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Sample records for unep montreal protocol

  1. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  2. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS, the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery. For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  3. The Montreal Protocol for Identification of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuvan, D T; Paquette, S; Mignault Goulet, G; Royal, I; Felezeu, M; Peretz, I

    2018-04-01

    The Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA; Peretz, Champod, & Hyde Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 58-75, 2003) is an empirically grounded quantitative tool that is widely used to identify individuals with congenital amusia. The use of such a standardized measure ensures that the individuals tested will conform to a specific neuropsychological profile, allowing for comparisons across studies and research groups. Recently, a number of researchers have published credible critiques of the usefulness of the MBEA as a diagnostic tool for amusia. Here we argue that the MBEA and its online counterpart, the AMUSIA tests (Peretz et al. Music Perception, 25, 331-343, 2008), should be considered steps in a screening process for amusia, rather than standalone diagnostic tools. The goal of this article is to present, in detailed and easily replicable format, the full protocol through which congenital amusics should be identified. In providing information that has often gone unreported in published articles, we aim to clarify the strengths and limitations of the MBEA and to make recommendations for its continued use by the research community as part of the Montreal Protocol for Identification of Amusia.

  4. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders, G.J.M.; Andersen, S.O.; Daniel, J.S.; Fahey, D.W.; McFarland, M.

    2007-01-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate

  5. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) Scenarios, Climate Effects and the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, G. J. M.; Fahey, D. W.; Daniel, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Montreal Protocol has reduced the use of ozone-depleting substances by more than 95% from its peak levels in the 1980s. As a direct result the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as substitute compounds has increased significantly. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. The Parties of the Montreal Protocol have discussed these proposals during their meetings in 2016. The effects of the national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals on climate forcings and surface temperatures will be presented. Global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China ( 30%), India and the rest of Asia ( 25%), Middle East and northern Africa ( 10%), and USA ( 10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. This corresponds to a reduction in surface temperature attributed to HFCs from 0.1 oC to 0.04 oC in 2050 and from 0.3-0.4 oC to 0.02 oC in 2100.

  6. Strengthening the Montreal Protocol: Does it cool down the greenhouse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Swart, R.J.; Rotmans, J.

    1992-01-01

    Strengthening of the Montreal Protocol is recently being negotiated in London in 1990 in order to achieve further reductions of the regulated CFCs and to include possibly more substances. The implications of different policies with respect to control of ozone depleting substances for climate change are analysed, including the proposed substitution by HCFCs and HFCs, carbon tetrachloride and methylchloroform. A special halocarbon module was developed within the framework of RIVM's Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE). IMAGE is a parametrized science based policy model and has been developed to give policy agencies a concise overview of the quantitative aspects of the greenhouse problem, to evaluate various policy options concerning climate change and to serve as a means of communication. It is concluded, from simulations with the halocarbon module, that it is of primary importance to achieve a further reduction of the regulated CFCs compared to the Montreal Protocol with compliance by as many countries as possible. From the perspective of the greenhouse effect the inclusion of longer lived halocarbons, such as carbon tetrachloride and HCFC-22 in the protocol come second. The application of methylchloroform, halons and HCFCs and HFCs with lower global warming potentials (GWPs) than HCFC-22 contributes only marginally to the greenhouse effect in comparison with the much more important greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and nitrous oxide. Especially if further growth of the total production of HCFCs after complete replacement of the present CFCs can be avoided by using these alternatives with a lower GWP, these substances could therefore be tolerated in a transition period, from the perspective of global warming. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 29 refs

  7. The Montreal Protocol's multilateral fund and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luken, Ralph; Grof, Tamas

    2006-01-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol is widely seen as a global environmental accord that has produced tangible results in terms of reductions in ozone-depleting substances. In addition, there have been other benefits, largely unrecognized and undocumented, that can best be characterized in a sustainable development framework based on a review of 50 out of 931 projects implemented over a 13 year period by one of the four implementing agencies of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. All investment projects have reduced ozone depleting potential and global warming potential. Some projects have reduced atmospheric emissions and contamination of groundwater. Other projects have increased the competitiveness of enterprises in domestic and international markets and have sustained and in a few cases created employment opportunities. Others, fewer in number, have potentially contributed to environmental problems, have initially created difficulties in maintaining productivity and quality standards and have decreased the number of employment opportunities because of the need to rationalize manufacturing processes. The potential contributions from Multilateral Fund investment projects to sustainable development could probably have been amplified with project design guidance for the technical staffs of all three implementing agencies executing investment projects. In thinking about other multilateral environmental agreements, one can see the need for similar guidance for Global Environment Facility funded projects supporting the focal areas of climate change, international waters, ozone depletion and persistent organic pollutants. Some of them have the potential to generate multiple beneficial impacts in addition to their stated environmental objective if designed and implemented within a sustainable development framework. (author)

  8. The Montreal Protocol treaty and its illuminating history of science-policy decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, hailed as one of the most effective environmental treaties of all time, has a thirty year history of science-policy decision-making. The partnership between Parties to the Montreal Protocol and its technical assessment panels serve as a basis for understanding successes and evaluating stumbles of global environmental decision-making. Real-world environmental treaty negotiations can be highly time-sensitive, politically motivated, and resource constrained thus scientists and policymakers alike are often unable to confront the uncertainties associated with the multitude of choices. The science-policy relationship built within the framework of the Montreal Protocol has helped constrain uncertainty and inform policy decisions but has also highlighted the limitations of the use of scientific understanding in political decision-making. This talk will describe the evolution of the scientist-policymaker relationship over the history of the Montreal Protocol. Examples will illustrate how the Montreal Protocol's technical panels inform decisions of the country governments and will characterize different approaches pursued by different countries with a particular focus on the recently adopted Kigali Amendment. In addition, this talk will take a deeper dive with an analysis of the historic technical panel assessments on estimating financial resources necessary to enable compliance to the Montreal Protocol compared to the political financial decisions made through the Protocol's Multilateral Fund replenishment negotiation process. Finally, this talk will describe the useful lessons and challenges from these interactions and how they may be applicable in other environmental management frameworks across multiple scales under changing climatic conditions.

