomy articular characteristics of the human ankle is discussed for proper biomimetic inspiration in designing an accurate, efficient, and robust motion control of artificial ankle joint devices. The design procedure is presented through the inclusion of conceptual considerations and design details for an interactive solution of the transmission system. A mechanical design is elaborated for the ankle joint angular with pitch motion. A multi-body dynamic simulation model is elaborated accordingly and evaluated numerically in the ADAMS environment. Results of the numerical simulations are discussed to evaluate the dynamic performance of the proposed design solution and to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design in future applications for humanoid robots.

  7. Design of unique pins for irradiation of higher actinides in a fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, J.A.; Birney, K.R.; Weber, E.T.; Adair, H.L.; Quinby, T.C.; Raman, S.; Butler, J.K.; Bateman, B.C.; Swanson, K.M.

    1982-03-01

    The actinides produced by transmutation reactions in nuclear reactor fuels are a significant factor in nuclear fuel burnup, transportation and reprocessing. Irradiation testing is a primary source of data of this type. A segmented pin design was developed which provides for incorporation of multiple specimens of actinide oxides for irradiation in the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Scotland. Results from irradiation of these pins will extend the basic neutronic and material irradiation behavior data for key actinide isotopes.

  8. Isolating the Unique Effects of the Unified Protocol Treatment Modules Using Single Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Conklin, Laren R; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kennedy, Katherine A

    2017-03-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to treat the range of anxiety, depressive, and related disorders. Thus far, the UP treatment modules have only been studied when they are delivered in their entirety and presented in a standard sequence. To personalize the presentation of the UP modules for a given patient's presentation (e.g., providing the modules in a varied order, dropping irrelevant modules), it is first necessary to establish that each module leads to change in the skill it is designed to promote, and that these changes can occur in the absence of the other modules. Using a multiple baseline design in accordance with the single-case reporting guidelines in behavioral interventions (SCRIBE), eight patients with heterogeneous emotional disorders were randomly assigned to a 1- or 3-week baseline assessment phase followed by four sessions of one of four UP modules (psychoeducation, emotional awareness, cognitive flexibility, and countering emotional behaviors). Results provide preliminary support for the notion that each UP module under study leads to change in its associated skill in the absence of the other modules (five of eight patients demonstrated reliable change in the module-specific skill). In addition, exploratory analyses suggest that the emotion awareness training and cognitive flexibility modules appeared to exhibit change specific to their associated skills, psychoeducation, and countering emotional behaviors demonstrated somewhat more broad-based change across skills.

  9. Face-gear drives: Design, analysis, and testing for helicopter transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-10-01

    The use of face-gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split-torque transmission design utilizing face-gears is described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, grinding, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. An analytical study showed that the face-gear drive is relatively insensitive to gear misalignment with respect to transmission errors, but the tooth contact is affected by misalignment. A method of localizing the bearing contact to permit operation with misalignment was explored. Two new methods for grinding of the face-gear tooth surfaces were also investigated. The proper choice of shaft stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split-torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also conducted. These tests demonstrated the feasibility of face-gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions.

  10. Face-gear drives: Design, analysis, and testing for helicopter transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of face-gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split-torque transmission design utilizing face-gears is described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, grinding, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. An analytical study showed that the face-gear drive is relatively insensitive to gear misalignment with respect to transmission errors, but the tooth contact is affected by misalignment. A method of localizing the bearing contact to permit operation with misalignment was explored. Two new methods for grinding of the face-gear tooth surfaces were also investigated. The proper choice of shaft stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split-torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also conducted. These tests demonstrated the feasibility of face-gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions.

  11. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  12. Efficient design of multituned transmission line NMR probes: the electrical engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydel, J A; Krzystyniak, M; Pienkowski, D; Pietrzak, M; de Sousa Amadeu, N; Ratajczyk, T; Idzik, K; Gutmann, T; Tietze, D; Voigt, S; Fenn, A; Limbach, H H; Buntkowsky, G

    2011-01-01

    Transmission line-based multi-channel solid state NMR probes have many advantages regarding the cost of construction, number of RF-channels, and achievable RF-power levels. Nevertheless, these probes are only rarely employed in solid state-NMR-labs, mainly owing to the difficult experimental determination of the necessary RF-parameters. Here, the efficient design of multi-channel solid state MAS-NMR probes employing transmission line theory and modern techniques of electrical engineering is presented. As technical realization a five-channel ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C, (2)H and (15)N) probe for operation at 7 Tesla is described. This very cost efficient design goal is a multi port single coil transmission line probe based on the design developed by Schaefer and McKay. The electrical performance of the probe is determined by measuring of Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) in particular input/output ports. These parameters are compared to the calculated parameters of the design employing the S-matrix formalism. It is shown that the S-matrix formalism provides an excellent tool for examination of transmission line probes and thus the tool for a rational design of these probes. On the other hand, the resulting design provides excellent electrical performance. From a point of view of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), calibration spectra of particular ports (channels) are of great importance. The estimation of the π/2 pulses length for all five NMR channels is presented.

  13. A Novel Staphylococcus Podophage Encodes a Unique Lysin with Unusual Modular Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Katie; Dandu, Vidya Sree; Bari, S. M. Nayeemul; Lackey, Kim; Everett, Gabriel F. K.

    2017-01-01

    and community settings, underscoring the urgent need for new strategies to combat staphylococcal infections. Bacterial viruses (phages) and the enzymes that they use to degrade bacterial cell walls (lysins) show promise as alternative antimicrobials; however, only a limited variety of staphylococcal phages and their lysins have yet been identified. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a novel staphylococcal phage, Andhra. We show that Andhra encodes two lysins (Andhra_gp10 and Andhra_gp14) that inhibit growth and degrade the cell walls of diverse staphylococci, including S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains. Andhra and its unique lysins add to the arsenal of antimicrobials with potential for therapeutic use. PMID:28357414

  14. A fast algorithm for estimating transmission probabilities in QTL detection designs with dense maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Hélène

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the case of an autosomal locus, four transmission events from the parents to progeny are possible, specified by the grand parental origin of the alleles inherited by this individual. Computing the probabilities of these transmission events is essential to perform QTL detection methods. Results A fast algorithm for the estimation of these probabilities conditional to parental phases has been developed. It is adapted to classical QTL detection designs applied to outbred populations, in particular to designs composed of half and/or full sib families. It assumes the absence of interference. Conclusion The theory is fully developed and an example is given.

  15. A Novel Design of Radio Frequency Energy Relays on Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Tong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the energy problem of monitoring sensors on high-voltage power transmission lines and propose a wireless charging scheme for a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID sensor tag to solve a commercial efficiency problem: the maintenance-caused power outage. Considering the environmental influences on power transmission lines, a self-powered wireless energy relay is designed to meet the energy requirement of the passive RFID sensor tag. The relay can obtain the electric field energy from the transmission lines and wirelessly power the RFID sensor tags around for longer operating distance. A prototype of the energy relay is built and tested on a 110 kv line. The measurement results show that the energy relay can provide stable energy even with the influences of wind, noise and power outage. To our knowledge, it is the first work to power the RFID sensor tags on power transmission lines.

  16. The design and analysis of channel transmission communication system of XCTD profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Jin, Xiang-Yu; Song, Guo-Min; Shang, Ying-Sheng; Li, Hong-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a channel transmission communication system of expendable conductivity-temperature-depth is established in accordance to the operation characteristics of the transmission line to more accurately assess the characteristics of deep-sea abandoned profiler channel. The wrapping inductance is eliminated to maximum extent through the wrapping pattern of the underwater spool and the overwater spool and the calculation of the wrapping diameter. The feasibility of the proposed channel transmission communication system is verified through theoretical analysis and practical measurement of the transmission signal error rate in the amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The proposed design provides a new research method for the channel assessment of complex abandoned measuring instrument and an important experiment evidence for the rapid development of the deep-sea abandoned measuring instrument.

  17. The design and analysis of channel transmission communication system of XCTD profiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Jin, Xiang-Yu; Song, Guo-Min; Shang, Ying-Sheng; Li, Hong-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a channel transmission communication system of expendable conductivity-temperature-depth is established in accordance to the operation characteristics of the transmission line to more accurately assess the characteristics of deep-sea abandoned profiler channel. The wrapping inductance is eliminated to maximum extent through the wrapping pattern of the underwater spool and the overwater spool and the calculation of the wrapping diameter. The feasibility of the proposed channel transmission communication system is verified through theoretical analysis and practical measurement of the transmission signal error rate in the amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The proposed design provides a new research method for the channel assessment of complex abandoned measuring instrument and an important experiment evidence for the rapid development of the deep-sea abandoned measuring instrument.

  18. Hot trends in design : chic sustainability, unique driving factors and boutique green roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.S. [American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Greenroofs.com, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Kiers, K. [Greenroofs.com, Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Green roofs are well known for their ecological benefits but less for their architectural usage. Green roofs offer more to the urban landscape than simply ecological, economic and aesthetic attributes of storm water management, temperature and energy reduction, and provision of additional green space. This paper focused on the top ten architectural trends in vegetated rooftop design. It addressed issues regarding client demands for green roofs and questioned if green roofs should be defined solely by their function as an ecological cover. The top ten trends revealed out-of-the ordinary applications, specialty designs and unusual projects on the boards. The paper looked beyond storm water and heat islands, and explored plans for innovative recreation, including a rooftop ski slope in Delft, the Netherlands, and a converted helipad turned into temporary grass tennis court in Dubai. The paper also presented less typical green roof market drivers, such as a doggie green space for a 10-year old, 9-pound Yorkie and a rooftop garden with plants from the Bible as a teaching laboratory for ministers. Other proposed projects that were discussed included plans for rice paddies on rooftop farms in China and the Vancouver Olympic Village with 50 per cent green roof coverage. The top ten list was organized under the following topics: boutique green roofs; sports and recreation; living roofs and living walls; eco resorts, hotels and therapeutic gardens; food on the roof; cutting edge applications; government and big box applications, cool green residences; mega green roofs; and, visionary proposed projects. 77 refs., 77 figs.

  19. The Westinghouse AP1000 plant design: a generation III+ reactor with unique proven passive safety technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetri, K. J.; Leipner, C. I.; Marshall, M. L., E-mail: demetrkj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The AP1000 plant is an 1100-M We pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications and standardization that simplify construction, operation, maintenance, safety, and cost. The AP1000 plant is based on proven pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology, with an emphasis on safety features that rely solely on natural forces. These passive safety features are combined with simple, active, defense-in-depth systems used during normal plant operations which also provide the first level of defense against more probable events. This paper focuses on specific safety and licensing topics: the AP1000 plant robustness to be prepared for extreme events that may lead to catastrophic loss of infrastructure, such as the Fukushima Dai-ichi event, and the AP1000 plant compliance with the safety objectives for new plants. The first deployment of the AP1000 plant formally began in July 2007 when Westinghouse Electric Company and its consortium partner, the Shaw Group, signed contracts for four AP1000 units on coastal sites of Sanmen and Haiyang, China. Both sites have the planned ability to accommodate at least six AP1000 units; construction is largely concurrent for all four units. Additionally, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued combined licenses (COLs) to allow Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) and South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE and G) to construct and operate AP1000 plants. Within this paper, the various factors that contribute to an unparalleled level of design, construction, delivery, and licensing certainty for any new AP1000 plant projects are described. These include: 1) How the AP1000 plant design development and reviews undertaken in the United States, China and Europe increase licensing certainty. 2) How the AP1000 passive plant robustness against extreme events that result in large loss of infrastructure further contributes to the licensing certainty in a post

  20. Concept design of the high voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L. S.

    1992-03-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations--such as the Channel Tunnel--demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design.

  1. The Design and Construction of a Simple Transmission Electron Microscope for Educational Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearsey, Paul K.

    This document presents a model for a simple transmission electron microscope for educational purposes. This microscope could demonstrate thermonic emission, particle acceleration, electron deflection, and flourescence. It is designed to be used in high school science courses, particularly physics, taking into account the size, weight, complexity…

  2. Fundamental design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard;

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive theoretical analysis on the design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission has been carried out, using a highly accurate model. The dispersion of the optical fiber as a function of the numerical aperture and the cutoff wavelength is included...

  3. Coastal California's Fog as a Unique Habitable Niche: Design for Autonomous Sampling and Preliminary Aerobiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana; Cynthia Ouandji; Arismendi, Dillon; Guarro, Marcello; Demachkie, Isabella; Crosbie, Ewan; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alex B.; Wang, Zhen; Sorooshian, Armin; hide

    2017-01-01

    Just as on the land or in the ocean, atmospheric regions may be more or less hospitable to life. The aerobiosphere, or collection of living things in Earth's atmosphere, is poorly understood due to the small number and ad hoc nature of samples studied. However, we know viable airborne microbes play important roles, such as providing cloud condensation nuclei. Knowing the distribution of such microorganisms and how their activity can alter water, carbon, and other geochemical cycles is key to developing criteria for planetary habitability, particularly for potential habitats with wet atmospheres but little stable surface water. Coastal California has regular, dense fog known to play a major transport role in the local ecosystem. In addition to the significant local (1 km) geographical variation in typical fog, previous studies have found that changes in height above surface of as little as a few meters can yield significant differences in typical concentrations, populations and residence times. No single current sampling platform (ground-based impactors, towers, balloons, aircraft) is capable of accessing all of these regions of interest.A novel passive fog and cloud water sampler, consisting of a lightweight passive impactor suspended from autonomous aerial vehicles (UAVs), is being developed to allow 4D point sampling within a single fog bank, allowing closer study of small-scale (100 m) system dynamics. Fog and cloud droplet water samples from low-altitude aircraft flights in nearby coastal waters were collected and assayed to estimate the required sample volumes, flight times, and sensitivity thresholds of the system under design.125 cloud water samples were collected from 16 flights of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) instrumented Twin Otter, equipped with a sampling tube collector, occurring between 18 July and 12 August 2016 below 1 km altitude off the central coast. The collector was flushed first with 70 ethanol

  4. Review of structural design trends for extra high voltage transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, L.H.J.; Coblenz, J.

    1964-01-01

    Viewed on a national basis, the anticipated investment in ehv transmission systems for the next few years is a major consideration. A conservative review of Canadian transmission construction programs indicates that at least 7,000 miles of transmission in the voltage range of 360 kV to 735 kV, representing an investment of over one billion dollars, will be built within the next ten years and that this figure could be doubled if a start is made on a national grid. The various technologies associated with transmission line design and construction have undergone tremendous changes during the last decade. The careful integration of all these advances into the ehv lines now being planned is essential if any major reduction in transmission costs is to be achieved. It is hoped that a program of applied research into the structural elements of a transmission system will be initiated as quickly as possible in order that the benefits of such a program may be reflected in material reductons in the cost of the extra high voltage systems now being conceived across Canada.

  5. Design of a fiber-optic transmitter for microwave analog transmission with high phase stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.; Lutes, G. F.; Primas, L. E.; Maleki, L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal considerations in the design of fiber-optic transmitters for highly phase-stable radio frequency and microwave analog transmission are discussed. Criteria for a fiber-optic transmitter design with improved amplitude and phase-noise performance are developed through consideration of factors affecting the phase noise, including low-frequency laser-bias supply noise, the magnitude and proximity of external reflections into the laser, and temperature excursions of the laser-transmitter package.

  6. Southeast Alaska intertie dc transmission system: reconnaissance design and cost estimate. Appendix I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    The detailed costs of the schemes are given in this Appendix. The conceptual designs of the sea electrodes for the schemes are also described. The cost estimates for the electrodes were based on these conceptual designs. A cost comparison of ac and dc transmission for 10 MW from Ketchikan to Tolstoi Bay is given along with an example outlining the procedure for selecting the optimum dc cable size.

  7. A Unique Capsule Locus in the Newly Designated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serovar 16 and Development of a Diagnostic PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Sárközi, Rita; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Angen, Øystein; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Rycroft, Andrew N; Fodor, László; Langford, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal was put forward that they comprised a new serovar, serovar 16. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm the presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of strain A-85/14, and a PCR was formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs. Analysis of the capsule locus of strain A-85/14 combined with the previous serological data show the existence of a sixteenth serovar-designated serovar 16-of A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Bossé et al.

  8. A unique structure for the multiplexer in quantum-dot cellular automata to create a revolution in design of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji Asfestani, Mazaher; Rasouli Heikalabad, Saeed, E-mail: s.rasouli@iaut.ac.ir

    2017-05-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is the advent of technology and suitable replacement for semiconductor transistor technology. In this paper, a unique structure for the 2:1 multiplexer is presented in QCA. The structure of this component is simple, ultra-efficient and very useful to implement the various logical functions. The proposed structure does not follow any Boolean function. It takes advantage of the inherent characteristics of quantum technology to produce the desired output. Based on these principles, we design the new and efficient structures for the 4:1 multiplexer and 8:1 multiplexer in the QCA technology. These structures are designed with QCADesigner simulator and simulation results are examined. Investigation results indicate the amazing performance of proposed structure compared to existing structures in terms of area, complexity, power consumption and latency.

  9. Helmholtz design for noise transmission attenuation on a chamber core composite cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deyu; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2002-11-01

    This work explores the feasibility of using Helmholtz resonators to attenuate a subscale ChamberCore cylinder noise transmission. The ChamberCore cylindrical composite is an innovative new sandwich-type structure. It consists of an outer skin, an inner skin, and linking ribs. There are wedge-cross-section chambers along the axis direction between the outer and inner skins. These chambers provide a potential for the acoustic Helmholtz resonator design in order to reduce the noise transmission, which is dominated by the internal acoustic cavity. In this experimental work, the sound transmission behavior of the ChamberCore fairing is investigated and divided into four interesting frequency regions: the stiffness-controlled zone, cavity resonance-controlled zone, coincidence-controlled zone, and mass-controlled zone. It is found that the noise transmission in the low-frequency band is controlled by the structural stiffness and cavity resonances, where the acoustic Helmholtz design method has the potential to improve the noise transmission.

  10. Strategies for the Design of a Slide-o-Cam Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien

    2007-01-01

    The optimization of the pressure angle in a cam-follower transmission is reported in this paper. This transmission is based on Slide-o-Cam, a cam mechanism with multiple rollers mounted on a common translating follower. The design of Slide-o-Cam, a transmission intended to produce a sliding motion from a turning drive, or vice versa, was reported elsewhere. This transmission provides pure-rolling motion, thereby reducing the friction of rack-and-pinions and linear drives. The pressure angle is a suitable performance index for this transmission because it determines the amount of force transmitted to the load vs. that transmitted to the machine frame. Two alternative design strategies are studied, namely, (i) increase the number of lobes on each cam or (ii) increase the number of cams. This device is intended to replace the current ball-screws in Orthoglide, a three-DOF parallel robot for the production of translational motions, currently under development at Ecole Centrale de Nantes for machining applications...

  11. The design of high-speed data transmission method for a small nuclear physics DAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wenxiong; Nan, Gangyang; Zhang, Jianchuan

    2013-01-01

    A large number of data need to be transmitted in high-speed between Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Advanced RISC Machines 11 micro-controller (ARM11) when we design a small data acquisition (DAQ) system for nuclear experiments. However, it is a complex problem to beat the target. In this paper, we will introduce a method which can realize the high-speed data transmission. By this way, FPGA is designed to acquire massive data from Front-end electronics (FEE) and send it to ARM11, which will transmit the data to other computer through the TCP/IP protocol. This paper mainly introduces the interface design of the high-speed transmission between FPGA and ARM11, the transmission logic of FPGA and the driver program of ARM11. The research shows that the maximal transmission speed between FPGA and ARM11 by this way can reach 50MB/s theoretically, while in nuclear physics experiment, the system can acquire data with the speed of 2.2MB/s.

  12. Visible CWDM system design for Multi-Gbit/s transmission over SI-POF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmen; Pinzón, Plinio Jesús; Pérez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the data rates of Multi-Gbit/s links based on large core step index (SI) plastic optical fibers (POF), different modulation scenes have been proposed. Another option is to use multiple optical carriers for parallel transmission of communication channels over the same fiber. Some designs to reach data rates of 14.77 Gb/s in 50 m, with 4 channels have been developed by off line processing. In this work, designs to test the potential of real Multi- Gbit/s transmission systems using commercial products are reported. Special care in designing low insertion loss multiplexers and demultiplexers is carried out to allow for greener solutions in terms of power consumption.

  13. Design and analysis of spiral bevel gears with seventh-order function of transmission error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Jinzhan; Fang Zongde; Cai Xiangwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to design and implement a seventh-order polyno-mial function of transmission error (TE) for spiral bevel gears with an aim to reduce the running vibration and noise of gear drive and improve the loaded distribution of the tooth. Based on the constraint conditions of predesigned seventh-order polynomial function curve and the theory of lin-ear algebra, the polynomial coefficients of the seventh-order polynomial function of transmission error can be obtained. By applying a method named reverse tooth contact analysis, the modified roll coefficients as well as parts of machine-tool settings for the face-milling of spiral bevel gears can be individually determined. Therefore, a predesigned seventh-order polynomial function of transmission error for spiral bevel gears can be obtained by the modified roll with high-order coef-ficients, and comparisons of the seventh-order polynomial and parabolic functions of transmission error are also performed. The achievement of spiral bevel gears with the seventh-order function of transmission error can be accomplished on a universal Cartesian-type hypoid gear generator or a numerically controlled cradle-style hypoid gear generator due to its simple generating motion of axes of the cradle and the work piece. The results of a numerical example show that the bending stresses of the tooth of seventh-order are less than those of a parabolic one, while the contact stres-ses remain almost equivalent.

  14. A unified modeling and control design for precision transmission system with friction and backlash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Bao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural flexibility, nonlinear friction, and backlash are the major factors limiting the control performance of precision transmission systems. If uncompensated, these factors compromise the positioning and tracking accuracy of precision transmission systems and even cause limit cycles and oscillation. In this article, a framework for integrated design from dynamic modeling to controller design is proposed. A multi-state dynamic model is presented, which can unify the modeling for a multi-state, discontinuous system including the motor state, the motion state, the mechanical contact state, and the friction state. Then, a control design method related to the dynamic modeling using perturbation separation of the model parameters is presented. Using the proposed modeling method, a continuous dynamic model is established to include all different partition models. The model comprehensively describes the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the precision transmission system. A robust controller is designed using the proposed control method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed modeling method is accurate and the proposed control method significantly improves accuracy and robustness of the controller compared to traditional control methods.

  15. Design and fabrication of the high-power RF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed and will be installed at the Gyeong-ju site. For the linac, a total of 11 sets of RF systems are required, and the waveguide layout was fixed to install high-power RF (HPRF) systems. One of the important interfaces with the building construction is the high-power radio-frequency (HPRF) transmission line embedded in the tunnel, which is used to transmit 1-MW RF power to each cavity in the tunnel. The waveguide section penetrating into the linac tunnel was designed with a bending structure for radiation shielding, and the dependence of its voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) on the chamfer length of the bending was calculated. The HPRF transmission line was fabricated into a piece of waveguide to prevent moisture and any foreign debris inside the 2.5-m thick concrete block. Air leakage was checked with a pressure of 0.25 psig of nitrogen gas, and a maximum VSWR of 1.196 was obtained by measuring the vector reflection coefficients with the quarter-wave transmission section. In this paper, the design and the fabrication of the HPRF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel are presented.

  16. Design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Waveguide Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.; Grunloh, H.; Koliner, J.

    2007-11-01

    The ITER ECH transmission line system is designed to deliver the power, from twenty-four 1 MW 170 GHz gyrotrons and three 1 MW 127.5 GHz gyrotrons, to the equatorial and upper launchers. The performance requirements, initial design of components and layout between the gyrotrons and the launchers is underway. Similar 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguide systems have been built and installed on several fusion experiments; however, none have operated at the high frequency and long-pulse required for ITER. Prototype components are being tested at low power to estimate ohmic and mode conversion losses. In order to develop and qualify the ITER components prior to procurement of the full set of 24 transmission lines, a 170 GHz high power test of a complete prototype transmission line is planned. Testing of the transmission line at 1-2 MW can be performed with a modest power (˜0.5 MW) tube with a low loss (10-20%) resonant ring configuration. A 140 GHz long pulse, 400 kW gyrotron will be used in the initial tests and a 170 GHz gyrotron will be used when it becomes available. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  17. Design and Analysis of the Gemini Chain System in Dual Clutch Transmission of Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yabing; GUO Haitao; FU Zhenming; WAN Nen; LI Lei; WANG Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chain drive system is widely used in the conditions of high-speed, overload, variable speed and load. Many studies are focused on the meshing theory and wear characteristics of chain drive system, but system design, analysis, and noise characteristics of the chain drive system are weak. System design and noise characteristic are studied for a new type Gemini chain of dual-clutch automatic transmission. Based on the meshing theory of silent chain, the design parameters of the Gemini chain system are calculated and the mathematical models and dynamic analysis models of the Gemini chain system are established. Dynamic characteristics of the Gemini chain system is simulated and the contact force of plate and pin, plate and sprockets, the chain tension forces, the transmission error and the stress of plates and pins are analyzed. According to the simulation results of the Gemini chain system, the noise experiment about system is carried out. The noise values are tested at different speed and load and spectral characteristics are analyzed. The results of simulation and experimental show that the contact forces of plate and pin, plate and sprockets are smaller than the allowable stress values, the chain tension force is less than ultimate tension and transmission error is limited in 1.2%. The noise values can meet the requirements of industrial design, and it is proved that the design and analysis method of the Gemini chain system is scientific and feasible. The design and test system is built from analysis to test of Gemini chain system. This research presented will provide a corresponding theoretical guidance for the design and dynamic characteristics and noise characteristics of chain drive system.

  18. Design and analysis of the Gemini chain system in dual clutch transmission of automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yabing; Guo, Haitao; Fu, Zhenming; Wan, Nen; Li, Lei; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chain drive system is widely used in the conditions of high-speed, overload, variable speed and load. Many studies are focused on the meshing theory and wear characteristics of chain drive system, but system design, analysis, and noise characteristics of the chain drive system are weak. System design and noise characteristic are studied for a new type Gemini chain of dual-clutch automatic transmission. Based on the meshing theory of silent chain, the design parameters of the Gemini chain system are calculated and the mathematical models and dynamic analysis models of the Gemini chain system are established. Dynamic characteristics of the Gemini chain system is simulated and the contact force of plate and pin, plate and sprockets, the chain tension forces, the transmission error and the stress of plates and pins are analyzed. According to the simulation results of the Gemini chain system, the noise experiment about system is carried out. The noise values are tested at different speed and load and spectral characteristics are analyzed. The results of simulation and experimental show that the contact forces of plate and pin, plate and sprockets are smaller than the allowable stress values, the chain tension force is less than ultimate tension and transmission error is limited in 1.2%. The noise values can meet the requirements of industrial design, and it is proved that the design and analysis method of the Gemini chain system is scientific and feasible. The design and test system is built from analysis to test of Gemini chain system. This research presented will provide a corresponding theoretical guidance for the design and dynamic characteristics and noise characteristics of chain drive system.

  19. Joint Base Station Clustering and Beamformer Design for Partial Coordinated Transmission in Heterogenous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi; Baligh, Hadi; Luo, Zhi-Quan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the interference management problem in a multicell MIMO heterogenous network. Within each cell there are a large number of distributed micro/pico base stations (BSs) that can be potentially coordinated for joint transmission. To reduce coordination overhead, we consider user-centric BS clustering so that each user is served by only a small number of (potentially overlapping) BSs. Thus, given the channel state information, our objective is to jointly design the BS clustering and the linear beamformers for all BSs in the network. In this paper, we formulate this problem from a {sparse optimization} perspective, and propose an efficient algorithm that is based on iteratively solving a sequence of group LASSO problems. A novel feature of the proposed algorithm is that it performs BS clustering and beamformer design jointly rather than separately as is done in the existing approaches for partial coordinated transmission. Moreover, the cluster size can be controlled by adjusting a single penalty paramet...

  20. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  1. Design of protective inductors for HVDC transmission line within DC grid offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents fault analysis and protective inductors design for an offshore wind farm, where the power collection system in the wind farm and the power transmission link to the grid adopt high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) technology. This paper focuses on dealing with short-circuit faults...... in the HVDC link between the offshore station and the onshore station. The transient characteristics of the transmission system are analyzed in detail. The criteria of selecting protective inductors are proposed to effectively limit the short-circuit current and avoid the damage to the converters. A dc grid...... offshore wind farm is simulated, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed protective inductors design....

  2. DESIGN OF TWO-PHASE SINUSOIDAL POWER CLOCK AND CLOCKED TRANSMISSION GATE ADIABATIC LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Pengjun; Yu Junjun

    2007-01-01

    First the research is conducted on the design of the two-phase sinusoidal power clock generator in this paper. Then the design of the new adiabatic logic circuit adopting the two-phase sinusoidal power clocks-Clocked Transmission Gate Adiabatic Logic (CTGAL) circuit is presented. This circuit makes use of the clocked transmission gates to sample the input signals, then the output loads are charged and discharged in a fully adiabatic manner by using bootstrapped N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) latch structure.Finally, with the parameters of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.25 μm CMOS device, the transient energy consumption of CTGAL, Bootstrap Charge-Recovery Logic (BCRL)and Pass-transistor Adiabatic Logic (PAL) including their clock generators is simulated. The simulation result indicates that CTGAL circuit has the characteristic of remarkably low energy consumption.

  3. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  4. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Attar, Talal

    2017-05-13

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  5. Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

  6. Genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission network of human metapneumovirus: identification of a unique sub-lineage of the fusion and attachment genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor’E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November–April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion and attachment genes identified the co-circulation of three known HMPV sub-lineages, A2b and B1 (30.2% each, 26/86) and B2 (20.9%, 18/86), with genotype shift from sub-lineage B1 to A2b observed in 2013. Interestingly, a previously unrecognized sub-lineage of A2 was identified in 18.6% (16/86) of the population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV. PMID:27279080

  7. Design and Manufacture of the RF Power Supply and RF Transmission Line for SANAEM Project Prometheus

    CERN Document Server

    Turemen, G; Unel, G; Alacakir, A

    2015-01-01

    A 1-5 MeV proton beamline is being built by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority in collaboration with a number of graduate students from different universities. The most important aspect of the project, is to acquire the design ability and manufacturing capability of all the components locally. SPP will be an accelerator and beam diagnostics test facility and it will also serve the detector development community with its low beam current. This paper discusses the design and construction of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line components such as its waveguide converters and its circulator.

  8. Design and optimization of the PBFA 2 vacuum interface and transmission lines for light ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, D. B.; Stinnett, R. W.; Gray, E. W.

    1985-03-01

    The PBFA II vacuum insulator was originally designed for optimum coupling to a proton ion diode with minimum inductance. In July 1983 it was decided that lithium ions at 30 MeV would be the baseline for PBFA II. This requires the use of plasma opening switches (POS) and vacuum inductor to reach 30 MV. To achieve this, the vacuum magnetically insulated transmission lines had to be redesigned as an inductive energy store. To gain optimum coupling to this vacuum inductors, the output impedance of the water section was increased by the use of a water-dielectric transformer. The calculations leading to the final design will be discussed.

  9. The biology of sexual development of Plasmodium: the design and implementation of transmission-blocking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinden Robert E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A meeting to discuss the latest developments in the biology of sexual development of Plasmodium and transmission-control was held April 5-6, 2011, in Bethesda, MD. The meeting was sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID in response to the challenge issued at the Malaria Forum in October 2007 that the malaria community should re-engage with the objective of global eradication. The consequent rebalancing of research priorities has brought to the forefront of the research agenda the essential need to reduce parasite transmission. A key component of any transmission reduction strategy must be methods to attack the parasite as it passes from man to the mosquito (and vice versa. Such methods must be rationally based on a secure understanding of transmission from the molecular-, cellular-, population- to the evolutionary-levels. The meeting represented a first attempt to draw together scientists with expertise in these multiple layers of understanding to discuss the scientific foundations and resources that will be required to provide secure progress toward the design and successful implementation of effective interventions.

  10. Design and Realization of a New Signal Security System for Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Chen Chen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new signal security system and its VLSI architecture for real-time multimedia data transmission applications. We first define two bit-circulation functions for one-dimensional binary array transformation. Then, we exploit a chaotic system in generating a binary sequence to control the bit-circulation functions defined for performing the successive transformation on the input data. Each eight 8-bit data elements is regarded as a set and is fed into an 8×8 binary matrix being transformed on each row and each column of the matrix by these two bit-circulation functions such that the signal can be transformed into completely disordered data. The features of the proposed design include low computational complexity, regular operations suitable for low-cost VLSI implementation, high data security, and high feasibility for easy integration with commercial multimedia storage and transmission applications. We have performed Matlab simulation to verify the functional correctness of the proposed system. In implementing the system, a low-cost VLSI architecture has been designed, verified, and physically realized based on a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The implementation results show that the proposed signal security system can achieve 117 Mbytes/s data throughput rate that is fast enough for real-time data protection in multimedia transmission applications.

  11. A unique semiconductor-carbon-metal hybrid structure design as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng-Qi; Wang, Ling-Chang; Zhang, Chen-Guang; Qi, Gao-Can; Gu, Bing-Chuan; Liu, Lu; Yuan, Zhi-Hao

    2017-05-25

    The catalytic activity of counter electrodes (CEs) severely restricts the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. However, electrons trapped by bulk defects greatly reduce the catalytic activity of the CE. In this study, we report a novel In2S3-C-Au hybrid structure designed by simply decorating Au particles on the surface of carbon-coated hierarchical In2S3 flower-like architectures, which could avoid the abovementioned problems. This effect can be attributed to the unique contribution of indium sulfide, carbon, and Au from the hybrid structure, as well as to their synergy. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the hybrid structure possessed high catalytic activity and electrochemical stability for the interconversion of the redox couple I3(-)/I(-). Moreover, this superior performance can be incorporated into the dye-sensitized solar cells system. We used this hybrid structure as a counter electrode by casting it on an FTO substrate to form a film, which displayed better photovoltaic conversion efficiency (8.91%) than the commercial Pt counterpart (7.67%).

  12. On time-domain and frequency-domain MMSE-based TEQ design for DMT transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbleu, K; Moonen, M; Ysebaert, G; 10.1109/TSP.2005.851161

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the minimum mean square error (MMSE) time-domain equalizer (TEQ), bitrate maximizing TEQ (BM-TEQ), and per-tone equalizer design (PTEQ) for discrete multitone (DMT) transmission and cast them in a common least-squares (LS) based framework. The MMSE- TEQ design criterion can be formulated as a constrained linear least-squares (CLLS) criterion that minimizes a time-domain (TD) error energy. From this CLLS-based TD-MMSE-TEQ criterion, we derive two new least-squares (LS) based frequency-domain (FD) MMSE-TEQ design criteria: a CLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ criterion and a so-called separable nonlinear LS (SNLLS) based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. Finally, the original BM-TEQ design is shown to be equivalent to a so-called iteratively-reweighted (IR) version of the SNLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. This LS-based framework then results in the following contributions. The new, IR-SNLLS-based BM-TEQ design criterion gives rise to an elegant, iterative, fast converging, Gauss-Newton-based design algorithm that exploits th...

  13. Lessons learned in high frequency data transmission design: ATLAS strips bus tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopke, J.; Fadeyev, V.; Grillo, A. A.; Lin, B.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sullivan, S.; Volk, J.; Wastie, R.; Weidberg, T.

    2017-01-01

    Requirements of HEP experiments lead to highly integrated systems with many electrical, mechanical and thermal constraints. A complex performance optimisation is therefore required. High-speed data transmission lines are designed using copper-polyimide flexible bus tapes rather than cable harnesses to minimise radiation length. Methods to improve the signal integrity of point-to-point links and multi-drop configurations in an ultra-low-mass system are described. FEA calculations are an essential guide to the optimisation of a tape design which supports data rates of 640 Mbps for point-to-point links over a length of up to 1.4 m, as well as 160 Mbps for multi-drop configuration. The designs were validated using laboratory measurements of S-parameters and direct bit error ratio tests.

  14. Design of Transmission Gate VCO and Dynamic PFD for Low Power CMOS PLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. C.

    2008-11-01

    To realize the high speed and low power CMOS PLL(Phase Locked Loop), the new circuits of VCO and PFD is designed in transistor level. In the VCO, the high speed and low power is realized using transmission-gate(TG) with an adaptive delay cell and low supply sensitivity. This delay cell has a built-in compensation circuit that senses and corrects the delay variation caused by supply fluctuation. And in the PFD, low power and small chip area is realized with the dynamic inverter. A fully CMOS PLL using these components has been designed based 0.6μm CMOS technology and its SPICE model. SPICE simulation results show that at 2.5V supply voltage, the designed PLL can operate over 1000MHz and dissipate power less than 50mW.

  15. Optimal design of lattice metal constructions of overhead power transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pustovgar Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new concept of design of power lines which allowed us to develop new unified power transmission supports, efficient and reliable ones. For the first time, a method of optimum design of overhead power lines has been developed which considered the power line as a united structural system, the relief, the atmospheric and climatic conditions, the environment pollution, the efficiency requirements, the technological and operational expenditures. The article describes the changes introduced into the requirements for the dimensions and parameters of grid metal works with the minimum mass. The optimum design, the computer-aided assembly process and the use of advanced technologies guarantee the reduction of the construction period and the increase in the maintenance period of power lines.

  16. Designing the Instrument Crank-Coupler Mechanism of Linear Output with Least Transmission Ratio Error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘建新; 赵爱华

    2004-01-01

    Movement accuracy is the key factor to be considered in designing precision instrument linkage and mini-linkage mechanisms. Although manufacturing errors, elastic deformation, kinematic pair clearance and friction factors all will have synthesis effect on the position accuracy of the mechanical system, the essential factor to guarantee the movement precision remains the kinematic dimensions.Combining the classical theory of mechanical synthesis with the modern error theory and the numerical method, the authors put forward a systematic and complete process and method of computer aided design for the instrument crankcoupler mechanism in which the follower takes the linear displacement approximately within a certain limited domain, with the design result of least transmission ratio error.

  17. A Figure-of-Merit for Designing High-Performance Inductive Power Transmission Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-11-16

    Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key inductive link design parameters that relate to the power source and driver specs, power loss, transmission range, robustness against misalignment, variations in loading, and interference with other devices. Designers need to strike a delicate balance between these two because designing the link to achieve high PTE will degrade the PDL and vice versa. We are proposing a new figure-of-merit (FoM), which can help designers to find out whether a two-, three-, or four-coil link is appropriate for their particular application and guide them through an iterative design procedure to reach optimal coil geometries based on how they weigh the PTE versus PDL for that application. Three design examples at three different power levels have been presented based on the proposed FoM for implantable microelectronic devices, handheld mobile devices, and electric vehicles. The new FoM suggests that the two-coil links are suitable when the coils are strongly coupled, and a large PDL is needed. Three-coil links are the best when the coils are loosely coupled, the coupling distance varies considerably, and large PDL is necessary. Finally, four-coil links are optimal when the PTE is paramount, the coils are loosely coupled, and their relative distance and alignment are stable. Measurement results support the accuracy of the theoretical design procedure and conclusions.

  18. DESIGN OF NOVEL IMPROVED UNITCELL FOR COMPOSITE RIGHT LEFT HANDED TRANSMISSION LINE BASED MICROWAVE CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar Upadhyay,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel improved version of unit-cell for the design of composite right left transmission line (CRLH TL is reported in this paper. Comparative results of both conventional design of unit-cell and proposed design of unitcell for CRLH TLs are presented in this article. The conventional unit-cell is designed based on inter digitalcapacitor (IDC in series and vias to the ground plane at the stub ends in shunt, whereas proposed unit-cell is designed based on wire bonded interdigital capacitor (WBIDC in series and vias to the ground plane at the stub ends in shunt . Use of WBIDC in the proposed unit-cell improves high frequency performance by reducing undesired self resonances generated in IDC at lower frequency end. A simple technique is also used in both designs to miniaturize the unit-cell profiles. Dispersion diagrams of the unit-cells show the presence of self resonances in the conventional IDC based unit-cell and absence of such self resonances in the proposed WBIDC based unit-cell, which causes the wider operational frequency band of WBIDC based unit-cell. The performances of both unit-cells are compared from dispersion curve and S - parameters characteristics. The frequency parameter and performance of the both unit-cells are evaluated by full-wave electromagnetic simulator using Ansoft Designer, based on method of moment.