  9. The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting the Earth's Hydroclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, R.; Wu, Y.; Polvani, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol regulating emissions of ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was motivated primarily by the harm to human health and ecosystems arising from increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation associated with depletion from the ozone layer. It is now known that the Montreal Protocol has reduced global warming since CFCs are greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this paper we show that the Montreal Protocol also significantly protects the Earth's hydroclimate, even though this was also not a motivating factor in the decision-making that led to the Protocol. General Circulation Model (GCM) results show that in the coming decade (2020-29), under the 'World Avoided' scenario of no regulations on CFC emissions, the subtropical dry zones would in general get drier, and the middle and high latitude regions wetter. This change is similar, in both pattern and magnitude, to that in the coming decade caused by projected increases in carbon dioxide concentrations. This implies that because of the Montreal Protocol, and the ozone depletion and global warming associated with CFCs thus avoided, the hydrological cycle changes in the coming decade will be significantly less than what they otherwise would have been.

  10. Economics of "essential use exemptions" for metered-dose inhalers under the Montreal Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCanio, Stephen J; Norman, Catherine S

    2007-10-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has led to rapid reductions in the use of ozone-depleting substances worldwide. However, the Protocol provides for "essential use exemptions" (EUEs) if there are no "technically and economically feasible" alternatives. An application that might qualify as an "essential use" is CFC-powered medical metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the US and other nations have applied for exemptions in this case. One concern is that exemptions are necessary to ensure access to medications for low-income uninsureds. We examine the consequences of granting or withholding such exemptions, and conclude that government policies and private-sector programs are available that make it economically feasible to phase out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in this application, thereby furthering the global public health objectives of the Montreal Protocol without compromising the treatment of patients who currently receive medication by means of MDIs.

  11. The precautionary principle as a provisional instrument in environmental policy: The Montreal Protocol case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J. Roger

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • I examine whether a policy invoked under the Precautionary Principle can move beyond provisional status. • I review the certainty of conclusions based upon the Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. • There is high certainty that anthropogenic ozone depletion has health consequences in polar regions. • Current research focuses on long term projections of risk that perpetuates high uncertainty. • Establishment of a community to generate Assessments acts to perpetuate the period of uncertainty. - Abstract: Environmental studies identify possible threats to the health of the public or the environment when the scientific certainty of risk is low, but the potential cost is high. Governments may respond by invoking the Precautionary Principle, holding that scientific certainty is not required to take actions that reduce possible risk. EU guidelines suggest that precautionary measures remain provisional until sufficient scientific certainty is generated. Here I study the Scientific Assessments produced for the Montreal Protocol, and the scientific community that generates them, and ask whether a long-standing program of scientific investigation and monitoring can generate sufficient scientific certainty to move beyond dependence on the Precautionary Principle. When the Montreal Protocol was ratified, many scientists strongly suspected that anthropogenic substances like chlorofluorocarbons were depleting stratospheric ozone. Although the risk was uncertain, the perceived cost to public health of ozone depletion was high. A quarter century after formulating the Montreal Protocol, science can define the conditions for ozone depletion with great certainty, but uncertainty remains in determining the scale and distribution of the attributable increase in damaging ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Organisations, such as NASA, and scientists that contribute to the Scientific Assessments comprise the community in which the scientific consensus of risk is

  12. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  13. Protocolos de Montreal e Kyoto: pontos em comum e diferenças fundamentais Montreal and Kyoto Protocols: common points and essential differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darly Henriques da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os Protocolos de Montreal e Kyoto, tratados internacionais de defesa do meio ambiente e da vida, controlam gases que provocam o buraco na camada de ozônio e o efeito estufa, respectivamente, resultantes de atividades industriais e uso da terra. O artigo enfatiza pontos comuns e diferenças entre eles, fornecendo atualização dos protocolos.Montreal and Kyoto Protocols, international treaties, aim at safeguarding the environment and life by controlling the use of gases which deplete the ozone layer and cause the greenhouse effect, respectively, due to industrial and land use activities. The article highlights common points and differences and provides an update discussion about the protocols.

  14. Milrinone and homeostasis to treat cerebral vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage: the Montreal Neurological Hospital protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannes, Marcelo; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; del Pilar Cortés, Maria; Cardoso, Mauro; Angle, Mark

    2012-06-01

    For the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, current therapies have focused on increasing blood flow through blood pressure augmentation, hypervolemia, the use of intra-arterial vasodilators, and angioplasty of proximal cerebral vessels. Through a large case series, we present our experience of treating cerebral vasospasm with a protocol based on maintenance of homeostasis (correction of electrolyte and glucose disturbances, prevention and treatment of hyperthermia, replacement of fluid losses), and the use of intravenous milrinone to improve microcirculation (the Montreal Neurological Hospital protocol). Our objective is to describe the use milrinone in our practice and the neurological outcomes associated with this approach. Large case series based on the review of all patients diagnosed with delayed ischemic neurologic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage between April 1999 and April 2006. 88 patients were followed for a mean time of 44.6 months. An intravenous milrinone infusion was used for a mean of 9.8 days without any significant side effects. No medical complications associated with this protocol were observed. There were five deaths; of the surviving patients, 48.9 % were able to go back to their previous baseline and 75 % had a good functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≤ 2). A protocol using intravenous milrinone, and the maintenance of homeostasis is simple to use and requires less intensive monitoring and resources than the standard triple H therapy. Despite the obvious limitations of this study's design, we believe that it would be now appropriate to proceed with formal prospective studies of this protocol.

  15. Selecting corporate political tactics: The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines factors influencing the choice of one set of tactics over others. The case of ozone depletion is used as the research context, and the data are drawn from US companies having a stake in this issue. A model is developed which suggests that a firm's choice of political tactics (dependent variable) is dependent on the targets of political activity and the nature of the issue of concern (independent variables), and a variety of organizational and industry factors (moderating variables). The paradigm of agency is used to systematically assess the relative importance of these factors. To test the relevance of the model, an empirical study was done. The case of the Montreal protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer was chosen as a setting; and 551 firms directly affected by policy intended to protect the ozone layer were surveyed. There were 151 usable responses. Generally, the findings were consistent with the model

  16. The intracarotid amobarbital procedure (Wada test with two protocols combined, Montreal and Seattle Procedimentos do amobarbital intracarotideo (teste de Wada com dois protocolos combinados, Montreal e Seattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. M. Leite

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The intracarotid amobarbital procedure was carried out in 8 male and 7 female candidates to temporal lobectomy, and a female candidate to frontal lesionectomy, aged 18-50 (mean 32.5 years. Language and memory were tested after injection in each hemisphere. Both were measured by the Montreal procedure. In 9 patients language and memory were evaluated with the Seattle procedure too. In 12 patients the left hemisphere was dominant for language; three had bilateral dominance. In I patient the Seattle procedure demonstrated the dominant hemisphere by relatively slowness of speech during the drug effect in the left hemisphere. Memory was defined to be in the left hemisphere in 12 patients, in the right in 2, bilateral in 1 and in another lateralization was not possible. In 1 patient memory dominance was determined by the Montreal protocol alone because of lack of cooperation. These early results indicate that the methods may be complementary for determination of language and memory dominance in epilepsy surgery candidates.O testo do amobarbital intracarotídeo foi realizado em 8 homens e 7 mulheres candidatos a lobectomia temporal e em uma mulher candidata a lesionectomia frontal, com idades de 18-50 (média 32,5 anos. Linguagem e memória foram testadas após a injeção do amobarbial em cada hemisfério cerebral. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados pelo método de Montreal e 9 também pelo método de Seattle. Em 12 pacientes o hemisfério cerebral esquerdo foi dominante para linguagem e em 3 pacientes houve dominância bilateral. Em uma paciente a linguagem foi determinada apenas através do método de Seattle, com lentificação relativa da fal a, sob ação da droga no hemisfério cerebral esquerdo. Dominância da memória à esquerda foi observada em 12 pacientes, à direita em 2, bilateral em 1 e em outro não foi lateralizada. Dominância da memória foi definida apenas através do método de Montreal em um paciente, devido à pouca coopera

  17. Sociology in Global Environmental Governance? Neoliberalism, Protectionism and the Methyl Bromide Controversy in the Montreal Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological studies of global agriculture need to pay close attention to the protectionist aspects of neoliberalism at the global scale of environmental governance. With agri-food studies in the social sciences broadening interrogations of the impact of neoliberalism on agri-food systems and their alternatives, investigating global environmental governance (GEG will help reveal its impacts on the global environment, global science/knowledge, and the potential emergence of ecologically sensible alternatives. It is argued here that as agri-food studies of neoliberalism sharpen the focus on these dimensions the widespread consequences of protectionism of US agri-industry in GEG will become better understood, and the solutions more readily identifiable. This paper illustrates how the delayed phase out of the toxic substance methyl bromide in the Montreal Protocol exemplifies the degree to which the US agri-industry may be protected at the global scale of environmental governance, thus prolonging the transition to ozone-friendly alternatives. Additionally, it is clear that protectionism has had a significant impact on the dissemination and interpretation of science/knowledge of methyl bromide and its alternatives. Revealing the role that protectionism plays more broadly in the agriculture/environmental governance interface, and its oftentimes negative impacts on science and potential alternatives, can shed light on how protectionism can be made to serve ends that are at odds with environmental protection.

  18. Montreal Protocol meeting looks to speed up phaseout of ozone depleters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, D.; Chynoweth, E.

    1992-01-01

    Delegates from around the world are meeting in Copenhagen this week to debate an accelerated phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a time schedule for the eventual phaseout of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and phaseouts of methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. The fate of methyl bromide will also be a hot issue. The fourth meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol is widely expected to put through a 100% CFC phaseout by Jan. 1, 1996, coming into agreement with current US and European Community rules. But debate continues over the intermediate phaseout schedule, with European members pushing for an 85% reduction - from a 1986 baseline - by Jan. 1, 1994, and others arguing for a 70% cut by 1994. Delegates are expected to agree to the final phaseout of halons on Jan. 1, 1996, with an 85% cut in carbon tet by 1995. The meeting is also expected to broadly agree on a Jan. 1, 1996 phaseout of methyl chloroform, with a 50% reduction from a 1989 baseline by Jan. 1, 1994. A critical debate for chemical producers will be on the fate of methyl bromide. Many observers expect some phaseout for the chemical, but when and how is undetermined

  19. Increased Arctic Deposition of Persistent Compounds as a Result of the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Pickard, H. M.; De Silva, A. O.; Spencer, C.; Criscitiello, A. S.; Muir, D.; Sharp, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are among the diverse groups of compounds characterized as persistent organic pollutants. They are toxic, resistant to environmental degradation, and adversely impact human and environmental health. PFCAs with four or fewer carbons, short-chain PFCAs (scPFCAs), are of particular interest because of their increasing levels in the environment, toxicity to plants, and potential for accumulation in some aquatic ecosystems, making them an emerging environmental concern. A minor source of scPFCAs to the Arctic has been shown to be atmospheric transformation of fluoropolymer precursors, followed by deposition. Additional potential sources of scPFCAs to the Arctic are chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-replacement compounds. Through analysis of an ice core from the Canadian High Arctic, we show that Montreal Protocol-mandated introduction of CFC-replacement compounds for the heat-transfer industry has led to increasing inputs of these scPFCAs to the remote environment. Flux measurements for scPFCAs as a class of contaminants have only been reported in a couple studies to date. Here, we provide the first multi-decadal temporal record of scPFCA deposition, demonstrating a dramatic increase in deposition resulting from emission of CFC-replacements. These results bring to the forefront a need for a holistic approach to environmental risk assessment that considers impacts of replacement substances and degradation products.

  20. Trade restrictions as a means of enforcing compliance with international environmental law. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, W.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution reviews primarily Art. 4 of the Montreal Protocol and its efficiency for enforcing compliance with obligations under international environmental law and discusses aspects of possible conflicts with GATT law. (CB)

  1. Global warming potential estimates for the C1-C3 hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) included in the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Beltrone, Allison; Marshall, Paul; Burkholder, James B.