  19. Architectural analysis and intraoperative measurements demonstrate the unique design of the multifidus muscle for lumbar spine stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samuel R; Kim, Choll W; Eng, Carolyn M; Gottschalk, Lionel J; Tomiya, Akihito; Garfin, Steven R; Lieber, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    a low fiber length-to-muscle length ratio) demonstrates that the multifidus muscle is uniquely designed as a stabilizer to produce large forces. Furthermore, multifidus sarcomeres are positioned on the ascending portion of the length-tension curve, allowing the muscle to become stronger as the spine assumes a forward-leaning posture.

  20. A transmission infrared cell design for temperature-controlled adsorption and reactivity studies on heterogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulskis, Viktor J.; Harris, James W.; Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-10-01

    A design is presented for a versatile transmission infrared cell that can interface with an external vacuum manifold to undergo in situ gas treatments and receive controlled doses of various adsorbates and probe molecules, allowing characterization of heterogeneous catalyst surfaces in order to identify and quantify active sites and adsorbed surface species. Critical design characteristics include customized temperature control for operation between cryogenic and elevated temperatures (100-1000 K) and modified Cajon fittings for operation over a wide pressure range (10-2-103 Torr) that eliminates the complications introduced when using sealants or flanges to secure cell windows. The customized, hand-tightened Cajon fittings simplify operation of the cell compared to previously reported designs, because they allow for rapid cell assembly and disassembly and, in turn, replacement of catalyst samples. In order to validate the performance of the cell, transmission infrared spectroscopic experiments are reported to characterize the Brønsted and Lewis acid sites present in H-beta and H-mordenite zeolites using cryogenic adsorption of CO (<150 K).

  1. Design and Validation of a Software Defined Radio Testbed for DVB-T Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baruffa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and validation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR testbed, which can be used for Digital Television transmission using the Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial (DVB-T standard. In order to generate a DVB-T-compliant signal with low computational complexity, we design an SDR architecture that uses the C/C++ language and exploits multithreading and vectorized instructions. Then, we transmit the generated DVB-T signal in real time, using a common PC equipped with multicore central processing units (CPUs and a commercially available SDR modem board. The proposed SDR architecture has been validated using fixed TV sets, and portable receivers. Our results show that the proposed SDR architecture for DVB-T transmission is a low-cost low-complexity solution that, in the worst case, only requires less than 22% of CPU load and less than 170 MB of memory usage, on a 3.0 GHz Core i7 processor. In addition, using the same SDR modem board, we design an off-line software receiver that also performs time synchronization and carrier frequency offset estimation and compensation.

  2. Ultrabroadband Design for Linear Polarization Conversion and Asymmetric Transmission Crossing X- and K- Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbo; Zhou, Peiheng; Chen, Haiyan; Lu, Haipeng; Xie, Haiyan; Zhang, Li; Li, En; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a high-efficiency and broadband reflective converter using ultrathin planar metamaterial (MM) composed of single-layered SRR is firstly realized. Numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the cross-polarization conversion reflectance above 0.84 is achieved from 8.6 to 18.6 GHz for linearly polarized (LP) incident waves under normal incidence. Subsequently, a multi-layered MM based on SRR enables a dramatic improvement of the recently demonstrated asymmetric transmission (AT) effect. Theoretical and measured results present that strong one-way transmission of two orthogonally polarized waves crossing C- and K- band has been observed. These two separated AT pass-bands have a function of selective polarization filter, which can be switched on/off by changing the polarization state of incident waves. The physical mechanisms are elucidated by taking advantage of electric fields and current distributions. Considering the broad bandwidth and the dual band, we believe that these two structures will be beneficial for designing polarization-controlled and selective transmission converter.

  3. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhiwei, E-mail: jiayege@hotmail.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan [820 Institute, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  4. A maximum likelihood estimator for bedrock fracture transmissivities and its application to the analysis and design of borehole hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anthony C. F.; Novakowski, Kent S.; Gazor, Saeed

    2006-06-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the transmissivities of bedrock fractures from transmissivities measured in intervals of fixed length along a borehole. We define the scale of a fracture set by the inverse of the density of the Poisson point process assumed to represent their locations along the borehole wall, and we assume a lognormal distribution for their transmissivities. The parameters of the latter distribution are estimated by maximizing the likelihood of a left-censored subset of the data where the degree of censorship depends on the scale of the considered fracture set. We applied the method to sets of interval transmissivities simulated by summing random fracture transmissivities drawn from a specified population. We found the estimated distributions compared well to the transmissivity distributions of similarly scaled subsets of the most transmissive fractures from among the specified population. Estimation accuracy was most sensitive to the variance in the transmissivities of the fracture population. Using the proposed method, we estimated the transmissivities of fractures at increasing scale from hydraulic test data collected at a fixed scale in Smithville, Ontario, Canada. This is an important advancement since the resultant curves of transmissivity parameters versus fracture set scale would only previously have been obtainable from hydraulic tests conducted with increasing test interval length and with degrading equipment precision. Finally, on the basis of the properties of the proposed method, we propose guidelines for the design of fixed interval length hydraulic testing programs that require minimal prior knowledge of the rock.

  5. The 'Antiretrovirals, Sexual Transmission Risk and Attitudes' (ASTRA study. Design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Speakman

    Full Text Available Life expectancy for people diagnosed with HIV has improved dramatically however the number of new infections in the UK remains high. Understanding patterns of sexual behaviour among people living with diagnosed HIV, and the factors associated with having condom-less sex, is important for informing HIV prevention strategies and clinical care. In addition, in view of the current interest in a policy of early antiretroviral treatment (ART for all people diagnosed with HIV in the UK, it is of particular importance to assess whether ART use is associated with increased levels of condom-less sex. In this context the ASTRA study was designed to investigate current sexual activity, and attitudes to HIV transmission risk, in a large unselected sample of HIV-infected patients under care in the UK. The study also gathered background information on demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and disease-related characteristics, and physical and psychological symptoms, in order to identify other key factors impacting on HIV patients and the behaviours which underpin transmission. In this paper we describe the study rationale, design, methods, response rate and the demographic characteristics of the participants. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending 8 UK HIV out-patient clinics in 2011-2012 were invited to participate in the study. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire, and their latest CD4 count and viral load test results were recorded. During the study period, 5112 eligible patients were invited to take part in the study and 3258 completed questionnaires were obtained, representing a response rate of 64% of eligible patients. The study includes 2248 men who have sex with men (MSM, 373 heterosexual men and 637 women. Future results from ASTRA will be a key resource for understanding HIV transmission within the UK, targeting prevention efforts, and informing clinical care of individuals

  6. Wind-induced transmission tower foundation loads. A field study-design code comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savory, E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. (Canada); Parke, G.A.R.; Disney, P.; Toy, N. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a comparison between the wind-induced foundation loads measured on a type L6 transmission line tower during a field study in the UK and those computed using the UK Code of Practice for lattice tower and transmission line design (BS8100). In this work, the Code provisions have been generalised to give the wind-induced strain in each of the tower legs immediately above the foundation as a function of wind direction and wind speed at the top of the tower. The complete data set from the field monitoring has been decomposed to provide a similar formulation for comparison purposes. The analysis shows excellent agreement between the Code calculations and the measured results, within the overall accuracy of the field data. This indicates that, at least for the tower type examined here, the existing design Code provides a reliable transformation of the local wind speed at the top of the tower into tension and compression loads on the foundations. (author)

  7. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%, which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  8. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Shen-Yun; Geyi, Wen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%), which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  9. Design of UWB Bandpass Filter with Notched Band Using Distributed CRLH Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuje Sung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an Ultra-Wideband (UWB filter with a notched band. The filter adopts novel Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH Transmission Lines (TLs, the unit cell of which is theoretically analyzed to derive the design formulas. A model of the CRLH TLs is composed with distributed elements rather than lumped elements. Based on the results of the analysis, it is confirmed that the proposed structures are CRLH TLs. A UWB bandpass filter with a notched band is designed and fabricated using the induced formulas. The measurement results show that the fabricated UWB bandpass filter has an insertion loss of less than 3 dB, a bandwidth of 2.8-10.5 GHz and a rejection of greater than 27 dB at 5.75 GHz.

  10. Design and manufacture of the RF power supply and RF transmission line for SANAEM project Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turemen, G.; Ogur, S.; Ahiska, F.; Yasatekin, B.; Cicek, E.; Ozbey, A.; Kilic, I.; Unel, G.; Alacakir, A.

    2017-08-01

    A 1-5 MeV proton beamline is being built by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority in collaboration with a number of graduate students from different universities. The primary goal of the project, is to acquire the design ability and manufacturing capability of all the components locally. SPP will be an accelerator and beam diagnostics test facility and it will also serve the detector development community with its low beam current. This paper discusses the design and construction of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line components such as its waveguide converters and its circulator. Additionally low and high power RF test results are presented to compare the performances of the locally produced components to the commercially available ones.

  11. Lessons Learned in High Frequency Data Transmission Design: ATLAS Strips Bus Tape

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, Jens; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Requirements of HEP experiments lead to highly integrated systems with many electrical, mechanical and thermal constraints. A complex performance optimisation is therefore required. High speed data transmission lines are designed using copper-polyimide flexible bus tapes rather than cable harnesses to minimize radiation length. Methods to improve the signal integrity of point-to-point links and multi-drop configurations in an ultra-low-mass system are described. FEA calculations are an essential guide to the optimisation which allow data rates of 640 Mbps for point-to-point links over a length of up to 1.4m, as well as 160 Mbps for multi-drop configuration. The designs were validated using laboratory measurements of S-parameters and direct BER tests.

  12. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  13. Design and Optimization of Ultrasonic Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Miao; Kiani, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound has been recently proposed as an alternative modality for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. This paper presents the theory and design methodology of ultrasonic WPT links that involve mm-sized receivers (Rx). For given load (RL) and powering distance (d), the optimal geometries of transmitter (Tx) and Rx ultrasonic transducers, including their diameter and thickness, as well as the optimal operation frequency (fc) are found through a recursive design procedure to maximize the power transmission efficiency (PTE). First, a range of realistic fcs is found based on the Rx thickness constrain. For a chosen fc within the range, the diameter and thickness of the Rx transducer are then swept together to maximize PTE. Then, the diameter and thickness of the Tx transducer are optimized to maximize PTE. Finally, this procedure is repeated for different fcs to find the optimal fc and its corresponding transducer geometries that maximize PTE. A design example of ultrasonic link has been presented and optimized for WPT to a 1 mm(3) implant, including a disk-shaped piezoelectric transducer on a silicon die. In simulations, a PTE of 2.11% at fc of 1.8 MHz was achieved for RL of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. In order to validate our simulations, an ultrasonic link was optimized for a 1 mm(3) piezoelectric transducer mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB), which led to simulated and measured PTEs of 0.65% and 0.66% at fc of 1.1 MHz for RL of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text], respectively.

  14. MODELING, VALIDATION AND OPTIMAL DESIGN OF THE CLAMPING FORCE CONTROL VALVE USED IN CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yunshan; LIU Jin'gang; CAI Yuanchun; ZOU Naiwei

    2008-01-01

    Associated dynamic performance of the clamping force control valve used in continuously variable transmission (CVT) is optimized. Firstly, the structure and working principle of the valve are analyzed, and then a dynamic model is set up by means of mechanism analysis. For the purpose of checking the validity of the modeling method, a prototype workpiece of the valve is manufactured for comparison test, and its simulation result follows the experimental result quite well. An associated performance index is founded considering the response time, overshoot and saving energy, and five structural parameters are selected to adjust for deriving the optimal associated performance index. The optimization problem is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) with necessary constraints. Finally, the properties of the optimized valve are compared with those of the prototype workpiece, and the results prove that the dynamic performance indexes of the optimized valve are much better than those of the prototype workpiece.Key words: Dynamic modeling Optimal design Genetic algorithm Clamping force control valve Continuously variable transmission (CVT)

  15. Reconfigurable designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in solid state plasma metamaterials with multiple transmission windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Kun; Mo, Jin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Yang; Shi, Wei; Li, Hai-Ming; Bian, Bo-Rui

    2016-05-01

    A reconfigurable metamaterial analog electromagnetically-induced-transparency-like (EIT-like) effect is theoretically and numerically demonstrated in this paper. The unit cell is composed of a stimulated circular loop element and an unstimulated arc slot element, which are both constructed by semiconductor. The interaction between the two elements of the unit cell leads to a transparency window, resembling a special quantum optical phenomenon as electromagnetic (EM) induced transparency. The proposed designs can realize a continuously tunable EIT-like effect in a broad frequency range from 2.2 GHz to 3.6 GHz by changing the arc slot angle, while the number of EIT-like transmission windows can be configured by increasing the number of arc slots. This scheme which is constructed by solid state plasma (SSP) metamaterial provides an alternative way to realize the tunable plasmonic sensing and make new kinds of reconfigurable devices.

  16. Design and implementation of a fs-resolved transmission electron microscope based on thermionic gun technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, L.; Masiel, D. J.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the design and implementation of a femtosecond-resolved ultrafast transmission electron microscope is presented, based on a thermionic gun geometry. Utilizing an additional magnetic lens between the electron acceleration and the nominal condenser lens system, a larger percentage of the electrons created at the cathode are delivered to the specimen without degrading temporal, spatial and energy resolution significantly, while at the same time maintaining the femtosecond temporal resolution. Using the photon-induced near field electron microscopy effect (PINEM) on silver nanowires the cross-correlation between the light and electron pulses was measured, showing the impact of the gun settings and initiating laser pulse duration on the electron bunch properties. Tuneable electron pulses between 300 fs and several ps can be obtained, and an overall energy resolution around 1 eV was achieved.

  17. Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks Sliding Mode and Other Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Ignaciuk, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks details the modeling and control of data traffic in communication networks. It shows how various networking phenomena can be represented in a consistent mathematical framework suitable for rigorous formal analysis. The monograph differentiates between fluid-flow continuous-time traffic models, discrete-time processes with constant sampling rates, and sampled-data systems with variable discretization periods. The authors address a number of difficult real-life problems, such as: • optimal control of flows with disparate, time-varying delay; • the existence of source and channel nonlinearities; • the balancing of quality of service and fairness requirements; and • the incorporation of variable rate allocation policies. Appropriate control mechanisms which can handle congestion and guarantee high throughput in various traffic scenarios (with different networking phenomena being considered) are proposed. Systematic design procedures using sound control-theo...

  18. Improved microchip design and application for in situ transmission electron microscopy of macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Madeline J; Thomas, Rebecca; Damiano, John; Klein, Kate L; Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Kayandan, Sanem; Riffle, Judy S; Davis, Richey M; McDonald, Sarah M; Kelly, Deborah F

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the fundamental properties of macromolecules has enhanced the development of emerging technologies used to improve biomedical research. Currently, there is a critical need for innovative platforms that can illuminate the function of biomedical reagents in a native environment. To address this need, we have developed an in situ approach to visualize the dynamic behavior of biomedically relevant macromolecules at the nanoscale. Newly designed silicon nitride devices containing integrated "microwells" were used to enclose active macromolecular specimens in liquid for transmission electron microscopy imaging purposes.We were able to successfully examine novel magnetic resonance imaging contrast reagents, micelle suspensions, liposome carrier vehicles, and transcribing viral assemblies. With each specimen tested, the integrated microwells adequately maintained macromolecules in discrete local environments while enabling thin liquid layers to be produced.

  19. Design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Photon Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Y., E-mail: yasuo.takeichi@kek.jp; Mase, K.; Ono, K. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Inami, N. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Suga, H. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Miyamoto, C. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-0033 (Japan); Ueno, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We present a new compact instrument designed for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. It has piezo-driven linear stages, making it small and light. Optical components from the virtual source point to the detector are located on a single optical table, resulting in a portable instrument that can be operated at a general-purpose spectroscopy beamline without requiring any major reconstruction. Careful consideration has been given to solving the vibration problem common to high-resolution microscopy, so as not to affect the spatial resolution determined by the Fresnel zone plate. Results on bacteriogenic iron oxides, single particle aerosols, and rare-earth permanent magnets are presented as examples of its performance under diverse applications.

  20. Real Time MODBUS Transmissions and Cryptography Security Designs and Enhancements of Protocol Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT security has become a major concern due to the growing demand for information and massive development of client/server applications for various types of applications running on modern IT infrastructure. How has security been taken into account and which paradigms are necessary to minimize security issues while increasing efficiency, reducing the influence on transmissions, ensuring protocol independency and achieving substantial performance? We have found cryptography to be an absolute security mechanism for client/server architectures, and in this study, a new security design was developed with the MODBUS protocol, which is considered to offer phenomenal performance for future development and enhancement of real IT infrastructure. This study is also considered to be a complete development because security is tested in almost all ways of MODBUS communication. The computed measurements are evaluated to validate the overall development, and the results indicate a substantial improvement in security that is differentiated from conventional methods.

  1. Laser-based space debris removal: design guidelines for coherent coupling power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästel, Jürgen; Speiser, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    Space debris presents an increasing threat to the lifetime of commercial and military space assets. Laser-based space debris removal systems could potentially mitigate this threat by targeting debris objects in the cm-range. In order to reach this goal a minimum fluence of a few J/cm² on the debris object and a pulse repetition rate of several 10 Hz are necessary. These requirements can be met by coupling 1000-2000 independent 10 J laser sources coherently and employing a sending telescope with a diameter of 5 m. We analyze which parameters are critical to the effectiveness of the transmission system and deduce design guidelines. In particular the effects of non-optimum filling factors, secondary mirror size, emitter intensity distribution and phase jitter of the individual emitters are discussed and compared.

  2. Critical reflection and dialogical learning design: moving MOOCs beyond unidirectional transmission of content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Haagen Mathiesen

    2016-11-01

    Over a 5 week period we conducted a netnographic (Kozinet, 2015 mixed methods research of the MOOC Blended Learning Essentials (https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/blended-learning-gettingstarted/2. Contrary to the acclaimed potentials of MOOCs, our research showed a pronounced lack of dialogue and a high degree of what Freire (1996 calls “the banking concept of education,” entailing a high amount of one-way knowledge transmission (Hoem, 2006. To circumvent these tendencies, the paper presents a case analysis and design framework for moving MOOCs beyond “the banking concept of education” and towards dialogue in ways that support critical thinking; a high-level cognitive skill essential to higher education (Laurillard, 2012.

  3. A Novel Noise Free Transmission Technique for Designing 100Gb/s Future Generation Optical Communication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L.; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2017-01-01

    Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) techniques are widely used in designing the high-speed communication systems. However, these techniques still need improvement for long haul communication system design. In this paper, high-speed optical signal transmission and reception system is achieved f...

  4. DESIGNING HYDRAULIC AIR CHAMBER IN WATER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdorahim Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient flow control in Water Transmission Systems (WTS is one of the requirements of designing these systems. Hence, among control equipment, air chambers offer the best solution to control transient flow effects, i.e. both prevents water column separation and absorbs pressure increase. It is essential to carry out an accurate and optimized design of air chambers, not only due to high costs of their manufacturing but also their important protective role. Accordingly, hydraulic design parameters comprise tank volume, diameter of nozzle and coefficients of inflow and outflow of nozzle. In this paper, it is intended to optimize these parameters in order to minimize manufacturing costs. On the other hand, maximum and minimum pressures in main pipeline are considered as constraints which shall fall in allowed range. Therefore, a model has been developed which is a combination of a hydraulic simulation model of WTS and an optimization model based on genetic algorithm. This model is first applied to WTS of Dehgolan-Ghorveh plain as a case study. Results of this research demonstrate that based on suggested model, negative wave creation and pressure increase in pipeline is prevented as well as decrease in manufacturing costs of air chamber.

  5. Advanced semi-active engine and transmission mounts: tools for modelling, analysis, design, and tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjoud, Alireza; Taylor, Russell; Schumann, Eric; Schlangen, Timothy

    2014-02-01

    This paper is focused on modelling, design, and testing of semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) engine and transmission mounts used in the automotive industry. The purpose is to develop a complete analysis, synthesis, design, and tuning tool that reduces the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory and field tests. A detailed mathematical model of such devices is developed using multi-physics modelling techniques for physical systems with various energy domains. The model includes all major features of an MR mount including fluid dynamics, fluid track, elastic components, decoupler, rate-dip, gas-charged chamber, MR fluid rheology, magnetic circuit, electronic driver, and control algorithm. Conventional passive hydraulic mounts can also be studied using the same mathematical model. The model is validated using standard experimental procedures. It is used for design and parametric study of mounts; effects of various geometric and material parameters on dynamic response of mounts can be studied. Additionally, this model can be used to test various control strategies to obtain best vibration isolation performance by tuning control parameters. Another benefit of this work is that nonlinear interactions between sub-components of the mount can be observed and investigated. This is not possible by using simplified linear models currently available.

  6. Two-Stage Design Method for Enhanced Inductive Energy Transmission with Q-Constrained Planar Square Loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaa Agbaeze Eteng

    Full Text Available Q-factor constraints are usually imposed on conductor loops employed as proximity range High Frequency Radio Frequency Identification (HF-RFID reader antennas to ensure adequate data bandwidth. However, pairing such low Q-factor loops in inductive energy transmission links restricts the link transmission performance. The contribution of this paper is to assess the improvement that is reached with a two-stage design method, concerning the transmission performance of a planar square loop relative to an initial design, without compromise to a Q-factor constraint. The first stage of the synthesis flow is analytical in approach, and determines the number and spacing of turns by which coupling between similar paired square loops can be enhanced with low deviation from the Q-factor limit presented by an initial design. The second stage applies full-wave electromagnetic simulations to determine more appropriate turn spacing and widths to match the Q-factor constraint, and achieve improved coupling relative to the initial design. Evaluating the design method in a test scenario yielded a more than 5% increase in link transmission efficiency, as well as an improvement in the link fractional bandwidth by more than 3%, without violating the loop Q-factor limit. These transmission performance enhancements are indicative of a potential for modifying proximity HF-RFID reader antennas for efficient inductive energy transfer and data telemetry links.

  7. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Kragt, Jan, II; Navarro, Ramon; Elswijk, Eddy; Hanenburg, Hiddo

    2008-07-01

    ASTRON is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for ground-based as well as space telescopes, with a focus on near- and mid-infrared instrumentation. ASTRON has developed, among others, cryogenic optics for the first generation ESO VLT and VLTI instruments VISIR, MIDI and the SPIFFI 2K-camera for SINFONI. Currently under construction are MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and X-shooter for the second generation ESO VLT instrumentation, while the initial design of several ELT instruments has started. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimetres per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. Though ASTRON is involved in the full realization of instruments from initial design to commissioning, this paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal"), kinematic designs and how they are implemented in instruments such as SPIFFI and X-shooter.

  8. Research and Design of Hydro-mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission for Tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liyou; ZHOU Zhili; ZHANG Mingzhu; LI Yan

    2006-01-01

    A new type continuous variable transmission device, a hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) for agricultural tractors is developed, which is composed of a single planetary gear differential train, a hydraulic transmission system consisted of variable displacement pump and fixed displacement motor and a multi-gear fixed step radio transmission. Based on the analysis of types of hydrostatic mechanical transmission (HMT) and styles of hydraulic transmission, the general drive scheme for HMCVT is obtained. The method of selecting mechanical parameters and hydraulic units is explained, and the stepless speed regulation characteristic of HMCVT is analyzed. This paper also specializes the calculating method of transmission efficiency. It shows that tractors assembled with HMCVT can obtain a continuously variable speed and achieve high drive efficiency.

  9. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3 design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack.

  10. A Transmissive X-ray Polarimeter Design For Hard X-ray Focusing Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hong; Ji, Jianfeng; Deng, Zhi; He, Li; Zeng, Ming; Li, Tenglin; Liu, Yinong; Heng, Peiyin; Wu, Qiong; Han, Dong; Dong, Yongwei; Lu, Fangjun; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray Timing and Polarization (XTP) is a mission concept for a future space borne X-ray observatory and is currently selected for early phase study. We present a new design of X-ray polarimeter based on the time projection gas chamber. The polarimeter, placed above the focal plane, has an additional rear window that allows hard X-rays to penetrate (a transmission of nearly 80% at 6 keV) through it and reach the detector on the focal plane. Such a design is to compensate the low detection efficiency of gas detectors, at a low cost of sensitivity, and can maximize the science return of multilayer hard X-ray telescopes without the risk of moving focal plane instruments. The sensitivity in terms of minimum detectable polarization, based on current instrument configuration, is expected to be 3% for a 1mCrab source given an observing time of 10^5 s. We present preliminary test results, including photoelectron tracks and modulation curves, using a test chamber and polarized X-ray sources in the lab.

  11. Accelerated multidimensional radiofrequency pulse design for parallel transmission using concurrent computation on multiple graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiran; Yang, Cungeng; Stenger, V Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Multidimensional radiofrequency (RF) pulses are of current interest because of their promise for improving high-field imaging and for optimizing parallel transmission methods. One major drawback is that the computation time of numerically designed multidimensional RF pulses increases rapidly with their resolution and number of transmitters. This is critical because the construction of multidimensional RF pulses often needs to be in real time. The use of graphics processing units for computations is a recent approach for accelerating image reconstruction applications. We propose the use of graphics processing units for the design of multidimensional RF pulses including the utilization of parallel transmitters. Using a desktop computer with four NVIDIA Tesla C1060 computing processors, we found acceleration factors on the order of 20 for standard eight-transmitter two-dimensional spiral RF pulses with a 64 × 64 excitation resolution and a 10-μsec dwell time. We also show that even greater acceleration factors can be achieved for more complex RF pulses. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Improvement of the validity of the simplified modal method for designing a subwavelength dielectric transmission grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xufeng; Zhang, Junchao; Tian, Ying; Jin, Shangzhong

    2014-01-10

    To accurately and easily design the diffraction characteristics of a rectangular transmission grating under the illumination of Littrow mounting, the validity and limitation of the simplified modal method is evaluated by a comparison of diffraction efficiencies predicted by the modal approach to exact results calculated with rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The influence of the grating normalized period, the normalized groove depth, and the fill factor on the accuracy of the modal method is quantitatively determined. More importantly, the reflection effect of two propagating grating modes with the optical thin-film model and the nonsymmetrical Fabry-Perot model is proposed and applied in the modal method to improve the accuracy of the calculated diffraction efficiencies. Generally, it is found that the thin-film model of reflection loss is valid at the smaller normalized period, but the Fabry-Perot model can exactly calculate the reflection loss of grating modes at the larger normalized period. Based on the fact that the validity of the modal approach is determined independently of the incident wavelength, the exact design and analysis of grating diffraction elements can be implemented at different wavelengths by simply scaling the grating parameters. Moreover, the polarization effect of diffraction properties on the limitation of the modal method without and with the reflection loss of grating modes is clearly demonstrated.

  13. Design and Development of Layered Security: Future Enhancements and Directions in Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Kim, Suntae; Kim, Kangmin; Choi, Jae-Young; Cho, Younghwa; Lee, Keun-Kwang

    2016-01-06

    Today, security is a prominent issue when any type of communication is being undertaken. Like traditional networks, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems suffer from a number of vulnerabilities. Numerous end-to-end security mechanisms have been proposed for the resolution of SCADA-system security issues, but due to insecure real-time protocol use and the reliance upon open protocols during Internet-based communication, these SCADA systems can still be compromised by security challenges. This study reviews the security challenges and issues that are commonly raised during SCADA/protocol transmissions and proposes a secure distributed-network protocol version 3 (DNP3) design, and the implementation of the security solution using a cryptography mechanism. Due to the insecurities found within SCADA protocols, the new development consists of a DNP3 protocol that has been designed as a part of the SCADA system, and the cryptographically derived security is deployed within the application layer as a part of the DNP3 stack.

  14. A Novel Noise Free Transmission Technique for Designing 100Gb/s Future Generation Optical Communication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L.; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2017-01-01

    Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) techniques are widely used in designing the high-speed communication systems. However, these techniques still need improvement for long haul communication system design. In this paper, high-speed optical signal transmission and reception system is achieved f...... the transmission and reception of data for high-speed long haul communication system without using any amplifier or repeater.......Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) techniques are widely used in designing the high-speed communication systems. However, these techniques still need improvement for long haul communication system design. In this paper, high-speed optical signal transmission and reception system is achieved...... that BER of 10-12+, Q-factor 98 at power penalty of 14 dB is attained using the designed technique for transmitting 100Gb/s at 300 Km. Whereas, existing NRZ technique achieved a BER of 10-6, Q-factor 32 at power penalty of 11 dB for same similar transmission data rate and distance. The designed offers...

  15. Design and implementation of the optical fiber control and transmission module in multi-channel broadband digital receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-xiao; Zhang, Yue; Fan, Li-jie; Li, Wei-xing; Chen, Zeng-ping

    2014-09-01

    An optical fiber control and transmission module is designed and realized based on Virtex-7 field programmable gata array (FPGA), which can be applied in multi-channel broadband digital receivers. The module consists of sampling data transfer submodule and multi-channel synchronous sampling control submodule. The sampling data transmission in 4× fiber link channel is realized with the self-defined transfer protocol. The measured maximum data rate is 4.97 Gbyte/s. By connecting coherent clocks to the transmitter and receiver endpoints and using the self-defined transfer protocol, multi-channel sampling control signals transferred in optical fibers can be received synchronously by each analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with high accuracy and strong anti-interference ability. The module designed in this paper has certain reference value in increasing the transmission bandwidth and the synchronous sampling accuracy of multi-channel broadband digital receivers.

  16. Design and Smartphone-Based Implementation of a Chaotic Video Communication Scheme via WAN Remote Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuosheng; Yu, Simin; Li, Chengqing; Lü, Jinhu; Wang, Qianxue

    This paper proposes a chaotic secure video remote communication scheme that can perform on real WAN networks, and implements it on a smartphone hardware platform. First, a joint encryption and compression scheme is designed by embedding a chaotic encryption scheme into the MJPG-Streamer source codes. Then, multiuser smartphone communications between the sender and the receiver are implemented via WAN remote transmission. Finally, the transmitted video data are received with the given IP address and port in an Android smartphone. It should be noted that, this is the first time that chaotic video encryption schemes are implemented on such a hardware platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the technical challenges on hardware implementation of secure video communication are successfully solved, reaching a balance amongst sufficient security level, real-time processing of massive video data, and utilization of available resources in the hardware environment. The proposed scheme can serve as a good application example of chaotic secure communications for smartphone and other mobile facilities in the future.

  17. Design and implementation of digital television over ethernet PON transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Liu, Deming; Mao, Minjing; Wang, Jinjuan

    2005-11-01

    There are two primary methods of transmitting signal of digital television to the home in China. The first one is HFC mode, which is widely used. The other is IPTV mode, which is emerging. In this paper, the scheme of digital television over Ethernet PON is proposed. There are several differences from this system to IPTV and Video over LAN: the real-time transmission of equal-bandwidth based on statistical multiplexing, channel switching based on multicast and IP CA system, etc.. And these are also the key techniques used in this system. The architecture of DTV over EPON system, the function of every component, the framing process and the multiplexing of Ethernet frame are described. The implementation procedure of the system is shown. The mechanism of channel switching using multicast technique is designed and realized. We also present the method of using static VLAN and IGMP snooping mechanism to implement statistical multiplexing on Ethernet layer, and put forward the concept of IP Conditional Access System and define it. An experimental system of DTV over EPON is set up and the experimental result is significant.

  18. Optimal Design of Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for RF power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable biomedical devices. The optimal operating frequency and coil geometries are found such that power transfer efficiency (PTE) and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power are maximized. We define receiver power reception susceptibility (Rx-PRS) and transmitter figure of merit (Tx-FoM) such that their multiplication yields the PTE. Rx-PRS and Tx-FoM define the roles of the Rx and Tx in the PTE, respectively. First, the optimal Rx coil geometry and operating frequency range are identified such that the Rx-PRS is maximized for given implant constraints. Since the Rx is very small and has lesser design freedom than the Tx, the overall operating frequency is restricted mainly by the Rx. Rx-PRS identifies such operating frequency constraint imposed by the Rx. Secondly, the Tx coil geometry is selected such that the Tx-FoM is maximized under the frequency constraint at which the Rx-PRS was saturated. This aligns the target frequency range of Tx optimization with the frequency range at which Rx performance is high, resulting in the maximum PTE. Finally, we have found that even in the frequency range at which the PTE is relatively flat, the tissue loss per unit delivered power can be significantly different for each frequency. The Rx-PRS can predict the frequency range at which the tissue loss per unit delivered power is minimized while PTE is maintained high. In this way, frequency adjustment for the PTE and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power is realized by characterizing the Rx-PRS. The design procedure was verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. A prototype implant, 1 mm in diameter, achieved PTE of 0.56% ( -22.5 dB) and power delivered to load (PDL) was 224 μW at 200 MHz with 12 mm Tx-to-Rx separation in the tissue environment.

  19. Design and performance of the Z magnetically-insulated transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stygar, W.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The 36-module Z accelerator was designed to drive z-pinch loads for weapon-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, and to serve as a testing facility for pulsed-power research required to develop higher-current drivers. The authors have designed and tested a 10-nH 1.5-m-radius vacuum section for the Z accelerator. The vacuum section consists of four vacuum flares, four conical 1.3-m-radius magnetically-insulated transmission lines, a 7.6-cm-radius 12-post double-post-hole convolute which connects the four outer MITLs in parallel, and a 5-cm-long inner MITL which connects the output of the convolute to a z-pinch load. IVORY and ELECTRO calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of the vacuum flares with the constraint that there be no significant electron emission from the insulator-stack grading rings. Iterative TLCODE calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of the outer MITLs with the constraint that the MITL electron-flow-current fraction be {le} 7% at peak current. The TLCODE simulations assume a 2.5 cm/{micro}s MITL-cathode-plasma expansion velocity. The design limits the electron dose to the outer-MITL anodes to 50 J/g to prevent the formation of an anode plasma. The TLCODE results were confirmed by SCREAMER, TRIFL, TWOQUICK, IVORY, and LASNEX simulations. For the TLCODE, SCREAMER, and TRIFL calculations, the authors assume that after magnetic insulation is established, the electron-flow current launched in the outer MITLs is lost at the convolute. This assumption has been validated by 3-D QUICKSILVER simulations for load impedances {le} 0.36 ohms. LASNEX calculations suggest that ohmic resistance of the pinch and conduction-current-induced energy loss to the MITL electrodes can be neglected in Z power-flow modeling that is accurate to first order. To date, the Z vacuum section has been tested on 100 shots. They have demonstrated they can deliver a 100-ns rise-time 20-MA current pulse to the baseline z-pinch load.

  20. Design and development of the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES and the unique volume phase holographic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, J. A. C.; Gers, L.; Faught, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the grating development for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES). This paper discusses the challenges of designing, optimizing, and tolerancing large aperture volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for HERMES. The high spectral resolution requirements require steep angles of incidence, of 67.2 degrees, and high line densities, ranging between 2400 and 3800 lines per mm, resulting in VPH gratings that are highly s-polarized that push the fabrication process to its limits.

  1. System Design for Ocean Sensor Data Transmission Based on Inductive Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Liu, Fei; Zong, Yuan; Hong, Feng

    Ocean observation is the precondition to explore and utilize ocean. How to acquire ocean data in a precise, efficient and real-time way is the key question of ocean surveillance. Traditionally, there are three types of methods for ocean data transmission: underwater acoustic, GPRS via mobile network and satellite communication. However, none of them can meet the requirements of efficiency, accuracy, real-time and low cost at the same time. In this paper, we propose a new wireless transmission system for underwater sensors, which established on FGR wireless modules, combined with inductive coupling lab and offshore experiments confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed wireless transmission system.

  2. Designing an efficient LT-code with unequal error protection for image transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Marques, F.; Schwartz, C.; Pinho, M. S.; Finamore, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of images from earth observation satellites is spread over different applications, such as a car navigation systems and a disaster monitoring. In general, those images are captured by on board imaging devices and must be transmitted to the Earth using a communication system. Even though a high resolution image can produce a better Quality of Service, it leads to transmitters with high bit rate which require a large bandwidth and expend a large amount of energy. Therefore, it is very important to design efficient communication systems. From communication theory, it is well known that a source encoder is crucial in an efficient system. In a remote sensing satellite image transmission, this efficiency is achieved by using an image compressor, to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a multinational forum for the development of communications and data system standards for space flight, establishes a recommended standard for a data compression algorithm for images from space systems. Unfortunately, in the satellite communication channel, the transmitted signal is corrupted by the presence of noise, interference signals, etc. Therefore, the receiver of a digital communication system may fail to recover the transmitted bit. Actually, a channel code can be used to reduce the effect of this failure. In 2002, the Luby Transform code (LT-code) was introduced and it was shown that it was very efficient when the binary erasure channel model was used. Since the effect of the bit recovery failure depends on the position of the bit in the compressed image stream, in the last decade many e orts have been made to develop LT-code with unequal error protection. In 2012, Arslan et al. showed improvements when LT-codes with unequal error protection were used in images compressed by SPIHT algorithm. The techniques presented by Arslan et al. can be adapted to work with the algorithm for image compression

  3. Transmission error in spur gears: Static and dynamic finite-element modeling and design optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Tharmakulasingam, Raul

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 07/10/2010. The gear noise problem that widely occurs in power transmission systems is typically characterised by one or more high amplitude acoustic signals. The noise originates from the vibration of the gear pair system caused by transmission error excitation that arises from tooth profile errors, misalignment and tooth deflections. This work aims to further research the effect of tooth pr...

  4. Investigations and system design for simultaneous energy and data transmission through inductively coupled resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Lloret Fuentes, E.; Buchholz, M.

    2015-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) with simultaneous data transmission through coupled magnetic resonators is investigated in this paper. The development of this system is dedicated to serve as a basis for applications in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for example tracking vital parameters remotely, charge and control sensors and so on. Due to these different scenarios we consider, it is important to have a system which is reliable under the circumstance of changing positioning of the receiving device. State of the art radio systems would be able to handle this. Nevertheless, energy harvesting from far field sources is not sufficient to power the devices additionally on mid-range distances. For this reason, coupled magnetic resonant circuits are proposed as a promising alternative, although suffering from more complex positioning dependency. Based on measurements on a simple prototype system, an equivalent circuit description is used to model the transmission system dependent on different transmission distances and impedance matching conditions. Additionally, the simulation model is used to extract system parameters such as coupling coefficients, coil resistance and self-capacitance, which cannot be calculated in a simple and reliable way. Furthermore, a mathematical channel model based on the schematic model has been built in MATLAB©. It is used to point out the problems occurring in a transmission system with variable transmission distance, especially the change of the passband's centre frequency and its bandwidth. Existing solutions dealing with this distance dependent behaviour, namely the change of the transmission frequency dependent on distance and the addition of losses to the resonators to increase the bandwidth, are considered as not inventive. First, changing the transmission frequency increases the complexity in the data transmission system and would use a disproportional total bandwidth compared to the actually available bandwidth

  5. Design of Time-Resolved Shifted Dual Transmission Grating Spectrometer for the X-Ray Spectrum Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoqing; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Tingshuai; Li, Jin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-07-01

    A new time-resolved shifted dual transmission grating spectrometer (SDTGS) is designed and fabricated in this work. This SDTGS uses a new shifted dual transmission grating (SDTG) as its dispersive component, which has two sub transmission gratings with different line densities, of 2000 lines/mm and 5000 lines/mm. The axes of the two sub transmission gratings in SDTG are horizontally and vertically shifted a certain distance to measure a broad range of 0.1-5 keV time-resolved X-ray spectra. The SDTG has been calibrated with a soft X-ray beam of the synchrotron radiation facility and its diffraction efficiency is also measured. The designed SDTGS can take full use of the space on a record panel and improve the precision for measuring spatial and temporal spectrum simultaneously. It will be a promising application for accurate diagnosis of the soft X-ray spectrum in inertial confinement fusion. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405158 and 11435011) and Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Nos. 2014B0102011 and 2014B0102012)

  6. Design and analysis of lumped resistor loaded metamaterial absorber with transmission band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Youquan; Fu, Yunqi; Yuan, Naichang

    2012-12-17

    A new type of multi-layer metamaterial (MM) absorber is represented in this paper, which behave as a dielectric slab in transmission band and act as an absorber in another lower band. The equivalent circuit model of each layer in this MM absorber has been established. The transmission line (TL) model is introduced to analysis the mechanism of electromagnetic wave traveling through this MM absorber. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate this MM absorber has a transmission band at 21GHz and an absorptive band from 5GHz to 13GHz. A good match of TL model results and measurement results verified the validity of TL model in analyzing and optimizing the performances of this kind of absorber.