    2018-05-01

    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are ozone depleting substances and potent greenhouse gases that are controlled under the Montreal Protocol. However, the majority of the 274 HCFCs included in Annex C of the protocol do not have reported global warming potentials (GWPs) which are used to guide the phaseout of HCFCs and the future phase down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). In this study, GWPs for all C1-C3 HCFCs included in Annex C are reported based on estimated atmospheric lifetimes and theoretical methods used to calculate infrared absorption spectra. Atmospheric lifetimes were estimated from a structure activity relationship (SAR) for OH radical reactivity and estimated O(1D) reactivity and UV photolysis loss processes. The C1-C3 HCFCs display a wide range of lifetimes (0.3 to 62 years) and GWPs (5 to 5330, 100-year time horizon) dependent on their molecular structure and the H-atom content of the individual HCFC. The results from this study provide estimated policy-relevant GWP metrics for the HCFCs included in the Montreal Protocol in the absence of experimentally derived metrics.

  2. Multilateral trade measures in a post-2012 climate change regime? What can be taken from the Montreal Protocol and the WTO?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongxiang

    2009-01-01

    The climate-trade nexus gains increasing attention as governments are taking great efforts to forge a post-2012 climate change regime to succeed the Kyoto Protocol. This raises the issues of the scope of trade-related measures and of when and how they could be used. This paper discusses how far trade-related measures should be incorporated in that context. Drawing on an analogy to the Montreal Protocol and comparing developing country's climate mitigation and adaptation needs with the funding available, the paper argues that such measures should initially be applied only among Annex I or II countries. To discipline the use of unilateral trade measures at the international level, the paper emphasizes a need to define comparable climate efforts. Moreover, the Lieberman-Warner bill in the US Senate-taken as a proxy for future US climate legislation-is assessed, and found to be neither effective nor likely to be WTO-consistent. The paper is concluded by arguing that, in order to encourage developing countries to do more to combat climate change, developed countries should focus on carrots. Sticks can be incorporated, but only if they are credible and realistic and serve as a useful supplement to push developing countries to take actions or adopt policies and measures earlier than would otherwise have been the case.

  3. The phase-in and phase-out of European emissions of HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b under the Montreal Protocol: Evidence from observations at Mace Head, Ireland and Jungfraujoch, Switzerland from 1994 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, R. G.; Simmonds, P. G.; Greally, B. R.; O'doherty, S.; McCulloch, A.; Manning, A.; Reimann, S.; Folini, D.; Vollmer, M. K.

    The mixing ratios of HCFC-141b (1,1-dichlorofluoroethane) and HCFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) have been rising steadily in baseline air at Mace Head, Ireland over the 10-year period from 1994 to 2004. These HCFCs are widely used replacements for the chlorofluorocarbons phased out under the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments. Analysis of the HCFC content of regionally-polluted air arriving at Mace Head from the European continent shows that European emissions reached a peak during 2000-2001 and have declined subsequently, following the phase-out in their usage. European emissions of HCFC-141b have been further constrained by observations at the High-Alpine Jungfraujoch site. The reductions are consistent with the phase-out of HCFC production and use from the year 2001 onwards mandated by European regulations designed to exceed the requirements of the Montreal Protocol.

  4. The UNEP State of the Environment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Presents information from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) 1989 State of the World Environment Report. Provides an overview of global environmental concerns, including overpopulation, air and water pollution, global warming, hazardous waste disposal, and species extinction. Reaffirms the need to dedicate research and development…

  5. The regional seas programme of UNEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss-Guest, P.A. (United Nations Environment Programme, Geneva, Switzerland); Keckes, S.

    1982-04-01

    The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) outlined a ''master plan'' for protecting the world's environment which linked environmental assessment, environmental management, and supporting measures, as basic and inseparable elements - also recognizing the advantages of a regional approach in contributing to the solution of global problems. The development of UNEP's Regional Seas Programme, since the Action Plan for the Mediterranean was adopted in 1975, demonstrates that the basic concepts formulated at Stockholm can effectively foster regional cooperation among interested States, and that such cooperation can and does benefit greatly from the support of the United Nations as a whole. The viability of any long-term regional programme lies with the political and financial commitment of the Governments concerned. Within the UNEP Regional Seas Programme this commitment is usually formalized through binding regional legal agreements, and is manifested concretely through an agreed set of activities that are revised periodically by the Governments involved. It is expected that these activities will be adquately supported by financial resources put at the disposal of each of the regional programmes primarily by the Governments concerned.

  6. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare Maya, R. (Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (Zimbabwe)); Muguti, E. (Ministry of Transport and Energy. Department of Energy (Zimbabwe)); Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E. (Risoe National Laboratory. Systems Analysis Department (Denmark))

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB).

  7. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare Maya, R.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  8. Report on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the bill project authorizing the approval of the amendment to the Montreal protocol of 16 September 1987 related to substances which impoverish the ozone layer, and its Annexe: text of the foreign affairs Commission. Nr 415

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pompeo, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the Montreal protocol, adopted in 1987, was to banish the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) used as refrigerants since the 1930's, as they are responsible for the impoverishment of the ozone layer. While this objective has been met (the ozone layer is progressively restored), substitutes to CFC have been developed; however some of these substitutes, hydro-fluorocarbons, have been proved to be powerful greenhouse gases. The banishment of HFCs has thus been decided, leading to the Kigali amendment to the Montreal protocol. This report explains the CFC and HFC context and issues in details, and presents its examination by the French Commission of Foreign Affairs. The full text of the report is included (in an annex) at the end of the report

  9. The metro area of Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Montreal, one of the most civilized and cosmopolitan of North American cities, is the 2nd city in Canada in size and the largest French-speaking city. Of the 2.8 million people who lived there at census time in 1981, 45% chose both French and English as their official language, 41% chose French, and 1% used some other language. Fully 68% of Montreal residents said their mother tongue was French, and 68% also said they spoke French at home. The importance of bilingualism to the business culture of Montreal cannot be overemphasized. In the last decade, French-Canadians have taken an increasingly stronger role in business. Upper-middle-class suburbs that as little as 10 years ago had only 10% of their residents who were of French-Canadian descent now have as many as 50-60% of their residents who are French-Canadians. Most residents of Montreal willingly learn 2 languages. US firms should assume that all representatives who are sent to Montreal should be fluent in both French and English. Montreal's 2,828,349 people create a population density of 1004.9 persons per square kilometer. Montreal has 665 census tracts, which are described in the Metropolitan Atlas Series. Nearly 62% of Montreal's population fall between the ages of 20 and 64--the prime working ages. Although Montreal is 79% Catholic, it does not have the high fertility levels often associated with Catholic areas. There were 1,026,920 households in Montreal in 1981 with an average of 2.7 persons per household. 71% of these were census family households. Montreal had 1,026,895 occupied dwellings in 1985 with an average of 5 rooms each. About 71% of the population aged 15 and over that were not in school were in the labor force; 41% of the labor force was female. The largest employment category for men was manufacturing (16%) and the largest for women was clerical work (39%).

  10. 20 years UNEP two decades of achievement and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.

    1992-01-01

    This booklet discusses the work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the twenty years since its creation in 1972. Many different fields of endeavour are reviewed, including protection of the atmosphere, management of freshwater resources, protection of oceans, protection of land resources, conservation of biological diversity, management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes, development and the quality of life, and earthwatch, the worldwide environmental monitoring programme

  11. Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the...

  12. Report, realized on behalf of the foreign Affairs, the Defense and the Armed Forces Commission: - on the law project, carried by the Senate, authorizing the approval of the amendment for the 16 september 1987 Montreal protocol relative to the substances which impoverish the ozone layer, adopted at Montreal the 17 september 1997; - and on the law project, carried by the Senate, authorizing the approval of the amendment for the 16 september 1987 Montreal protocol relative to the substances which impoverish the ozone layer, adopted at Pekin the 3 december 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.J.

    2003-07-01

    The document presents the text of the law projects concerning the substances which impoverish the ozone layer. Facts of science,protection systems and the two amendments adopted at Montreal in 1997 and Pekin in 1999 are discussed. For each countries data on the substances impoverish the ozone layer, are also given. (A.L.B.)

  13. Montreal Modern: Retro Culture and the Modern Past in Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Handberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Through analyses of the retro scenes in Montreal, Canada, the article discusses retro culture's role as cultural memory. It is shown how Montreal's cultural identity is formed by memories of modern culture such as the Red-light and Sin City reputation of the illicit nightlife of the 1940s and 1950s, and the space age modernism of the 1960s following the Expo 67 and Quebec's Quiet Revolution. This is reflected in the city's thriving retro culture through the study of two groups of retro shops. In circulating specific memories and objects in a specific context, retro is an important negotiation of the past in the present. Especially, it is stated that the retro culture displays "local accents" and a new focus on the specificities of modern culture giving a revaluation to a previously overlooked identity such as the Quebecit.

  14. The emissions gap report 2012. A UNEP synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    One of the fundamental questions in the global climate negotiations is: what level of ''ambition'', in terms of collective emission reductions, is needed to protect global climate? To help answer this question UNEP and the scientific community have published a series of reports on the ''emissions gap1'' since 2010. Of particular interest to the ambition question is the gap in 2020 between emission levels consistent with the 2 deg. C climate target and emissions levels projected if country reduction pledges are fulfilled. If there is a gap, then there is doubt that the ambition of countries is great enough to meet the agreed-upon 2 deg. C climate target. In the 2010 Emissions Gap Report, scientists indicated that there would likely be a substantial emissions gap in 2020, although estimates of this gap ranged widely, depending on assumptions about how country pledges would be complied with. In the 2011 Bridging the Emissions Gap Report, scientists noted that enough technical potential existed to close the gap in 2020, but fast action by countries was needed. UNEP has now convened a group of 55 scientists and experts from 43 scientific groups across 22 countries to produce this third emissions gap report which covers the following: 1) An update of global greenhouse gas emission estimates, based on a number of different authoritative scientific sources; 2) An overview of national emission levels, both current (2010) and projected (2020) consistent with current pledges and other commitments; 3) An estimate of the level of global emissions consistent with the two degree target in 2020, 2030 and 2050; 4) An update of the assessment of the emissions gap for 2020; 5) A review of selected examples of the rapid progress being made in different parts of the world to implement policies already leading to substantial emission reductions. These policies could contribute significantly to narrowing the gap if they are scaled up and replicated in other countries. (Author)

  15. Participation of the radiation hygiene laboratories to the WHO/UNEP global environmental radiation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, C.; Gheorghe, R.

    2003-01-01

    In December 1987, a WHO-UNEP meeting held at SCPRI (Service Central de protection canter Les Rayonnements Ionisantes - Le Vesinet, France) set up the basis of the international network GERMON (Global Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network) as an extension of existing network 'Global Environment Monitoring Systems' (GEMS). The accident from Chernobyl certainly was the important nuclear event influencing this decision. The aim of the GERMON network is to initiate programmes for the routine monitoring of the environmental radioactivity and to ensure a quick interchange of credible data in case of major accidental radioactive releases, as well as the development of intervention devices in the member states running such programmes. The responsibility of the Co-ordinating Collaborating Centre (CCC) has been given to the French Service Central de Protection Centre les Rayonnements Ionisants (SCPRI). In 1994, this Service became the Office de Protection Centre les Rayonnements Ionisants (OPRI). The Ministry of Health has a national network consisting of 23 radiation hygiene laboratories; 19 of these are included in the framework of county divisions of public health , and the other 4 are compartments of the regional institutes of public health. WHO designated the Institute of Public Health from Bucharest as National Contact Centre, in charge with communicating the results obtained by the national laboratories on the indicators of environmental radioactivity, according to the established methodologies. The main indicators considered are: ambient gamma dose, radioactivity of the air, of the precipitation, and of the milk. Following the measurement and transmission protocols of the CCC, the Radiation Hygiene Laboratory from the Institute of Public Health has established a methodology to be followed by the laboratories of the national network. (authors)

  16. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  17. Scanning the Global Environment. A framework and methodology for UNEP's reporting functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Bakkes JA; Niessen LW; Rotmans J; Vries HJM de; Weterings R; Rijksinstituut voor; United Nations Environment Programme UNEP; MTV; ISC; VTV; CWM; SB4; TNO Centre for Technology and Policy

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual framework for UNEP's reporting functions is proposed, aimed at supporting strategic environmental policy development. To this end information should be provided about the past, current and future state of the environment as a function of demographic and socio-economic developments.

  18. LCIA framework and cross-cutting issues guidance within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing needs for decision support and advances in scientific knowledge within life cycle assessment (LCA) led to substantial efforts to provide global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators under the auspices of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Init...