  7. DESIGN OF IRREGULAR LDPC CODE WITH UNEQUAL ERROR PROTECTION PROPERTY AND ITS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ON IMAGE TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ruihua; Yin Liuguo; Yu Quan; Lu Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the property that high degree variable nodes within an irregular LowDensity Parity-Check (LDPC) code have more powerful error-correcting capability than that of low degree variable nodes, a group of irregular LDPC codes with Unequal Error Protection (UEP)property is designed in this letter. Simulation results show that the transmission quality of the image may be effectively improved with this class of irregular LDPC code.

  8. Design of Pinion Machine Tool-settings for Spiral Bevel Gears by Controlling Contact Path and Transmission Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xuemei; Fang Zongde; Xu Hao; Su Jinzhan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to design pinion machine tool-settings for spiral bevel gears by controlling contact path and transmis- sion errors. It is based on the satisfaction of contact condition of three given control points on the tooth surface. The three meshing points are controlled to be on a predesigned straight contact path that meets the pre-designed parabolic function of transmission errors. Designed separately, the magnitude of transmission errors and the orientation of the contact path are subjected to precise control. In addition, in order to meet the manufacturing requirements, we suggest to modify the values of blank offset, one of the pinion machine tool-settings, and redesign pinion ma- chine tool-settings to ensure that the magnitude and the geometry of transmission errors should not be influenced apart from minor effects on the predesigned straight contact path. The proposed approach together with its ideas has been proven by a numerical example and the manufacturing practice of a pair of spiral bevel gears.

  9. Design and analysis of small-scale transmission experiments with animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Bouma, A.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Nodelijk, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between pathogens and hosts at the population level should be considered when studying the effectiveness of control measures for infectious diseases. The advantage of doing transmission experiments compared to field studies is that they offer a controlled environment in which the effect

  10. Design and dynamic simulation for the transmission mechanism of drum-shaped gear with ring-involute teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-kai; LI Xiao-fang; ZHAO Yong-qiang

    2007-01-01

    The new mechanism of drum-shaped gear with ring-involute teeth is presented to implement dimensional transmission for the stairlift. The structure of the gear and rack in this actuating mechanism is designed,and then its inherent radius of turn and modulus selection have been studied. In order to make the mechanism move steadily, the drive guide is proposed. After using the dynamics simulation software ADAMS to analyze the 3D model, this kind of mechanism is confirmed to be able to implement dimensional track. The useful method and basis would be provided for the optimization design of the mechanism.

  11. BLACK HOLE ATTACK IN AODV & FRIEND FEATURES UNIQUE EXTRACTION TO DESIGN DETECTION ENGINE FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUSAIN SHAHNAWAZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is a collection of nodes that are capable to form dynamically a temporary network without the support of any centralized fixed infrastructure. Since there is no central controller to determine the reliable & secure communication paths in Mobile Adhoc Network, each node in the ad hoc network has to rely on each other in order to forward packets, thus highly cooperative nodes are required to ensure that the initiated data transmission process does not fail. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET where security is a crucial issue and they are forced to rely on the neighbor node, trust plays an important role that could improve the number of successful data transmission. Larger the number of trusted nodes, higher successful data communication process rates could be expected. In this paper, Black Hole attack is applied in the network, statistics are collected to design intrusion detection engine for MANET Intrusion Detection System (IDS. Feature extraction and rule inductions are applied to find out the accuracy of detection engine by using support vector machine. In this paper True Positive generated by the detection engine is very high and this is a novel approach in the area of Mobile Adhoc Intrusion detection system.

  12. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  13. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and Päivärinta [12], and Lakshtanov and Vainberg [13] provide new complementary results on the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the scalar problem under weak assumptions on the (possibly complex valued) refractive index that mainly stipulates that the contrast does not change sign on the boundary. It is interesting here to see three different new methods to obtain these results. On the other hand, the paper by Bonnet-Ben Dhia and Chesnel [14] addresses the Fredholm properties of the interior transmission problem when the contrast changes sign on the boundary, exhibiting cases where this property fails. Using more standard approaches, the existence and structure of transmission eigenvalues are analyzed in the paper by Delbary [15] for the case of frequency dependent materials in the context of Maxwell's equations, whereas the paper by Vesalainen [16] initiates the study of the transmission eigenvalue problem in unbounded domains by considering the transmission eigenvalues for Schrödinger equation with non-compactly supported potential. The paper by Monk and Selgas [17] addresses the case where the dielectric is mounted on a perfect conductor and provides some numerical examples of the localization of associated eigenvalues using the linear sampling method. A series of papers then addresses the question of localization of transmission eigenvalues and the associated inverse spectral problem for spherically stratified media. More specifically, the paper by Colton and Leung [18] provides new results on complex transmission eigenvalues and a new proof for uniqueness of a solution to the inverse spectral problem, whereas the paper by Sylvester [19] provides sharp results on how to locate all the transmission eigenvalues associated with angular independent eigenfunctions when the index of refraction is constant. The paper by Gintides and Pallikarakis [20] investigates an

  14. Comprehensive design and optimization of an electric vehicle powertrain equipped with a two-speed dual-clutch transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a systematic model to study electric vehicle powertrain system efficiency by combining a detailed model of two-speed dual-clutch transmission system efficiency losses with an electric vehicle powertrain system model. In this model, the design factors including selection of the electric machine, gear ratios’ change, multi-plate wet clutch design, and gear shift schedule design are considered. Meanwhile, the application of detailed model for drag torque losses in the gearbox is discussed. Furthermore, the proposed model, developed with the MATLAB/Simulink platform, is applied to optimize/maximize the efficiency of the electric vehicle powertrain system using genetic algorithms. The optimization results demonstrate that the optimal results are different between simulations via New Europe Drive Cycle and Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and comprehensive design and optimization of the powertrain system are necessary.

  15. Design and Analysis of a UHF Transmission Line Coupler for Telemetry and Power Harvesting in a Passive Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisle, Jean-Jacques

    The intra-coaxial transmission line coupler TXC is a four port device designed to harvest power from a host coaxial transmission line and to provide telemetry for remote sensing applications via the same host transmission line. Seven different TXC structures were designed and fabricated to study the effects of varying specific geometric features on the electrical characteristics of the TXC. Each TXC structure was tested using a RF vector network analyzer and analyzed using a commercially available finite-element numerical simulator. Two main observations resulted from the study: 1) the resonant frequency depends mainly on the value of the tuning capacitor and the loop inductance of the TXC, and 2) the electrical characteristics are relatively insensitive to variations in all geometric features except the TXC loop surface area and, to a lesser extent, the separation distance between the coax center conductor and the TXC loop. It was found that the output impedance, Q-factor, voltage transfer characteristic, and power transfer characteristic computed from simulations were systematically greater than those computed from experiment. It was shown that by using experimental results to "fit" the simulations, a much better agreement could be obtained between experimental and simulation results.

  16. Design and control of a novel two-speed Uninterrupted Mechanical Transmission for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shengnan; Song, Jian; Song, Haijun; Tai, Yuzhuo; Li, Fei; Sinh Nguyen, Truong

    2016-06-01

    Conventional all-electric vehicles (EV) adopt single-speed transmission due to its low cost and simple construction. However, with the adoption of this type of driveline system, development of EV technology leads to the growing performance requirements of drive motor. Introducing a multi-speed or two-speed transmission to EV offers the possibility of efficiency improvement of the whole powertrain. This paper presents an innovative two-speed Uninterrupted Mechanical Transmission (UMT), which consists of an epicyclic gearing system, a centrifugal clutch and a brake band, allowing the seamless shifting between two gears. Besides, driver's intention is recognized by the control system which is based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), utilizing the signals of vehicle velocity and accelerator pedal position. The novel UMT shows better dynamic and comfort performance in compare with the optimized AMT with the same gear ratios. Comparison between the control strategy with recognition of driver intention and the conventional two-parameter gear shifting strategy is presented. And the simulation and analysis of the middle layer of optimal gearshift control algorithm is detailed. The results indicate that the UMT adopting FLC and optimal control method provides a significant improvement of energy efficiency, dynamic performance and shifting comfort for EV.

  17. 传动机构的设计与计算%Design and calculation of the transmission mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩倩; 姚竹亭

    2015-01-01

    机械传动机构,可以将动力所提供的运动方式、方向或速度加以改变,被人们有目的地利用。机械传动分为很多种,例如丝杠传动、齿轮传动、链传动、带轮传动、蜗轮蜗杆传动等。本文将以同步带传动为例,设计一个传动机构。%Mechanical transmission mechanism could change movement, direction or speed provided by the power which used for a set purpose. Mechanical drive is divided into many kinds, such as lead screw drive, gear drive, chain drive, pulley drive, worm gearing. In this paper, a transmission mechanism is designed in a case study of synchronous belt drive.

  18. Design and performance investigation of LDPC-coded upstream transmission systems in IM/DD OFDM-PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoxue; Guo, Lei; Wu, Jingjing; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-12-01

    In Intensity-Modulation Direct-Detection (IM/DD) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks (OFDM-PONs), aside from Subcarrier-to-Subcarrier Intermixing Interferences (SSII) induced by square-law detection, the same laser frequency for data sending from Optical Network Units (ONUs) results in ONU-to-ONU Beating Interferences (OOBI) at the receiver. To mitigate those interferences, we design a Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC)-coded and spectrum-efficient upstream transmission system. A theoretical channel model is also derived, in order to analyze the detrimental factors influencing system performances. Simulation results demonstrate that the receiver sensitivity is improved 3.4 dB and 2.5 dB under QPSK and 8QAM, respectively, after 100 km Standard Single-Mode Fiber (SSMF) transmission. Furthermore, the spectrum efficiency can be improved by about 50%.

  19. To Design or Not to Design (Part Two): The There Is a Problem with the Word ’Problem;’ How Unique Vocabulary Is Essential to Conceptual Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    perspective that fails to translate in scale or form at the operational level. Michel Foucault provides perhaps a clearer example of critical thinking and... Foucault was a philosopher, and although the military has cultural abhorrence to intellectualism that includes discourses on these topics, Foucault ...s concept of „problematization‟ is essential for understanding design theory. 21 Foucault defined the term „problematization‟ as “how and why

  20. Optimal design of functionally graded PmPV/CNT nanocomposite cylindrical tube for purpose of torque transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Khalkhali; Sharif Khakshournia; Parvaneh Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites have vast application in industry because of their light mass and high strength. In this work, a cylindrical tube which is made up of functionally graded (FG) PmPV/CNT nanocomposite, is optimally designed for the purpose of torque transmission. The main confining parameters of a rotating shaft in torque transmission process are mass of the shaft, critical speed of rotation and critical buckling torque. It is required to solve a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP) to consider these three targets simultaneously in the process of design. The three-objective optimization problem for this case is defined and solved using a hybrid method of FEM and modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), by coupling two softwares, MATLAB and ABAQUS. Optimization process provides a set of non-dominated optimal design vectors. Then, two methods, nearest to ideal point (NIP) and technique for ordering preferences by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), are employed to choose trade-off optimum design vectors. Optimum parameters that are obtained from this work are compared with the results of previous studies for similar cylindrical tubes made from composite or a hybrid of aluminum and composite that more than 20% improvement is observed in all of the objective functions.

  1. Design and application of electric oil pump in automatic transmission for efficiency improvement and start–stop function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-fang; DONG Peng; LIU Yang; XU Xiang-yang

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of improving efficiency and realizing start–stop function, an electric oil pump (EOP) is integrated into an 8-speed automatic transmission (AT). A mathematical model is built to calculate the transmission power loss and the hydraulic system leakage. Based on this model, a flow-based control strategy is developed for EOP to satisfy the system flow requirement. This control strategy is verified through the forward driving simulation. The results indicate that there is a best combination for the size of mechanical oil pump (MOP) and EOP in terms of minimum energy consumption. In order to get a quick and smooth starting process, control strategies of the EOP and the on-coming clutch are proposed. The test environment on a prototype vehicle is built to verify the feasibility of the integrated EOP and its control strategies. The results show that the selected EOP can satisfy the flow requirement and a quick and smooth starting performance is achieved in the start–stop function. This research has a high value for the forward design of EOP in automatic transmissions with respect to efficiency improvement and start–stop function.

  2. Force transmission in offset broach handles used for hip replacement: comparison of three different designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, David; Mayr, Eckart; Haid, Christian; Hozack, Wiliam; Nogler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In minimally invasive hip arthroplasty double offset broach handles are used, to facilitate the preparation of the femoral canal. The aim of this study was to quantify the differences in force and impulse transmission between two double offset broach handles and a single offset broach handle. Two double offset broach handles (A European version, B American version) were compared to a single offset broach handle. A surgical hammer was used to give a variable impact to the head of the broach handle. Thirty measurements for each of five falling heights were recorded for each broach handle. The force measured by a load cell connected to the broaches was used to obtain the maximum force peak and to calculate the impaction impulse. Normal data distribution was assumed and analysis of variances was performed. Results have demonstrated that the highest values of the force peak and force impulse were found in the single offset broach handle. Broach handle A had higher impulse values and lower maximum force values compared to broach handle B. The lateral lever arm has a measurable effect on the force transmission. In double offset broach handles less energy is transmitted to the tip. Surgeons have to be aware of the differences between the broach handles when using them intraoperatively.

  3. Design of Electro-Mechanical Dual-Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Tawi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulley-based continuously variable transmission (CVT with a metal pushing V-belt is fast becoming the preferred choice for global carmakers due to its potential particularly in terms of fuel efficiency thanks to its continuous and wide ratio range. Nevertheless, the existing CVTs still face the issues of high power consumption from the engine because of the application of an electro-hydro-mechanical (EHM actuation system for its ratio changing process and clamping force mechanism. To address this issue, researchers from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia have successfully developed the prototype of an electro-mechanical dual-acting pulley continuously variable transmission (EMDAP CVT for automotive applications. The prototype of EMDAP CVT is developed for a maximum input torque of 160 Nm with the application of a metal pushing V-belt. The results from the testing prove that the prototype can vary its ratio from 2.8 to 0.6 and no continuous power is required to maintain a constant CVT ratio. These results suggest that the prototype is workable and future testing in a real car is possible.

  4. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  5. Partial PIC-MRC Receiver Design for Single Carrier Block Transmission System over Multipath Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Horng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single carrier block transmission (SCBT system has become one of the most popular modulation systems due to its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR, and it is gradually considered to be used for uplink wireless communication systems. In this paper, a low complexity partial parallel interference cancellation (PIC with maximum ratio combining (MRC technology is proposed to use for receiver to combat the intersymbol interference (ISI problem over multipath fading channel. With the aid of MRC scheme, the proposed partial PIC technique can effectively perform the interference cancellation and acquire the benefit of time diversity gain. Finally, the proposed system can be extended to use for multiple antenna systems to provide excellent performance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed low complexity partial PIC-MRC SIMO system can provide robust performance and outperform the conventional PIC and the iterative frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (FD-DFE systems over multipath fading channel environment.

  6. Analysis, Design and Simulation of a New System for Internet Multimedia Transmission Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Said

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available QoS (quality of service is a very important issue for multimedia (audio and video communication systems. In this paper, a new system that reinstalls the relation between the QoS elements (RSVP, routing protocol, sender, and receiver during the multimedia transmission is proposed, then an alternative path is created in case of original multimedia path failure. The suggested system considers the resulted problems that may be faced within and after the creation of rerouting path. Finally, the proposed system is simulated using OPNET 11.5 simulation package, and the obtained results are compared with the published ones for extracting contributions.Key words: Multimedia Protocols, RSVP, QoS, DiffServ, MPLS

  7. A 23.2:1 ratio, 300-watt, 26 N-m output torque, planetary roller-gear robotic transmission: Design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Wyatt S.; Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William; Rohn, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The design philosophy and measurements performed on a new roller-gear transmission prototype for a robotic manipulator are described. The design incorporates smooth rollers in a planetary configuration integrated with conventional toothed gears. The rollers were designed to handle low torque with low backlash and friction while the complementary gears support higher torques and prevent accumulated creep or slip of the rollers. The introduction of gears with finite numbers of teeth to function in parallel with the rollers imposes severe limits on available designs. Solutions for two-planet row designs are discussed. A two-planet row, four-planet design was conceived, fabricated, and tested. Detailed calculations of cluster geometry, gear stresses, and gear geometry are given. Measurement data reported here include transmission linearity, static and dynamic friction, inertia, backlash, stiffness, and forward and reverse efficiency. Initial test results are reported describing performance of the transmission in a servomechanism with torque feedback.

  8. Optimal Policy of Cross-Layer Design for Channel Access and Transmission Rate Adaptation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Shaoqian

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cross-layer design of joint channel access and transmission rate adaptation in CR networks with multiple channels for both centralized and decentralized cases. Our target is to maximize the throughput of CR network under transmission power constraint by taking spectrum sensing errors into account. In centralized case, this problem is formulated as a special constrained Markov decision process (CMDP), which can be solved by standard linear programming (LP) method. As the complexity of finding the optimal policy by LP increases exponentially with the size of action space and state space, we further apply action set reduction and state aggregation to reduce the complexity without loss of optimality. Meanwhile, for the convenience of implementation, we also consider the pure policy design and analyze the corresponding characteristics. In decentralized case, where only local information is available and there is no coordination among the CR users, we prove the existence of the constrained Nash equilibrium and obtain the optimal decentralized policy. Finally, in the case that the traffic load parameters of the licensed users are unknown for the CR users, we propose two methods to estimate the parameters for two different cases. Numerical results validate the theoretic analysis.

  9. Optimal Policy of Cross-Layer Design for Channel Access and Transmission Rate Adaptation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the cross-layer design of joint channel access and transmission rate adaptation in CR networks with multiple channels for both centralized and decentralized cases. Our target is to maximize the throughput of CR network under transmission power constraint by taking spectrum sensing errors into account. In centralized case, this problem is formulated as a special constrained Markov decision process (CMDP, which can be solved by standard linear programming (LP method. As the complexity of finding the optimal policy by LP increases exponentially with the size of action space and state space, we further apply action set reduction and state aggregation to reduce the complexity without loss of optimality. Meanwhile, for the convenience of implementation, we also consider the pure policy design and analyze the corresponding characteristics. In decentralized case, where only local information is available and there is no coordination among the CR users, we prove the existence of the constrained Nash equilibrium and obtain the optimal decentralized policy. Finally, in the case that the traffic load parameters of the licensed users are unknown for the CR users, we propose two methods to estimate the parameters for two different cases. Numerical results validate the theoretic analysis.

  10. Design and characterization of nonlinear functions for the transmission of a small signal with non-Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Seiya; Tadokoro, Yukihiro; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2013-12-01

    We design nonlinear functions for the transmission of a small signal with non-Gaussian noise and perform experiments to characterize their responses. Using statistical design theory [A. Ichiki and Y. Tadokoro, Phys. Rev. E 87, 012124 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.012124], a static nonlinear function is estimated from the probability density function of the given noise in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the output. Using an electronic system that implements the optimized nonlinear function, we confirm the recovery of a small signal from a signal with non-Gaussian noise. In our experiment, the non-Gaussian noise is a mixture of Gaussian noises. A similar technique is also applied to the optimization of the threshold value of the function. We find that, for non-Gaussian noise, the response of the optimized nonlinear systems is better than that of the linear system.

  11. Design of multi-view stereoscopic HD video transmission system based on MPEG-21 digital item adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokhee; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Man Bae; Kim, JongWon

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a design of multi-view stereoscopic HD video transmission system based on MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA). It focuses on the compatibility and scalability to meet various user preferences and terminal capabilities. There exist a large variety of multi-view 3D HD video types according to the methods for acquisition, display, and processing. By following the MPEG-21 DIA framework, the multi-view stereoscopic HD video is adapted according to user feedback. A user can be served multi-view stereoscopic video which corresponds with his or her preferences and terminal capabilities. In our preliminary prototype, we verify that the proposed design can support two deferent types of display device (stereoscopic and auto-stereoscopic) and switching viewpoints between two available viewpoints.

  12. Design and Implementation of Embedded Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Network Based on System-on-programmable Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; HAN Xiao-jun

    2008-01-01

    A scheme of transmission control protocol/Internet protocol(TCP/IP) network system based on system-on-programmable chip(SOPC) is proposed for the embedded network communication. In this system, Nios processor, Ethernet controller and other peripheral logic circuits are all integrated on a Stratix Ⅱ field programmable gate array(FPGA) chip by using SOPC builder design software. And the network communication is realized by transplanting MicroC/OS Ⅱ(μC/OS Ⅱ) operation system and light weight Internet protocol(LwIP). The design idea, key points and the structures of both software and hardware of the system are presented and ran with a telecommunication example. The experiment shows that the embedded TCP/IP network system has high reliability and real-time performance.

  13. The cavity resonator design: stochastic optimization of the transmission line method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurečka, Stanislav; Müllerová, Jarmila; Dado, Milan

    2012-02-01

    Stable cavity resonators provide an ideal solution for high quality applications in telecommunications, laser sources, sensors, oscillators and filters, instrumentation and other large area of applications. For the determination of the electromagnetic field (EMF) properties in a cavity resonator several numerical methods are widely used. In our approach we used the transmission line modeling method (TLM). It is a wide-band time-domain numerical method suitable for solution of the electromagnetic field in a studied region. TLM method is based on the isomorphism between the theory of passive electrical network and the wave equation describing the properties of the EMF. TLM method offers two important advantages over the time-domain techniques such as the finite-difference time domain methods. The electric and magnetic field are resolved synchronously in time and space and TLM in implicitly stable method due to the mapping to electrical circuits. The EMF in the rectangular cavity is in our approach determined by the TLM method and the frequency spectrum is computed by the Fourier transform of the time signal. The theoretical model of the cavity EMF power spectral density function contains information about the geometrical configuration of the resonator. In our work we use the genetic algorithm for the determination of optimal dimensions of the cavity resonator expected for the proposed output resonant frequency. The stochastic modification of the theoretical model parameters is controlled by the genetic operators of mutation, crossover and selection, leading to overall improvement of the theoretical model estimation during the optimization process.

  14. Transmission potential and design of adequate control measures for Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    Full Text Available Marburg hemorrhagic fever is rare yet among the most severe diseases affecting humans, with case fatality ratio even higher than 80%. By analyzing the largest documented Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic, which occurred in Angola in 2005 and caused 329 deaths, and data on viral load over time in non-human primates, we make an assessment of transmissibility and severity of the disease. We also give insight into the control of new Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics to inform appropriate health responses. We estimated the distribution of the generation time to have mean 9 days (95%CI: 8.2-10 days and standard deviation 5.4 days (95%CI: 3.9-8.6 days, and the basic reproduction number to be R(0 = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.53-1.66. Model simulations suggest that a timely isolation of cases, starting no later than 2-3 days after symptoms onset, is sufficient to contain an outbreak. Our analysis reveals that Marburg hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a relatively small reproduction number and by a relatively long generation time. Such factors, along with the extremely high severity and fatality, support the rare occurrence of large epidemics in human populations. Our results also support the effectiveness of social distancing measures--case isolation in particular--to contain or at least to mitigate an emerging outbreak. This work represents an advance in the knowledge required to manage a potential Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic.

  15. Designing large, high-efficiency, high-numerical-aperture, transmissive meta-lenses for visible light

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Steven J; Aieta, Francesco; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    A metasurface lens (meta-lens) is a lens that bends light with an array of nanostructures on a flat surface, rather than by refraction. Macroscopic meta-lenses (mm- to cm-scale diameter) have been quite difficult to simulate and optimize, due to the large area, the lack of periodicity, and the billions of adjustable parameters. We describe a method for designing a large-area meta-lens that allows not only prediction of the efficiency and far-field, but also optimization of the shape and position of each individual nanostructure, with a computational cost that is almost independent of the lens size. Loosely speaking, the technique consists of designing a series of metasurface beam deflectors (blazed gratings), and then gluing them together. As a test of this framework, we design some high-numerical-aperture (NA=0.94) meta-lenses for visible light, based on TiO2 nano-pillars on a glass substrate. One of our designs is predicted to focus unpolarized 580nm light with 79% predicted efficiency; another focuses 580n...

  16. Optimal Design of Spring Characteristics of Damper for Subharmonic Vibration in Automatic Transmission Powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, T.; Ryu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Rosbi, S.; Sueoka, A.; Takikawa, Y.; Ooi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In the torque converter, the damper of the lock-up clutch is used to effectively absorb the torsional vibration. The damper is designed using a piecewise-linear spring with three stiffness stages. However, a nonlinear vibration, referred to as a subharmonic vibration of order 1/2, occurred around the switching point in the piecewise-linear restoring torque characteristics because of the nonlinearity. In the present study, we analyze vibration reduction for subharmonic vibration. The model used herein includes the torque converter, the gear train, and the differential gear. The damper is modeled by a nonlinear rotational spring of the piecewise-linear spring. We focus on the optimum design of the spring characteristics of the damper in order to suppress the subharmonic vibration. A piecewise-linear spring with five stiffness stages is proposed, and the effect of the distance between switching points on the subharmonic vibration is investigated. The results of our analysis indicate that the subharmonic vibration can be suppressed by designing a damper with five stiffness stages to have a small spring constant ratio between the neighboring springs. The distances between switching points must be designed to be large enough that the amplitude of the main frequency component of the systems does not reach the neighboring switching point.

  17. Undergraduate Electronics Projects Based on the Design of an Optical Wireless Audio Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luis Bica; Paulino, Nuno; Oliveira, João P.; Santos-Tavares, Rui; Pereira, Nuno; Goes, João

    2017-01-01

    The two projects presented in this paper can be used either as two separate assignments in two different semesters or as a final assignment for undergraduate students of electrical engineering. They have two main objectives: first, to teach basic electronic circuit design concepts and, second, to motivate the students to learn more about analog…

  18. Transmission error and load distribution analysis of spur and double helical gear pairs used in a split path helicopter transmission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, David; Houser, Donald R.; Thomas, Jacob

    1991-05-01

    Because the reduction of gear noise in next-generation rotorcraft depends on the reduction of transmission errors, attention is presently given to the prediction of such errors and the load distributions of both a spur-gear pair and a double helical gear train used in a split-path helicopter transmission. Two cases are examined: (1) the spur gear mesh between the spur shaft and the lower spur/helical shaft, and (2) the double helical gear mesh between the lower spur/helical shaft and the output bull bear shaft.

  19. Design, simulation, and optimization of an RGB polarization independent transmission volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum Hassan

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology such as optical communication, medical imaging, spectroscopy and astronomy. The goal of this dissertation is to design a volume phase holographic grating that provides diffraction efficiencies of at least 70% for the entire visible wavelengths and higher than 90% for red, green, and blue light when the incident light is unpolarized. First, the complete design, simulation and optimization of the volume hologram are presented. The optimization is done using a Monte Carlo analysis to solve for the index modulation needed to provide higher diffraction efficiencies. The solutions are determined by solving the diffraction efficiency equations determined by Kogelnik's two wave coupled-wave theory. The hologram is further optimized using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis to correct for effects of absorption omitted by Kogelnik's method. Second, the fabrication or recording process of the volume hologram is described in detail. The active region of the volume hologram is created by interference of two coherent beams within the thin film. Third, the experimental set up and measurement of some properties including the diffraction efficiencies of the volume hologram, and the thickness of the active region are conducted. Fourth, the polarimetric response of the volume hologram is investigated. The polarization study is developed to provide insight into the effect of the refractive index modulation onto the polarization state and diffraction efficiency of incident light.

  20. Development of High Strength Steel Designed for Carbonitriding with High Nitrogen Content to Be Used for Automatic Transmission Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youichi Watanabe

    2004-01-01

    To downsize and lighten automatic transmission components, the gears installed must be strengthened in terms of pitting endurance and/or wear resistance. The most important metallurgical factor affecting fractures is well known to be resistance to softening when steel is tempered at approximately 573 K. Carbonitriding with a high anount of nitrogen is a very effective production technique because nitrogen increases the resistance during tempering. However, structural anomalies begin to appear in the surface layer when the nitrogen content exceeds 0.6 mass% in the chromium steel generally used. To address this, we have developed new high-strength chromium steel with an optimized chemical composition that effectively inhibits anomalies even when carbonitriding with a nitrogen content of more than 0.6 mass%.We performed a drivetrain durability test on an automatic transmission component designed to have excellent contact fatigue strength and a tooth root bending impact and fatigue strength. We found that the developed steel that was carbonitrided with a content of about 0.9 mass%, and then shot peened hard, has a pitting life of roughly 4.5 times that of conventionally manufactured steel.

  1. Gas Transmission and Distribution Network Optimization Design%燃气输配管网系统优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文建

    2001-01-01

    In this article ,the optimization of complicated multi-stage gas transmission and distribution pipeline network is divided into optimization of pressure station (station number and station site ) ,and optimization of single-stage pipeline network. Mathematics model is set up to analyze and solve the planung problems. GCAD,the professional computer system designing assistance software comprising calculating, analyzing, and drawing,is developed, which can be used for gas transmission and distribution new construction planning, reconstruction%本文采用分解技术把复杂的多级制燃气输配管网系统整体优化问题分解成调压站优化问题(确定调压站数目和调压站选址)和单一级制管网优化问题.然后,对这些规划问题建立数学模型并分析求解.开发了集计算、分析和绘图于一体的专业计算机辅助设计系统软件GCAD,本软件适合于燃气输配管网的新建规划、改扩建和现有管网校核.

  2. Design and Evaluation of Reliable Data Transmission Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailixier Aikebaier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor-actuator network (WSAN is composed of sensor modes and actuator modes which are interconnected in wireless networks. A sensor node collects information on the physical world and sends a sensed value in a wireless network. Another sensor node forwards the sensed value to deliver to an actuator node. A sensor node can deliver messages with sensed values to only nearby nodes due to weak radio. Messages are forwarded by sensor nodes to an actuator node by a type of flooding protocol. A sensor mode senses an event and sends a message with the sensed value. In addition, on receipt of a message with a sensed value from another sensor mode, a sensor node forwards the sensed value. Messages transmitted by sensor nodes might be lost due to noise and collisions. In this paper, we discuss a redundant data transmission (RT protocol to reliably and efficiently deliver sensed values sensed by sensor nodes to an actuator node. Here, a sensor node sends a message with not only its sensed value but also sensed values received from other sensor nodes. The more number of sensed values are included in a message, the more frequently the message is lost. Each message carries so many number of sensed values that the message loss ratio is not increased. Even if a message with a sensed value v is lost in the wireless network, an actuator node can receive the sensed value v from a message sent by another sensor node. Thus, each sensed value is redundantly carried in multiple messages. The redundancy of a sensed value is in nature increased since the sensed value is broadcast. In order to reduce the redundancy of sensed value, we take a strategy that the farther sensor nodes from an actuator node forward the fewer number of sensed values. We evaluate the RT protocol in terms of loss ratio, redundancy, and delay time of a sensed value. We show that about 80% of sensed values can be delivered to an actuator node even if 95% of messages are lost due to noise

  3. Data Transmission Problems in C Program Design%关于C程序设计中数据传递问题的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段景辉; 袁敏

    2014-01-01

    在程序设计中,不同形式的数据传递,决定着其功能的不同。C程序设计中,数据传递形式繁多,可以是直接的、可以是间接地。数据的传递,决定着程序的执行方式和执行结果。本文详细论述C程序中数据的传递形式及其特征。%In program design, different forms of data transmission determine their different functions. C program design has many forms of data transmission, which can be direct or indirectly. Transmission determine determines the implementation way and execution results of procedure. This paper discusses the data transmission form and its characteristics in the C program.

  4. Design and development of an electronic device for data transmission with universal coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Paz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of an electronic device with cellular and satellite coverage for localization and tracking of mobile assets in Colombia (public transport, freight, carriers, etc.. The development of this product integrates hardware, software and communication interfaces. It is aligned with a need identified in the market by the company One Solution Position: OSP LTDA. With this technology transfer we intend to improve the offer of wireless services for mobile asset tracking with a solution that covers the following features: dual operation (cellular/satellite, versatile, economical, low-power consumption, and based on international standards FCC and CE Mark.

  5. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  6. A Figure-of-Merit for Design and Optimization of Inductive Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Power transmission efficiency (PTE) has been the key parameter for wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. It has been suggested that for mm-sized implants increasing the power carrier frequency (fp) of the WPT link to hundreds of MHz improves PTE. However, increasing fp significantly reduces the maximum allowable power that can be transmitted under the specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. This paper presents a new figure-of-merit (FoM) and a design methodology for optimal WPT to mm-sized implants via inductive coupling by striking a balance between PTE and maximum delivered power under SAR constraints (PL,SAR). First, the optimal mm-sized receiver (Rx) coil geometry is identified for a wide range of fp to maximize the Rx coil quality factor (Q). Secondly, the optimal transmitter (Tx) coil geometry and fp are found to maximize the proposed FoM under a low-loss Rx matched-load condition. Finally, proper Tx coil and tissue spacing is identified based on FoM at the optimal fp. We demonstrate that fp in order of tens of MHz still offer higher PL,SAR and FoM, which is key in applications that demand high power such as optogenetics. An inductive link to power a 1 mm (3) implant was designed based on our FoM and verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. In our measurements, an Rx coil with 1 mm diameter, located 10 mm inside the tissue, achieved PTE and PL,SAR of 1.4% and 2.2 mW at fp of 20 MHz, respectively.

  7. Design and Discussion of Auxiliary Transmission%辅助传动的设计与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占凯; 李英; 张春晓

    2014-01-01

    辅助传动装置是磨机、混合机、回转窑等大型回转设备的辅助装置,用于大型回转设备的检修、更换衬板及长时间停机后松动物料使用。在设计辅助传动装置时,既要满足设备使用扭矩的需求,又要考虑装置的利用率比较低,对电机、减速机、联轴器及齿式离合器进行合理选型与设计,避免能力过剩产生的浪费。本文对辅助接手强度进行校核,以达到降本增效目的。%The auxiliary transmission is auxiliary device of mills , mixers , rotary kiln and other large equipment . It is used when overhaul and lining replacement and loosing material of large rotary equipment after long downtime . In the design of the auxiliary transmission , it does not only meets the requirements of torque for equipment opera -tion , but also considers the relatively low utilization of the device in order to rationally select and design the motor , reducer , coupling and clutch avoiding waste by excessive capacity . It examined the strength of the auxiliary clutch teeth to achieve the purposes of cost reduction and efficiency promotion .

  8. Research on Design of Plate-type Electromagnetic Coupler in Underwater Inductive Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Li-yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic coupler has a good application in the field of underwater sensor. Magnetic coupler at work, interference by underwater complex situation, stability and efficiency of charging device of the gap is larger fluctuations. The traditional electromagnetic coupling is charging for the stability of the clearance to demand higher. Charging for underwater, as a result of the existence of ocean currents, electromagnetic coupling clearance may not remain very stable. When there is deviation gap, a larger electromagnetic coupling performance deviation. On this particular problem, it puts forward the design method of a new type of plate type electromagnetic coupling. First of all, the leakage inductance of the finite element method to calculate system and excitation inductance, establish electromagnetic coupler with compensation capacitor equivalent circuit, and the primary circuit and secondary circuit was designed. On the basis, the voltage gain and efficiency of the system are carrying on the theoretical derivation and calculation. The simulation experimental results show that the magnetic coupler has a stable voltage gain and charging efficiency, when the partial core within 10 mm, voltage gain remains steady at 5.8%, efficiency remain at around 90%.

  9. Design and verification of additional filtration for the application of ecological transmission and hydraulic fluids in tractorc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the design and function verification of additional filtration. It is intended for the common transmission and hydraulic oil filling of tractors. The main role of this filtration concept is to ensure a high level of oil cleanness as a condition for the application of ecologic fluids in tractors. The next one is to decrease the wear of lubricated tractor components, the degradation of oil and eventually to extend the interval of oil change. The designed additional filtering is characterized by ease installation through the use of quick couplings and hoses to the external hydraulic circuit. Therefore, the filtration is suitable for various tractor types. Filter element has been designed with the filter ability 1micron and the ability to separate to 0.5 dm3 of water from oil. Function of additional filtration was verified during the 150 engine hours of tractor operation. During this time period the oil contamination was evaluated on the basis of chemical elements content such as Fe, Cu, Si, Al, Ni, Mo and Cr. The additive concentration was evaluated on the basis of chemical elements content such as Ca, P and Zn. During the test operation of tractor the concentration decrease of chemical elements reached the values 25.53 % (Fe, 23.53 % (Si, 25 % (Al and 5.5 % (Cu. The decrease of additive concentration reached only medium level (6.6 %. Therefore, the designed additional filtration doesn’t remove additives from oil. Based on the evaluation of the content of chemical elements (that representing contamination and additives, we can say that the designed filtering method is suitable for use in agricultural tractors.

  10. Performance estimation and design of group demodulator for satellite FDMA/TDM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Chun; Umehira, Masahiro

    The authors describe a Monte Carlo simulation of QPSK (quadrature phase shift keying) and offset QPSK group modems which take into account the effect of the nonlinearity of each ground terminal HPA. The effect of uplink fading due to rain, as encountered in satellite links operated in the Ka and Ku bands, is included. Results show that a normalized channel spacing with respect to a symbol rate of 2.5 or greater is required to reduce the effect of adjacent channel interference. At this spacing the performance of the modem will still incur a Eb/N0 (energy per bit/noise density) degradation of about 1.0 dB. In addition, design criteria for major components such as digital subfilter, rate conversion filter, carrier recovery circuits, and quantization are given.

  11. Design and experiment for realization of laser wireless power transmission for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Dechen; Zhu, Dandi; Shi, Qianyun; Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Currently various types of aircraft booming and maturing, however, their long-time navigational capability should be improved urgently. This paper aims at studying laser power beaming, which includes the technology of high-efficient photoelectric conversion and APT(acquiring, pointing and tracking) technology, to provide power for flying UAV(unmanned aerial vehicles) and improve their flight endurance. The experiment of testing different types of solar cells under various conditions has been done to choose the solar cell which has the highest photoelectric conversion rate and find its most sensitive wavelength. In addition, the charge management module has been chose on the base of the characteristics of lithium batteries. Besides, a laser APT system was designed and set up, at the same time FSM (Fast Scan Mirror) control program and digital image processing program were used to control the system. The success of the indoor experiment of scan-tracking and charging for the moving UAV model via laser proves that this system is workable. And in this experiment, the photoelectric conversion rate of the whole system is up to 17.55%.

  12. Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, David; Ghosh, Samir; Chagnon, Mathieu; Samani, Alireza; Veerasubramanian, Venkat; Osman, Mohamed; Plant, David V

    2015-06-01

    The design and characterization of a slow-wave series push-pull traveling wave silicon photonic modulator is presented. At 2 V and 4 V reverse bias, the measured -3 dB electro-optic bandwidth of the modulator with an active length of 4 mm are 38 GHz and 41 GHz, respectively. Open eye diagrams are observed up to bitrates of 60 Gbps without any form of signal processing, and up to 70 Gbps with passive signal processing to compensate for the test equipment. With the use of multi-level amplitude modulation formats and digital-signal-processing, the modulator is shown to operate below a hard-decision forward error-correction threshold of 3.8×10-3 at bitrates up to 112 Gbps over 2 km of single mode optical fiber using PAM-4, and over 5 km of optical fiber with PAM-8. Energy consumed solely by the modulator is also estimated for different modulation cases.

  13. Tapered joint design for power transmission of MW-grade wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jong Hun; Bae, Jun Woo; Oh, Han Yong [Dept. of Mechatronics, Jungwon University, Geosan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yong Chul [Kyeongnam Technopark, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    This study focuses on the design of the tapered joints of a wind power turbine. The main variables of the tapered joint are the transmitted torque, shaft diameter, contact area of the tapered ring, and tightening torque of the bolts, which applies a compressive pressure from the hub to the shaft. The stress distribution of the taper fit was calculated under axisymmetric plane strain conditions because of the small taper angle. The axial displacement of the clamp can be calculated from the radial elastic deformation and the taper angle. The stress field of each ring is obtained from the cylinder stress equation. To verify the accuracy of the calculation, finite element (FE) analysis was performed, and the results of the calculation and FE analysis were compared. The hoop stress of the tapered surface showed a discrepancy of approximately 10, but the trends of the stress distributions of each component and the relative movement obtained by FE analysis were in good agreement with the analytical calculation results.

  14. Design of smoothed multi-flared antenna for multi-frequency reception of direct transmission from meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Thawait, Prateek

    2016-07-01

    The direct radiance data assimilation is found to be advantageous for the numerical weather prediction over short and medium range. Therefore reception of satellite radiance in real time is important. Satellite earth station is the preferred choice for direct reception of this data, which is voluminous. High Rate Information being transmitted from these satellites operating in L, S, C and X bands needs to be received. A commercial wide band antenna is not preferred for such application, as it operates uniformly over the entire frequency range in these bands and may create interference over the unwanted frequencies. As the frequencies of interest occupy only a small portion of these bands, it is essential to design a horn antenna, which receives only specified frequencies and filter other frequencies. In this work, we have designed a multi-flare multi-frequency cylindrical horn antenna for reception of direct transmission from meteorological satellites. This earth station antenna tracks selected satellites working over specified frequency ranges, which are 1.694-1.703 GHz, 2.0-2.06 GHz, 4.5-4.6 GHz and 7.8-7.9 GHz in L, S, C and X bands respectively. Cylindrical waveguides for the frequencies, 1.6, 2, 4.5 and 8 GHz are designed and they are joined in the increasing order of radius with suitable conical shapes. The slope of the cones is adjusted experimentally. With this design, the return loss is simulated and found to be better than 20 dB upto 4.5 GHz and later it became poor. To overcome this difficulty, the abrupt transitions at the joints of the conical and cylindrical waveguides are made smoothen by increasing the diameter of one mouth of the cylinder and reducing the other mouth to match with the cylinders corresponding to next higher and lower frequency respectively. As a result, a smooth flared antenna is obtained and the simulated results are satisfactory. A parabolic reflector of 4 m diameter is designed and the smooth multi-flared antenna is kept at the

  15. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  16. Design on Wireless Power Transmission System Based on Magnetic Resonance%基于磁谐振无线输电系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 孙志毅; 刘立群

    2016-01-01

    As one of new type electricity transmission,the wireless power transmission attracts many researchers in-doors and outdoors to study deeply. Magnetic resonance,as a way of wireless power transmission,has the advantages of long transmission distance,high transmission efficiency,good transfer power through non-magnetic conductive material etc. ,which makes it possible to instead of electric wire. A wireless power transmission equipment was de-signed based on magnetic resonance. The design and production mechanism were illustrated from emit circuit,emit coils,receive circuit and receive coils respectively.%无线输电作为一种新型供电方式正在被国内外研究人员深入研究,磁谐振作为无线输电的一种方式,具有比磁感应传输距离远,传输效率高,并且能通过非磁导性障碍物传输电能等优点,使其有望取代电线输电方式。利用磁谐振技术设计一套无线输电装置,从发射电路、发射线圈、接收电路以及接收线圈各方面全面阐述了其设计和制作机理。

  17. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  18. Note: unique characterization possibilities in the ultra high vacuum scanning transmission x-ray microscope (UHV-STXM) "MAXYMUS" using a rotatable permanent magnetic field up to 0.22 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolle, D; Weigand, M; Audehm, P; Goering, E; Wiesemann, U; Wolter, C; Nolle, E; Schütz, G

    2012-04-01

    Using the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect, the soft x-ray range provides powerful detection capabilities concerning element specific structural, chemical, and magnetic properties. We present the implementation of a variable 0.22 T magnet system based on permanent magnets into the new UHV scanning microscope "MAXYMUS" at HZB/BESSY II, allowing surface sensitive and simultaneous standard transmission microscopic investigations in a variable external magnetic field. The outstanding potential of these new investigation possibilities will be demonstrated showing the development of the magnetic domain structure concurrently at the surface and in the bulk, providing a profound understanding of fundamental mechanisms in coupled magnetic systems.

  19. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  20. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  1. Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzens, Jeremy; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael

    2010-08-02

    Slot waveguides allow joint confinement of the driving electrical radio frequency field and of the optical waveguide mode in a narrow slot, allowing for highly efficient polymer based interferometers. We show that the optical confinement can be simply explained by a perturbation theoretical approach taking into account the continuity of the electric displacement field. We design phase matched transmission lines and show that their impedance and RF losses can be modeled by an equivalent circuit and linked to slot waveguide properties by a simple set of equations, thus allowing optimization of the device without iterative simulations. We optimize the interferometers for analog optical links and predict record performance metrics (V(pi) = 200 mV @ 10 GHz in push-pull configuration) assuming a modest second order nonlinear coefficient (r(33) = 50 pm/V) and slot width (100 nm). Using high performance optical polymers (r(33) = 150 pm/V), noise figures of state of the art analog optical links can be matched while reducing optical power levels by approximately 30 times. With required optical laser power levels predicted at 50 mW, this could be a game changing improvement by bringing high performance optical analog link power requirements in the reach of laser diodes. A modified transmitter architecture allows shot noise limited performance, while reducing power levels in the slot waveguides and enhancing reliability.

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis of silver-coated gold nanorods designed for bionanotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid A.; Honda, Takumi; Mitsuhara, Masatoshi; Nishida, Minoru; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2017-01-01

    Multicomponent nano-agents were designed and built via a core-shell approach to enhance their surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. These nano-agents had 36 nm × 12 nm gold nanorod cores coated by 4 nm thick silver shell films and a subsequent thin bifunctional thiolated polyethylene glycol (HS-PEG-COOH) layer. Ambient time-lapsed SERS signal measurements of these functionalized nanorods taken over a two-week period indicated no signal degradation, suggesting that large portions of the silver shells remained in pure metallic form. The morphology of the nanorods was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra-high resolution scanning TEM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were utilized to assess the oxidation states of the silver shells covered by HS-PEG-COOH. The binding energies of Ag 3d XPS spectra yielded very small chemical shifts with oxidation; however, the AES peak shapes gave meaningful information about the extent of oxidation undergone by the nano-agent. While the silver shells without HS-PEG-COOH coatings oxidized significantly, the silver shells with HS-PEG-COOH remained predominantly metallic. In fact, six month-old samples still retained mostly metallic silver shells. These findings further demonstrate the stability and longevity of the nanostructures, indicating their significant potential as plasmonically active agents for highly sensitive detection in various biological systems, including cancer cells, tissues, or even organisms.

  3. Design of a Robust, Computation-Efficient and Secure 3P-EKE Protocol using Analogous Message Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Raghuvamshi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this modern era of digital communication even a trivial task needs to be performed over internet which is not secure. Many cryptographic algorithms existed to provide security which facilitates secure communication through internet. As these algorithms need a secret session key, it is required to interchange this key in a secure way. In two-party communication, two clients initially share a low random (entropy password through a secure channel to establish a secret session key. But this paradigm necessitates high maintenance of passwords, since each communicating pair requires separate passwords to establish a secure session key. In three-party communication network, each communication party shares a password with the trusted third-party (server to exchange a secret session key. The beauty of this setting is that, even a server does not know the session key. The Password Authenticated Encrypted Key Exchange (PA-EKE protocols have attracted a lot of curiosity to authors to propose various two-party and three-party PA-EKE protocols. Security flaws in various protocols proposed by Chang-Chang, Yoon-Yoo, PSRJ and Raj et al. inspired to design a robust, computationally efficient and highly secure protocol. This paper is an attempt to propose a secure and novel Password Authenticated 3P-EKE protocol using XOR operations and analogous (parallel message transmission. The proposed protocol is easy to design and more secured against all types of attacks like password guessing, replay, pre-play, server spoofing etc. which made this protocol special.

  4. An Exploration of Professional Culture Differentials and Their Potential Impact on the Information Assurance Component of Optical Transmission Networks Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Michael Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Optical transmission networks are an integral component of the critical infrastructures for many nations. Many people believe that optical transmission networks are impenetrable. In actuality, these networks possess weaknesses that can be exploited to bring about harm. An emerging Information Assurance (IA) industry has as its goals: to…

  5. 巨型数字阵列光传输系统设计%Design of Huge-DAR Fiber-optic Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王查散; 王东岳; 高文辉

    2013-01-01

    光传输技术是数字阵列雷达系统中的重要技术,主要实现高精度的定时同步和高速海量的数据传输。巨型数字阵列由于阵面规模大、组件数量多,加大了光传输系统设计的技术复杂度和工程实现难度。文中首先分析了巨型数字阵列信号传输的特点和具体要求,给出了巨型数字阵列光传输系统的设计方案和技术途径,对系统中的光纤传输网络、高速串行传输和系统测试等关键技术进行了详细分析,通过采用PON、SERDES等多项先进技术解决了设计中的技术难点,最终实现了巨型数字阵列的光传输系统设计。%Optical transmission technology is an important technique of digital array radar system,it is mainly to realize high-precision timing synchronization and high-speed and massive amounts of data transmission. Due to some characteristics including large scale and more components of giant digital array,technical complexity and engineering realized difficulties of system design for optical transmission have been widely increased. First analyze the signal transmission characteristics and some specific requirements of giant digital array,then put forward the design schemes and the technological approaches of optical transmission design,next analyze some key techniques inclu-ding optical fiber transmission network,high-speed serial transmission,system testing and so forth in detail,meanwhile,solve the techni-cal difficulties of design by adopting PON,SERDES and many advanced technologies,finally realize the system design of optical trans-mission for giant digital array.

  6. The design of magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transmission device%谐振式无线电能传输装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚占伟; 何金保; 吴杰; 李俊

    2014-01-01

    无线电能传输是一种新型的电能传输技术,文章设计了一种实用的无线电能传输装置,通过线圈将电能以无线方式传输。系统包括高频振荡电路、高频功率放大电路、发射和接收线圈、高频整流滤波电路,经过实验控制变量法优化后,确定发射端和接收端相应参数,实现了无线电能传输系统的设计优化。%Wireless power transmission is a new power transmission technology. In this paper, a practical wireless power transfer device was designed by the coil power transmission in a wireless method. The system circuits were designed, including a high frequency oscillating circuit, a high frequency power amplifier circuit, transmitting and receiving coil, the high-frequency rectifying filter circuit. Through the actual system testing and optimization, the parameters of the transmitting end and the receiving end were determined, which realized the optimization design of wireless power transmission.

  7. Structural Characterization of Proline-rich Tyrosine Kinase 2 (PYK2) Reveals a Unique (DFG-out) Conformation and Enables Inhibitor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seungil; Mistry, Anil; Chang, Jeanne S.; Cunningham, David; Griffor, Matt; Bonnette, Peter C.; Wang, Hong; Chrunyk, Boris A.; Aspnes, Gary E.; Walker, Daniel P.; Brosius, Arthur D.; Buckbinder, Leonard; Pfizer

    2009-05-21

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) is a cytoplasmic, non-receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in multiple signaling pathways. It is a negative regulator of osteogenesis and considered a viable drug target for osteoporosis treatment. The high-resolution structures of the human PYK2 kinase domain with different inhibitor complexes establish the conventional bilobal kinase architecture and show the conformational variability of the DFG loop. The basis for the lack of selectivity for the classical kinase inhibitor, PF-431396, within the FAK family is explained by our structural analyses. Importantly, the novel DFG-out conformation with two diarylurea inhibitors (BIRB796, PF-4618433) reveals a distinct subclass of non-receptor tyrosine kinases identifiable by the gatekeeper Met-502 and the unique hinge loop conformation of Leu-504. This is the first example of a leucine residue in the hinge loop that blocks the ATP binding site in the DFG-out conformation. Our structural, biophysical, and pharmacological studies suggest that the unique features of the DFG motif, including Leu-504 hinge-loop variability, can be exploited for the development of selective protein kinase inhibitors.

  8. Design of Ultrasonic Phased Array Transmission System Based on FPGA%基于 FPGA 的超声相控阵发射系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔娟; 王红亮; 何常德; 薛晨阳

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the ultrasonic signal phased array transmission of underwater ultrasonic imaging system,the ul-trasonic phased array transmission system based on FPGA was designed.The transmission principle of phased focus was analyzed, and the eight channel ultrasonic phased array transmission system was achieved by using FPGA with rich I/ O pins and internal log-ic resources.Then the signal conditioning circuit for excitation signal D/ A conversion and amplification were designed to motivate the piezoelectric transducer effectively.The actual test results show that the system realizes ultrasonic signal phased array focus transmission,and the phase delay precision is 2. 5 ns.The system is with high integration and stable transmission,and it can be ap-plied to the underwater ultrasonic imaging implementation.%为了实现水下超声成像系统中超声信号的相控阵发射,提出并设计了一种基于 FPGA 的超声相控阵发射系统。分析了相控聚焦的发射原理,利用 FPGA 丰富的 I/ O 引脚和内部逻辑资源实现了八通道超声相控阵激励信号的发射,并设计了信号调理电路对激励信号进行 D/ A 转换及放大,以有效驱动压电换能器。通过实验测试表明,该系统可以实现超声信号的相控聚焦发射,相控延时精度达到2.5 ns,发射信号稳定,系统集成度高,可以应用于水下超声成像的实现。

  9. Integral system for computer aided design of power line transmission towers; Sistema integral para el diseno asistido por computadora de torres de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagore, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The profitable use of the advantages offered by the computer aided design, through the integral system for the structural design of power transmission towers (SIDETT) will contribute to facilitate and improve the design of the structures that link the electric power generation centers with the consumers. [Espanol] El aprovechamiento de las ventajas que ofrece el diseno asistido por computadora, a traves del sistema integral para el diseno estructural de torres de transmision (SIDETT), contribuira a agilizar y mejorar el diseno de las estructuras que enlazan los centros de generacion de energia electrica con los consumidores.

  10. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  11. Design and Kinematics Analysis of Non-circular Belt Transmission%非圆形皮带传动设计及运动学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠红香

    2015-01-01

    To the problems of difficult to meet the complex parts structure manufacturing of a circular belt drive mechanical transmission on the time-varying transmission ratio and specific output requirements,a non-circular belt drive mechanism of variable speed is designed,the kinematics analysis of the transmission mechanism is carried out,and compared with the circular belt transmission mechanism.The results show that a non-circular belt drive mechanism can achieve different movement according to the specific parameters of the output curve,the vibration and shock of non-circular belt transmission mechanism is greater than the circular belt drive mechanism,the design of non-circular belt drive mechanism can provide a basis for the design of the belt drive mechanism of variable speed and special belt drive mechanism.%针对圆形皮带传动难以满足复杂零件制造机械结构对时变传动比及特定输出要求等问题,设计一种可变速比非圆形皮带传动机构,对设计的传动机构进行运动学分析,并与圆形皮带传动机构进行对比.分析结果表明:非圆形皮带传动机构,可以根据相关参数设置实现特定曲线的输出从而实现不同的运动;非圆形皮带传动机构振动和冲击大于圆形皮带传动机构;设计的非圆皮带传动机构可为变速比皮带传动机构及特殊皮带传动机构的设计提供一定参考.

  12. New Method For Modeling and Design Optical SDM Transmission System Using Long Haul FMF with PDM/DWDM Techniques Enabling QPSK Modulation Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and design of ultra high capacity Space Division Multiplexing (SDM transmission system. Polarization Division Multiplexing (PDM and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM techniques are also proposed in this system to increase total system data rate. For the ultra-high capacity need of SDM, Few Mode Fiber (FMF was proposed as SDM best technology for obtaining ultra-high bit rates with long haul transmission. The description and design of 8-DWDM channels over 7 modes SDM/PDM system was explored as future of ultra-high capacity optical network. A long-haul transmission of 1080 Km recorded for 8-WDM channels-7modes-SDM/PDM system by using QPSK modulation format. The total bit rate achieved by our designed system is 4.48 Tb/s at 40Gb/s. Channel estimation techniques were proposed to enable the transmitter pre-shaping design for the linear effects mitigation by using different DSP algorithms. The presence of linear and nonlinear losses limits the acceptable range of input power that produce the required BER for our proposed system from -4dBm to 4dBm.

  13. Optimization Design of Double-parameter Shift Schedule of Tracked Vehicle with Hydrodynamic-mechanical Transmission%Optimization Design of Double-parameter Shift Schedule of Tracked Vehicle with Hydrodynamic-mechanical Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武景燕; 魏巍; 曲婧瑶; 闫清东

    2011-01-01

    A kind of automatic shift schedule optimization method is provided for a tracked vehicle with hydrodynamic-mechanical transmission in order to improve its dynamic performance. A dynamic model of integrated hydrodynamic-mechanical transmission is built in MATLAB/Simdriveline environment, and an optimum shift schedule is derived by using iSight software to call the dynamic model above, then the shift schedule is achieved after optimization. The simulation results show that the method is significant to improve the dynamic performance and gear-shifting smoothness theoretically and practically.

  14. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part I: performance estimation and design considerations unique to small dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Research and development activities pertaining to the development of a 10 W, homogeneous charge compression ignition free-piston engine-compressor are presented. Emphasis is place upon the miniature engine concept and design rationale. Also, a crankcase-scavenged, two-stroke engine performance estimation method (slider-crank piston motion) is developed and used to explore the influence of engine operating conditions and geometric parameters on power density and establish plausible design conditions. The minimization of small-scale effects such as enhanced heat transfer, is also explored. (author)

  15. A Design of a 345-kV Electric Power Transmission Line Interlinking Ramu and Rouna Grids in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakato Francis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to PNG Power Limited (PPL, Papua New Guinea’s peak power demand is expected to increase from 210 MW in 2012 to 347 MW in 2026. Under the current state of the power sector in Papua New Guinea (PNG, it is critical to implement measures to cope with the increasing power demand to promote investment, economic growth, and ultimately to achieve poverty reduction through economic growth. One of the solutions identified to improve the reliability of PNG power systems and thus to meet the demand is to interconnect the major grids in the country so that the loads could be shared among them. This project embarks in designing a 345-kV electric power transmission line to interlink the Ramu and Rouna power grids of Papua New Guinea. The design is done by analysing all the necessary aspects of the transmission lines with in-depth calculations performed using MATHCAD software. This design is the basis for extra-high voltage (EHV transmission network in anticipation for the power generation and demand growth in PNG.

  16. Optimal experimental design for the detection of light atoms from high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonnissen, J.; De Backer, A.; Den Dekker, A.J.; Martinez, G.T.; Rosenauer, A.; Sijbers, J.; Van Aert, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report an innovative method to explore the optimal experimental settings to detect light atoms from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Since light elements play a key role in many technologically important materials, such as lithium-battery devices or hydrogen storage

  17. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  18. Design of Pneumatic Device of the Automatic Transmission Performance Test-bed%气动自动变速器试验台架的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利利

    2012-01-01

    根据自动变速器的工作原理特性,结合自动变速器的专业教学实践,分析了目前大多数变速器解剖试验台架的缺点,设计了以气压为动力传动介质的自动变速器解剖运行试验台.气动自动变速器实物解剖试验台架能实现动态演示,突破了教学上的难点,提高了学生的学习兴趣,取得了较好的试验教学效果.%According to the work principle of automatic transmission,combined with the experimental teaching of automatic transmission, the current most transmission test-bed shortcomings were analyzed. An automat transmission test-bed introducing of pneumatic device was designed. The test-bed can realize the dynamic demonstration and break through the teaching difficulty, which enables students to improve the study interest, and get better effects of teaching.

  19. 手机信号采集与传输技术设计与实现%Mobile data acquisition and transmission of technical design and implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田增山; 苟举; 何维

    2011-01-01

    Embedded platforms, 3G mobile phone signal acquisition and transmission of the data rate is too high, there is a big difficulty to achieve, we design a chip from the RF, FPGA and cell phone signals pose CY7C68013 acquisition and transmission program. Thesis, TD-SCDMA signals, for example, designed the system hardware architecture and software components, including the software and USB FPGA firmware. Finally, authentication schemes, the results show that the scheme can make up to 102.4 Mbit/s the TD-SCDMA data stream to achieve accurate collection and transmission.%嵌入式平台上,3G手机的信号采集和传输由于数据速率过高,在实现上存在较大的难度,设计了一种由射频芯片、FPGA和CY7C68013构成的手机信号采集和传输方案.以TD-SCDMA信号为例,设计了系统的硬件架构和软件部分,包括FPGA中的软件及USB固件程序.最后提出验证方案,结果表明,该方案能使高达102.4 Mbit/s的TD-SCDMA数据流实现准确无误的采集和传输.

  20. Computerized Design and Generation of Gear Drives With a Localized Bearing Contact and a Low Level of Transmission Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F.; Chen, J.; Seol, I.; Kim, D.; Lu, J.; Zhao, X.; Handschuh, R.

    1996-01-01

    A general approach developed for the computerized simulation of loaded gear drives is presented. In this paper the methodology used to localize the bearing contact, provide a parabolic function of transmission errors, and simulate meshing and contact of unloaded gear drives is developed. The approach developed is applied to spur and helical gears, spiral bevel gears, face-gear drives, and worm-gear drives with cylindrical worms.

  1. Optimal experimental design for the detection of light atoms from high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnissen, J.; De Backer, A.; Den Dekker, A.J.; Martinez, G. T.; Rosenauer, A.; Sijbers, J.; Van Aert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We report an innovative method to explore the optimal experimental settings to detect light atoms from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Since light elements play a key role in many technologically important materials, such as lithium-battery devices or hydrogen storage applications, much effort has been made to optimize the STEM technique in order to detect light elements. Therefore, classical performance criteria, such as contrast or signal-to-noise ratio, a...

  2. 3D Transmission Line System Design based on GIS%基于GIS的三维输电线路系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2012-01-01

    Based on the 3D GIS technology and the demands of transmission line management,the use of 3D model construction, model design and OGRE graphics rendering engine technology, the combination of virtual reality and the technical features of GIS, realization of user in three-dimensional space in the recognition and management of power transmission system, the information management and maintenance more convenient.%根据三维GIS的技术特点和输电线路管理的需求,利用三维模型构建、模式设计和OGRE图形渲染引擎技术,结合虚拟现实和GIS的技术特点,实现用户在三维空间中认识和管理输电系统,使信息管理与维护更直观方便。

  3. A unique peri-prosthetic fracture pattern in well fixed femoral stems with polished, tapered, collarless design of total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatopoulos, George; Pandit, Hemant; Kambouroglou, Gregoris; Deakin, Mark; Gundle, Roger; McLardy-Smith, Peter; Taylor, Adrian; Murray, David

    2011-11-01

    Peri-prosthetic fractures (PPF) are a recognised complication following hip arthroplasty. Prosthesis design and type influence PPF pattern. Surgeons rely on classification systems, such as the Vancouver, to aid treatment planning. This study highlights a specific fracture pattern that occurs with cemented well-fixed polished, tapered, collarless (PTC) stems. We reviewed a consecutive series of 21 PPF around well fixed PTC stems. The majority of the fractures were classified pre-operatively as Vancouver B2 (14/21), but there were also B1 (6/21) and A type fractures. The B2 fractures had common radiological and intra-operative findings: a spiral fracture with extensive fragmentation of bone and cement, debonding of cement from the implant, cement fracture, and a well-fixed cement-bone interface. Reconstruction of these fractures was more difficult than suggested by the radiographs. Two of the six patients who were considered to have a Vancouver B1 fracture underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), and had treatment-related complications. Retrospective review of the radiographs showed subtle features, such as subsidence of the stem into the centraliser, that are characteristic of a B2 fracture pattern. In summary, it is important to recognise this fracture pattern around secure PTC stems in order to prevent misinterpretation of the fracture as a Vancouver B1 rather than a B2, leading to failure of treatment, and to alert the surgeon that complex reconstruction will be required because of the extensive fragmentation.

  4. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  5. 数传接收机系统可测试性设计%Design for Testability of Data Transmission Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅玲; 党红肖

    2015-01-01

    Starting up reverse engineering point of view, a subject on how to implement design for testablity of sys-tem is discussed by analyzing design for detail software, hardware, troubleshooting and trouble isolation for data transmission reciever, the principle and implementing methods for design testability of the system are stated.%本文从逆向工程的角度出发,通过对数传接收机系统详细的软、硬件以及故障诊断和故障隔离的设计分析,就如何实现系统测试性设计这一课题进行了探讨,阐述了系统测试性设计原理和实现方法。

  6. Research Overview on Wireless Power Transmission Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tao; Wu Liheng; Chen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the latest researches, this paper outlines the development of wireless power transmission and introduces the latest applications of wireless power transmission in life. To describe the wireless power transmission technologies in detail, the paper presents the short-range, medium-range and remote wireless power transmission, respectively. In addition, the paper also depicts some unique properties of wireless power transmission system to make readers understand WPT system better. A...

  7. Multi-turn multi-gap transmission line resonators - Concept, design and first implementation at 4.7T and 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frass-Kriegl, Roberta; Laistler, Elmar; Hosseinnezhadian, Sajad; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Moser, Ewald; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Darrasse, Luc; Ginefri, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    A novel design scheme for monolithic transmission line resonators (TLRs) is presented - the multi-turn multi-gap TLR (MTMG-TLR) design. The MTMG-TLR design enables the construction of TLRs with multiple turns and multiple gaps. This presents an additional degree of freedom in tuning self-resonant TLRs, as their resonance frequency is fully determined by the coil geometry (e.g. diameter, number of turns, conductor width, etc.). The novel design is evaluated at 4.7T and 7T by simulations and experiments, where it is demonstrated that MTMG-TLRs can be used for MRI, and that the B1 distribution of MTMG-TLRs strongly depends on the number and distribution of turns. A comparison to conventional loop coils revealed that the B1 performance of MTMG-TLRs is comparable to a loop coil with the same mean diameter; however, lower 10g SAR values were found for MTMG-TLRs. The MTMG-TLR design is expected to bring most benefits at high static field, where it allows for independent size and frequency selection, which cannot be achieved with standard TLR design. However, it also enables more accurate geometric optimization at low static field. Thereby, the MTMG-TLR design preserves the intrinsic advantages of TLRs, i.e. mechanical flexibility, high SAR efficiency, mass production, and coil miniaturization.

  8. Multi-turn multi-gap transmission line resonators - Concept, design and first implementation at 4.7 T and 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frass-Kriegl, Roberta; Laistler, Elmar; Hosseinnezhadian, Sajad; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Moser, Ewald; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Darrasse, Luc; Ginefri, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    A novel design scheme for monolithic transmission line resonators (TLRs) is presented - the multi-turn multi-gap TLR (MTMG-TLR) design. The MTMG-TLR design enables the construction of TLRs with multiple turns and multiple gaps. This presents an additional degree of freedom in tuning self-resonant TLRs, as their resonance frequency is fully determined by the coil geometry (e.g. diameter, number of turns, conductor width, etc.). The novel design is evaluated at 4.7 T and 7 T by simulations and experiments, where it is demonstrated that MTMG-TLRs can be used for MRI, and that the B1 distribution of MTMG-TLRs strongly depends on the number and distribution of turns. A comparison to conventional loop coils revealed that the B1 performance of MTMG-TLRs is comparable to a loop coil with the same mean diameter; however, lower 10g SAR values were found for MTMG-TLRs. The MTMG-TLR design is expected to bring most benefits at high static field, where it allows for independent size and frequency selection, which cannot be achieved with standard TLR design. However, it also enables more accurate geometric optimization at low static field. Thereby, the MTMG-TLR design preserves the intrinsic advantages of TLRs, i.e. mechanical flexibility, high SAR efficiency, mass production, and coil miniaturization.

  9. Planar quadrature RF transceiver design using common-mode differential-mode (CMDM transmission line method for 7T MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    Full Text Available The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR in magnetic resonance (MR imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM and the differential mode (DM of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays.

  10. Planar quadrature RF transceiver design using common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) transmission line method for 7T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays.

  11. Design and methods of a social network isolation study for reducing respiratory infection transmission: The eX-FLU cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E. Aiello

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions/significance: We identified a feasible study design for testing the impact of isolation from social networks in a university setting. These data provide an unparalleled opportunity to address questions about isolation and infection transmission, as well as insights into social networks and behaviors among college-aged students. Several important lessons were learned over the course of this project, including feasible isolation durations, the need for extensive organizational efforts, as well as the need for specialized programmers and server space for managing survey and smartphone data.

  12. Design of face-hobbed spiral bevel gears with reduced maximum tooth contact pressure and transmission errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vilmos Simon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define optimal tooth modifications,introduced by appropriately chosen head-cutter geometry and machine tool setting,to simultaneously minimize tooth contact pressure and angular displacement error of the driven gear (transmission error) of face-hobbed spiral bevel gears.As a result of these modifications,the gear pair becomes mismatched,and a point contact replaces the theoretical line contact.In the applied loaded tooth contact analysis it is assumed that the point contact under load is spreading over a surface along the whole or part of the “potential” contact line.A computer program was developed to implement the formulation provided above.By using this program the influence of tooth modifications introduced by the variation in machine tool settings and in head cutter data on load and pressure distributions,transmission errors,and fillet stresses is investigated and discussed.The correlation between the ease-off obtained by pinion tooth modifications and the corresponding tooth contact pressure distribution is investigated and the obtained results are presented.

  13. 用于无线能量传输系统的微带天线设计%Design of Microstrip Antenna Applied to Wireless Power Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭爽; 陶珺

    2016-01-01

    本文提出一种用于组成无线能量传输(Wireless Power Transmission,WPT)系统的微带天线结构,并采用基于有限元法的电磁仿真软件(HFSS)对微带天线进行3D建模.在二端口网络分析法的基础上,建立磁耦合共振无线能量传输等效电路模型,求解出系统发生频率分叉现象产生的条件以及最大效率时的频率表达式.基于以上方法,研究本文设计的微带天线传输特性,包括:系统的最优传输效率与耦合距离的关系,工作频率与耦合距离的关系,得出在能量传输距离在50cm左右时,天线的谐振频率为12.5MHz,效率可达63%.微带天线具有很大的结构优势,如与集成电路兼容,成本低,体积相对较小,且工艺相当成熟,易大规模批量生产等优势.因此该设计的平面微带天线可用于无线能量传输系统.%A configuration of microstrip antenna is proposed for design of wireless power transmission(WPT) system.Via electromagnetic simulation software HFSS which is based on Finite Element Method(FEM),we establish 3D modeling microstrip antenna.The equivalent circuit model of wireless power transmission system via magnetic resonance coupling is analyzed contactless based on the two-port network analysis method. The condition of the resonant frequency splitting phenomenon is produced,a wireless power transmission system is deduced,and the frequency expression of maximum efficiency is derived.Based on the method above,by researching characteristics of transmission of this system including:the relationship between optimal efficiency of transmission system and the coupling distance and the relationship between the working frequency and the coupling distance. we concluded that when the energy transmission distance is in 50cm, microstrip antenna the resonant frequency of which is 12.5MHz still has a high efficiency (63%).The microstrip antenna has advantages on its great structure,such as compatible with integrated circuit,lower cost

  14. Small Antenna Design based on Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line%基于左右手传输线的小型天线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代黎明; 周海京; 林文斌; 廖成

    2012-01-01

    Small antenna based on composite right/left-handed(CRLH) transmission line is developed, and the zero- order resonance mode of the antenna obtained by adjusting the structure of composite right/left-handed(CRLH) transmission line. And now the operating frequency of the antenna depends no longer on the geometry of the antenna and only concerns the inductance and capacitance of the left-handed transmission line, and these could greatly reduce the geometric size of the antenna. In this paper a small antenna based on composite right/left-handed(CRLH) transmission line is proposed and designed, which could work in the ISM band, and meet the requirement of wireless local area network(2.4 GHz-2.483 5 GHz)%基于复合左右手传输线技术研究设计超小型的天线,通过对复合左右手传输线结构的适当调整获得一个零阶谐振天线,此时天线的工作频率不再依赖于天线的几何尺寸,而只与构成左手传输线的电感与电容相关,从而可大大降低天线的几何尺寸。文中基于复合左右手传输线设计了一款小型天线,使其可以工作在ISM频段,能够满足无线局域网(2.4~2.4835GHz)的要求。

  15. Design, manufacture and evaluation of a new flexible constant velocity mechanism for transmission of power between parallel shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaghoubi, Majid [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanaeifar, Alireza [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents a new mechanism (coupling) for power transmission between parallel shafts in more ranges. The mechanism consists of one drive shaft and one driven shaft, 3 S-shape transmitter links and 8 connecting links. The advantage of this mechanism is that the velocity ratio between input and output shafts remains constant at all movements, and its capacity to offset misalignments is greater than that of other couplings. This research also includes a kinematic analysis and simulations using Visual NASTRAN, Autodesk inventor dynamic and COSMOS motion to prove that the mechanism exhibits a constant velocity. Finally, the mechanism was fabricated and evaluated; results showed that the mechanism can practically transmit a constant velocity ratio.

  16. Large torque and smooth transmission system design of raising machine%起毛机大扭矩平稳传动系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史伟民; 未印; 彭来湖; 沈加海; 张少民; 陈华

    2012-01-01

    提高起毛机的传动性能可改善织物的起毛风格和质量,为此,根据起毛机的工作原理及工作参数要求,利用斜齿轮传动方式设计起毛机大扭矩平稳传动系统,并对该传动系统进行运动学和力学分析,同时对斜齿轮进行接触应力有限元分析,对针辊进行静力学有限元分析.结果表明:斜齿轮传动啮合是一个逐渐进入、脱离的过程,并且传递扭矩大,传动平稳,齿面接触应力和应变较小,满足设计要求;在传动过程中,针辊受力均匀,且应力变形较小,从而能够保证织物起毛质量要求;起毛机大扭矩平稳传动系统的传动平稳性和动力性能较好.%To improve the transmission performance of raising machine is one of the important ways for enhancing the raising style and quality of fabric. According to the working principle and the required raising process parameters, the transmission system of raising machine is innovatively designed for large torque and smooth driving by using the transmitting features of helical gears. The designed system is analyzed with kinematics and dynamics, and finite element analysis of the helical gears contact and statics analysis of needle roller are carried out. The results showed that the meshing of helical gears is a large torque and smooth transmitting process of gradually entering and withdrawing, and the contact stress and strain become smaller enough to meet the design requirements. In the course of transmission, the force acting upon the needle roller is even, and with smaller stress and deformation, and the raising quality requirements of fabrics is ensured. Therefore, the large torque and smooth transmission system is developed with advantages of higher dynamic performance and stability.

  17. 一种基于LVDS高速传输的接口优化设计%An interface optimization design based on LVDS high speed transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢玲玲; 文丰; 李辉景

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomenon of the loss of data and the error code of LVDS ( low voltage differential signal ) in high-speed transmission process , this paper optimizes the designing of transmission interface from two aspects of hardware and logic respectively .In hardware , adding high-speed actuator at the sending end to drive the actuator twis-ted pair cable , while using equalizer in the receiver to compensate the signals in long distance transmission attenua-tion;in logic , we avoid losing lock and reduce the loss of data and the error code by increasing the flag .Compared with RS-232 and RS-485 , the optimized interface of LVDS has a higher communication rate , achieving the farther communication distance .The interface designing is simple , low power consumption , stable performance and has no error or data loss phenomenon .After the test, the optimized interface designing could transmit data at 120 Mbps rate to achieve 48 meters twisted long-term stable and reliable transmission .%针对目前LVDS( Low Voltage Differential Signal )在高速传输过程中容易出现的误码和丢数现象,分别从硬件和逻辑两方面对传输接口进行了优化设计。硬件方面,在发送端增加高速驱动器,驱动双绞线电缆,同时在接收端采用均衡器,补偿信号在长距离传输过程中出现的衰减;逻辑方面,通过增加标志位避免失锁,减少数据发生误码和丢数问题。优化后的LVDS接口,相比于RS-232和RS-485接口,具有更高的通信速率,同时达到更远的通信距离,该接口设计简易,低功耗,性能稳定,无误码和丢数现象,经测试,优化后的LVDS接口,能以120 Mbps的通信速率实现48 m双绞长线稳定可靠传输。

  18. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  19. On Variant Strategies To Solve The Magnitude Least Squares Optimization Problem In Parallel Transmission Pulse Design And Under Strict SAR And Power Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos-Iruarrizaga, Andres; Massire, Aurélien; Amadon, Alexis; Boulant, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Parallel transmission has been a very promising candidate technology to mitigate the inevitable radio-frequency field inhomogeneity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (UHF). For the first few years, pulse design utilizing this technique was expressed as a least squares problem with crude power regularizations aimed at controlling the specific absorption rate (SAR), hence the patient safety. This approach being suboptimal for many applications sensitive mostly to the magnitude of the spin excitation, and not its phase, the magnitude least squares (MLS) problem then was first formulated in 2007. Despite its importance and the availability of other powerful numerical optimization methods, this problem yet has been faced exclusively by the pulse designer with the so-called variable exchange method. In this paper, we investigate other strategies and incorporate directly the strict SAR and hardware constraints. Different schemes such as sequential quadratic programming (SQP), interior point (I-...

  20. The Development of a LAN for DVB-T Transmission and DVB-S Reception with Designed QAM Modulators and COFDM in the Island Mauritius

    CERN Document Server

    Armoogum, Sheeba; Gopaul, Jayprakash; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3606

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a thorough study of a digital broadcasting system adapted to the small mountainous island of Mauritius. A digital LAN was designed with MPEG-2 signals. The compressed signals were transmitted using DVB-T and QAM modulators. QAM-16 and QAM-64 modulators were designed and tested with a simulator under critical conditions of AWGN and phase noises. Results obtained from simulation have shown that Digital video broadcast with a single frequency network (SFN) is possible in Mauritius with QAM-64 and QAM-16 modulators applying COFDM mode of transmission. However, this study has also shown that QAM-16 modulator had a better performance at low AWGN values (less than 12 dB) and can be adopted for Mauritius Island, provided that the number of transmitted channels is not high enough.

  1. Designing of routing algorithms in autonomous distributed data transmission system for mobile computing devices with ‘WiFi-Direct’ technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, I. A.; Sherstnev, V. S.; Sherstneva, A. I.; Botygin, I. A.

    2017-02-01

    The results of the research of existent routing protocols in wireless networks and their main features are discussed in the paper. Basing on the protocol data, the routing protocols in wireless networks, including search routing algorithms and phone directory exchange algorithms, are designed with the ‘WiFi-Direct’ technology. Algorithms without IP-protocol were designed, and that enabled one to increase the efficiency of the algorithms while working only with the MAC-addresses of the devices. The developed algorithms are expected to be used in the mobile software engineering with the Android platform taken as base. Easier algorithms and formats of the well-known route protocols, rejection of the IP-protocols enables to use the developed protocols on more primitive mobile devices. Implementation of the protocols to the engineering industry enables to create data transmission networks among working places and mobile robots without any access points.

  2. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  3. Analysis and Design about Transmission System of Hemp Decorticator%工业大麻剥麻机传动系统的分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕江南; 马兰; 刘佳杰; 何宏彬; 龙超海

    2015-01-01

    In order to find the economy and effective mechanical transmission between the moving parts of decorticator of hemp fresh stem,the transmission way was designed.Based on the comparison of main mechanical driving way,a transmission way of belt transmission,chain transmission and gear trans-mission ways was chosen.According to the prototype design efficiency and size,the linear velocity of prototype feeding is 1.96 m /s,and the throwing linear velocity of discharge hole is 5.56 m /s.Based on the above parameters,we confirmed that first broken stem roller speed is 288 r/min,third broken stem roller speed is 310 r/min,the strip roller speed is 443 r/min,linear velocity contrast between first and third broken stem roller is 0.15 m /s,linear velocity contrast between third broken stem roller and the stripping drum is 3.45 m /s.Test results show that transmission way of the prototype between the moving parts can satisfy work requirements,and the motion parameters can achieve satisfying work effect.%为了保证工业大麻剥麻机的剥麻质量,提高各运动部件传动效率及工作稳定性,开展了工业大麻剥麻机传动系统的设计工作。本研究对带传动、链传动和齿轮传动等机械传动方式进行了分析,结合工业大麻剥麻机的传动特点,确定本样机从动力到碎茎装置、多级碎茎装置之间、碎茎装置到剥麻装置、以及相互啮合的碎茎辊或剥皮滚筒分别由三角皮带传动、链传动和齿轮传动相结合的多级组合传动方式。并根据样机设计工效及接麻装置设计尺寸,确定了样机喂入线速度为1.96 m /s,麻皮抛出线速度为5.56 m /s,以上述参数为依据,根据试验结果确定了第1(2)对碎茎辊转速为288 r/min,第3(4)对碎茎辊转速为310 r/min,剥麻滚筒转速为443 r/min,此时第1对碎茎辊与第3对碎茎辊之间的线速度差为0.15 m /s,第3对碎茎辊与剥麻滚筒之间的线速度差为3

  4. Optimizing Transmission Line Matching Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, S.

    1996-01-01

    When designing transmission line matching circuits, there exist often overlooked, additional, not much used, degree of choice in the selection of the transmission line impedance. In this work are presented results of CAD analysis for the two element transmission line matching networks, demonstrating that selecting matching circuits transmission lines with higher impedance, than usually used 50 or 75 ohms, can in most cases substantially decrease the physical dimension of the final matching ci...