  19. 1959 : Borden bails on Montreal question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1959, following months of hearings, the Borden Royal Commission on Oil and Gas was unwilling to grant western producers the access to the Montreal refinery market. Rather than building a pipeline to Montreal, the Commission urged a national policy supporting the export of Canadian crude without license, and encouraging the use of Canadian crude in markets that already have pipeline access to it, including the west coast, Midwest and Ontario. The Commission recommended that the Canadian oil and gas industry take measures to enlarge its share of the United States market and asked that petroleum product retailers displace 50,000 barrels per day of products refined from imported crude in Montreal and sold in Ontario with a similar volume of products refined from Canadian crude. Proponents of the Commission's report stated that exports to the United States were essential to the Canadian oil industry and that a crude oil line to Montreal was not economic. Other key events in 1959 were listed in this article. Alberta and Southern sought approval to export 460 million cubic feet of gas per day to California. Dome Petroleum Limited suggested that the Arctic Islands could hold reserves of up to 100 billion barrels, and a planned nuclear explosion to free oil from the Athabasca oil sands was called off by the federal government for political reasons. 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. Scanning the Global Environment. A framework and methodology for UNEP's reporting functions

    OpenAIRE

    Swart RJ; Bakkes JA; Niessen LW; Rotmans J; Vries HJM de; Weterings R; Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM; United Nations Environment Programme UNEP; MTV; ISC; VTV; CWM; SB4; TNO Centre for Technology and Policy Studies

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual framework for UNEP's reporting functions is proposed, aimed at supporting strategic environmental policy development. To this end information should be provided about the past, current and future state of the environment as a function of demographic and socio-economic developments. The policy relevance of the existing global environmental reporting functions may be improved considerably by introducing three new elements: (1) the application of integrated conceptual frameworks and...

  1. Beyond Vienna and Montreal: A global framework convention on greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, D.A.; Lashof, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter discusses the need for a framework treaty analogous to the Vienna Convention and to the Montreal Protocol for greenhouse gases. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the immediate need for multilateral greenhouse gas controls, including policy implications of scientific uncertainties; (2) recent steps toward a greenhouse gas convention; (3) an environmentally meaningful plan for a greenhouse gase conventions, including the ozone precident, CO 2 targets, resource transfers, trading emissions allocations, institutional issues

  2. Greek women and broken nerves in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, P

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, I examine the importance of class, ethnicity and gender in the causation and meaning of somatization for Greek women in Montreal. I argue that nevra--a form of psychosocial distress experienced by many of the women--is a phenomenon of the poor working conditions, low wages and gender relations in the Greek community. Data is based on interviews with 100 Greek families in Montreal and 45 patients in two different clinical settings. Comparing results with material on nervios and nerves from Latin America and the United States, I concur with Low (1985) that nerves should be viewed as a 'culturally-interpreted symptom' rather than a 'culture bound syndrome'. It is further suggested that the importance of social and material conditions and gender relations in mediating the cultural interpretation must be stressed. Failure to do so often results in the medicalization of nevra and the creation of a chronic sick role for the patient.

  3. LCIA framework and cross-cutting issues guidance within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verones, Francesca; Bare, Jane; Bulle, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    of these efforts, a dedicated task force focused on addressing several LCIA cross-cutting issues as aspects spanning several impact categories, including spatiotemporal aspects, reference states, normalization and weighting, and uncertainty assessment. Here, findings of the cross-cutting issues task force...... are presented along with an update of the existing UNEP-SETAC LCIA emission-to-damage framework. Specific recommendations are provided with respect to metrics for human health (Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) and ecosystem quality (Potentially Disappeared Fraction of species, PDF). Additionally, we stress...

  4. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  5. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to

  6. UNEP-IOC-ASPEI global task team on the implications of climate change on coral reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The first meeting of the Global Task Team on the Implications of Climate Change on Coral Reefs was held to develop an authoritative scientific and technical review of the implications of climate change for coral reefs and their ecologically sustainable use. The Task Team is expected to provide expert advice and guidance in the implementation of the pilot activity on coral reef monitoring as part of the UNEP-IOC-WMO Long-Term Global Monitoring System of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change. This would ensure coordination of various activities aimed at assessing the scale of impacts on natural environments and socio-economic systems particularly in the case of low-lying islands and other areas vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise. The work of the Task Team should ultimately assist the Governments concerned in mitigating the impacts of such changes.

  7. Management of water hyacinth. A CSC/UNEP project. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The water hyacinth project was initially proposed at the Regional Workshop on Rural Technology held at Dacca in January 1978. In November 1978, national coordinators met at New Delhi and outlined the project in detail as reported in CSC(79)RT-4. The meeting was attended by delegates from Bangladesh, Egypt, Guyana, India, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Commonwealth Science Council and the United Nations Environment Programme. Following this a proposal was submitted to UNEP seeking funding support to meet the external cost component of the project. This support was subsequently granted. The project aims to achieve an integrated approach towards managing water hyacinth. The underlying intention was that management would cover both eradication of the plant as well as making productive use of it when possible. Productive uses envisaged include biogas synthesis, production of papers and boards and as a source of proteins. Another interesting possibility is the use of the plant to control industrial as well as domestic water pollution . All these were detailed in a three and a half year time plan. The project had its first review meeting in June 1979 in Papua New Guinea. The major intention of this meeting was to examine status reports from each country in an attempt to quantify the problem caused by water hyacinth and assess the work plan in relation to this. The report of this meeting has been published as CSC(79)RT-5. At this meeting Papua New Guinea decided to withdraw from this project as water hyacinth was not regarded as a severe problem. The use of dugong as a control agent was not recommended by Papua New Guinea. In April 1980 an interim review meeting attended by the Regional Coordinator and representatives of UNEP and CSC was held in London where, based on the progress made in the participating countries, activities and time schedules were refined and sharpened (CSC (80)RT-16). It look some time to resolve the external funding question . It was

  8. USEtox: The UNEP-SETAC consensus model for life-cycle impacts on human health and ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McKone, Tom; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterizes emissions for the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a product by translating these emissions into their potential impacts on human health, ecosystems, global climate and other resources. This process requires substance-specific characterization factors...... (CFs) that represent the relative potential of specific chemical emissions to impact human disease burden and ecosystem health. Within the Life Cycle Initiative, a joint initiative of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC...... and transparent tool for making human health and ecosystem CF estimates. The consensus model has now been used to calculate CFs for several thousand substances and is intended to form the basis of the recommendations from UNEP-SETAC‘s Life Cycle Initiative regarding characterization of toxic impacts in Life Cycle...