  5. 基于CPLD的LVDS数据传输系统的设计与研究%CPLD-based design and research of LVDS data transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏翔; 祖静; 尤文斌

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the high-speed signal processing and transmission bottlenecks in data transfer speed distance problems, a CPLD-based high-speed LVDS bus data transfer system is designed, constructed a kind of LVDS chips, drives and high-speed adaptive equalizer for the based transmission system, the introduction of chip FIFO (FIFO) as a data buffer, the system using XILINX CPLD real-time control and monitoring, and fully taking into account that there is no synchronization of data transmission should take effective measures. Internal control procedures designed and implemented using VHDL language, reducing system complexity and cost, improved system integration and stability. Modelsim software application designed system was timing simulation, the simulation results obtained verify the design requirements.%为解决目前高速信号处理中的数据传输速度瓶颈以及传输距离的问题,设计并实现了一种基于CPLD的LVDS总线高速数据传输系统,构建了一种以LVDS芯片、高速驱动器,以及自适应均衡器为基础的传输系统,引入先进先出芯片(FIFO)作为数据缓冲,利用XILINX CPLD对系统进行实时控制与监测,并且充分考虑到数据传输过程出现不同步时应该采取的有效措施。内部控制程序利用VHDL语言设计实现,降低了系统的复杂度和成本,提高了系统集成度和稳定性。应用Modelsim软件对设计系统进行了时序仿真,得出的仿真结果验证其达到了设计要求。

  6. Design of wireless transmission system of portable endoscope%便携式内镜的无线传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文光; 王春飞; 许新建; 孔悦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design the wireless transmission system for portable endoscope. Methods The DM642 was used as data processing core and TVP5150PBS for video decoder, the video stream after CCD intelligent image analysis was encoded by H. 264 encoder, H.264 video coding was sent out by current real-time streaming protocol (RTSP) streaming media server and wireless fidelity (WIFI) module, and synchronously displayed on personal computer (PC)/high definition television (HDTV). BC66F840 was used for wireless foot switch control, and the image and video camera were controlled by radio frequency mode. Results After clinical testing, the designed wireless transmission system were synchronously displayed the images acquisited from endoscope with transmission delay was less than 100 ms;the video camera controlled by wireless foot switch and single-hand operation. Conclusion It is demonstrated that the wireless transmission system is suitable for portable endoscope.%目的:设计一种便携式内镜的无线传输系统。方法采用DM642为数据处理核心,TVP5150PBS为视频解码器,对电荷耦合元件(CCD)采集的图像进行智能分析,然后将其视频流输入H.264编码器进行编码,编码压缩后的H.264视频流通过实时流传输协议(RTSP)流媒体服务器和无线网络上网(WIFI)模块发送出去,同步显示在个人计算机(PC)/高清晰度电视(HDTV)上。无线脚踏开关采用BC66F840,以射频的方式进行控制图像拍摄和录像。结果经过临床测试,设计的无线传输系统能够同步显示内镜采集的图像,传输延时小于100 ms;拍摄和录像可通过无线脚踏开关控制,实现单手操作。结论实验设计的无线传输系统非常适合便携式内镜的运用。

  7. RF design and tests on a broadband, high-power coaxial quadrature hybrid applicable to ITER ICRF transmission line system for load-resilient operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Jin, E-mail: haejin@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Son Jong; Park, Byoung Ho; Kwak, Jong-Gu [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hillairet, Julien [CEA/IRFM, Saint-lez-Durance (France); Choi, Jin Joo [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Amplitude balanced 3 dB coaxial hybrid splitter has been designed and rf tested. • The proposed hybrid is applicable to ITER ICRF transmission line for load resilience. • Two-section, broadband coaxial hybrid can be tunable by changing dielectric insulator. - Abstract: RF design and network analyzer tests of broadband, amplitude-balanced coaxial hybrid junctions are presented. We have designed two 3 dB hybrid splitters with 9 and 12 in. coaxial transmission lines applicable to ITER ICRF for load-resilient operations using ANSYS HFSS. Amplitude-balanced broadband responses were obtained with the combination of impedance reductions of longitudinal and transverse branches in unequal proportion, length change of 50 Ω lines and diameter change of high impedance lines connected transversely to the T-section of the hybrid splitter, respectively. We have fabricated and RF tested the 9 in. coaxial hybrid coupler. We obtained an excellent coupling flatness of −3.2 ± 0.2 dB, phase difference of 4 degrees and return loss of 16 dB in 40–55 MHz. The measured data of 9 in. hybrid splitter is highly consistent with HFSS simulations. We found that the proposed 3 dB hybrid splitter can be tunable with amplitude-balanced, broadband response by changing dielectric insulators to keep the inner and outer conductors of coaxial line apart. The proposed 3 dB hybrid splitter can be utilized for load-resilient operations in a wide range of antenna load variations due to mode transitions or edge localized modes (ELMs) in fusion plasmas.

  8. Sampling Design Influences the Observed Dominance of Culex tritaeniorhynchus: Considerations for Future Studies of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Jennifer S; Al-Amin, Hasan Mohammad; Chakma, Sumit; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Gurley, Emily S; Pulliam, Juliet R C

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito sampling during Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-associated studies, particularly in India, has usually been conducted via aspirators or light traps to catch mosquitoes around cattle, which are dead-end hosts for JEV. High numbers of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, relative to other species, have often been caught during these studies. Less frequently, studies have involved sampling outdoor resting mosquitoes. We aimed to compare the relative abundance of mosquito species between these two previously used mosquito sampling methods. From September to December 2013 entomological surveys were undertaken in eight villages in a Japanese encephalitis (JE) endemic area of Bangladesh. Light traps were used to collect active mosquitoes in households, and resting boxes and a Bina Pani Das hop cage were used near oviposition sites to collect resting mosquitoes. Numbers of humans and domestic animals present in households where light traps were set were recorded. In five villages Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was more likely to be selected from light trap samples near hosts than resting collection samples near oviposition sites, according to log odds ratio tests. The opposite was true for Cx. pseudovishnui and Armigeres subalbatus, which can also transmit JEV. Culex tritaeniorhynchus constituted 59% of the mosquitoes sampled from households with cattle, 28% from households without cattle and 17% in resting collections. In contrast Cx. pseudovishnui constituted 5.4% of the sample from households with cattle, 16% from households with no cattle and 27% from resting collections, while Ar. subalbatus constituted 0.15%, 0.38%, and 8.4% of these samples respectively. These observations may be due to differences in timing of biting activity, host preference and host-seeking strategy rather than differences in population density. We suggest that future studies aiming to implicate vector species in transmission of JEV should consider focusing catches around hosts able to transmit JEV.

  9. 基于RS-485长距离数据传输系统设计%A Long Distance Data Transmission System Designed Based on RS-485

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洋; 杨俊峰; 宋克柱

    2013-01-01

    为了满足现在大型核物理实验中数据传输的需要,设计了一种基于RS-485、异步串口通信协议的长距离数据传输系统;系统采用现场可编程门阵列(Field programmable gate array,FPGA)作为主控芯片,在FPGA的内部实现异步串口通信协议编解码、时钟数据恢复,同时使用RS485收发芯片Max3467来增强差分信号的驱动能力,提高了该系统在长距离数据传输中的可靠性;目前该系统可以20.48 Mbps的单线波特率在100 m双绞线电缆上实现无误码数据传输.%A long distance data transmission system based on RS-485 and Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) is designed for long distance data transmission in large physics experiments.This system used Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as main control chip.UART and Clock Data Recovery (CDR) were implemented in FPGA.And the chips,Max3467,were used to drive electric signal on cables.All these improved reliability of the system in data transmission part.This system worked on 100 meters long cable and at data rate of 20.48 Mbps with no errors.

  10. Design and implementation of an adaptive single pole autoreclosure technique for transmission lines using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitton, D.S.; Dunn, R.W.; Aggarwal, R.K.; Johns, A.T. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Bennett, A. [Reyrolle Protection, Hebburn (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive Single Pole AutoReclosure (SPAR) offers many advantages over conventional techniques. In the case of transient faults, the secondary arc extinction time can be accurately determined and in the case of a permanent fault, breaker reclosure can be avoided. This paper describes, in some detail, the design and implementation of a SPAR technique using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The design described includes special methods for extracting features from post-circuit break opening fault data, which is a prerequisite for setting up training data sets. The technique is then implemented in hardware based on a high performance T800 transputer system and some results obtained from laboratory tests of this equipment are presented.

  11. Design of Three-mode Multi/Demultiplexer Based on 2-D Photonic Crystals for Mode-Division Multiplexing Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, PeiDong; Chen, Heming

    2017-06-01

    A three mode division multiplexer and demultiplexer (MMUX/DEMMUX) base on 2-D photonic crystal at 1550 nm was designed. Two asymmetrical directional couplers are included in this MMUX/DEMMUX, which can achieve modes conversion function of TE0, TE1 and TE2 modes. In order to avoid phase mismatching in bus waveguide, taper directional is applied at waveguide junction which can reduce the insertion loss effectively. Plane waves method (PWM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) methods were used to simulating the performance of MMUX/DEMMUX. Numerical simulations show that the designed device has the potential for high-capacity MDM optical communication systems with a low insertion loss (<0.27dB) and a low mode crosstalk (< -25.4 dB).

  12. Designing 2D Phononic Crystal Slabs with Transmission Gaps for Solid Angle as well as Frequency Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven M. Ivansson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phononic crystals (PCs can be used as acoustic frequency selective insulators and filters. In a two-dimensional (2D PC, cylindrical scatterers with a common axis direction are located periodically in a host medium. In the present paper, the layer multiple-scattering (LMS computational method for wave propagation through 2D PC slabs is formulated and implemented for general 3D incident-wave directions and polarizations. Extensions are made to slabs with cylindrical scatterers of different types within each layer. As an application, the problem is considered to design such a slab with small sound transmittance within a given frequency band and solid angle region for the direction of the incident plane wave. The design problem, with variable parameters characterizing the scatterer geometry and material, is solved by differential evolution, a global optimization algorithm for efficiently navigating parameter landscapes. The efficacy of the procedure is illustrated by comparison to a direct Monte Carlo method.

  13. Design of the HELICS High-Performance Transmission-Distribution-Communication-Market Co-Simulation Framework: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Top, Philip [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories; Smith, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories; Daily, Jeff [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Fuller, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-09-12

    This paper describes the design rationale for a new cyber-physical-energy co-simulation framework for electric power systems. This new framework will support very large-scale (100,000+ federates) co-simulations with off-the-shelf power-systems, communication, and end-use models. Other key features include cross-platform operating system support, integration of both event-driven (e.g. packetized communication) and time-series (e.g. power flow) simulation, and the ability to co-iterate among federates to ensure model convergence at each time step. After describing requirements, we begin by evaluating existing co-simulation frameworks, including HLA and FMI, and conclude that none provide the required features. Then we describe the design for the new layered co-simulation architecture.

  14. 01J型无级自动变速器机械传动机构的改进设计%The Improved Design of 01J-type CVT Transmission Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春

    2011-01-01

    01J型变速器作为无级自动变速器的一种,其机械机构是整个传动系统的基础.在分析01J型无级自动变速器机械结构的基础上,改进了前进挡和倒挡的传动机构,设计了变速器的主要机械部件,对改进后变速器的性能进行了台架验证.%O1J - type stepless transmission as an automatic transmission, the mechanical structure is the basis of the entire transmission system. Based on analysis of mechanical structure for improved, forward and reverse drive mechanism are improved, the main transmission components are designed, the improved transmission performance of the bench verification.

  15. Hydraulic-driven Based the Design of the Transmission Assemblies%基于液压驱动的传动组合装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄象珊; 谢颂京

    2013-01-01

    To meet the needs of the basic course teaching of the task-driven automotive major, a kind of hydraulic-driven transmission assemblies is designed. The device mainly consists of hydraulic-driven systems, transmission systems and test systems. It is free to mix different driven programs and collect data. It is proved through practice that the device is flexible for package and with strong function. The device is easy for operation and for secondary development. The students' practical abilities can be improved greatly.%为满足当前基于任务驱动的汽车专业基础类课程教学需要,设计了一种基于液压驱动的传动组合装置.该装置主要由液压驱动系统、传动系统和测试系统组成,能自由组合实现不同的传动方案并进行数据采集,通过实践证明,该组合装置组装灵活、功能强,具有较好的可操作性和二次开发性,能够提高学生综合实践能力和创新能力.

  16. Design of Secure Video Stream Transmission System Based on Gstreamer%基于Gstreamer的安全视频流传输系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫健; 吴蒙

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,a security video stream transmission system based on PandaBoard ES and Gstreamer platform is designed. In the system,V4L2 framework is used for collecting video source and H. 264 compression coding technology is used for encoding the video stream. In terms of transmission,RTP is used to ensure good real-time performance. Last but not least,the AES encryption algorithm is also adopted to guarantee the security of the video data. The implementation of real-time video transmission system is comprehensively shown in this paper and through the analysis of the data acquired in the experiment. It is found that clients can receive the live video stream collected by the server timely,accurately and safely,which means that the secure video stream transmission system described in this paper is real-time,accurate,stable and secure.%文中设计并实现了一种基于PandaBoard ES硬件平台和Gstreamer开发框架的安全视频流传输系统。在系统中使用了V4L2视频采集框架、H.264压缩编码技术、RTP流媒体传输协议实现了端到端的视频流实时传输,并且采用AES加密算法针对实时视频流进行加密,保证了视频数据的安全性。文中全面展示了实时视频系统的搭建过程,并且通过Gstre-amer管道测试验证了该系统方案的可行性。测试结果表明,系统能够实时、准确、稳定、安全地将现场采集视频流信息显示到客户端,满足了远程视频监控系统的低时延、高安全的需求。

  17. Design and Investigation of Photonic Remote Antenna Units for Bidirectional Transmission in the Last Mile Wireless over Fiber System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Łysiuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article three different photonic Remote Antenna Units (RAU in the last mile Wireless over Fiber links are presented. For construction of RAU commercially available optoelectronic devices were used. The solutions differ from each other by the method of ensuring isolation between transmitting and receiving modes of operation. All RAUs were designed, realized and measured in various scenarios. The results prove that all propositions can be successfully applied to uplink and downlink IEEE 802.11b/g wireless LAN systems, employing Wireless over Fiber technique.

  18. Design of patient-specific focused ultrasound arrays for non-invasive brain therapy with increased trans-skull transmission and steering range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alec; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-09-01

    The use of a phased array of ultrasound transducer elements to sonicate through the skull has opened the way for new treatments and the delivery of therapeutics beyond the blood-brain barrier. The limited steering range of current clinical devices, particularly at higher frequencies, limits the regions of the brain that are considered treatable by ultrasound. A new array design is introduced that allows for high levels of beam steering and increased transmission throughout the brain. These improvements are achieved using concave transducers normal to the outer-skull surface in a patient-specific configuration to target within the skull, so that the far-field of each beam is within the brain. It is shown that by using pulsed ultrasound waves timed to arrive in-phase at the desired target, sufficient levels of acoustic energy are delivered for blood-brain barrier opening throughout the brain.

  19. Design on Transmission System of an Active Vision Platform%主动视觉平台机构的传动系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茗

    2012-01-01

    研究一种基于六自由度并联机构的主动视觉平台.在对六自由度并联机构空间运动进行分析的基础上,实现了对视觉系统平台的以大的旋转角度、灵巧度为目标的参数优化设计,根据系统特点采用了虎克铰连接结构及滚珠丝杠驱动结构,完成了虚拟样机的设计.主要阐述该样机传动系统的设计.%An active vision platform was designed based on six-DOF parallel device according to the kinematical analysis to the device. The parameter optimization of the active vision platform was done, which aimed at large-angel rotate and dexterous structure. A hooke hinge connection structure and a ball screw drive structure were adopted according to the characteristic of the system. A specific-al virtual machine was designed. The transmission system design of the virtual machine was expatiated.

  20. 色彩在白酒包装设计中的情感传达%Emotional Transmission of Color in Baijiu(Liquor) Packaging Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓培; 郑曼曼

    2015-01-01

    以色彩在白酒包装设计中起着重要的情感传达作用为基础,分析了色彩情感在白酒包装设计中的表现形式,从色彩可传达白酒包装设计的情感性、民族性、地域性、独特性等四方面来展开研究。研究表明,白酒包装应寻求商品特征与顾客心理之间的相融点,进而感染消费者、情系消费者、吸引消费者,刺激消费者的购买欲望,促进商品的销售量。%Based on the fact that color plays an important emotional transmission role in Baijiu(liquor) packaging design, the manifestations of color in Baijiu(liquor) packaging design in four aspects including emotionality, nationality, regionality, and specificity were analyzed. The re-search suggested that, a successful packaging design could achieve the compatibility between product characteristics and customers’psycholog-ical demands, and could further attract customers and arouse customers’desire to purchase.

  1. Underwater Mobile Platform Data Acquisition and Transmission System Design%水下移动平台数据采集和传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波; 徐元欣; 徐文; 刘陈展

    2014-01-01

    为实现水下环境的实时监测和数据采集,设计并实现了一套应用于水下传感网络的AUV ( Autonomous Underwater Vehicle)移动平台数据采集和传输系统。系统采用双MCU机制对采集数据进行分布式处理,利用合理的存储和通信帧格式及ARQ( Automatic Repeat Quest)协议保证数据的有效传输和可靠存储,可对水下环境和AUV内部传感器设备工作状态进行长时间的实时记录和监测。湖上组网试验证明:系统运行稳定,实时性好,满足水下传感网络数据采集和传输及环境监测的要求,对水下传感网络组网技术中的移动节点设计具有较高的参考价值。%In order to realize the goal of underwater environment monitoring and data acquisition,this paper designs and implements a set of data acquisition and transmission system based on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ( AUV) ,which is used in the underwater sensor network. The system adopts two MCU with distributed processing mechanism. It also adopts the suitable frame for data storage and communication and ARQ protocol to make sure the reliable data transmission and storage,which make it possible for a long time environmental and sensor working state monitoring. Several experiment results in lake show that the system not only has good stability and real time but also satisfies the demands of data acquisition and transmission,which is of great value to the mobile node design of the underwater sensor network.

  2. Designs and Parameters of Compact One-Chain Power Transmission Lines with Con-centric Location of Phases’ Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Seliverstov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New power lines of concentric designs with improved electrical parameters are proposed. In these power lines natural power of one voltage class is directly proportional to the number of drives in a split-phase and doesn’t almost depend on wire size ling and the distance between approximated wires of opposite phases. Lines of different voltage classes with the same number of wires in a split-phase have practically equal values of the equivalent parameters – inductance, capacitance and wave resistance.The system of wires transposition is offered, which provides the same load of wire lines and allows the intermediate power selection at any line point and its entirety.

  3. Analyzing the Deployment of Large Amounts of Offshore Wind to Design an Offshore Transmission Grid in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, E.; Mai, T.; Coles, L.

    2012-09-01

    This paper revisits the results from the U.S. Department of Energy's '20% Wind Energy By 2030' study, which envisioned that 54 GW of offshore wind would be installed by said year. The analysis is conducted using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS), a capacity expansion model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The model is used to optimize the deployment of the 54 GW of wind capacity along the coasts and lakes of the United States. The graphical representation of the results through maps will be used to provide a qualitative description for planning and designing an offshore grid. ReEDS takes into account many factors in the process of siting offshore wind capacity, such as the quality of the resource, capital and O&M costs, interconnection costs, or variability metrics (wind capacity value, forecast error, expected curtailment). The effect of these metrics in the deployment of offshore wind will be analyzed through examples in the results.

  4. Design and Operation of a Frequency Doubled Nd:YAG Thomson Scattering System with Transmission Grating ICCD Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    A novel Thomson scattering system has been deployed on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment. It provides a relatively low-cost, simplified design. Scattering is achieved using a 7 ns, 2 J frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The laser focuses to ˜3 mm diameter within the plasma via a 7 m beam-line. The beam-line contains cameras as beam finders and remotely adjustable mirrors for shot-to-shot alignment. A custom multi-element lens collects scattered photons from 15 cm 40%) image intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. Three spectrometers provide a total of 24 channels. Two interchangeable gratings exist to cover low (Te = 10--100 eV) and high (Te = 0.10--1 keV) electron temperature regimes on Pegasus. The spectrometer is optimized for ne from mid-10^18 to mid-10^19 m-3. The signal-to-noise expected is ˜0.5 of an equivalent system using Nd:YAG at 1064 nm and avalanche photodiode detectors.

  5. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  6. Lockup Strategy Design of Automatic Transmission%自动变速器闭锁策略设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷雷; 吴光强

    2011-01-01

    分析液力变矩器在闭锁过程中的动力传递特性,建立其动力学模型;从提高整车动力性出发,综合考虑发动机扭矩输出特性,设计动力性3参数闭锁规律;建立离合器油压优化模型,基于蚁群算法,得到闭锁离合器油压变化规律.以Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow为平台,建立发动机、液力变矩器、变速器以及车辆纵向动力学仿真模型,验证闭锁策略.结果表明,动力性闭锁规律提高了整车动力性,闭锁过程中车辆无冲击或动力间断.%Power transfer characteristics of the torque converter in the locking are analyzed, and the dynamic model of torque converter is built up. Based on a comprehensive consideration of the output torque characteristic of engine, three-parameter dynamic lockup control rule is designed to promote automotive power performance. Optimization model of clutch oil pressure is also established,and based on ant colony algorithm, the variation of lockup clutch oil pressure is obtained. With the Matlab/Simulink/ Stateflow software, the lockup strategy is verified. A conclusion is drawn that the dynamic lockup control rule promotes vehicle power performance without impact or power interrupt in the locking.

  7. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  8. Optimal Design of Transmission Lines Pole Tower Grounding Down Lead%输电线路铁塔接地引下线优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代鑫波; 崔勇; 陈湘华

    2013-01-01

    针对传统接地引下线存在的易腐蚀和材料质地太硬的缺陷,提出将接地引下线的制作材料用镀锌钢绞线代替,同时制定了钢绞线接地引下线的安装方法,并通过热稳定计算确定了钢绞线截面积.实例应用结果表明,该优化设计方法安装简单、方便,成本小,同时在减少输电线路维护工作量、运行成本和延长接地引下线使用寿命等方面均具有很强的实用性.%Traditional grounding down lead has defects of corrosion easily and too hard material texture. This paper presents the grounding wire galvanized steel strand for instead of round steel and designs installation process. And then the steel wire cross-sectional area is determined by thermal stability calculation. Example results show that the optimized design scheme has advantages of simple installation and low cost. At the same time, it has practicability of reducing the transmission line maintenance workload, operation cost and prolonging the service life of grounding down lead.

  9. WC5E型铰接式四驱矿用自卸车传动轴的设计%Design of transmission shafts of WC5E articulated mine dump truck with four-wheel driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆祥; 郭培燕; 王素慧

    2012-01-01

    针对WC5E型铰接式四驱矿用自卸车的结构特点和传动轴布置形式,通过分析各传动轴的工作状态和运动轨迹,确定了传动轴的长度、伸缩量和断面尺寸等主要性能参数,并根据所传递扭矩和转速对其进行了强度计算和校核,最终设计出满足整车使用要求的传动轴,为此类车辆传动系统的设计提供了方法和依据。%According to the structural features of WC5E articulated mine dump truck with four-wheel driving and the layout of its transmission shafts, after analyzing the operation status and motion track of each transmission shaft, the paper determined the main parameters of the transmission shafts such as the length, shrinkage and cross dimension etc. In addition, the strength calculation and checking of the transmission shafts were conducted according to the transmitted torque and rotary speed. Finally, the transmission shafts meeting the employment requirements of the dump truck were designed, which offered methods and references for design of the transmission system in the truck.

  10. Milnacipran: a unique antidepressant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Kasper

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Siegfried Kasper, Gerald PailDepartment of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs are among the most effective antidepressants available, although their poor tolerance at usual recommended doses and toxicity in ­overdose make them difficult to use. While selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are ­better tolerated than TCAs, they have their own specific problems, such as the aggravation of sexual dysfunction, interaction with coadministered drugs, and for many, a discontinuation syndrome. In addition, some of them appear to be less effective than TCAs in more severely depressed patients. Increasing evidence of the importance of norepinephrine in the etiology of depression has led to the development of a new generation of antidepressants, the serotonin and ­norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs. Milnacipran, one of the pioneer SNRIs, was designed from theoretic considerations to be more effective than SSRIs and better tolerated than TCAs, and with a simple pharmacokinetic profile. Milnacipran has the most balanced potency ratio for reuptake inhibition of the two neurotransmitters compared with other SNRIs (1:1.6 for milnacipran, 1:10 for duloxetine, and 1:30 for venlafaxine, and in some studies milnacipran has been shown to inhibit norepinephrine uptake with greater potency than serotonin (2.2:1. Clinical studies have shown that milnacipran has efficacy comparable with the TCAs and is superior to SSRIs in severe depression. In addition, milnacipran is well tolerated, with a low potential for pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions. Milnacipran is a first-line therapy suitable for most depressed patients. It is frequently successful when other treatments fail for reasons of efficacy or tolerability.Keywords: milnacipran, SNRI, antidepressant efficacy, tolerability

  11. 输电线路防灾减灾安全销的设计%Design of safety pin to prevent disasters of transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠彦忠; 张建禄; 单明

    2011-01-01

    对型号为5A-ZM4铁塔进行极限承载力计算,确定塔线分离控制荷载并设计出过载保护金具安全销 当导线、地线上的覆冰厚度超过极限荷载所对应的覆冰厚度时,安全销能使塔线自动分离防止倒塔和断线.采用增量加载非线性有限元法计算安全销的极限承载力,与设计的塔线分离控制荷载吻合.通过分析荷载位移曲线知安全销随着荷载的增加由初始的线弹性状态逐渐过渡到极限塑性破坏状态;并判断出安全销的微观裂纹发生顺序和宏观断裂.基于疲劳寿命预测理论,对安全销的疲劳寿命和寿命使用系数进行了预测,计算表明安全销的疲劳寿命达到要求.%The ultimate load capacity of the 5A-ZM4 transmission tower is calculated. The controlling load of tower-line separation is determined based on the calculation result and the cross-section of safety pin as overload protection hardware is designed. The safety pin can make transmission line dissociate from tower when ice thickness exceeds the value corresponding to the ultimate load. The ultimate load capacity of safety pin is analyzed by nonlinear finite element method, which is consistent with the designed controlling load of lower-line separation. It was shown that the safety pin status changes from elasticity to plasticity gradually as the loads increase by analyzing safety pin load-displacement curve. The order of the microcosmic crack of safety pin and the macroscopic fracture are judged by the crack formation criteria and compared with the step loading analysis results. Based on fatigue life-span prediction theory, the fatigue life and the fatigue usage factors of safety pin are predicted in ANSYS. The analysis result showed that the fatigue life of safety pin could meet the requirement.

  12. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  13. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  14. Microwave radio transmission design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This newly revised second edition provides a current, comprehensive treatment of the subject with a focus on applying practical knowledge to real-world networks. It includes a wealth of important updates, including discussions on backhaul capacity limitations, ethernet over radio, details on the latest cellular radio standards (2.5G, 3G, and 4G). You also learn about recent changes in spectrum management, including the availability of unlicensed bands and new mm band frequencies between 70 and 90 GHz. Additionally, you find more details on the fundamentals of antennas, especially at VHF/UHF le

  15. 链轮-行星传动风力机的设计与性能测试%Design and Performance Test of Sprocket Planetary Transmission Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包耳; 徐剑飞; 胡红英; 韩志敏; 唐建波

    2015-01-01

    对垂直轴阻力式风力机的模型机进行了结构设计与实验研究。采用链轮-行星传动装置控制桨叶的转动,使其在逆风过程中处于侧风状态。实验结果表明,该风力机的启动风速较低,并具有在较宽的风向角范围内输出功率稳定的特点。%The experimental research and structure design on the resistance—type wind turbine with vertical axis are conducted. In the wind turbine, the direction of the blade can be con-trolled by using sprocket planetary mechanical transmission devices and facing the wind against wind. The experimental results show that start wind speed is lower and variance of the output power is smaller when variance of the wind direction angle is bigger.

  16. Intelligent instrument design based on wireless transmission technology%基于无线传输技术的汽车智能仪表设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王襄

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's auto industry, artificial intelligence technology in the automotive field has been gradually applied. Zigbee wireless communication technology is used in the design of intelligent instrument based on wireless transmission technology. The main purpose of this paper is to solve the shortcomings of the cable connection of the traditional vehicle, save the system cost and improve the benefit of the system. After the debugging and running of the system, the system can work normally and achieve the expected purpose and application requirements.%随着我国汽车工业的快速发展,人工智能技术在汽车领域也得到了逐步应用。本文将Zigbee无线通信技术用于基于无线传输技术的汽车智能仪表设计,其主要目的在于解决传统汽车仪表有线连接的缺点,节约了系统成本,提高了系统效益。该系统经过现场调试及运行后,能够正常工作,达到了预期的目的及应用要求。

  17. Preliminary design of high-power wave-guide/transmission system for multimegawatt CW requirements of 100 MeV proton LINAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purushottam Shrivastava; Y D Wanmode; P R Hannurkar

    2002-11-01

    Development of a 100 MeV CW proton LINAC has been planned at CAT. This LINAC will be needing CW rf power in the frequency ranges of 350 MHz and 700 MHz for its RFQ and DTL/CCDTL/SFDTL structures respectively. The power to the accelerating structures will be produced by either 1 MW CW or 250 kW CW klystrons/inductive output tubes (HOM IOTs). The power needed by respective feed points in the structure is max. 250 kW which will be powered by splitting the power from 1 MW klystron/klystrode into four channels by using a wave-guide system. In case of using 250 kW tubes the power to the structures will be provided directly from each tube. Two types of wave-guide transmission system have been considered, viz, WR 2300 for 350 MHz rf needs and WR 1500 for 700 MHz rf needs. The typical wave-guide system has been designed using the 1 MW CW klystron followed by wave-guide filter, dual directional coupler, high-power circulator, three 3 dB magic TEE power dividers to split the main channel into four equal channels of 250 kW each. Each individual channel has dual directional couplers, flexible wave-guide sections and high power ceramic vacuum window. The circulator and each power divider is terminated into the isolated ports by high power CW loads. Out of the four channels three channels have phase shifters. Present paper describes the technological aspects and design specifications-considerations for these stringent requirements.

  18. Design of non-selective refocusing pulses with phase-free rotation axis by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm in parallel transmission at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massire, Aurélien; Cloos, Martijn A; Vignaud, Alexandre; Le Bihan, Denis; Amadon, Alexis; Boulant, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    At ultra-high magnetic field (≥ 7T), B1 and ΔB0 non-uniformities cause undesired inhomogeneities in image signal and contrast. Tailored radiofrequency pulses exploiting parallel transmission have been shown to mitigate these phenomena. However, the design of large flip angle excitations, a prerequisite for many clinical applications, remains challenging due the non-linearity of the Bloch equation. In this work, we explore the potential of gradient ascent pulse engineering to design non-selective spin-echo refocusing pulses that simultaneously mitigate severe B1 and ΔB0 non-uniformities. The originality of the method lays in the optimization of the rotation matrices themselves as opposed to magnetization states. Consequently, the commonly used linear class of large tip angle approximation can be eliminated from the optimization procedure. This approach, combined with optimal control, provides additional degrees of freedom by relaxing the phase constraint on the rotation axis, and allows the derivative of the performance criterion to be found analytically. The method was experimentally validated on an 8-channel transmit array at 7T, using a water phantom with B1 and ΔB0 inhomogeneities similar to those encountered in the human brain. For the first time in MRI, the rotation matrix itself on every voxel was measured by using Quantum Process Tomography. The results are complemented with a series of spin-echo measurements comparing the proposed method against commonly used alternatives. Both experiments confirm very good performance, while simultaneously maintaining a low energy deposition and pulse duration compared to well-known adiabatic solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 基于 Linux 的 WFT 嵌入式数据传输系统设计%WFT embedded data transmission system design based on Linux system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆华; 李晶晶; 张为公; 何仁

    2013-01-01

    In order to synchronously acquire and save road load spectrum data , a set of wheel force transducer ( WFT) data acquisition instrument is designed based on Linux system .The instrument design of software and hardware is described in detail , of which the hardware adopts PC 104 motherboard and the software adopts multi-thread technology under Linux development environment .As a transmission server from multi-serial ports of WFT data acquisition to Ethernet , the data acquisition process can be controlled by command buttons or Ethernet .Ex-periment results show that the instrument works steadily and reliably .It meets the road load spectrum data acqui-sition performance requirements , which has an important application value as independently developed car-road test equipment .%  为实现同步采集道路载荷谱数据并保存,设计开发了一套车轮力传感器( wheel force transducer ,WFT)数据采集系统。文中详细介绍了该系统的软硬件构成,硬件采用PC104主板,软件采用了Linux下的多线程技术,实现了既可以通过自身按键进行控制也可以通过以太网远程控制的WFT采集多串口数据转以太网服务器的设计。测试与试验表明:系统可以稳定可靠地采集各通道传感器数据,能够满足道路载荷谱数据采集的性能要求,作为自主研制的车路测试仪器具有重要的应用价值。

  20. Design of Power Transmission Line Based on the Total Life Cycle Cost%基于全寿命周期成本的配电网输电线路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁梦瑶; 于景潇; 孙国凯

    2014-01-01

    In the economic relations and the technical processing, the design of power transmission engineering is not only crucial but also plays an important role in computing project life cycle cost. The paper put forward an overall economic analysis of transmission line life-cycle cost based on the basic theory of whole life cycle, and it also designed a model of classification feedback. It verified practical significance and economic benefits of the whole life cycle cost management in the field of power transmission line design with the help of example design of the transmission path.%在经济关系和技术处理中,输电工程相关设计的影响至关重要,对计算工程的全周期成本也起着举足轻重的作用。依据全寿命周期的基本理论,提出输电线路全寿命成本整体经济分析和分级反馈的设计模型,通过设计输电路径的实例,验证全寿命周期成本管理在配电网输电线路设计方面的现实意义和经济效益。

  1. A Design of Configurable Graphic Transmission System based on FC-AV%一种基于FC-AV的可配置图像传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨可

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the requirment of multiple formats graphic transmission in avionics system, we design a configurable graph-ic transmission sytem based on FC-AV. First analyse the container system of FC-AV, then describe the key technologies of graph-ic transmission. On the basis of analysis and calculation of graphic transmission demand, we introduce the architecture of config-urable graphic transmission system, this provides reference for similar long distance graphic transmission application.%针对航电系统中多种格式图像传输的要求,设计了一种基于FC-AV的可配置图像传输系统。首先分析了FC-AV协议的容器系统,然后描述了图像传输的关键技术。在对图像传输需求进行分析和计算的基础上,介绍了可配置图像传输系统的架构,为同类图像远距离传输应用提供了借鉴的解决方案。

  2. Transmission Parameter Design for Special 5000 KN Friction Welding Machine%5000 KN专用摩擦焊机传动参数设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海鹏; 辛舟; 孔永永

    2016-01-01

    Transmission parameter is an important part of the transmission system. The transmission parameter determines the size of the headstock, the quality of the machine, the manufacturing cost and the lubrication conditions. lt is especial y important to fix a rational transmission parameter in a complete set of transmission system. High power and high torque are characteristic of the special 5000KN friction welding machine transmission system. Based on the principle of high power gear transmission being equivalent to the minimum moment of inertia, the transmission series are determined, and with the help of the entropy weight theory, the al ocation of transmission ratio is theoretical y optimized.%传动参数是传动系统的重要组成部分,传动参数直接关系到主轴箱尺寸的大小、整机质量、制造成本、润滑条件等,传动参数的合理确定在一套完整的传动系统中显得尤为重要。5000KN专用摩擦焊机传动系统具有功率大、扭矩大的特点。基于大功率齿轮传动等效转动惯量最小原则确定其传动级数,并借助于熵权理论,在理论上优化配置该摩擦焊机的传动比。

  3. Continuously variable transmission. Final technical report. [ANSYS Computer Code for performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughson, D.; Emmadi, R.; Topouzian, A.; Lampinen, B.; Bhavsar, C.

    1977-12-01

    Ford Motor Company over the past two decades has been studying various types of Infinitely Variable (I.V.) Transmissions for improving passenger car fuel economy. Of the traction drive mechanisms investigated, the Forster I.V. transmission appeared the most attractive because it reduces the complexity and manufacturing costs associated with other traction drives by virtue of its unique ratio-changing mechanism. Ford Motor Company was awarded contract E(11-1)-2674 on July 1, 1975 to study an infinitely variable traction drive transmission based upon the Forster Concept. The program plan was set-up in two phases. Phase I consisted of a design study, whereby the traction drive mechanism was experimentally and analytically evaluated and an I.V. transmission designed. Phase II, contingent on the outcome of Phase I, was to cover the build, vehicle evaluation and a manufacturing cost study. Testing and stress analysis of the flexible discs proved that the concept was not a feasible design, therefore Phase II (transmission build) was not recommended. In an effort to obtain baseline data on traction coefficients and efficiencies of traction drive transmissions a contract extension was awarded. Rigid discs with fixed geometry were designed to develop this data.

  4. 基于同步传输的射频光网络单元设计%RF ONU Design Based on Synchronous Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄建忠

    2014-01-01

    RFoG技术在HFC网络双向改造中存在明显的优势,越来越多的运营商采用RFoG组网方案,但是RFoG的射频光网络单元由于光突发模式采用电平控制ONU的开通与关断,造成实现困难。为此,给出了一种基于同步传输的射频光网络单元设计方法,将回传信号数字化,采用和CMTS相同的时分复用技术( TDMA)来控制ONU反向光发射的“突发”,从而达到在任一给定的时点只允许一个ONU与CMTS头端保持通信,以弥补其不足。%RFoG technology has obvious advantages in HFC network two-way reform and more and more operators use RFoG networking scheme,but it is difficult to realize RFoG optical network unit( ONU) be-cause light burst mode uses level to control the ONU on and off. This paper presents a method of designing RF ONU based on synchronous transmission. The signal is digitized and time division multiplexing( TDMA) technology is adopted to control the "burst" from ONU reverse light,so as to achieve the goal that at any given time,only one ONU and CMTS head end is allowed to keep communication.

  5. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  6. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  7. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  8. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  9. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  10. 磁耦合谐振式无线电能传输系统的分析与设计%Analysis and design of wireless power transmission system via magnetic coupling resonances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪强; 李宏; 陈东旭

    2012-01-01

    分析并设计实现了一种基于脉冲驱动的磁耦合谐振式无线电能传输系统.介绍并阐述了磁耦合谐振式无线电能传输技术原理及其优越性.分析了脉冲驱动式磁耦合谐振无线电能传输系统中脉冲驱动频率fs及脉冲驱动占空比Don等相关参数对系统传输效率、功率的影响.对所提出的无线电能传输系统进行实验测试,实验结果表明,需综合考虑上述相关参数,以达到传输效率、传输功率的最优化设计.实验结果表明了理论分析的有效性.%A kind of wireless power transmission system via magnetic coupling resonances based on the pulse driving signal was analyzed and designed. The principle of magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transmission technology and its superiority was introduced and expounded. And then the Influence of the related parameters such as the pulse-driving frequency ts and duty cycle Don of the pulse driving type wireless power transmission system via magnetic coupling resonance system, on the transfer efficiency and transfer power of the system was analyzed. The proposed wireless power transmission system was tested by the experiment. The results show that the above relevant parameters should be comprehensively considered, in order to achieve the optimization design of the transmission efficiency or transmission power. The experiment results also show the validity of the theoretical analysis.