  9. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenia; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to 2050. The study was carried out in support of the Agenda 21 interim evaluation, five years after 'Rio' and ten years after 'Brundtland'. The scenario analysis is based on only one scenario, Conventional...

  10. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. Zimbabwe country study. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare Maya, R. [Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (Zimbabwe); Muguti, E. [Ministry of Transport and Energy. Department of Energy (Zimbabwe); Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Laboratory. Systems Analysis Department (Denmark)

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB).

  11. Depleted uranium in Kosovo. Post-conflict environmental assessment. UNEP scientific mission to Kosovo, 5-19 November 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the first-ever international assessment of the environmental impact of depleted uranium (DU) when used in a real conflict situation. It has been carried out as part of the post-conflict assessments conducted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the Balkans. The report builds on an earlier theoretical study by UNEP. In October 1999, as part of its assessment of the Kosovo conflict's impact on the environment and human settlements, UNEP carried out a Desk Assessment study of the potential effects of the possible use of DU during the conflict. The study was limited by the lack of information on the actual use of DU. In July 2000, however, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) provided UNEP with the information required, enabling a field mission to be planned and conducted. The information included a map indicating the location of 112 separate strikes by DU ammunition, and a table showing the number of DU rounds used and the coordinates of the targeted areas. During the field mission to Kosovo, from 5 - 19 November 2000, soil, water and other samples were collected from eleven sites where DU had reportedly been used during the conflict. Five separate laboratories then analysed the samples. When the laboratory phase was finalised in early March, the analyses of the samples collected showed only low levels of radioactivity. Furthermore, the results suggested that there is no immediate cause for concern regarding toxicity. However, major scientific uncertainties persist over the long-term environmental impacts of DU, especially regarding groundwater. Due to these scientific uncertainties, UNEP calls for precaution. There is a very clear need for action to be undertaken on the clean-up and decontamination of the polluted sites, for awareness-raising aimed at the local population, and for future monitoring. Just as the Desk Assessment conducted in October 1999 advised precaution, the recommendations of this

  12. Selections from the ABC 2011 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel; Andersen, Ken; Campbell, Gloria; Crenshaw, Cheri; Cross, Geoffrey A.; Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Hildebrand, John; Newman, Amy; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Paulson, Edward; Phillabaum, Melinda; Powell, Elizabeth A.; Sloan, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Favorite Assignments featured in this article were presented at the 2011 Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), Montreal, Canada. A variety of learning objectives are featured: delivering bad news, handling difficult people, persuasion, reporting financial analysis, electronic media, face-to-face…

  13. Mini‑Mental State Exam versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mini‑mental state exam (MMSE) was used several times but no study has examined cognition on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we compared MMSE with MoCA in patients with DR and searched for an association between the severity of DR ...

  14. IOC-UNEP regional workshop to review priorities for marine pollution monitoring, research, control and abatement in the wider Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The IOC-UNEP Regional Workshop to Review Priorities for Marine Pollution Monitoring, Research, Control and Abatement in the Wider Caribbean Region (San Jose, 24-30 August 1989) examined a possible general framework for a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP programme for marine pollution assessment and control in the Wider Caribbean region (CEPPOL). The overall objective of CEPPOL is to establish a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP Marine Pollution Assessment and Control Programme catering to the immediate and long-term requirements of the Cartagena Convention as well as the requirements of the member States of IOCARIBE. The specific objectives of the programmes are: (i) To organize and carry out a regionally co-ordinated marine pollution monitoring and research programme concentrating on contaminants and pollutants affecting the quality of the marine and coastal environment, as well as the human health in the Wider Caribbean and to interpret/assess the results of the programme as part of the scientific basis for the region; (ii) To generate information on the sources, levels, amounts, trends and effects of marine pollution within the Wider Caribbean region as an additional component of the scientific basis upon which the formulation of proposals for preventive and remedial actions can be based; (iii) To formulate proposals for technical, administrative and legal pollution control, abatement, and preventive measures and to assist the Governments in the region in implementing and evaluating their effectiveness; and (iv) To strengthen and , when necessary, to develop/establish the capabilities of national institutions to carry out marine pollution monitoring and research, as well as to formulate and apply pollution control and abatement measures

  15. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels at a meeting in Warsaw, the first in a series of UNEP undertakings, to be followed by studies on nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. The major issues examined at the meeting were human health effects of atmospheric emissions, especially SO/sub 2/; effects of SO/sub 2/ on vegetation and bodies of fresh water; long-term ecologic effects of oil spills in the sea; and potential effects on climate from atmospheric CO/sub 2/ arising from fossil fuel combustion. A doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration would cause an estimated 1.5/sup 0/-3.0/sup 0/C increase in the surface air temperature. With an amount of CO/sub 2/ equivalent to 0.5 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes of carbon annually injected into the atmosphere from fossil fuels, of which only 0.27 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes are removed by some exchange processes with ocean or land. A 17% increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ over the 1976 concentration of 332 ppm is expected by the year 2000.

  16. Cooperation with UNEP/IRPTC as a contribution to the implementation of the 'Agenda 21' action programme, chapter 19 in the field of information exchange on hazardous substances; Kooperation mit UNEP/IRPTC als Beitrag zur Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms 'Agenda 21', Kapitel 19 im Bereich Informationsaustausch ueber gefaehrliche Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock-Schmelzer, U.