  11. Design and Implementation of Visual Inspection System for Overhead Line in Transmission Line%输电线路中的架空线可视化巡视系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓红; 王丹; 叶廷东; 刘波

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the structure and function of the visual inspection system of overhead lines in the transmission line. The project can effectively improve effect of power transmission line operation and maintenance, the lofty mountains and harsh environment, requiring frequent inspection area and no 3G network coverage where the wireless mesh network) transmission line of video surveillance, also have a strong centralized monitoring center platform, achieve controllable transmission lines, in control, fundamentally change the transmission mode of production management.%本文介绍了输电线路中的架空线可视化巡视系统的结构和功能的设计与实现. 该项目可有效地提高输电线路运行维护的效果, 实现对高远山区、 环境恶劣、 需要频繁巡视区域和无3 G网络覆盖地方 (利用无线Mesh网络) 的输电线路进行视频监控, 同时具备强大的集中监控中心平台, 实现输电线路的可控、 在控, 从根本上转变输电生产管理模式.

  12. A multi-mode multi-node high-speed transmission design%一种多模式多节点高速传输系统的方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清涛; 凌小峰; 宫新保

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the insufficiency of single transfer mode and high-speed requirement of current transmission system, a novel design of multi-mode, multi-node and high-speed transmission system is proposed in this paper. Through data filtering and flow control, the proposed method can accomplish multi-mode transmission and multi-node collaborative work, and has the feature of high speed, huge multi-node, and controllable transmission data rate. Through hardware implementation and system testing based on FPCA and gigabit Ethernet technology, conclusion can be drawn that the proposed system can work effectively in high-speed transmission system.%针对目前传输系统传输模式单一和无法满足高速需求的不足,提出了一种多模式多节点高速传输系统的方案设计.该方案通过数据筛选和流量控制完成数据多模式的传输和多节点的协同工作,具有速度快、节点数量多和数据率可控的特点.基于FPGA和千兆以太网技术的硬件实现和系统测试表明,方案可以有效地适用于高速数据传输的应用场合.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

  14. SST high rate data transmission system design%空间太阳望远镜高速数据传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿立红; 孙才红; 吕昌; 金声震; 徐志衡

    2004-01-01

    The Space Solar Telescope (SST),an important solar observing satellite in the future,is being developed under the corporation of National Astronomical Observatories,Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Airspace Department.A dedicated high date rate data transmission system (DTS) for SST is introduced.It will be used to transmit the super-large volume science data of the satellite down to ground station.The protocol of DTS is completely compatible with that of the present satellite ground station in China.SST system requirement for DTS is analyzed.Satellite-ground station link calculation is done to estimate the DTS system margin.Detailed design is focused on the DTS Channel Encoding Card (CEC),includes design principle,developing method and base-band test system.CEC translates the parallel data stored in the Mass Memory of the onboard Science Data Processing Unit (SDPU) to serial formatted data streams,inserts pseudo-noise (PN) codes into the streams,which fit for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) radio modulation.At last,some discussions are also given concerning the implementation of DLS error detection coding and error correction coding (EDEC) and the base-band testing system.Optimized function distribution among software,hardware and firmware is discussed.Now the CEC ground model with its electronic ground support equipment (EGSE) has been developed.Some new methods and ideas in CEC design have been successfully verified.%空间太阳望远镜(SST)是中国未来重要的太阳观测卫星,中国科学院国家天文台和航天部五院目前正在开展该卫星的研制工作.本文介绍高数据传输速率(60Mbps)的科学数据传输系统(DTS),该系统将SST每天采集的超大容量科学数据传送到卫星地面站,其协议与国内卫星地面站现有协议兼容.文中分析SST对DTS的系统需求;计算DTS系统星地传输链路的系统余量;侧重描述DTS的信道编码卡(CEC)的详细设计,包括设计原理、方法和实验

  15. The New Concept of Movie Advertising Transmission and Design & Production in the Internet Age%网络时代的影视广告传播与设计制作新理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓婷

    2013-01-01

    影视广告的效果与效益,一方面取决于广告作品的质量,另一方面取决于广告的传播方式,影视广告的创意、设计与制作必须以广告的有效传播作为基础。本文以作者所在的多媒体技术教研室与九号仓文化传播有限公司共同设计、制作的影视广告《灯笼暖》的网络传播为基础,研究影视广告的创意、设计与制作,探讨影视广告在网络新媒体时代的传播方式。%The ef ect and benefit of movie ad. depend on two things: one is the quality of the ad. itself, the other is the design originality and transmission mode of ad. The originality, design and production of movie ad. bases on the ef ective ad. transmission. The author of this paper takes network transmission of ads"The lantern warm"as example, which are designed and produced by the No. 9 warehouse culture communication company and author's multimedia teaching and research division, to discuss the originality, design and production of movie ad. and its transmission mode in the network new media era.

  16. Mechanical transmission reliability optimization design variable speed drive mechanism%汽车机械式变速器变速传动机构可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤建祥

    2016-01-01

    with the development of the transportation sector, China's auto industry has been developing rapidly, the car's design and manufacturing has been optimized. Automobile transmission is an important part of automobile transmission system, it for vehicle handling, performance, and has a direct impact on the stability and efficiency of the transmission. Due to the rapid development of the automotive industry and automotive design, development and application of car users to the design requirements of auto transmission is high. Faster in order to increase the stability and safety of cars in our country, this article through to automobile research of reliability design of mechanical transmission gear transmission mechanism, so as to put forward some relevant optimized measures, further better meet user demand for cars.%随着交通行业的发展推动,我国的汽车行业也随之发展迅猛,对于汽车的设计制造也不断优化。汽车的变速器是汽车传动系统的重要组成部分,它对汽车的操控性、动力性、以及传动的平稳性和效率都有着直接的影响。由于汽车工业的快速发展以及汽车的设计、开发和应用,汽车使用者们对汽车变速器的设计要求也日趋变高。为了更快的提高我国汽车的稳定性和安全性,本文通过对汽车机械式变速器变速传动机构的可靠性设计研究,从而提出一些相关的优化措施,进一步更好的满足用户对汽车的需求。

  17. Acoustic Sensitivity Analysis on Dominant Transmission Paths for Noise Reduction Design of Super-large Crude Carrier%超大型油轮降噪设计主传递路径族灵敏度方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高处; 杨德庆

    2014-01-01

    针对振动噪声传递路径降噪设计是提高船舶声学性能的有效措施之一。目标舱室振动噪声传递路径并不唯一,其中多条主要路径传递了大部分振动与噪声能量。利用作者提出的基于声振熵概念及图论中K则最短路径理论的声振熵赋权图法,能够快速识别船舶舱室噪声主要传递路径族。在此基础上,计算噪声主传递路径族上声学设计参数变化对目标舱室声压影响的灵敏度,调整有关声学设计措施,此即降噪设计主传递路径族灵敏度方法。提出适用于大型船舶噪声主传递路径分析及主传递路径族灵敏度的降噪设计通用流程,通过超大型油轮降噪声学设计实例,说明了该方法的有效性。%One of the effective measures to improve the acoustic performance of ships is to perform a noise reduction design along the sound transmission path. However, there are usually several transmission paths to the target cabin, of which some dominant paths transmit a large amount of noise and vibration energy. Using the proposed vibro-acoustical entropy weighted graph method based on the vibro-acoustical entropy concept and K shortest path theory, the dominant transmission paths of the cabin noise can be identified quickly. On this basis, the sensitivity of influence of the change of the acoustic design parameters of the dominant transmission paths on the sound pressure of the target cabin is calculated. And the method for noise reduction design can be adjusted and determined efficiently. This is known as the sensitivity method of dominant transmission paths in noise reduction design. A general program of this method for noise reduction design of large ships is designed. A numerical example of a super large crude carrier is given and the results show the effectiveness of this method.

  18. Geometric and Meshing Properties of Conjugate Curves for Gear Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate curves have been put forward previously by authors for gear transmission. Compared with traditional conjugate surfaces, the conjugate curves have more flexibility and diversity in aspects of gear design and generation. To further extend its application in power transmission, the geometric and meshing properties of conjugate curves are discussed in this paper. Firstly, general principle descriptions of conjugate curves for arbitrary axial position are introduced. Secondly, geometric analysis of conjugate curves is carried out based on differential geometry including tangent and normal in arbitrary contact direction, characteristic point, and curvature relationships. Then, meshing properties of conjugate curves are further revealed. According to a given plane or spatial curve, the uniqueness of conjugated curve under different contact angle conditions is discussed. Meshing commonality of conjugate curves is also demonstrated in terms of a class of spiral curves contacting in the given direction for various gear axes. Finally, a conclusive summary of this study is given.

  19. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  20. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  1. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  2. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  3. 远程水表数据采集传输系统设计与研究%Design and Research of Remote Meter Data Acquisition Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣冶

    2012-01-01

    Research long-distance meter reading technology to improve the accuracy of the remote data transmission. In some special environment, water meter data need long distance transmission. Because distance increases, the data easily get lost or loss, causing the problem of inaccurate transmission results. In solving the above -mentioned problems, a remote water meter data transmission system was proposed based on a remote transmission compensation algorithm. The attenuation of an analog data of water meter was calculated and compensated to ensure accurate data transmission. The experimental results show that the algorithm can overcome the problems that the workload of traditional wiring transfer method is heavy and the transmission distance is restricted.%研究远程抄表技术优化问题,以提高远程数据传输的准确性.在一些特殊环境下,水表数据需要进行较远距离的传输,由于距离增加,传输的数据容易发生丢失或者损耗,造成传输结果不准确.为解决上述问题,提出一种远端传输补偿方法的远程水表数据传递系统,计算传输过程中水表的模拟量数据的衰减程度,进行阶梯性的衰减数据补偿,弥补远距离传输中由于数据衰减带来的缺陷,保证数据准确传输.实验结果表明,算法克服传统的布线传递方法中工作量大、传输距离受限制等不利因素,具有结构紧凑、功能合理、工作可靠、抗干扰能力强等优点,为远程水表采集系统设计提供了依据.

  4. Coal Mine in Transport Double Clutch Type Automatic Transmission Hydraulic System Design%煤矿用车中双离合器式自动变速器液压系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红英

    2013-01-01

      As a new type of transmission, dual clutch type automatic transmission is the most distinguished feature of having two clutch, to improve the performance of vehicle power, economy and the improvement of comfort play a very important role. This paper first on the double clutch type automatic transmission analysis and discussion of the hydraulic system, after the double clutch type automatic transmission hydraulic system design is analyzed.%  作为一种新型变速器,双离合器式自动变速器最显著的特色就是拥有两个离合器,对整车动力性能的改善、经济性以及舒适性的提高起到极为重要的作用。文章首先对双离合器式自动变速器液压系统进行分析和阐述,之后对双离合器式自动变速器液压系统的设计进行了分析。

  5. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  6. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  7. Transmission Scheme Design of Local Radio and Television Broadcast a Prefecture Level City Safety%地级市本地广播电视节目安全播出传输方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段天学

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces in detail the local radio and television program security in Zhaotong city broadcast transmission scheme , the scheme according to the design requirements of the “radio and television broadcasting safety management regulations” and “implementation rules”, according to the local cable status in the way of 1+2 design, and the use of optical fiber the two -way function to radio, television broadcasting signal local transmission problems solved , to ensure that the radio and television transmission in no danger of anything going wrong , for the mainland city of industry peer reference .%详细介绍昭通市本地广播电视节目安全播出传输方案,该方案按广播电视安全播出管理规定及其实施细则的要求设计,根据本地光缆现状按1+2方式设计,利用光纤双向功能解决电台、电视台本地直播信号传输的问题,确保广播电视节目安全可靠传输。

  8. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  9. 轧机换辊车传动方式改进设计%Improvement Design for the Transmission Mode of the Roll Change Carriage in Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华勇; 周晓艳

    2013-01-01

    The defects of the old transmission mode is analyzed ,the force analysis of the gear in reduction box is analyzed and the troque of the old mode is calculated .According to these analysis,the old transmission mode should be changed to hydraulic motor.It is proved that this improvement could reduce the failure rate and shorten the roll changing time effectively.%针对换辊车原设计传动方式的不足,改变原有传动方式,通过对减速箱齿轮的受力分析,计算出原传动所提供的扭矩,将减速电机更换为液压马达,生产实践证明,此改进可降低设备故障率,缩短换辊时间。

  10. Application Design of SSH Protocol in Data Transmission of Resource Monitoring System%SSH协议在资源监控系统数据传输中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春龙

    2013-01-01

    随着互联网的快速发展,基于互联网远程数据传输方法起到了越来越重要的作用。本文主要介绍SSH协议,并通过一个Java实现的基于Internet资源监控系统为例,介绍SSH协议在监控系统中对远程数据传输的设计与实现。%With the rapid development of the Internet, method of remote data transmission based on Internet is playing an increasing important role. This paper mainly introduces the SSH protocol, and through a monitoring system developed by Java to introduce the use of SSH protocol in the monitoring system for the design and implementation of remote data transmission.

  11. 数控激光切割机XY工作台传动系统设计%Transmission System Design of XY Worktable of CNC Laser Cutting Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨敏; 杜木伟; 张旭

    2012-01-01

    Based on the laser cutting mechanism and the working principle of CNC laser cutting machine, the feeding transmission system of mechanical part XY worktable is analyzed, and the transmission system of a rotating motor driving screw-nut through a pair of spur gears is designed.%依据激光切割技术原理及数控激光切割机的工作原理,分析了机械部分XY工作台的进给传动系统,设计了由旋转电机通过一对直齿轮传至丝杠螺母的传动系统.

  12. 现行输电塔设计规范可靠度水准的评估与分析%Evaluation and Analysis on Reliability Level of Current Design Specification for Power Transmission Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松涛; 高斐略; 李正良; 范文亮; 徐彬

    2015-01-01

    In order to make systematic and correct evaluation on reliability level of design specification for power transmission tower structure,relevant research on reliability of design expressions of different stress components of the power transmis-sion tower was developed based on DL/T 5 1 54-2002 technical regulations for structure design on overhead power transmis-sion line tower. Statistic parameters of loads and resistance of tower components and influencing laws were analyzed as well. Considering wind speed,structure importance factors and affect of wind load reappearing period,refined evaluation on reli-ability level of design expressions were made. In addition,reliability level of current specification for the tower in our coun-try was investigated.%为了对输电线路杆塔结构设计规范进行较为系统且准确的可靠水准评估,基于 DL/T 5154—2002《架空送电线路杆塔结构设计技术规定》,对输电塔不同受力构件设计表达式的可靠度展开相关研究,分析了杆塔构件荷载、抗力的统计参数及其影响规律。考虑风速、结构重要性系数及风荷载重现期的影响,对设计表达式的可靠度水平进行了精细化评估,考察了我国杆塔现行规范的可靠度水平。

  13. Design of Heave Compensation System and Prototype Development Based on Planetary Transmission Speed Governor%基于行星传动调速的波浪补偿系统设计与样机研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小军; 陈循; 胡永攀

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly brought forward an active heave compensation system (AHCS) based on differential planetary transmission (DPT) speed governor. Then operating principles of this new system were represented, a mathematical model was built, and variable transmission relationships were deduced. The research accomplished designs of planetary transmission speed governor, electrical and hydraulic servo system, as well as ship posture detection system, based on composite control strategy combination of feed-forward composition and feedback correction. Finally, prototype's experimental scheme was designed and the test platform was built, and the results show the planetary transmission speed heave composition system can meet requirements for lifting work under complex o-ceanic conditions according to the heave composition tests.%提出了一种基于差动行星传动调速的主动式波浪补偿系统.阐述了新型主动式波浪补偿系统的工作原理,建立了波浪补偿系统数学模型,推导了波浪补偿变量传递关系.研究了基于前馈补偿—反馈校正的波浪补偿复合控制策略,完成了波浪补偿系统的行星传动调速器、控制系统电液伺服驱动系统、船舶姿态检测系统的设计.设计了原型样机试验方案并建立了模拟试验平台,通过波浪补偿试验,证明提出的行星传动调速波浪补偿系统能够基本满足复杂海况条件下吊装作业的要求.

  14. Pulsed Power for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dehope, w j; browning, n; campbell, g; cook, e; king, w; lagrange, t; reed, b; stuart, b; Shuttlesworth, R; Pyke, B

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has converted a commercial 200kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) into an ultrafast, nanoscale diagnostic tool for material science studies. The resulting Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) has provided a unique tool for the study of material phase transitions, reaction front analyses, and other studies in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biology. The TEM's thermionic electron emission source was replaced with a fast photocathode and a laser beam path was provided for ultraviolet surface illumination. The resulting photoelectron beam gives downstream images of 2 and 20 ns exposure times at 100 and 10 nm spatial resolution. A separate laser, used as a pump pulse, is used to heat, ignite, or shock samples while the photocathode electron pulses, carefully time-synchronized with the pump, function as probe in fast transient studies. The device functions in both imaging and diffraction modes. A laser upgrade is underway to make arbitrary cathode pulse trains of variable pulse width of 10-1000 ns. Along with a fast e-beam deflection scheme, a 'movie mode' capability will be added to this unique diagnostic tool. This talk will review conventional electron microscopy and its limitations, discuss the development and capabilities of DTEM, in particularly addressing the prime and pulsed power considerations in the design and fabrication of the DTEM, and conclude with the presentation of a deflector and solid-state pulser design for Movie-Mode DTEM.

  15. Implementation of the design attendent by computers (CAD) for the location of structures of power transmission lines; Implementacion del diseno asistido por computadora para la localizacion de estructuras de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel; Gutierrez Arriola, Gustavo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order that the tools of CAD (Design Attended by Computer) that are offered in the market are really useful, they must combine the criteria and experiences of the expert designers with the specifications and practices established in the electrical company. This includes, from the introduction to the information system of the available input data and its design criteria, to obtaining the required output information. In the present work the methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in the design of power transmission lines that integrates the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) requirements in the design of its transmission power lines is an advanced computer tool that results in obtaining better designs. Some of the most important aspects are the reduction of the used working time, the cost of the designed line, its reliability, the flexibility in the information handling and the quality of presentation. [Spanish] Para que las herramientas de diseno asistido por computadora que se ofrecen en el mercado sean realmente utiles deben conjuntar los criterios y experiencias de los disenadores expertos con las especificaciones y practicas establecidas en la empresa electrica. Esto incluye desde la introduccion al sistema de la informacion de datos de entrada de la que se dispone y de sus criterios de diseno hasta la obtencion de la informacion de salida que se requiere. En el presente trabajo se resume la metodologia desarrollada por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en el diseno de lineas de transmision, que integra los requerimientos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en el diseno de sus lineas de transmision en una herramienta de computo avanzada y que redunda en la obtencion de mejores disenos. Algunos de los aspectos mas importantes son la reduccion del tiempo de trabajo empleado, el costo de la linea disenada, su confiabilidad, la flexibilidad en el manejo de informacion y la calidad de presentacion.

  16. Research on the design of transmission linegeographic information system under three dimensional GIS Technology%三维GIS技术下的输电线路地理信息系统设计探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓苏

    2016-01-01

    随着三维设计技术的普及,输电线路设计也引入数字化三维设计。文章主要论述建立一个以三维地理信息系统(Geographic Information System,GIS)为支撑的数字化设计平台,最终实现设计信息化、软件集成化、图纸电子化、管理规范化,使得设计成果更加直观、设计手段更加先进、协同作业更加便捷、项目管理更加高效、成果移交更加规范。满足电力系统对输电线路的管理的需求。%With thepopularization of 3D design technology,the design of transmission lines is also introduced into the digital 3D design.Creating this paper mainly discusses a on the three dimensional geographic information system,geographic information system,GIS)for the support of digital design platform, the ultimate realization of information design, software integration, drawings electronically,standardized management,the design results more intuitive,design means more advanced,collaborative operation more convenient,project management more efficient,the results of the transfer of more standardized.Meet the demand of power system for the management of transmission line.

  17. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  18. Existence and Uniqueness of Endemic States for the Age-structured MSEIR Epidemic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-zhi Li; Geni Gupur; Guang-tian Zhu

    2002-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of positive steady states for the age-structured MSEIR epidemic model with age-dependent transmission coefficient is considered. Threshold results for the existence of endemic states are established; under certain conditions, uniqueness is also shown.

  19. 通信高速传输系统的设计与实施分析%Analysis on Design and Implementation of the High-Speed Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 赵静娟

    2013-01-01

    In the design of high-speed transmission system, how to ensure the reliability and quality of data transmission even on the premise of long distance and large capacity becomes an arduous task lying ahead of the scientists and technicians. This paper discusses some problems existing in the design and implementation of high-speed transmission system. Meanwhile, through analyzing the principle, design and operation procedure of high-speed transmission system based on optical fibre communication and CPI bus, it describes the fairly good operation performance and superiority of high-speed transmission system. Althrough China still has a long way to go in optical fiber technology as compared with developed countries, the gap means the existence of progress space, so it is necessary for the scientists and technicians to make uninterrupted study and exploration, thus to promote the perfection and development of this technology.%  进行数据传输时,如何使系统即使在远距离、且容量很大的前提下都能保证数据传送稳定性及传送的质量,目前是科技人员所面临的一项艰巨任务。这里分析通信高速传输系统设计和实施中存在的一些问题,同时通过分析基于光纤通信和 CPI 总线的高速传输系统的原理,及其设计和运行程序,阐述了高速传输系统的优越性。虽然中国的光纤技术相比于发达国家还有一定的差距,但有差距就会有进步空间,所以需要科研人员不断研究探索以促进该系统的完善和发展。

  20. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Bossler, Robert B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company and Lucas Western, Inc. within the U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program is summarized. The design of a 5000 horsepower transmission for a next generation advanced attack helicopter is described. Government goals for the program were to define technology and detail design the ART to meet, as a minimum, a weight reduction of 25 percent, an internal noise reduction of 10 dB plus a mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) of 5000 hours compared to a state-of-the-art baseline transmission. The split-torque transmission developed using face gears achieved a 40 percent weight reduction, a 9.6 dB noise reduction and a 5270 hour MTBR in meeting or exceeding the above goals. Aircraft mission performance and cost improvements resulting from installation of the ART would include a 17 to 22 percent improvement in loss-exchange ratio during combat, a 22 percent improvement in mean-time-between-failure, a transmission acquisition cost savings of 23 percent of $165K, per unit, and an average transmission direct operating cost savings of 33 percent, or $24K per flight hour. Face gear tests performed successfully at NASA Lewis are summarized. Also, program results of advanced material tooth scoring tests, single tooth bending tests, Charpy impact energy tests, compact tension fracture toughness tests and tensile strength tests are summarized.

  1. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  2. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  3. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  4. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  5. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  6. Design of Excess 3 to BCD code converter using electro-optic effect of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for efficient data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Chanderkanta; Amphawan, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Excess 3 code is one of the most important codes used for efficient data storage and transmission. It is a non-weighted code and also known as self complimenting code. In this paper, a four bit optical Excess 3 to BCD code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  7. Low complexity Reed-Solomon-based low-density parity-check design for software defined optical transmission system based on adaptive puncturing decoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolong; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Jianglong; Tian, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a low complexity Reed-Solomon-based low-density parity-check (RS-LDPC) code with adaptive puncturing decoding algorithm for elastic optical transmission system. Partial received codes and the relevant column in parity-check matrix can be punctured to reduce the calculation complexity by adaptive parity-check matrix during decoding process. The results show that the complexity of the proposed decoding algorithm is reduced by 30% compared with the regular RS-LDPC system. The optimized code rate of the RS-LDPC code can be obtained after five times iteration.

  8. Study on Design of Farmland Information Acquisition and Transmission System Based on ZigBee%基于ZigBee的农田信息采集传输系统设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峥; 史智兴; 张云飞; 张燕

    2013-01-01

    为了提高农业管理的网络化和智能化水平,降低农田管理工作量,完成了基于ZigBee无线传感器网络的农田信息采集传输系统的设计,着重讲解了系统总体结构、硬件设计和部分软件设计.该系统能够快速、可靠地对农田信息进行远程采集和传输,对精细农业的发展具有重要意义.%In order to improve the network of agricultural management and intelligent level, reduce the workload of farmland management, the farmland information acquisition and transmission system was completed based on ZigBee wireless sensor network design, focused on the systems architecture, hardware design and part of software design. The system can quickly, reliably remote acquisition and transmission of field information, is of great significance to the development of precision agriculture.

  9. 全电子计算机联锁系统信息传输网络的设计%Design of information transmission network in All-electronic Computer Interlocking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊飞

    2012-01-01

    为满足全电子计算机联锁系统联锁机和执行机之间信息传输速率和可靠性的要求,设计了基于CAN总线和RS422总线智能通信单元的信息传输网络.该网络采用光纤通信技术、双网冗余技术和自愈网技术,保证传输速率和可靠性.现场运行情况表明,该网络能够满足全电子计算机联锁系统对信息传输的要求.%This article mainly introduced the design and implementation of information transmission network based on the CAN bus and RS422 bus intelligent communication unit. The network could meet the requirements of the information transfer rate and reliability of the All-electronic Computer Interlocking System. It was used fiber-optic communications technology, double network redundant technique and self-healing network technology to ensure the transmission rate and reliability. Results of field operations indicated that the network could meet the requirements of information transmission, for the All-electronic Computer Interlocking System.

  10. 电磁场传输线理论仿真实验的设计与实现%Design and implementation of simulation experiment for transmission line theory of electromagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高远; 蒋健; 朱昌平

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis of the teaching contents of the transmission line theory and analysis of teaching problems, the simulation experiment is designed and implemented. The contents of that experiment are based on the three operational states of uniform lossless transmission lines, the transient distribution of traveling and standing waves, and the transmission line impedance matching by Smith chart. The experiment shows the comprehensive and applied knowledge can be used to gain a good effect in the class.%通过对传输线理论教学内容及教学中存在问题的分析,针对传输线3种工作状态、行驻波瞬态分布以及基于Smith圆图的阻抗匹配等教学内容,设计并实现了传输线理论仿真实验.该实验内容突出知识的综合性与应用性,以达到良好的教学效果.

  11. A Design of torque measuring device for large-scale transmission shaft%一种大型传动轴扭矩测量装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘铭志; 张建国; 高英杰; 刘慧玲

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the technical problems of a large gear transmission torque measurement, considering its characteristics of low speed, great torque, narrow operation and outer space, a measurement method is proposed to embed dynamic torque measurement device into the drive spindle and transform the torque to the torsion angle by optical encoder. After the analog signal processed by the DSP system, the torque value is transferred to remote PC by wireless transmission technology to realize continuous and dynamic monitoring for the torque of the drive shaft.%为解决某大型齿轮传动系统扭矩测量的技术难题,针对该传动系统低速大扭矩运转和狭窄外部空间的特点,提出一种在传动主轴内嵌入扭矩动态测量装置,利用光电编码器将传动轴所承受的扭矩大小转化为扭转角度变化进行测量的方法。对模拟信号经由DSP系统处理,再通过无线传输技术,将测量的扭矩传输到上位机,实现在线对传动轴的扭矩大小的连续动态监控。

  12. 数字电视多业务传输平台设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Digital Television Multi-service Transmission Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the rapid development of interactive television on-demand business in the field of radio and television, the scheme of using Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) technology to build digital TV multi-service transport platform is introduced from the angle of the choice of network structure, business planning, protection mode, and the networking technology. The ease demonstrates the technical program can adapt to the transmission requirements of live TV and interactive TV, and provides a reference for the broadcasting industry building SDH transmission network.%针对交互电视点播业务在广播电视领域里的快速推进,从组网技术的选择、网络结构、业务规划、保护方式等角度,全面介绍利用弹性分组环(RPR)技术建设数字电视多业务传输平台的设计方案,并通过案例证明了该技术方案能适应直播电视和交互电视传输需求,为广电行业组建数字电视SDH传输网络提供参考.

  13. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossler, Robert; Heath, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Reported herein is work done on the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission by McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company under Army/NASA contract. The novel concept pursued includes the use of face gears for power transmission and a torque splitting arrangement. The design reduces the size and weight of the corner-turning hardware and the next reduction stage. New methods of analyzing face gears have increased confidence in their usefulness. Test gears have been designed and manufactured for power transmission testing on the NASA-Lewis spiral bevel test rig. Transmission design effort has included finite element modeling of the split torque paths to assure equal deflection under load. A finite element model of the Apache main transmission has been completed to substantiate noise prediction methods. A positive engagement overrunning clutch design is described. Test spur gears have been made by near-net-shape forging from five different materials. Three housing materials have been procured for evaluation testing.

  14. 基于3D打印机传输中断解决方案的设计与实现%Transmission Interruption ofSolution Design and Implementation Based on 3D Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋; 金禹含; 步亚楠; 苏臣

    2016-01-01

    PC uses C# language to write software for data processing on VS2008. The lower computer selects STM32F103RBT6 from the STM32 series as the main control system, and uss the serial port as the hardware transmission medium. The design oflower computer software uses uC/OS-III to realize the multi-task concurrent processing. It also designs the method and solution scheme for the phenomenon of transmission interruption in the process of data transmission, and the error position and information can be checked out easily and fast by using it. Through theoretical analysis and a testing combining hardware and software, it not only proves the feasibility and practicability of the transmission system, but also provides solution and reference value for costreducing, practicality, convenience construction of data transmission system.%PC机使用C#语言在VS2008的工具上编写实现“数据处理”软件。下位机选取STM32系列的STM32F103RBT6作为主控系统,采用串口作为硬件传输媒介,下位机软件设计借助uC/OS-III实现多任务并发处理。数据传输过程中传输中断现象设计方法和解决方案,借助此方案很容易快速查询出错位置以及信息。经过理论分析和软硬件结合测试,不但证明了传输系统的可行性和实用性,而且还为降低研发成本、实用性、方便性构建数据传输系统提供了问题解决思路及参考价值。

  15. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  16. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  17. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  18. 海流发电液压传动系统设计及仿真验证%Design of Hydraulic Transmission Systems for Tidal Current Turbines and Its Simulation Validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石茂顺; 刘宏伟; 李伟; 林勇刚; 丁金钟; 周宏宾

    2014-01-01

    In light of the problem of speed control for the tidal current turbine,the volume control method is adopted to control the impeller speed and the generator speed of the stand-alone tidal current turbine.Two similar hydraulic transmission systems for the tidal current turbine are designed,both adopting the pump-motor-generator direct connecting structure.To validate the hydraulic transmission systems,the mathematical models for the systems are analyzed and the MATLAB/Simulink models are developed to study the working characteristics of the hydraulic transmission systems.The results show that both hydraulic transmission topologies can realize constant-frequency control of the generator on the premise of meeting the requirement of maximum power point tracking control.%针对海流发电机组转速控制问题,采用容积调速方法控制离网型海流发电液压传动机组的叶轮转速和发电机转速。设计了两种类似的海流发电液压传动系统方案,均采用泵-马达-发电机直接连接的结构形式。为验证所设计的液压传动系统方案的有效性,对其进行数学模型分析,并建立系统的MATLAB/Simulink模型进行系统控制特性仿真研究。结果表明,两种液压传动拓扑结构在满足最大功率跟踪控制要求的前提下,均可以在液压传动系统环节同时实现发电机恒频输出控制。

  19. Design and Optimization of Wireless Power and Data Transmission for Visual Prosthesis%视觉假体中无线能量和数据传输的设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷旭平; 吴开杰; 赵磊; 柴新禹

    2013-01-01

    Boosting spatial resolution of visual prostheses is an effective method to improve implant subjects’ visual perception. However, power consumption of visual implants greatly rises with the increasing number of implanted electrodes. In respond to this trend, visual prostheses need to develop high-efficiency wireless power transmission and high-speed data transmission. This paper presents a review of current research progress on wireless power and data transmission for visual prostheses, analyzes relative principles and requirement, and introduces design methods of power and data transmission.%提高视觉假体的空间分辨率是增强假体植入者视觉感受的直接有效的方法。然而随着假体装置可植入电极数目的增加,假体装置的功耗也大幅增长。针对这种发展趋势,视觉假体需要实现大功率、高效率的无线能量传输和高速率的数据传输。该文回顾了视觉假体无线传输研究的现状和面临的挑战,分析了其工作原理和设计要求,进而针对其特点分别介绍了能量传输和数据传输的设计方法。

  20. Design of big torque and heavy load transmission gears in right angle milling head%大扭矩、重载荷直角铣头传动齿轮设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春波; 陆喜军; 刘银锋; 韩建中

    2014-01-01

    This article introduce the design process of the pair spiral bevel gears which are the core components of big torque and heavy load right angle mil ing head used to transfer power. Inside, it contains determination of bevel gear design parameter , the choice of material, design of manufacturing and heat treatment technology and checking calculation of bevel gear design parameter, etc. Through the design of big torque and heavy load transmission gears in right angle mil ing head, provides reference of design and study on other mil ing head components.%介绍大扭矩、重载直角铣头关键核心组件;传递动力的一组螺旋圆锥齿轮的设计过程,其中,包括圆锥齿轮的设计参数的确定、制造材料的选择;加工及热处理等工艺方法的制定;以及圆锥齿轮设计参数的校核计算等。通过大扭矩、重载直角铣头传动齿轮的设计。为其它铣头组件的设计、研究以及使用提供了一定的参考。

  1. 关于艺术设计中本土文化传承的再思考%Reflections on the Transmission of Local Culture in the Art Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何彩霞; 刘杰; 张莹

    2012-01-01

      随着设计文明和文化创意产业的发展,越来越多的有识之士意识到在当代设计中本土文化的价值,各国的设计在世界多元化文化背景中都力求挖掘与利用自己的民族文化,民族文化的展示已成为当代世界设计的主流。通过归纳总结,认为本土文化是设计的基石,强调传承重在精神文化内涵,创新则为立足点。%  Along with development of design civilization and creative cultural industry, more and more designers are aware of the values of local culture contemporary design. Designers all over the world strive to highlight their ethnicity in the context of world-wide multiculturism. Demonstration of ethnical culture has been a mainstream in design. This paper concludes that local culture is the touchstone of design;stresses that the transmission lies in mental culture, and puts forward that innovation should be the base.

  2. 客车传动系的优化及软件设计%Optimization of Passenger Car Transmission System and Design of Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢梦婷; 商高高

    2013-01-01

    在保证动力性的前提下降低客车的油耗,选择驱动功率损失率和混合工况油耗作为综合优化目标,以整车性能要求以及变速器各挡传动比间隔要求为约束条件,并基于Matlab与C#混合编程对传动系参数进行优化软件的设计与开发.实例计算结果表明:优化后目标函数值降低明显,且选择较大的经济性加权因数优化效果更佳.适当增大主减速器传动比,并增大传动比范围,可以在一定程度上提高客车的性能.%Based on the technique of mixed programming by Matlab and C#,the transmission parameters optimization software is developed to improve the performance of passenger car.The power loss rate and the fuel economy are transformed into objective function,and the requirements of the vehicle performance and the gearbox ratio interval are used as constraint conditions.The result of verification example shows that the objective function value is reduced after optimization and the effect of optimization with larger weighted factor of economy is more significant.The performance of passenger car can be improved by increasing the main reducer gear ratio and the transmission ratio range.

  3. Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Richard J.

    Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

  4. 高压输变电线路的设计与维护要点分析%Elements analysis of design and maintenance of high-voltage transmission circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋延鹏

    2016-01-01

    The design and maintenance of high-voltage transmission line means that power companies achieve the optimization and upgrading of power transmission line under the premise of meeting the needs of production and life. In this way, it will not only fundamentally enhance China's power management level and solve problems facing in the development process, but also achieve optimization and upgrading of China's power sector, and promote the healthy development of power enterprises. Through the analysis and discussion on design and maintenance of high-voltage transmission line, it is possible to further improve the ecological environment of the electricity market, safeguard China's energy security, and promote the healthy development of China's economy.%高压输变电线路设计与维护是指电力企业在满足经济生产与社会生活的前提下,实现对输变电线路的优化与升级。通过这种方式,不仅能从根本上提升我国电力企业的管理水平,解决其在发展过程中面临的诸多难题,还能实现我国电力机构的优化与升级,促进电力企业的健康发展。对高压输变电线路的设计、维护进行分析与探讨,能够进一步提升我国电力市场的生态环境,保障我国的能源安全,促进我国经济的健康发展。

  5. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  6. Research on stepless transmission utilizing noncircular gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In view of the lack of systemic analysis for stepless transmission using noncircular gears, two basic noncircular gear units, an addition unit adopting differential mechanism and a multiplication unit applying a fixed gear train, are proposed. Then, the design methods of the noncircular gear pair of each unit, transmission ratio relationship, rotation angle relationship and key parameters with specific physical meanings are studied. The adjusting properties, composing strategy and varying range of transmiss...

  7. 一种新型自动变速器行星轮系的设计与分析%Design and Analysis of A New Automatic Transmission Planetary Gear Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏鹏飞; 汪韶杰; 李旗号

    2015-01-01

    The planetary gear train is designed on the basis of the structural characteristics of parallel planetary gear train automation transmission .The model of planetary gear train is built by Pro/E software ,the modal analysis is conducted by finite element analysis software ANSYS ,and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of planetary gear train are obtained .This method provides the impor‐tant modal parameters for parallel planetary gear train automation transmission performance optimization ,and lays the theoretical ba‐sis for further improvement on its structure design .%针对并联行星轮系自动变速器的结构特点设计出行星轮系,利用三维建模软件Pro/E建立行星轮系模型,并用有限元分析软件ANSYS对所设计的行星齿轮系进行模态有限元分析,从而可以得出行星轮系的固有频率以及振型,为并联行星轮系自动变速器传动性能的优化提供重要的模态参数,同时也为结构的改进设计提供了理论依据。

  8. Transmission and distribution electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, Colin

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice encountered in the installation and design of transmission and distribution systems for electrical power has been updated and revised to provide the project engineer with all the latest, relevant information to design and specify the correct system for a particular application.Thoroughly updated and revised to include latest developmentsLearn from and Author with extensive experience in managing international projectsFind out the reasoning and implicatons behind the different specifications and methods

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  10. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  11. 特高压格构式输电塔线体系振动台试验设计%Shaking Table Test Model Design for UHV Latticed Transmission Tower-line Coupling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰; 谢强; 薛松涛; 申道明

    2013-01-01

    特高压输电塔线体系具有跨越档距大、塔体高的特点,进行地震模拟振动台试验测试时,现有结构试验方法难以完成.本文以特高压交流单回路输电线路工程为背景,设计制作了三塔两线体系缩尺模型,文中详细阐述了振动台试验的模型设计工作,其中包括试验材料的选取、动力相似关系的确定、模型的制作以及试验方案设计等方面.针对由强几何非线性的导、地线与弹性输电铁塔这两种不同形式的结构所组成的耦联体系提出了动力参数分离式模型设计方法,解决了塔线体系按统一比例无法满足振动台台面尺寸要求的问题.理论分析和实测对比验证了该模型较好地满足了振动台试验要求,该方法使得通过振动台试验研究特高压输电塔线体系的地震反应得以实现.%Ultra high voltage(UHV) latticed transmission tower-line coupling system is characterized by longspan and high-rise,and the existing experimental methods can not complete the shaking table tests.This paper designed a coupled system model consisting of three towers and two-span conductors,which took a single-circuit AC transmission project as the prototype.The material selection,the dynamic similarity relations and the design of the test plan for shaking table model of UHV transmission tower-line coupled system were introduced.To simulate the different dynamic characteristics between elastic latticed transmission tower and flexible transmission conductors and ground wires which show strong geometrical nonlinearity,separated dynamic parameter scale ratios for the two parts were used independently in the design of the system,which can solve the trouble that the span of transmission line is too long to fit within the shake table in the same proportions as the tower.Shaking table test requirements can be satisfied by comparing theoretical analysis with the actual measurements of the system model.

  12. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

  13. Design and experiment on double cam-link of continuously variable transmission for seeding and fertilizing%双凸轮连杆型排种施肥无级变速器设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东远; 何进; 李洪文; 王庆杰; 张祥彩; 郑智旗; 路战远; 王松

    2013-01-01

      针对目前国产机械式施肥播种机中种肥排量无级调节装置种类较少、电液式种肥排量无级调节装置成本较高,变量播种施肥作业调节范围有限、准确性与均匀性较差等问题,该文提出了一种基于连杆机构与凸轮机构实现无级变速的方法,并设计了相应的双凸轮连杆型无级变速器,它由输出机构、传动机构及调节机构共同实现对输出轴转速的无级调节。运动学仿真分析表明:无级变速器的机构设计合理,凸轮的轮廓曲面质量较高,设计方案可行;性能校验试验表明:随着传动比的变化,输出转速的相对误差值基本在0~10%的范围内波动,占空比值在其理论值附近的波动幅度不超过10%,均满足种肥排量调节的传动比精确性与传动平稳性要求。该研究可为变量施肥播种机的设计提供参考。%In China, there are relatively few types of mechanical, continuously variable transmissions for variable rate seeding and fertilizing, while the electronic hydraulic application has the disadvantages of high cost, limited adjustable range, and poor accuracy and uniformity of distribution. To address these problems, and according to the analysis of the desired variable application rate of adjusting seed and fertilizer, the factors of the manufacturing costs, and the reliability of the structure for medium and small scale size farming operation, this paper put forward a method to achieve the variable speed of a transmission system based on a cam mechanism and connecting lever mechanism, designed the relevant parameters through the above principle mechanism, and developed the double cam link of continuously variable transmissions. The transmission achieved the variable rate of seeding and fertilizing through the simultaneous combined action of the output mechanism, transmission mechanism, and adjusting mechanism. In addition, in order to shorten the development

  14. A new class of negative refractive index transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new class of negative refractive index transmission line in which ideal operational amplifiers are applied to form the periodically loaded negative-impedance-converted inductors and capacitors. The phase response of the new transmission line is opposite to that of a positive refractive index conventional transmission line. Unlike the existing negative refractive index transmission line, the new negative refractive index transmission line is non-dispersive and thus can lead to many novel applications such as designing new broadband devices.

  15. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, D.W. (Aerojet Propulsion Division, P.O. Box 13222, Sacramento, California 95813-6000 (United States)); Rochow, R. (Babcock Wilcox Space Nuclear Systems, P.O. Box 11165, Lynchburg, Virginia 24506-1165 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    Earlier this year Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) introduced a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars. This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection (E-D) rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1)Reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2)Eliminate need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3)Practical provision for reactor power control; and (4)Use near term, long life turbopumps.

  16. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Donald W.; Rochow, Richard

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps.

  17. 气体钻井井下扭矩测量无线传输系统研究设计%Research and design of downhole torque measurement wireless transmission system for gas drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小祥; 夏文鹤

    2016-01-01

    在气体钻井中,为实时了解井下的真实工况,及时处理井下安全风险,需要对井下近钻头扭矩参数实时监测。因此,研究设计了一种采用电阻应变式测量扭矩技术和微波随钻数据传输技术的扭矩测量无线传输系统,该系统采用C8051F3XX系列单片机为主控制器,完成了数据采集、数据存储和数据传输的硬件电路和软件程序设计,使用信号中继传输的方式大幅提升微波通信距离,测量井深达到3000 m,并开发了配套的上位机监测软件,实现了井下扭矩的随钻监测。实验结果说明系统无线传输时延短,能实时采集、传输、显示扭矩,满足气体钻井中井下扭矩测量的要求。%To obtain the real downhole working condition in real time and timely solve the downhole safety risk for gas dril⁃ling,it is necessary to monitor the torque parameter of downhole near bit in real time. A torque measurement wireless transmis⁃sion system using the resistance strain torque measuring technology and microwave while drilling data transmission technology is researched and designed. The C8051F3XX series microcontroller is taken as the main controller of the system to realize the hard⁃ware circuit and software program designs of data acquisition,data storage and data transmission. The signal relay transmission method can enhance the microwave communication distance greatly,and make the measured well depth reach up to 3 000 m. The matched host⁃computer monitoring software was developed,and the while drilling detection of downhole torque was realized. The experimental results show that the system has short wireless transmission delay,can acquire,transmit and display the torque in real time,and meets the demand of downhole torque measurement for gas drilling.

  18. 双模式机电复合传动方案设计与特性对比%Design and Contrast Studies of Dual-mode Mechanical-electronic Transmission Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏才; 闫清东; 王伟达; 明波; 陈杰翔

    2012-01-01

    The working principle of multi-mode mechanical-electronic transmission machinery was introduced. The broken line speed characteristics of dual-mode mechanical-electronic transmission were proposed, and a design method based on the speed characteristics of dual-mode mechanical-electronic transmission was provided. Four kinds of dual-mode mechanical-electronic transmission schemes were designed. Theoretical analysis and simulation on speed, torque and power characteristics were compared. The program of the engine input connecting with the gear ring of the first planetary gear set met the vehicle requirements of the relationship between speed, torque and power. The parameter adjusting range of planetary gear set was wider, program application was flexible. The relative electric power split, the motor weak magnetic ratio, the cooling method and system application background must be regarded as the considering factors.%阐述了多模式机电复合传动的工作原理.提出了折线式双模式机电复合传动速度特性,提供了基于该速度特性双模式机电复合传动方案设计方法.设计了4种双模式机电复合传动系统方案.对4种双模式机电复合传动方案进行了速度、转矩、功率特性理论分析、仿真验证和对比分析.发动机输入连接第一行星排齿圈的方案,从转速关系、转矩关系以及功率关系上均满足车辆要求,并且行星排的参数调节范围较宽.方案选择需综合考虑电力相对分流功率、电动机弱磁比、冷却方式和系统应用背景等.

  19. Design and Simulation of Symmetric Lathe Main Transmission System of Mixed Double Ratio%对称型混合双公比车床主传动系统设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟相强; 梁利东

    2012-01-01

    To improve the design level of machine tool, it is very important for design and simulation of main transmission system based on virtual prototype technology. The symmetric lathe main transmission system graph of mixed double ratio was drawed, total assembly model based on top-down method of NX was built, parts and components of main transmission system based on total assembly model was built, kinematics simulation of main transmission system was carried out; a pair of meshing cylindrical spur gear was imported into ADAMS software, the gear meshing virtual prototype model was established based on contact theory of multi-body dynamics, and dynamic simulation of gear meshing was realized, parameter characteristic curves such as speed and gear meshing force were got. Through analysis of simulation results, good coincidence between simulation results and theoretical calculation verifies that the modeling is correct.%为提高机床的设计水平,基于虚拟样机技术对其主传动系统进行设计与仿真至关重要.绘制了对称型混合双公比车床主传动系统图,基于NX自项向下方法构建总装配主模型,在此基础上建立主传动系统各个主要零、部件的三维模型,对机床主传动系统进行运动学仿真;选择一对啮合的直齿圆柱齿轮,将其导入ADAMS中,建立齿轮啮合的虚拟样机模型,基于多体动力学的接触碰撞算法,实现齿轮啮合的动力学仿真,得到转速、轮齿啮合力等参数特性曲线.分析仿真结果,与理论计算相吻合,验证了模型建立的正确性.

  20. Theory and Observation in Cultural Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey designed to evaluate the importance of some components of cultural transmission on a variety of traits showed that religion and politics are mostly determined in the family, a mode of transmission which guarantees high evolutionary stability and maintenance of high variation between and within groups. (Author/JN)

  1. Design of Ku Band Satellite Transmission and Video Monitoring System%Ku卫星传输及视频监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵李华

    2012-01-01

      通过VSAT卫星网络将先进管理手段延伸到作业现场,为油田管理ERP系统提供传输平台,为生产远程监控和指挥调度提供信息通信保障。考虑到卫星网络所特有的覆盖范围广、不受地理条件限制、建设周期短、且具有可搬移性,可重复利用、以及能够迅速开通提供服务等优势,网络中还可加入车载站,以满足紧急情况下应急通信的需要。%  Through the VSAT satellite network, the advanced management tools will be extended to working sites, and it will provide transmission platform for oil field ERP management system and provide information communication support for remote monitoring of production, command and dispatch. In consideration of satellite network having the following special feature and superiority, such as, wide cover range, unlimited geography condition, short construction period, stronger portability, recycling, opening quickly and providing services, we can also add the vehicle earth station to the network to meet the needs of emergency communication.

  2. 基于元胞传输模型的实时交通信息设计%Design real-time traffic information by cell transmission model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚华艳; 黄海军; 高自友

    2008-01-01

    随着智能交通技术的发展,可变信息标志(VMS,Variable Message Signs)被广泛应用于动态交通管理中.元胞传输模型(CTM,Cell Transmission Model)可以很好地模拟交通流激波、排队形成与消散等交通流动力学特性.提出一种新的基于CTM的路径行驶时间计算方法,并使用LOGIT原则计算路径选择概率,针对重复性拥挤和非重复性拥挤2种交通状况,分析了VMS对交通流的影响.数值模拟结果表明,理论模型能够合理反映现实的交通状况:发生重复性拥挤时,VMS能够合理疏导人们的出行,减缓交通拥挤;而发生非重复性拥挤时,VMS对高需求和低需求情形下的交通流影响相似,但在高需求情形下,路径选择对模型参数的敏感区很小.

  3. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  4. Control and Simulation of Continuously Variable Transmission for Electric Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张豫南; 葛蕴珊; 马晓军; 臧克茂

    2004-01-01

    According to the study of electric transmission, the concept of the fore and the aft power chain is presented. The control method of continuously variable transmission is established in the aft chain of electric transmission based on brushless DC motor. A fuzzy controller is designed with continuous fuzzy variables and the simulation module of the aft power chain is proved by test. The fuzzy controller controls the process of continuously variable transmission steadily and the acceleration of vehicle is quick according to simulation results. The elementary performance exhibited in the simulation is a foundation for the further study of the electric transmission track vehicle.

  5. Design of HVDC flexible information transmission system based on CPLD%基于CPLD的柔性直流输电信息传输系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍进玲; 罗鹏; 马莉

    2013-01-01

    An information transmission system based on CPLD was designed, which was used for exchaning data between HVDC flexible valve control system and submodules. By using high speed elements, designing redundancy circuit, and optimizing software algorithms, the system can run in the environment of high voltage and strong electromagnetic interference under the premise of ensuring fast response of data. The paper gives the hardware schematic diagram, the software flow chart and the test wave. The test results show that the design scheme is simple and feasible, and the system has strong anti-interference ability, which can meet the requirements of information reliable transmission of HVDC flexible system.%设计了一种基于CPLD的信息传输系统,用于柔性直流输电阀控系统与下级子模块之间的数据交换.通过采用高速元件、冗余电路设计、软件算法优化等措施,使得该系统能够在保证数据快速响应的前提下,运行在高电压和强电磁干扰环境下.给出了系统设计的硬件原理图、软件流程图和测试波形.实际测试结果表明,该设计方案简单可行、抗干扰能力强,可以满足柔性直流输电系统信息的可靠快速传输.

  6. The design of a wireless power transmission system%一种无线电能传输系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘力

    2013-01-01

    The wireless power is a kind of power supply that uses electromagnetic wave to transmit energy, which can economize the use of power cord and plug heads. This paper introduces an electromagnetic induction wireless charger. It’s combined with magnetic coupling and switching power technology. The system can divide into wireless transmit part and receive part. System efficiency reaches 67 percent with 1.16W output power when supply voltage is 12V and transmission distance is 3 mm. Test shows that the circuit structure is simple and can work stable. And the 4 light-emitting diodes can be lighted in the range of 6 cm.%  无线电能传输是通过电磁波进行电力传输,从而省去电源线和插座的一种新型电源.本设计的无线电能传输系统采用电磁感应方式,充分结合了磁耦合技术和开关电源技术.系统分为无线发射部分和接收部分,在12V电源供电下,3mm距离耦合时效率达到了67%,输出功率1.16W.整个电路结构简单,工作稳定,经过检验在6cm范围内能够点亮发光二极管,达到了实际应用水平.

  7. Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: Review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jean-François; Moy, Jean-Pierre; Susini, Jean

    2005-09-01

    As it has been beautifully demonstrated in synchrotron facilities, water window transmission x-ray microscopy (WW-TXM) has a great potential for high resolution three dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging of frozen cells, without the cumbersome staining and slicing preparation needed by electron microscopy. However, the existing instruments do not exactly meet the expectations of cell biologists in terms of performance and accessibility: 3D images of entire cells grown on a flat substrate with details in the 50-80nm range are necessary for structural cell studies. Functional imaging is also a key issue. Specific molecular probes are widely used to achieve molecular imaging in optical and electron microscopy. The same demand applies to x-ray microscopy. Immediate availability of the observation technique within the biology laboratory is as important as its performance. Therefore, WW-TXM will develop on a wider scale only when table-top instruments become available. We present a detailed analysis of such a microscope. The source is clearly the key element. Laser created plasmas of carbon or nitrogen are a proven but expensive solution. Cerenkov emission in vanadium has been demonstrated as a potential monochromatic source, but we emphasize severe obstacles: huge thermal load and radiation protection. We show that oxygenKα line excitation by an electron beam is a realistic alternative. Being a purely monochromatic source, it would allow the use of a high efficiency mirror condenser, while laser plasmas imply spectral selection with the associated losses. We then describe the main elements of an affordable laboratory microscope, supported by numerical simulations and preliminary experimental work. We also show that functionalized quantum dots, currently used in fluorescence microscopy, are equally detectable with soft x-rays and would allow a dual modality observation. Finally, the expected performance of this prototype is discussed and confronted by the requirements

  8. 一种光纤隔离式直流信号传输装置的设计%A design of high voltage DC signal fiber isolation-transmission device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑舜; 刘红江; 蔡志远

    2015-01-01

    In high-voltage fields, high-voltage side inspection equipment (such as CT, PT) or the output signal of the sensor needs to be transmitted to the low-voltage side, the fiber isolation-transmission device not only can complete the transmission of the signal and achieve electrical isolation, but also has a strong ability to re-sist electromagnetic interference. A set of fiber isolation- transmission device for high-voltage DC measure-ment signal is designed by using the voltage frequency conversion (VFC) chip LM331 and photoelectric con-verter HFBR14XX. The circuit also is given. The V-F converter circuit is simulated, and the analysis shows that its error is 0.01 V.%在高电压领域中,高压侧检测设备(如PT,CT)或传感器的输出信号需要传输到低压侧,光纤隔离式信号传输装置不仅能完成信号的传输,还能实现高低压的电气隔离,同时也具有很强的抗电磁干扰能力。利用电压-频率(V-F)转换芯片LM331和HFBR14XX系列光电器件设计出一套适合高电压直流测量信号的光纤隔离传输装置,并给出了具体的电路原理图。对其中的V-F转换电路进行了仿真,分析表明,其误差为0.01 V。

  9. 一种安全的电子公文流转系统的研究与设计%RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF SECURE ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马映红; 赵卓

    2011-01-01

    To effectively solve the security issue of electronic documents transmission in e-government, the article recommends a mixed cryptosystem based on AES and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). The system provides a function of stamping the seal and signature on electronic documents, is able to authenticate the identity of operator who sends the document and to warrant the documents' confidentiality, integrality,authenticity and undeniableness. Based on that, a model of secured electronic documents transmission system is constructed, the working principle of mixed cryptosystem and secured document processing flow are elaborately designed. Analysis shows that the system meets the demands of documents transmission process in authentication on users' identities,integrality of information ,confidentiality and undeniableness.%为有效解决电子政务中电子公文流转的安全问题,提出了基于AES算法和椭圆曲线密码算法(ECC)相结合的混合密码体制.该系统可以完成在电子公文上签字盖章功能,能够对公文发送者的身份进行鉴别,保证公文的机密性、完整性、真实性和不可否认性.在此基础上,建立了安全公文流转的系统模型,详细设计了混合密码体制的工作原理和安全公文处理流程.通过分析表明,该系统实现了公文流转过程中对用户的身份认证、信息的完整性、机密性与不可否认性等方面的需求.

  10. 基于CC1100无线传输的人流量统计系统设计%Statistics System Design on Flow of People Based on CC1100 Wireless Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    千承辉; 韩晓惠; 王文应; 凌振宝; 高乐

    2012-01-01

    为实时监测和控制某公共场所内的人流量,设计并研发了基于CC1100无线传输模块的人流量统计系统.数据传输部分采用CC1100无线传输模块与微控制系统相结合的采集方式,实现了基于自动查询地址式通讯协议的无线通信.经过测试,下位机的实时数据能无线传输到上位机以实现远程监控每个采集点的人流量的功能,具有布线简单、操作方便、性价比高和功耗低等优点.%To instantly monitor and control the flow in a public building, a statistical system based on the CC1100 wireless transmission module has been designed. The data transmission part combines the CC1100 wireless transmission module with microcontroller system to communicate wirelessly according to the communication protocol which automatically queries the address. Tested data can be transferred from one of the slave controllers wirelessly to the host one to reach the remote observing and controlling function on the instant flow at each collection point so the system is easy to operate, cost-effective and low-powered with simple wiring.

  11. UNIQUENESS ON ZERO PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞敏; 王振

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a new idea, the authors prove the uniqueness of weak solution of pressureless gases with the large initial data. In particular, uniqueness theorem is obtained in the same functional space as the existence theorem.

  12. Design of High-Speed Data and Long-Distance Transmission System Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的高速数据长线传输系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝锋; 韩壮志; 何强; 尚朝轩; 曾慧燕; 马少闯

    2012-01-01

    Design scheme of high-speed and long-distance transmission system is proposed, whose core is Cyclone II series FPGA chip EP2C5T144, based on low voltage differential signals (LVDS) interface technology. The scheme implements serial-to-parallel conversion, parallel-to-serial conversion, LVDS' driving and receiving through FPGA, it solves some problems such as the voltage conversion of different interface standards, impedance matching, the signals' attenuation and resumption in the process of long-distance transmission. The scheme has advantages of simple design, strong anti-jamming ability, small size, low cost and high integration. Experimental results show that the system works steadily, the serial data transmitting at the speed of 50 Mb/s on the 100 m unshielded twisted pair with the perfect transmission effect, which fully meet the need of design.%提出了以CycloneⅡ系列FPGA芯片EP2C5T144为核心,基于低压差分信号(LVDS)接口技术的高速数据长线传输系统的设计方案,该方案利用FPGA实现数据的串/并、并/串转换以及LVDS信号的驱动和接收,解决了不同接口标准的电平转换、阻抗匹配以及信号长线传输过程中的衰减与恢复等问题,具有设计简单、抗干扰能力强、体积小、成本低、集成度高等优点.通过实验表明,该系统工作稳定,实现了串行数据在100m非屏蔽双绞线上以50 Mb/s的速率传输,并且具有良好的传输效果,完全满足系统设计要求.

  13. On the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniya Mandal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity theories coupled to n vector multiplets. We prove that for a given charge configuration the supersymmetry preserving axion free attractors are unique. We generalise the analysis to axionic attractors and state the conditions for uniqueness explicitly. We consider the example of a two-parameter model and find all solutions to the supersymmetric attractor equations and discuss their uniqueness.

  14. Wireless power transmission - Applications and technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Bradford W.; Brown, Alan M.

    The history of wireless power transmission systems is reviewed and current and future applications and technology are discussed. Design constraints for terrestrial systems, airborne platforms, and space systems are presented.

  15. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  16. Design and characteristics of MRF-based actuators for torque transmission under influence of high shear rates up to 34,000s-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Dirk; Erbis, Vadim; Schamoni, Markus; Maas, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    High rotational speeds for brakes and clutches based on magnetorheological fluids represent a remaining challenge for the industrial or automotive application. Beside particle centrifugation effects and rotational speed-depending no-load losses, the torque characteristic is an important property that needs to considered in the design process of actuators. Due to missing experimental data for these operating conditions, in this paper the shear rate and flux depending yield stress behavior of magnetorheological uids is experimentally investigated for high rotational speeds or respectively high shear rates. Therefore a brake actuator with variable shear gap heights up to 4 mm is designed, realized and used for the experimental investigation, which are performed for a maximum shear rate of ƴ= 34; 000 s-1 under large magnetic elds. The measurement results point out a strong dependency between shear rate, magnetic ux density and resulting yield stress. For low shear gap heights, a significant reduction in the yield stress up to 10 % can be determined. Additionally the development of Taylor vortices is determined, which will not only occur in viscous case without an applied magnetic field. The measurement results are important for a reliable actuator design which should be used in application with high rotational speeds.

  17. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 801 RIN 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification... unique device identification system as required by recent amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and..., FDA published a proposed rule to establish a unique device identification system, as required by...

  18. On chromatic and flow polynomial unique graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Yinghua; Wu, Haidong; Yu, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    ... research on graphs uniquely determined by their chromatic polynomials and more recently on their Tutte polynomials, but rather spotty research on graphs uniquely determined by their flow polynomials or the combination of both chromatic and flow polynomials. This article is an initiation of investigation on graphs uniquely determin...

  19. Design of graded refractive index profile for silica multimode optical fibers with improved effective modal bandwidth for short-distance laser-based multi-Gigabit data transmission over "O"-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdine, Anton V.; Zhukov, Alexander E.

    2017-04-01

    High bit rate laser-based data transmission over silica optical fibers with enlarged core diameter in comparison with standard singlemode fibers is found variety infocommunication applications. Since IEEE 802.3z standard was ratified on 1998 this technique started to be widely used for short-range in-premises distributed multi-Gigabit networks based on new generation laser optimized multimode fibers 50/125 of Cat. OM2…OM4. Nowadays it becomes to be in demand for on-board cable systems and industrial network applications requiring 1Gps and more bit rates over fibers with extremely enlarged core diameter up to 100 μm. This work presents an alternative method for design the special refractive index profiles of silica few-mode fibers with extremely enlarged core diameter, that provides modal bandwidth enhancing under a few-mode regime of laser-based data optical transmission. Here some results are presented concerning with refractive index profile synthesis for few-mode fibers with reduced differential mode delay for "O"-band central region, as well as computed differential mode delay spectral curves corresponding to profiles for fibers 50/125 and 100/125 for in-premises and on-board/industrial cable systems.

  20. Design of Transmission Line Fault Location System Based on High Speed Data Acquisition Card%基于高速数据采集卡的输电线路故障定位系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运周

    2014-01-01

    In order to make the transmission line in a short time with minimal manpower, troubleshooting, design a set of transmission lines fault location system based on high speed data acquisition card with single terminal traveling wave . The system is composed of high speed data acquisition device and system analysis software. The system can eliminate the hidden trouble, reduce the power outage, reduce outage time, improve the reliability of power supply.%为了使输电线路在短时间内以最小的人力、物力排除故障,设计了一套基于高速数据采集卡的输电线路单端行波在线故障定位系统。系统由高速数据采集装置和系统分析软件构成,可消除输电线路隐患、缩小停电范围、减少停电时间,提高供电可靠性。

  1. 频率选择性MIMO信道下实现块传输的收发联合设计%Joint linear transceiver design for block transmission over frequency-selective MIMO channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳语; 朱义君; 张水莲

    2013-01-01

    基于投影空间,提出了频率选择性MIMO (FS-MIMO)信道下一种实现块传输的收发联合设计方案.通过收发联合分离多径,把选择性信道转化为了若干正交的平坦MIMO等效信道,增加了系统设计的自由度.给出了一种容量最优的功率分配方案,推导了其误码率和信道容量的解析式.仿真结果验证了理论分析的正确性,该方案在高信噪比时与非块传输相比容量增益为L(多径数目).%Based on orthogonal projection,a transceiver scheme is proposed for MIMO block transmission over frequency-selective channel.By separating multi-path components,the selective MIMO channel is decomposed into L (the number of multi-path components) flat orthogonal MIMO effective channels,increasing degrees of freedom of system design.The analytical expressions of BER and capacity are given,based on proposed capacity-optimal power allocation.Simulation results show that compared with the existing non-block transmission,the capacity gain is L in high SNR regime.

  2. 无人机测控与信息传输信道的建模与仿真设计%Channel model and emluator design for the telecontrol telemetry and information transmission system of UAV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2012-01-01

    分析了无人机测控与信息传输系统中传输信道的特点,针对无人机飞行中不同的状态和环境条件,建立了不同的信道模型,并在此基础上,设计了一个可用于无人机测控与信息传输系统设计的信道仿真器,该仿真器通过设置不同的参数,可对无人机飞行中所处的不同通信信道进行仿真,以全面验证无人机测控与信息传输系统中所采用的传输技术性能及接收机性能.%In this paper, we analyze the channel characteristic of the telecontrol telemetry and information transmission system of UAV, and propose the different channel models by a series of flight status and environment. Based on the channel models, we design the relevant channel emluators that can emulate different communication channels by setting some parameters. The channel emluators can be used for the validation of the receiver performance of the telecontrol telemetry and information transmission system of UAV.

  3. Design of underground wireless intercom communication system based on optical fiber transmission%基于光纤传输井下无线对讲通信系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳军; 许耀华; 陈全

    2013-01-01

    The wireless intercom could not achieve efficient long-distance transmission in the mine with the harsh environment, so we designed the underground wireless intercom communication system which could transmit the wireless intercom signal to the fiber-optic signal. The system mainly consisted of the terminal transceiver modules, and three-way full-duplex splitter modules. The system used the terminal transceiver module to access the wireless signal fiber-optic network to achieve cluster the integration of long distance transmission. And the actual commissioning and use of this system could achieve the desired results, and good performance.%针对当前无线对讲井下恶劣环境下不能达到远距离高效通信的问题,设计一种将无线对讲信号转光纤网络传输的井下无线对讲通信系统.该系统主要由终端收发模块和三向全双工分路组成,通过终端收发模块将无线信号接入光纤网络进行集群式一体化远距离传输.该系统在实际调试和使用时能达到预期效果,并且性能良好.

  4. Design and Develop of Air-powered Logistics Transmission Control System Based on ARM%基于ARM的气动物流传输控制系统的设计与研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维芳; 唐厚君; 赵俊旭; 万林

    2011-01-01

    Design and develop hardware and software of pneumatic tube system based on ARM, including site, conversion stations, switching centers, cutting boards and other parts of the electrical control. Using the idea of CAN bus achieve the communication of the whole logistics delivery system validly and real-time. It can send or receive goods in accordance with the requirements to achieve the logistics transmission between the hundreds of sites, the transmission distance up to 1 ,000 meters, greatly improved the efficiency of transport logistics.%基于ARM,对气动物流传输系统的站点、转换站、转换中心、节流板等各部分的电气控制部分进行了硬件与软件的设计和研发.利川CAN总线的思路对整个物流传输系统进行有效、实时的通信从而实现了能够按照发送或者接受要求,实现上百个站点之间的物流传输.传输距离可达1000米,大大提高了物流传输的效率.

  5. Design of H265 real-time stream transmission system based on Hi3516A%基于Hi3516A的H265码流实时传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁云; 韩宾; 程锦发; 李岳

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a H265 real-time stream transmission system achieved on the Hi3516A development platform of hisilicon . It captures video image from HD camera and encodes it as H265 format by Media Process Platform ( MPP ) provided by hisilicon , then does the LIVE555 open source a secondary development to live H265 real-time stream . The design result indicates that the system meets the requirement of applications in the intelligent monitor field , with low latency on the transmission of HD video image and fluency on playing .%介绍了在海思 Hi3616A 开发平台下实现的一种 H265码流实时传输系统。利用海思提供的媒体处理平台( MPP )采集高清摄像头感应到的视频图像并进行 H265压缩编码,然后对 LIVE555开源代码进行二次开发,实现播放 H265实时码流的功能,将压缩编码后的数据发送出去。设计结果表明,系统传输高清视频图像延迟短,播放流畅,满足智能监控领域应用的要求。

  6. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  7. Design of De-icing Robot on Transmission Line with Obstacle Negotiation Function%具有越障功能的输电线路除冰机器人设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张屹; 韩俊; 刘艳; 丁昌鹏; 朱大林

    2013-01-01

    By analysing the present de - icing robot design in China, a design scheme of de - icing robot with obstacle negotiation function in consideration of the structure features of the transmission line is proposed. The design scheme consists of the design of mechanical system and the design of the control system. The mechanical system is composed by the walking device, obstacle negotiating device and de - icing device, the control system includes main control module, wireless control module,motor drive module and status information feedback module.Performance tests in both laboratory and field indicate that, the mechanical system design of the de - icing robot is reasonable and the control system is of great stablity and effecitveness.%分析国内除冰机器人设计概况,针对输电线路结构特点,提出了一种具有越障功能的除冰机器人设计方案,包括机械系统、控制系统两部分.机械系统由行走装置、越障装置和除冰装置组成;控制系统包括主控模块、无线操作模块、电机驱动模块和状态信息反馈模块.实验室以及野外真实线路性能测试实验表明,除冰机器人的机械系统设计合理,控制系统稳定有效.

  8. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...... and provide evidence on the transmission of trustworthiness....

  9. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...... and provide evidence on the transmission of trustworthiness....

  10. Discussion on Thrust Design of Large Diameter Water Transmission Pipeline%大口径输水管道的止推设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓英; 程子悦; 冯树健

    2012-01-01

    Xijiang River water diversion project is the lifeline project in Guangzhou City. The project has big pipeline diameter, high pressure and two pipes are laid in the same trench. The main pipe material is prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP). Because of the big push force at the elbow of two pipes, the thrust design is the key factor ensuring the safety of the whole system, and also one of the emphases and difficulties in the project design. Based on the specific circumstances of Xijiang River water diversion project, such as the big push force, land shortage, short construction period and so on, the thrust form of steel pipe packed by concrete is chosen. The design of the thrust form is introduced to provide reference for the similar projects.%广州市西江引水工程是广州市的生命线工程,其管径大、压力高,且双管同槽敷设.主管材采用预应力钢筒混凝土管(PCCP),由于弯头处双管推力很大,使得弯头处的止推设计成为保证整个输水系统安全的关键因素,也是工程设计的重点和难点之一.对几种常用的止推形式进行分析,并针对西江引水工程推力大、用地紧张、工期短等具体情况,最终确定了钢管外包混凝土的止推形式.对该种止推形式的设计进行了介绍,可供类似工程参考.

  11. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [data transmission between user and space-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote-space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the JPL. This paper reviews End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the JPL, with attention given to the scope of the EEIS transfer function, and functional and physical elements of the EEIS. The relationship between the EEIS and the NASA End-to-End Data System program is discussed.

  12. A spectrometer designed for 6.7 and 14.1 T DNP-enhanced solid-state MAS NMR using quasi-optical microwave transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kevin J; Kemp, Thomas F; Takahashi, Hiroki; Day, Robert; Howes, Andrew P; Kryukov, Eugeny V; MacDonald, James F; Collis, Alana E C; Bolton, David R; Wylde, Richard J; Orwick, Marcella; Kosuga, Kosuke; Clark, Andrew J; Idehara, Toshitaka; Watts, Anthony; Smith, Graham M; Newton, Mark E; Dupree, Ray; Smith, Mark E

    2012-02-01

    A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer operating at 6.7 T is described and demonstrated. The 187 GHz TE(13) fundamental mode of the FU CW VII gyrotron is used as the microwave source for this magnetic field strength and 284 MHz (1)H DNP-NMR. The spectrometer is designed for use with microwave frequencies up to 395 GHz (the TE(16) second-harmonic mode of the gyrotron) for DNP at 14.1T (600 MHz (1)H NMR). The pulsed microwave output from the gyrotron is converted to a quasi-optical Gaussian beam using a Vlasov antenna and transmitted to the NMR probe via an optical bench, with beam splitters for monitoring and adjusting the microwave power, a ferrite rotator to isolate the gyrotron from the reflected power and a Martin-Puplett interferometer for adjusting the polarisation. The Gaussian beam is reflected by curved mirrors inside the DNP-MAS-NMR probe to be incident at the sample along the MAS rotation axis. The beam is focussed to a ~1 mm waist at the top of the rotor and then gradually diverges to give much more efficient coupling throughout the sample than designs using direct waveguide irradiation. The probe can be used in triple channel HXY mode for 600 MHz (1)H and double channel HX mode for 284 MHz (1)H, with MAS sample temperatures ≥85 K. Initial data at 6.7 T and ~1 W pulsed microwave power are presented with (13)C enhancements of 60 for a frozen urea solution ((1)H-(13)C CP), 16 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane ((1)H-(13)C CP) and 22 for (15)N in a frozen glycine solution ((1)H-(15)N CP) being obtained. In comparison with designs which irradiate perpendicular to the rotation axis the approach used here provides a highly efficient use of the incident microwave beam and an NMR-optimised coil design.

  13. Optimum design of a self-supported power transmission tower type 2M2 for 230 kW; Diseno optimo de una torre de transmision autosoportada tipo 2M2, para 230 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejel Valdez, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Millan Monje, Alejandro; Honk Hernandez, Wenceslao [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    A group of specialists from the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analyzes the design of various types of power transmission towers in their application stage, in order to enhance them. In this article the structural characteristics of the self-supported tower type 2M2 for 230 kV of two circuits and of suspension, are presented. [Espanol] Un grupo de especialistas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analiza el diseno de diversos tipos de torres de transmision en su etapa de aplicacion, con el fin de mejorarlos. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas estructurales de la torre autosoportada tipo 2M2 para 230 kV, de dos circuitos y de suspension.

  14. 厂外排水管道交流稳态干扰防护设计%Protection Design against AC Steady-state Interference for Water Pipeline near High-voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程明; 牟华; 黄春蓉; 张平

    2013-01-01

    AC steady-state interference may affect the water pipeline near high-voltage transmission lines. Referring to some related standards, the mitigation objective and protection effect of the AC interference were analyzed, and the Right of Way (ROW) package was used to build modeling and calculation around the mitigation. The calculation results can guide the engineering design.%高压输电线路附近的厂外排水管道可能面临交流稳态干扰影响.结合相关标准要求,对交流干扰缓解目标和防护效果进行探讨分析,并利用自动计算软件包(ROW)分别对缓解前后进行建模计算分析.计算分析结果可以指导工程设计.

  15. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  16. 电力建设中架空输配电线路的设计及施工%Design and Construction of Electric Power Construction of Overhead Transmission and Distribution Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟沃波

    2016-01-01

    The socio-economic level of continuous improvement,and promote the further development of the power industry, and in recent years,China’s comprehensive national strength continued to improve,the population also increase,and the amount of people on the electricity supply and demand is increasing,then power construction engineering quality It is very important.The impact of power construction projects in overhead transmission and distribution lines throughout the design and construction of power engineering quality is great,this paper discusses the construction of overhead electric power transmission and distribution line design and construction,and practicality of proposed measures apply for the power construction enhance the level to provide a reference.%社会经济水平的不断提升,推动了电力行业的进一步发展,且近年来我国综合国力持续增强,人口数量亦随之增多,人们对电量的供求量不断增加,这时电力建设工程质量十分重要。而电力建设工程中的架空输配电线路设计与施工对整个电力工程质量影响极大,探讨了电力建设中架空输配电线路设计与施工,并提出了实用性应用措施,为电力建设工程水平提升提供参考依据。

  17. Design and research of belt-differential planetary gear continuously variable transmission%带式差动行星齿轮无级变速器的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌; 孙付春; 段钦华

    2009-01-01

    The belt-differential planetary gear continuously variable transmission is a closed planetary gear train the speed of which is adjustable. The way of designing this kind of gear train has been introduced in this paper based on the study of speed regulation range and differential gears. Meanwhile, a new method for analysis of gear train power flow and calculation for meshing efficiency has been also put forward in the paper though an example. As a result, with this method the belt-differential planetary gear continuously variable transmission with speed Conveniently, high carrying capacity and efficient, large speed range can be designed.%带式差动行星齿轮无级变速器是一种可进行无级调速的封闭式行星轮系,实际上是带式无级变速器和行星轮系的组合.在对带式无级变速调速范围和差动轮系研究的基础上,给出了设计带式差动行星齿轮无级变速器的方法.并通过实例,给出了研究此类无级变速器功率流分析和啮合效率计算的新方法.结果表明,应用此方法可设计出调速方便、承载能力强、效率高、调速范围大的带式差动行星齿轮无级变速器.

  18. Design, Simulation and Machining Process for the RF Coaxial Transmission Line%射频同轴传输线的设计仿真与加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新磊; 张斌珍; 张勇; 郝晓剑; 吴淑娟

    2013-01-01

    基于SU-8和BPN紫外负性感光胶,结合微电镀工艺加工制作射频同轴传输线,以实现射频器件信号的传输与耦合.首先确定在阻抗匹配情况下同轴传输线特性阻抗为50 Ω的同轴传输线的具体尺寸,然后通过HFSS仿真软件对设计的结构进行模拟仿真.通过仿真结果验证设计的可行性,采用紫外光刻技术利用SU-8光刻胶做出内导体支柱,并用BPN光刻胶做出结构,对结构进行电镀.最后将BPN光刻胶剥离,即可得到射频同轴传输线.此方法制得的同轴传输线具有介质损耗小、辐射损耗小、无色散、带宽大和抗干扰强的优点,适用于高性能射频和微波电路.另外,它的制作工艺能与其他射频和微波器件及集成电路工艺兼容,便于与射频和微波电路集成.%Based on SU-8 and BPN negative UV photoresists and combined with the micro electroplating process,the RF coaxial transmission line was processed to realize the signal transmission and couple of the RF device.Firstly,the specific size of the coaxial transmission line with 50 Ω characteristic impedance was determined under the matching case,and then the designed structure was simulated with the high frequency simulator structure (HFSS) software.The feasibility of the design was verified through the simulation results.The inner conductor pillar was made using the ultraviolet lithography technology with SU-8 photoresist.Besides that,the structure was obtained with the BPN photoresist,and then the structure was electroplated.Finally,the BPN photoresist was striped,and the RF coaxial transmission line was achieved.The coaxial transmission line made by this method has small dielectric loss and radiation loss,no dispersion,large bandwidth and strong anti-interference,thus can be applied to high-performance RF and microwave circuits.In addition,the process can be compatible with other RF and microwave device and integrated circuit processes,and easy to be integrated with

  19. Structure Analysis and Design Improvement of Transmission Rocker Arm for Backhoe Loader%挖掘装载机传动摇臂的结构分析与设计改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎奇

    2011-01-01

    挖掘装载机的传动摇臂是挖掘装载机传递载荷实现装卸与运输工作的关键部件之一,同时也是挖掘装载机在工作中最容易损坏的部件之一.据挖掘装载机传动摇臂的开裂反馈信息,对传动摇臂的结构特点与承载特点进行了全面分析,总结出传动摇臂在作业过程中的工况与载荷.利用ANSYS软件分析出了导致传动摇臂开裂的原因,并就此提出了设计改进方案.改进后传动摇臂的强度比改进前提高了29%.改进后的传动摇臂已经投入市场使用,不再有开裂反馈,证明了分析与改进的科学性与正确性.%Transmission rocker arm for backhoe loader is one of the key parts to transmitting load to realize load and unload and transportation. At the same time it is a easy to damage part in the operation of backhoe loader. The analysis of structural and bearing load characteristic of transmission rocker arm of backhoe loader is carried out fully according to its crack feedback, and its loads and work conditions in operation are summarized. The reason of crack is gotten by ANSYS analysis and an improvement design is put forward. The structure strength of improvement transmission rocker arm is improved by 29% than before. And the improved rocker arm is used abroadly without crack feedback. It can be seen that the improvement design is scientic and right.

  20. Design of Wireless Transmission System of Integrated Radio Frequency Identification and Image Messages%集成射频和图像信息的无线传输系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严奎; 邱自学; 袁江; 邵建新; 陆观

    2012-01-01

    为克服射频信息空间耦合传输的隐蔽性问题,实现RFID技术的可视化,设计了一种集成RFID信息的无线图像传输系统;以S3C2440A处理器为核心,搭载USB摄像头和WIFI模块,在嵌入式Linux系统下编写和加载nRF2401模块设备驱动程序,以射频信息触发USB摄像头抓拍,融合RFID和图像信息,通过WIFI模块无线上传至远端主机;实验中将RFID标签置于移动小车上来模拟运动目标,结果表明系统对于移动中的物体有很好的识别和拍摄效果,图像传输速度快,在现代物流和道路交通监测等行业有很好的应用前景.%A wireless image transmission system integrated RFID information was designed to overcome the concealment of radio frequency information in space coupling transmission, realized RFID technology visualization. S3C2440A processor was selected as the core, WIFI module and USB camera were equipped in the system. The driver program of nRF2401 module was designed and transplanted into Embedded Linux. The USB camera was triggered to capture the image by RFID information for achieving integration of RFID and video. The integrated images would be wirelessly uploaded to the remote computer by WIFI module. The RFID tag was assembled in small car which simulated moving target. Experiments show the system is good at capturing and recognition moving object, the image transmission is fast. The system has a good application prospect in the modern logistics and road traffic monitoring and other industries.

  1. Analytical investigation of the pericyclic variable-speed transmission system for helicopter main-gearbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribay, Zihni Burcay

    In the recent years, there has been significant interest in the new developments and improvements of the rotorcraft transmission systems. The main goal of the rotorcraft transmission research is the reduction of overall gear train weight while maintaining the efficiency and reliability. The Pericyclic Variable-Speed Transmission (PVT) System is one of the potential candidates of the future rotorcraft drive trains to achieve these goals. Hence, this thesis explores the feasibility of the Pericyclic Variable Speed Transmission (PVT) for rotorcraft transmissions. The contributions of this research are grouped in two main categories. These two categories are in the component level and in the system level. These contributions are originated from the analysis of the Pericyclic Variable Speed (PVT) System. In the component level, a new concept of face-gear meshing is presented first time in the gear research field. The meshing of a face-gear with another face-gear is presented at high shaft angles as an alternative to bevel gears. The conjugacy of this new face-gear meshing concept is formulated and demonstrated. The geometry, unloaded mesh kinematics and loaded mesh kinematics of the conjugate meshing face-gear pair is analyzed. The physics behind the meshing face-gear teeth contact is revealed using theory of gearing, differentiable geometry and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. The existence of the lubricant film formation between the meshing teeth is demonstrated. The behavior of the sliding friction coefficient is analytically simulated through the meshing cycle. In the system level contributions, the Pericyclic Variable Speed (PVT) Transmission is presented as a new unique innovative gear train mechanism. The speed change capability is analyzed for rotorcraft demands. The power flow behavior is explored for its use in variable speed transmission systems. The established component level contributions are evaluated with the PVT at the system level. The efficiency

  2. The design of a new type of bird driving device for transmission line%输电线路新型驱鸟器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美芳; 刘燕

    2016-01-01

    近年,随着输电线路的大规模建设,鸟害越来越成为影响其正常运行的因素之一。本文设计了一种新型电子驱鸟器,这种装置集合了其他驱鸟器的优点,通过发射超声波、激光和动作横杠进行驱鸟,具有高效、便捷、无污染的特点。%This paper designs a new electronic device of driving birds,the device sets the other drive advantages of birds,by emitting ultrasonic,laser and action bar bird repellent,has the characteristics of efficient, convenient,pollution-free.

  3. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  4. Unique Characteristics of a Graduate Program in Applied Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stuart M.; Mills, Kim White; Dick, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Addresses one Communication Department's sojourn in designing, developing, and proposing a unique Master of Arts in Applied Communication. Discusses steps in developing an applied graduate program, the mission statement for the program, the curriculum, the expected impact of the graduate program on the undergraduate program, and program strengths.…

  5. Plasmodium knowlesi transmission: integrating quantitative approaches from epidemiology and ecology to understand malaria as a zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, P M; Fornace, K M; Parmiter, M; Cox, J; Drakeley, C J; Ferguson, H M; Kao, R R

    2016-04-01

    The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.

  6. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...

  7. Local Optimal Design Method of Transmission Tower Structure Based on Ant Colony Optimization%基于蚁群算法的输电塔结构局部优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓群; 任宗栋; 李宏男; 李宁; 王稳

    2016-01-01

    提出了一种可同时求解结构截面、拓扑、形状和布局优化问题的基于蚁群算法的输电塔结构局部优化设计方法。在统一所有优化变量的基础上,将4类不同层次的优化问题统一为适用于蚁群算法求解的标准化旅行商问题,再采用MATLAB系统平台实现输电塔结构的优化设计和程序化,并以某实际工程为算例对局部优化方法进行验证。结果表明:提出的方法不仅可以简单高效地求解输电塔结构塔身局部的截面、拓扑、形状和布局优化问题,而且具有非常好的实用性和通用性,有望应用于完整的输电塔结构优化设计中。%A new local optimal design method of transmission tower structure ,which could apply in cross‐section ,topology ,shape and layout optimization problems ,was proposed based on ant colony optimization (ACO ) algorithm . With unifying the multiple type variables into discrete variables , the four optimal problems with different levels were transformed into the standardization traveling salesman problem ,and it also was realized in programmed control by MATLAB system platform ,then an actual example was calculated to verify the local optimal design method . The results show that the proposed optimal design method has a good performance in cross‐section ,topology ,shape and layout optimal problem with generality and programmed pattern ,and it also has a good application prospect in optimal design of transmission power structure .

  8. 高阶传动误差函数的面齿轮传动设计新方法%Novel Design Process for Face Gear Drive with a High Order Polynomial Function of Transmission Error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈云波

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid edge contact and enhance dynamic property and to be less sensitive to misalignment for bearing contact ,a design process for face gear drive that is provided with a high order polynomial function of transmission errors is proposed in this paper .Considering the differential teeth between shaper and spur pinion ,the mathematical models for a high order polynomial function of transmission error that reflect the relationship between the rotation angle of the input gear and output gear is created .Based on the theory of gearing ,the coordinate systems are set up for the face gear generated and a pre-designed fourth order polynomial function of transmission error is assigned to the face gear drive .The tooth face of the spur gear is longitudinally crowned by employing a form disk grinding wheel that is driven by a parabolic motion .The mathematical models of tooth contact analysis (TCA) for face gear drive are created .Mathematical models of principle curvatures and directions for face gear pair are developed and contact ellipses are determined ,and computer simulation is performed . The results show that the perfect bearing contact is obtained and transmission errors of output are correspondence with that of pre-designed .%为了提高面齿轮传动的动态性能和降低啮合对安装误差的敏感性,提出具有高阶传动误差函数的面齿轮齿面设计方法,描述了齿轮传动反映输出和输入角度关系的四阶传动误差函数的数学模型,考虑刀具齿轮与圆柱齿轮齿数差,推导了面齿轮数控加工过程中具有四阶传动误差函数的齿面方程.利用盘形砂轮对渐开线圆柱齿轮齿向修形,发展圆柱齿轮齿向修形的鼓形齿面.建立面齿轮副轮齿接触分析条件,对具有四阶传动误差函数的面齿轮和齿向鼓形的渐开线圆柱齿轮的啮合进行了计算机仿真和啮合分析.研究结果表明,设计传动误差幅值为10″,在对

  9. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  10. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossler, Robert B., Jr.; Heath, Gregory F.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is reviewed. The discussion includes a general configuration and face gear description, weight analysis, stress analysis, reliability analysis, acoustic analysis, face gear testing, and planned torque split testing. Design descriptions include the face gear webs sized for equal stiffness, a positive engagement clutch, the lubrication system, and a high contact ratio planetary. Test results for five gear materials and three housing materials are presented.

  11. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  12. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  13. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  14. Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Made Operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2002-01-01

    A system directly measuring the transmission error between the meshing spur or helical gears was installed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and made operational in August 2001. This system employs light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the two gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. The device is capable of resolution better than 0.1 mm (one thousandth the thickness of a human hair). The measured transmission error can be displayed in a "map" that shows how the transmission error varies with the gear rotation or it can be converted to spectra to show the components at the meshing frequencies. Accurate transmission error data will help researchers better understand the mechanisms that cause gear noise and vibration and will lead to The Design Unit at the University of Newcastle in England specifically designed the new system for NASA. It is the only device in the United States that can measure dynamic transmission error at high rotational speeds. The new system will be used to develop new techniques to reduce dynamic transmission error along with the resulting noise and vibration of aeronautical transmissions.

  15. Application-Level and User-Level QoS Assessment of Audio-Video IP Transmission over Cross-Layer Designed Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Toshiro; Tasaka, Shuji; Nakaoka, Ken

    This paper performs application-level QoS and user-level QoS assessment of audio-video streaming in cross-layer designed wireless ad hoc networks. In order to achieve high QoS at the user-level, we employ link quality-based routing in the network layer and media synchronization control in the application layer. We adopt three link quality-based routing protocols: OLSR-SS (Signal Strength), AODV-SS, and LQHR (Link Quality-Based Hybrid Routing). OLSR-SS is a proactive routing protocol, while AODV-SS is a reactive one. LQHR is a hybrid protocol, which is a combination of proactive and reactive routing protocols. For applicationlevel QoS assessment, we performed computer simulation with ns-2 where an IEEE 802.11b mesh topology network with 24 nodes was assumed. We also assessed user-level QoS by a subjective experiment with 30 assessors. From the assessment results, we find AODV-SS the best for networks with long inter-node distances, while LQHR outperforms AODV-SS for short inter-node distances. In addition, we also examine characteristics of the three schemes with respect to the application-level QoS in random topology networks.

  16. Differential mechanisms of transmission and plasticity at mossy fiber synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Chris J

    2008-01-01

    The last few decades have seen the hippocampal formation at front and center in the field of synaptic transmission. However, much of what we know about hippocampal short- and long-term plasticity has been obtained from research at one particular synapse; the Schaffer collateral input onto principal cells of the CA1 subfield. A number of recent studies, however, have demonstrated that there is much to be learned about target-specific mechanisms of synaptic transmission by study of the lesser known synapse made between the granule cells of the dentate gyrus; the so-called mossy fiber synapse, and its targets both within the hilar region and the CA3 hippocampus proper. Indeed investigation of this synapse has provided an embarrassment of riches concerning mechanisms of transmission associated with feedforward excitatory and inhibitory control of the CA3 hippocampus. Importantly, work from a number of labs has revealed that mossy fiber synapses possess unique properties at both the level of their anatomy and physiology, and serve as an outstanding example of a synapse designed for target-specific compartmentalization of synaptic transmission. The purpose of the present review is to highlight several aspects of this synapse as they pertain to a novel mechanism of bidirectional control of synaptic plasticity at mossy fiber synapses made onto hippocampal stratum lucidum interneurons. It is not my intention to pour over all that is known regarding the mossy fiber synapse since many have explored this topic exhaustively in the past and interested readers are directed to other fine reviews (Henze et al., 2000; Urban et al., 2001; Lawrence and McBain, 2003; Bischofberger et al., 2006; Nicoll and Schmitz, 2005).

  17. 基于用户使用工况的ZL50装载机传动比设计%Transmission ratio design of ZL50 Loader based on working condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常绿; 刘永臣

    2011-01-01

    In order to optimize loader transmission ratio, the transmission ratio was redesigned based on using condition.When the loader worked in gear Ⅱ and Ⅲ, the left and right axle shaft of the front and rear bridge torque curves, and the steering pump, variable speed pump and the work pump pressure curves were tested and recorded. The probability torque average values were calculated by the probability distribution, then the input and output characteristics were obtained when the engine and the torque converter working together, and the minimum fuel consumption point of the output torque and the corresponding output torque value were found. Maintaining gear Ⅰ and Ⅳ transmission ratio unchanged, in accordance with the principle of the gear Ⅱ and Ⅲ probability torque average value was matched with the torque of the lowest fuel consumption point in the working together output characteristics, the loader gear Ⅱ and Ⅲ transmission ratio were redesigned, and the values were 2.433 and 1.264 respectively. By simulating, the fuel consumption of the loader working under the new transmission ratio in the loop condition was 13.85L/h, which decreased 1.33 L/h than the original. The new design can improve the fuel economy.%为了优化装载机各挡传动比,提出基于使用工况的传动比重新设计.装载机在Ⅱ、Ⅲ挡工作时,通过试验得到前、后桥左右半轴转矩曲线和转向泵、变速泵、工作泵压力曲线.基于分布概率计算出Ⅱ、Ⅲ挡时总转矩概率平均值,根据发动机和液力变矩器共同工作时的输入、输出特性,找出输出特性最低油耗点及其对应的输出转矩.保持Ⅰ、Ⅳ挡传动比不变,按照Ⅱ、Ⅲ挡总转矩概率平均值与最低油耗点对应的转矩相匹配的原则,计算出Ⅱ、Ⅲ挡传动比分别为2.433和1.264.经仿真计算,装载机在循环工况下,按新传动比工作的耗油量为13.85 L/h,比原来降低了1.33 L/h.新设计的传动比提高了装载机的燃油经济性.

  18. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  19. Optimal design of planet transmission mechanism in agricultural machinery based on bee colony and invasive weed optimization%基于蜂群-杂草算法的农机行星传动优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚亚星; 王联国

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm of bee colony and invasive weed optimization (BCIWO) is proposed by introducing the optimization mechanism of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm into the invasive weed optimization (IWO) algo-rithm and applied into the optimal design of star gear planet transmission mechanism in agricultural machinery .This new algorithm (BCIWO) is compared with GA and IWO .The results showed that : ① The minimal design volume (1 .4725 × 107 mm3 ) of the planet transmission mechanism is obtained by BCIWO ,which is smaller than GA and IWO ; ② The so-lution fluctuation of BCIWO is also smaller than other two algorithms ,which illustrates it has a good stability ; ③ The calculation speed of BCIWO is faster .So we can conclude that BCIWO is worth further promoting in mechanism design field .%将人工蜂群算法的寻优机制引入到入侵性杂草优化算法中,提出了一种混合蜂群杂草算法(BCIWO),将其应用于农业机械中星齿行星传动机构的优化设计。选取一个实例,将新算法与遗传算法(GA)及基本杂草算法(IWO)的实验结果进行对比,结果表明:①采用 BCIWO 算法所得的行星传动结构的设计体积为1.4725×107 mm3,小于 GA 与 IWO 所得;② BCIWO 多次求解的波动较小,求解稳定性较高;③ BCIWO 的计算速度较快。从而推知, BCIWO 在机械优化设计领域更具推广性。

  20. Mechanism Design and Performance Analysis of a Novel CVT with High-Torque Transmission%一种新型大扭矩传输CVT的机构设计与性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆功; 姚进; 李华; 蒋正茂

    2012-01-01

    针对现有无级变速器不能传递较大扭矩的情况,提出了一种分矩汇速的大扭矩传输设计方案;分析了2K-H型差动轮系、双排差动轮系与定轴轮系、输入轴的连接方式;以输入功率分流比为评价指标,得出了双排差动轮系输入功率分流比区间涵盖2K-H型差动轮系输入功率分流比区间且结构紧凑的结论,从而构建了由双腔半环面型无级变速单元、定轴轮系、双排差动轮系组成闭环系统的新型CVT机构;求解了表征该机构扭矩传输的输入扭矩分矩比和输出输入扭矩比等性能指标,并分析了有利于新型CVT大扭矩输出的双排差动轮系转换机构传动比、定轴轮系传动比的变化趋势.最后,通过算例验证了这两项传动比变化趋势的正确性.%As the existing continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) cannot transmit high torque, first, a design scheme with input coupled type for transmitting high torque is put forward. Then, the connection modes of the 2K-H type differential gear train and the double-row differential gear train with the fixed-axis gear train and with the input axis are analyzed. By using the input power-distributing ratio as an evaluation index, it is found that, as compared with the 2K-H type differential gear train, the double-row differential gear train is of larger interval of input power-distributing ratio and more compact structure. According to these findings, a novel CVT mechanism is designed , which is composed of a dual-cavity half-toroidal continuously variable unit, a fixed-axis gear train and a double-row differential gear train in a closed loop. Moreover, the performance indexes describing the torque transmission of the novel CVT, namely the split ratio of input torque and the ratio of output torque to input torque, are derived, and the variation trends of the transmission ratios of the fixed-axis gear train and the shifting mechanism of the double-row differential gear

  1. Existence and uniqueness of endemic states for the age-structured S-I-R epidemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Y; Iannelli, M; Milner, F A

    1998-06-15

    The existence and uniqueness of positive steady states for the age structured S-I-R epidemic model with intercohort transmission is considered. Threshold results for the existence of endemic states are established for most cases. Uniqueness is shown in each case. Threshold used are explicitly computable in terms of demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model.

  2. M-band flat-response design of X-ray transmission photocathode%透射式X射线光阴极的M带平响应设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 曹柱荣; 李晋; 杨志文; 陈韬; 黎宇坤; 刘慎业

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of X-ray flux with high temporal and spatial resolutions is important in the researches of hohlraum physics, and spectral response coupling and design of spectrum rebuilding unit are key issues in the design of flat-response streak camera. Based on the study of the spectral response characteristics of streak camera and X-ray transmission photocathode, compound filter is adopted to realize the M-band band-pass flat-response of streak camera. The calculation shows that the flatness of spectral response is better than 2.7% with an acceptable band pass effect.%获取高时空分辨的M带X射线辐射能流信息是黑腔物理研究的重要内容之一,条纹相机平响应存在谱响应耦合、谱改造元件结构设计等问题.通过对条纹相机和透射式X射线光阴极谱响应特性的研究,提出组合滤片调制法以实现条纹相机M带带通平响应.计算表明,在M带能区内谱灵敏度不平整度仅为2.7%,带通效果良好.

  3. 基于ZigBee技术的电力输电线路监测系统设计%Design of Power Transmission Line Monitoring System Based on ZigBee Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方刚; 张雷

    2013-01-01

    In view of the difficult of real-time monitoring in current power transmission lines,this paper analyzed the applied feasibility of the internet of things in electric power. Because the internet of things has lots of advantages, such as convenient networking , strong scalability, good fault tolerance, low power dissipation and low cost, the power lines monitoring system was designed based on the internet of things, whose core section is the lowest costuming single-chip processor of MSP430 and RF model of CC2430. The system powered by solar energy, and achieved collection, transmission, processing and judgment variety of environmental parameters of lines through ZigBee wireless sensor network technology. And it sent information to the monitoring center by the GPRS when an exception occurred it can send SMS to the person who in charge of in a timely. The system promotes the mutual penetration and technical integration of the smart grid and the Internet of things, to further improve the safety and controllability of the power transmission.%针对当前电力输电线路实时监测困难的问题,分析了物联网技术在电力输电领域应用的可行性,利用物联网的扩展性强、容错性好、功耗小及成本低的特性,以超低功耗MSP430单片机和CC2430射频模块为核心设计出基于物联网的线路监测系统,由太阳能提供电源,通过ZigBee无线传感器网络技术实现对线路多种环境参数的采集、传输、处理和判断,并通过GPRS向上位机监测中心发送数据信息,当出现异常时能够及时向负责人发送手机短信.该系统促进了智能电网与物联网的相互渗透和技术融合,进一步提高了电力传输的安全性和可控性.

  4. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ANDROID-BASED INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION LINE%基于 Android 的输电线路巡检系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚美; 王婕

    2015-01-01

    In light of the defects of traditional inspection work of electric power transmission line such as insufficient supervision,irregular operation and safety accidents,we designed and implemented an Android-based transmission line inspection system combining the smart mobile technology and inspection specifications of electric power transmission line.The system adopted the MVC-based hierarchical architecture style,made use of key technologies including GPS position,multi-threading mechanism,sensor,and speech recognition to achieve the functions of task management,defect management,inspection library,abnormal status warning and data synchronisation, furthermore,preliminary test experiment was carried out according to actual application scene and inspection task requirement.Results showed that the system could judge whether to have reached towers or not automatically,it standardised the inspection operation processes, supported voice input of lines’names and accidents warning,and was able to improve intelligence and security for inspection work.%针对传统输电线路巡检工作监督不到位、作业不规范、安全事故多等缺陷,结合智能移动技术与输电线路巡检规范,设计并实现了一套基于 Android 的输电线路巡检系统。系统采用基于 MVC 的层级架构风格,利用 GPS 定位、多线程机制、传感器以及语音识别等关键技术,实现了任务管理、缺陷管理、资料库、异常状态告警以及数据同步功能,并根据实际应用场景和业务需求开展了初步测试实验。结果表明,该系统能够自动判断到达杆塔,规范巡检作业流程,支持线路名称语音输入以及异常状态告警,可提高巡检工作的智能化和安全性。

  5. Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.

  6. Parameters Optimization for Magnetic Resonance Coupling Wireless Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.

  7. 干线传输线路一体化运维管理系统设计与实现%Design and implementation of integrated operation and management system for transmission trunk lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳帆; 李敏峰; 解诗华

    2013-01-01

    In view of current lack of unified management and centralized supervision of line resource,maintenance and network quality for transmission trunk lines,this paper presents a GIS/GPS-based integrated operation,maintenance and management scheme on the basis of the extensive research on resource model,task flow and work scene,and designs and implements the functions of management process,information interaction,data validation and user interface.The practical application results show that this system significantly improves the efficiency of the operation and management of transmission trunk lines.%针对目前线路资源、维护任务和网络质量无法统一管理与集中监控的现状,在研究资源模型、任务流程和工作场景的基础上,提出了一种基于 GIS(地理信息系统)平台和 GPS(全球定位系统)智能终端的整体运维管理方案,并进行了管理流程、信息交互、数据验证、用户界面功能的设计与系统实现。实际应用结果表明,该系统显著提高了干线传输线路运维管理的效率。

  8. Design and Implementation of Distributed Integration and Data Transmission Platform%分布式一体化及数据交换平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房成萍; 马坤; 杨波; 陈贞翔

    2011-01-01

    基于SOA、Web 服务和简单对象传输协议,对山东省学位与研究生教育管理信息系统的数据传输交换方式加以改进,解决了以往系统只能由高校端主动向中心端上报数据的弊端,使得中心端可以更加全面方便地对各高校端进行集中控制,形成一体化.在此基础上,提出一个面向分布式异构环境的数据传输交换平台的系统架构和实现方案,改进了传统数据传输交换平台的扩展性、通用性及数据安全性.%This paper improves on the way of data transmission between the center of education office and schools for the project of degree and postgraduate education management information system of Shandong province based on SOA, Web Service and SOAP protocol,which solves the problems that only school can transmit data to the center of education office actively and forms distributed integration.Furthermore, it brings the education office much more convenience for controlling schools.On the basis of the distributed integration, a platform for heterogeneous environment is also design ed to implement the incremental data transmission which improves the expausibility ,universal property and security of the former information exchange platform.

  9. 基于无线数传模块的无人机通信系统设计%Design of UAV Communication System Based on Wireless Data Transmission Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷立动; 裴海龙

    2012-01-01

    To extend the distance of flight for UAV, communication system using wireless data transmission module as information carrier is designed. The system consists of slave module and master module. The function of slave module is to process control data of the remote control and RTCA standard DGPS data, a data format transmitting both the information all together is presented. The master module is used to obtain the information respectively for high precise positioning GPS data and servo control. The flight experiment proves that, compared to the traditional signal transmission with radio transmitter and receiver, this system not only breaks the limit of distance for radio communication, also eliminates disturbance of the electormagnetic fileds on radio signal effectively.%为提高无人机飞行的距离,设计了利用无线数传模块作为载体的通信系统;该系统分为下位机模块和上位机模块两部分,其中下位机模块主要处理遥控器控制信息和RTCA格式差分GPS信息并提出了一种同时传输这两种信息的数据格式;上位机模块则分别获取这两种信息用于得到高定位精度GPS数据和控制舵机;试飞实验表明,与传统的利用无线电发射机和接收机传输相比,该系统不仅能突破无线电通信距离的限制,还能有效消除外界电磁场对无线电信号的干扰.

  10. Design of embedded audio network transmission systems based on UDA1341 and FMl182%基于UDA1341和FM1182的嵌入式语音网络传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锐; 徐骏; 李景; 张红星; 凌强; 王嵩

    2012-01-01

    针对当前语音网络传输系统中存在的环境噪声、回波、设备工作不稳定等问题,提出了一种新型的嵌入式语音网络传输系统设计方案。该系统以ARM9嵌入式处理器$3C2410为核心,ARMLinux为实时操作系统,CS8900为网络传输芯片,UDA1341为音频编解码芯片,使用了一种新型的芯片FM1182进行语音处理,能够很好地实现噪声抑制和回波抵消。给出了相关硬件的电路设计方案,同时介绍了软件实现流程,并详细介绍了语音缓冲区的算法。%To solve the problem of ambient noise, echo, and equipment instability in current audio network transmission systems, a new embedded audio network transmission system was designed. This system is based on ARM9 embedded processor S3C2410, ARM Linux operation system, CS8900 network chip, UDA1341 CODEC and uses a new chip FMl182 for voice processing which serves to do noise suppression and echo cancellation. The relevant hardware circuits and the software implementation process were shown while a key voice buffer algorithm to improve the audio quality was introduced.

  11. 深海多传感器信息实时传输系统设计%Design of Multi-sensor Information Real-time Transmission System for Deep Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐飞; 陈益民; 徐行

    2013-01-01

    We use military precision threecomponent magnetic sensor developed by China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation 710 Institute,self-developed three-channel AD acquisition,electronic compass and depth gauge compose of deep geomagnetic field three-component collection system,and design a real-time transmission system for the acquisition system.Seismic stations in Zhaoqing,Guangdong Province,through the comparison of the measured data and Zhaoqing Seismograph stations observational data,indicating that the measurement data is reliable and has a good consistency,and to verify the reliability and stability of the real-time transmission system.%采用中国船舶重工集团公司第710研究所研制的军用高精度三分量磁传感器、自行研制的三通道AD采集器、电子罗盘和深度计组成深海地磁场三分量采集系统,并对该采集系统自行设计了一套信息实时传输系统.在广东省肇庆地震台,通过实测数据与肇庆地震台台站观测数据对比,表明测量数据可靠并具有良好的一致性,同时验证了实时传输系统的可靠性和稳定性.

  12. 特高压直流输电线路雷电屏蔽模型试验设计%Scale Model Experimental Design on Lightning Shielding Performance of UHVDC Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江安烽; 李锐海; 王国利; 傅正财

    2012-01-01

    采用模型试验方法修正特高压直流输电线路雷电屏蔽性能的计算方法,并对其影响因素进行了分析.针对当前国内外已开展的模型试验、现场观测与计算方法中存在的问题和不足,结合昆明特高压国家工程实验室的试验条件和国内外已有试验与观测结果,设计了±800kV特高压直流输电线路典型间隙试验、击距模型试验和上行先导模型试验的关键参数、结构布置与试验方案.%Scale model experiment was used to revise the calculation method and the influence factors about lightning shielding performance of UHVDC transmission line were analyzed. According to the problems a- bout scale model experiment, on-site observation and calculation method from domestic and oversea re- searchers, combining the test conditions of Kunming national engineering laboratory for UHV engineering technology, the existing experimental and observation results, this paper designed the key parameters, layout and experimental projects of typical air gap experiment, strike distance scale model experiment and upward leader scale model experiment of the ±800 kV UHVDC transmission line.

  13. Design of a traffic information transmission system based on wireless sensor network%基于无线传感器网络的路况信息传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁佳莹; 石娟; 陈刚

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a traffic information transmission system based on Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) is researched and implemented. By placing Sensor nodes in vehicles and a sink node somewhere in the city, a vehicle Wireless Sensor Network is established. Traffic informatioin is gathered and processed by Sensors, then forwarded by other Sensors in WSN according to the routing protocol proposed in this thesis and finally arrived at the sink node. The authors design and implement the applicatioin protocol, routing protocol abd application. The protocol stack are accomplished cooperatively. Finally, a demonstration system is establised cooperatively. The experiment results show that the idea of building traffic information transmission system based on WSN is practical and effective.%本文基于无线传感器网络研究并实现了一个路况信息传输系统。通过在车辆上安置传感器节点,并在某固定点安置Sink节点(数据汇聚节点),路况信息被移动传感器节点采集处理后利用本文提出的路由算法多跳传送至Sink节点。本文设计并实现了系统的网络构架、应用层协议、网络层协议;在通信协议栈的基础上完成了应用程序的开发和测试平台的搭建。实际应用表明:基于WSN构建路况信息传输系统是可行且有效的。

  14. Electromagnetic Transmission Through Resonant Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven M.

    Electromagnetic resonators store energy in the form of oscillatory electric and magnetic fields and gradually exchange that energy by coupling with their environment. This coupling process can have profound effects on the transmission and reflection properties of nearby interfaces, with rapid transitions from high transmittance to high reflectance over narrow frequency ranges, and has been exploited to design useful optical components such as spectral filters and dielectric mirrors. This dissertation includes analytic, numeric, and experimental investigations of three different electromagnetic resonators, each based on a different method of confining electromagnetic fields near the region of interest. First, we show that a structure with two parallel conducting plates, each containing a subwavelength slit, supports a localized resonant mode bound to the slits and therefore exhibits (in the absence of nonradiative losses), perfect resonant transmission over a narrow frequency range. In practice, the transmission is limited by conduction losses in the sidewalls; nevertheless, experimental results at 10 GHz show a narrowband transmission enhancement by a factor of 104 compared to the non-resonant transmission, with quality factor (ratio of frequency to peak width) Q ~ 3000. Second, we describe a narrowband transmission filter based on a single-layer dielectric grating. We use a group theory analysis to show that, due to their symmetry, several of the grating modes cannot couple to light at normal incidence, while several others have extremely large coupling. We then show how selectively breaking the system symmetry using off-normal light incidence can produce transmission peaks by enabling weak coupling to some of the previously protected modes. The narrowband filtering capabilities are validated by an experimental demonstration in the long wavelength infrared, showing transmission peaks of quality factor Q ~ 100 within a free-spectral range of 8-15 mum. Third, we

  15. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  16. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.; Bond, L. A.; Freedman, P. A.; Tattersall, B. N.; Lagergren, C. R.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90 deg deflection magnets with boundaries 18 deg off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives a mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100 percent transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16 percent increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M - 1/2 = (6.5 +/- 0.5)(10)(exp -10) and M + 1/2 = (3.1 +/- 0.8)(10)(exp -10). By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is M - 1 = 1(10)(exp -10). Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  17. Automotive Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Analytical Design Service Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI, used NASTRAN (a NASA Structural Analysis program that analyzes a design and predicts how parts will perform) in tests of transmissions, engine cooling systems, internal engine parts, and body components. They also use it to design future automobiles. Analytical software can save millions by allowing computer simulated analysis of performance even before prototypes are built.

  18. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  19. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  20. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  1. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 16, 801, 803, et al. Unique Device Identification System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... will substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in...

  2. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial

  3. EC Transmission Line Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  4. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  5. A CMOS Low Power PLL Designed in Transistor Level with Transmission Gate VCO and Dynamic PFD%用传输门VCO和动态PFD设计低功耗CMOS琐相环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁寿财; 郑月明

    2005-01-01

    To realize the high speed and low power CMOS PLL(Phase Locked Loop), the new circuits of VCO and PFD is designed in transistor level. In the VCO, the high speed and low power is realized using transmission-gate(TG) with an adaptive delay cell and low supply sensitivity. This delay cell has a built-in compensation circuit that senses and corrects the delay variation caused by supply fluctuation. And in the PFD, low power and small chip area is realized with the dynamic inverter. A fully CMOS PLL using these components has been designed based 0.6 μm CMOS technology and its SPICE model. SPICE simulation results show that at 2.5V supply voltage, the designed PLL can operate over 1000 MHz and dissipate power less than 50mW.%锁相环(PLL)是VLSI系统的重要单元电路之一,为了实现高速低功耗的CMOS锁相环,用传输门VCO和动态反相器PFD电路设计CMOS锁相环.传输门结构VCO具有高速、低电压和低功耗的特性,而动态反相器PFD具有功耗低和面积小的特点.SPICE模拟表明,当电源电压为2.5 V时,基于0.6 μm CMOS工艺设计的CMOS锁相环电路,工作频率高达1000 MHz,而功耗低于50mW.

  6. 基于传播损耗门限的水声传感网路由协议%Transmission Loss Threshold based Routing Design for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍

    2015-01-01

    由于水声介质的各向异性,传统的基于节点位置和节点间物理距离的路由协议的能量效率在水声环境中会显著下降。针对水下通信组网节点能量有限和通信能耗高的特点,本文重新定义了水下邻居节点间基于传播损耗门限的邻接模型,并提出一种基于传播损耗门限的能量有效的路由协议。并进一步给出了最优传播损耗门限的理论值,以使得路由协议获得最低的能量损耗。最后,通过仿真对本文提出的协议和已有的协议性能进行了比较,结果表明基于传播损耗门限的路由协议有效考虑了水声介质各向异性特征,大大降低了通信能耗,性能明显优于已有的路由协议,且最优传输损耗门限理论值和仿真值非常吻合,进而为协议的工程实践提供了重要的指导意义。%Propagation of sound in the ocean medium is anisotropic, rendering those traditional routing protocols that purely use distances as the metric to select the best routes no longer energy-efficient. In this paper, considering that underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) are powered by batteries which are costly to recharge or replace, we re-define nodes’ one-hop neighbors based on signal attenuation rather than geographical distance, and design a distributed energy-efficient routing protocol for UASNs. Further, the optimal transmission loss threshold has been theoretically derived, and a routing protocol based on this threshold has been designed. Results show that our transmission loss threshold based routing policy consistently outperforms the shortest path policy, and gives similar performance to the optimal one in several scenarios.

  7. Design of the power transmission lines inspection robot based on the modular joint with 2 degrees of freedom%基于两自由度模块化关节的巡线机器人设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 郑彦宁; 江鹏; 王玉平; 周庆; 徐文福

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a modular joint with 2 degrees of freedom (2DOF) for power transmission lines inspection robot. The proposed 2DOF joint improves the movement ability and has advantage of obstacles avoidance. The joint adopts the modular design concept and can be assembled simply and maintained easily. What’s more, it reduces the coupling with other mechanical structures. The differential transmission principle is used to design the joint and three orthogonal bevel gears are used to realize the joint’s pitch motion and the rotary motion which make the joint more flexible. The modular joint has a double reduction with 860 reduction ratio. There are two motors as the power source and the driving moment is the synthesis of the two motor torques, which makes the joint a strong load capacity. There are two position sensors at the pitch freedom and rotation freedom for position detection to improve joint’s detection precision and control precision. The joint integrates mechanical, electrical and control system and having the characteristics of high integration.%为了提升高压巡线机器人的在高压线缆上的运动和越障能力,设计了一个两自由度模块化关节,将其运用到机器人上。该关节采用模块化设计,组装简单更换维修方便,降低了与机器人其他机构的耦合性。模块化关节采用差速传动原理,利用正交的三个锥齿轮实现关节旋转和俯仰两个方向的运动,使其运动更加灵活。关节采用两级减速,减速比达860,同时采用双电机驱动,驱动力矩是两电机驱动力矩的合成,使关节具有很强的负载能力。在旋转方向和俯仰方向均有位置传感器进行位置检测,提高的关节的检测精度和控制精度。该关节集机械、电器、控制于一体,具有高集成度的特点。

  8. Design of the Remote Location Device for Lightning Strike Fault Point on Transmission Line%输电线路雷击故障点远程定位装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小雄; 黄新波; 朱永灿; 王卓; 王列华; 张烨

    2013-01-01

    电力系统输电线路距离长、跨度大,受雷击的机率高,故障点不易确定,对设备的及时修复带来了很大困难,针对这一问题,笔者设计了输电线路雷击故障点远程定位装置.该装置基于GSM无线通信网络,以超低功耗单片机MSP430为控制单元,采用电流采集环和罗氏电流传感器,对输电线路上各绝缘子串进行实时监测,当被监测绝缘子串发生雷击闪络事故,该装置就会利用GSM无线网络以手机短信的形式将雷击点信息传输到监测中心及相关工作人员手机,从而代替了繁琐的人力检查,准确有效地对雷击故障点进行定位,给线路抢修抢险赢得宝贵时间,节约人力物力,减少经济损失,保障供电可靠性.%The long distance and large span of the power system transmission lines lead to its high risk of lightning stroke.Moreover it is difficult to fix the lightning fault point,which brings very great difficulty for equipment repair timely.In order to solve this problem,the paper presents the design of a remote location device for transmission line lightning fault point.The device is based on GSM wireless communication network and uses low power consumption MCU MSP430 as the control unit,adopting the current collection ring and Rogowski current sensor to monitor the insulator string on the transmission lines.If the lightning flashover accidents happened on the monitored insulator string,this device will transmit the information of lighting fault point to the monitoring center and mobile phones of related staff through GSM wireless network in the form of mobile phone short message,thus replacing the human inspection tour.This device can correctly and effectively locate the lightning fault point,which will win precious time for the emergent repairing of transmission lines,as well as save manpower and material resources.In addition,it can reduce the economic loss and ensure the reliability of power supply.

  9. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  10. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  11. Unique Signal mathematical analysis task group FY03 status report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Roy Stuart (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Anna Marie; Hart, Elizabeth (Utah State University, Logan, UT); White, Allan (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA); Cooper, James Arlin

    2003-12-01

    The Unique Signal is a key constituent of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety (ENDS). Although the Unique Signal approach is well prescribed and mathematically assured, there are numerous unsolved mathematical problems that could help assess the risk of deviations from the ideal approach. Some of the mathematics-based results shown in this report are: 1. The risk that two patterns with poor characteristics (easily generated by inadvertent processes) could be combined through exclusive-or mixing to generate an actual Unique Signal pattern has been investigated and found to be minimal (not significant when compared to the incompatibility metric of actual Unique Signal patterns used in nuclear weapons). 2. The risk of generating actual Unique Signal patterns with linear feedback shift registers is minimal, but the patterns in use are not as invulnerable to inadvertent generation by dependent processes as previously thought. 3. New methods of testing pair-wise incompatibility threats have resulted in no significant problems found for the set of Unique Signal patterns currently used. Any new patterns introduced would have to be carefully assessed for compatibility with existing patterns, since some new patterns under consideration were found to be deficient when associated with other patterns in use. 4. Markov models were shown to correspond to some of the engineered properties of Unique Signal sequences. This gives new support for the original design objectives. 5. Potential dependence among events (caused by a variety of communication protocols) has been studied. New evidence has been derived of the risk associated with combined communication of multiple events, and of the improvement in abnormal-environment safety that can be achieved through separate-event communication.

  12. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  13. Research on stepless transmission utilizing noncircular gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In view of the lack of systemic analysis for stepless transmission using noncircular gears, two basic noncircular gear units, an addition unit adopting differential mechanism and a multiplication unit applying a fixed gear train, are proposed. Then, the design methods of the noncircular gear pair of each unit, transmission ratio relationship, rotation angle relationship and key parameters with specific physical meanings are studied. The adjusting properties, composing strategy and varying range of transmission ratio etc. are investigated in detail for each unit. Following this, several examples of using a noncircular gear pair in the units and their manipulation technique are introduced.

  14. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  15. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  16. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  17. Maritime wideband communication networks video transmission scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief covers emerging maritime wideband communication networks and how they facilitate applications such as maritime distress, urgency, safety and general communications. It provides valuable insight on the data transmission scheduling and protocol design for the maritime wideband network. This brief begins with an introduction to maritime wideband communication networks including the architecture, framework, operations and a comprehensive survey on current developments. The second part of the brief presents the resource allocation and scheduling for video packet transmission wit

  18. Interspecies transmission of prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, E G; Kushnirov, V V; Ter-Avanesyan, M D

    2011-12-01

    Mammalian prions are infectious agents of proteinaceous nature that cause several incurable neurodegenerative diseases. Interspecies transmission of prions is usually impeded or impossible. Barriers in prion transmission are caused by small interspecies differences in the primary structure of prion proteins. The barriers can also depend on the strain (variant) of a transmitted prion. Interspecies barriers were also shown for yeast prions, which define some heritable phenotypes. Yeast prions reproduce all the main traits of prion transmission barriers observed for mammals. This allowed to show that the barrier in prion transmission can be observed even upon copolymerization of two prionogenic proteins. Available data allow elucidation of the mechanisms that impede prion transmission or make it impossible.

  19. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  20. Elliptic Grid Generation of Spiral-Bevel Pinion Gear Typical of OH-58 Helicopter Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Upender K.; Huff, Edward M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the source term treatment in the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations for an interior grid generation problem in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The geometry considered is that of a planar cross-section of a generic spiral-bevel gear tooth typical of a pinion in the OH-58 helicopter transmission. The source terms used are appropriate for an interior grid domain where all the boundaries are prescribed via a combination of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. New constraints based on the Green's Theorem are derived which uniquely determine the coefficients in the source terms. These constraints are designed for boundary clustered grids where gradients in physical quantities need to be resolved adequately. However, it is seen that the present formulation works satisfactorily for mild clustering also. Thus, a fully automated elliptic grid generation technique is made possible where there is no need for a parametric study of these parameters since the new relations fix these free parameters uniquely.