    1999-09-01

    The United Nations 'Conference on Environment and Development' (Rio de Janeiro, June 1992) adopted the 'Agenda 21' action programme. Agenda 21, Chapter 19 'Environmentally Sound Management of Toxic Chemicals including the Prevention of Illegal International Traffic with Toxic and Dangerous Products' includes detailed instructions for activities for the improvement of chemical safety. As described in Programme Area C 'Information Exchange on Toxic Chemicals and Chemical Risks', international institutions responsible for the exchange of information on chemical risks are to be strengthened. The close cooperation between the Federal Environmental Agency and UNEP Chemicals (until 1995 UNEP/IRPTC (United Nations Environment Programme / International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals)) on the exchange of scientific and legal information on hazardous chemicals represents a direct and successful contribution to the implementation of Agenda 21, Chapter 19. UNEP Chemicals was supported in the area of data collection. In return, the noted data of UNEP Chemicals, which were elaborated in international cooperation, were made directly available to the Federal Environmental Agency. This cooperation with UNEP Chemicals represents an important contribution to the international exchange of data on hazardous chemicals. (orig.) [German] Die 'Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung' (Rio de Janeiro, Juni 1992) verabschiedete das Aktionsprogramm 'Agenda 21'. Kapitel 19 der Agenda 21 'Umweltvertraeglicher Umgang mit giftigen Chemikalien einschliesslich der Verhinderung illegalen internationalen Handels mit giftigen und gefaehrlichen Produkten' enthaelt detaillierte Handlungsauftraege zur Verbesserung der Chemikaliensicherheit. Wie im Programmbereich C 'Informationsaustausch ueber giftige Chemikalien und Chemikalienrisiken' beschrieben, sollen internationale Zentren zum

  17. Tuberculosis and homelessness in Montreal: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Montreal is Canada's second-largest city, where mean annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence from 1996 to 2007 was 8.9/100,000. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of TB among homeless persons in Montreal and assess patterns of transmission and sharing of key locations. Methods We reviewed demographic, clinical, and microbiologic data for all active TB cases reported in Montreal from 1996 to 2007 and identified persons who were homeless in the year prior to TB diagnosis. We genotyped all available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) and spoligotyping, and used a geographic information system to identify potential locations for transmission between persons with matching isolates. Results There were 20 cases of TB in homeless persons, out of 1823 total reported from 1996-2007. 17/20 were Canadian-born, including 5 Aboriginals. Homeless persons were more likely than non-homeless persons to have pulmonary TB (20/20), smear-positive disease (17/20, odds ratio (OR) = 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-20), HIV co-infection (12/20, OR = 14, 95%CI: 4.8-40), and a history of substance use. The median duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 61 days for homeless persons vs. 28 days for non-homeless persons (P = 0.022). Eleven homeless persons with TB belonged to genotype-defined clusters (OR = 5.4, 95%CI: 2.2-13), and ten potential locations for transmission were identified, including health care facilities, homeless shelters/drop-in centres, and an Aboriginal community centre. Conclusions TB cases among homeless persons in Montreal raise concerns about delayed diagnosis and ongoing local transmission. PMID:22034944

  18. UNEP and IAEA exploring the possibility of sending depleted uranium missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Vienna/Nairobi - Mohamed ElBaradei, the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), have agreed to consider ways and means to respond to requests for fact-finding missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq where depleted uranium (DU) was used during military conflicts. The two organizations will co-ordinate their action with the World Health Organization, which has recently decided to send a team to study the health effects of depleted uranium in Iraq, as well as with other relevant UN system organizations. Pekka Haavisto, Chairman of UNEP's Depleted Uranium Assessment Team, is meeting today with UN officials in Sarajevo for consultations on a possible future mission to Bosnia-Herzegovina. Mr. Haavisto will visit Belgrade tomorrow to meet with officials of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The IAEA is considering holding a training course to improve the understanding and skills of specialist staff from concerned countries. The main focus will be on measurement methods and the assessment of risks from depleted uranium and other radioactivity. The possibility of sending fact-finding missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq follows last year's mission to Kosovo by the UNEP-led DU Assessment Team. UNEP will wait for the scientific findings of the report of the Kosovo mission, expected to be released in early March, before it embarks on new DU field assessments. (author)

  19. CDM. Information and guidebook - Developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'[Clean development nedianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.)

    2003-12-01

    Since the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was defined at Conference of the Parties 3 in Kyoto 1997, it took the international community another 4 years to reach the Marrakesh Accords in which the modalities and procedures to implement the CDM was elaborated. Even if more detailed rules, procedures and modalities have to be further developed a general framework to implement the CDM and other Kyoto mechanisms are now in place. This guidebook is produced to support the UNEP project 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism'. Focus is on the CDM project cycle, the Project Design Document (PDD), and related issues such as sustainable development goals, financing and market intelligence. The appendices present frequently asked questions and answers, a short overview of existing guidelines and a possible future list of eligible CDM projects categories. (BA)

  20. The future of the global environment. A model-based analysis supporting UNEP's first global environment outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.; Van Woerden, J.; Alcamo, J.; Berk, M.; Bol, P.; Van den Born, G.J.; Ten Brink, B.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Niessen, L.; Langeweg, F.; Swart, R.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated assessments in support of environmental policy have been applied to a number of countries and regions, and to international negotiations. UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook (GEO-1) can be seen as a step towards making the tool of integrated assessment more widely available as a means for focusing action. This technical report documents RIVM's contribution to the GEO-1 report, focusing on the subject 'looking ahead'. It is illustrated that a 'what if' analysis helps to look beyond the delays in environmental and resource processes. This report illustrates that integrated assessment and modelling techniques can be excellent tools for environment and development policy-setting. The methodology, however, will need to be further developed and adapted to the realities and expectations of diverse regions, incorporating alternative policy strategies and development scenarios. This report focuses primarily on the period 1970-2015, because reliable historical data are often only generally available from 1970 onwards and the year 2015 is believed to match the time perspective of decision-makers. The findings of the analysis are reported in terms of six regions, corresponding with the division of the UNEP regional offices. Questions asked are: how will socioeconomic driving forces affect freshwater and land resources, and how will these changes mutually interact, and why are these changes important for society? Chapter 2 deals with the development of the social and economic driving forces. In the Chapters 3 and 4 it is discussed how this pressure influences selected aspects of the environment. Chapter 3 alone addresses the importance of selected elements of the interacting global element cycles for environmental quality, while Chapter 4 addresses land resources, their potential for food production and associated dependence on freshwater resources. The impacts on selected components of natural areas (Chapter 5) and society (Chapter 6) are subsequently addressed

  1. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  2. Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Andre; Kitchen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Used 1996 Canadian census data to examine the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. Analysis of 20 indicators of urban deprivation identified 6 main types of deprivation in the city and found that they were most visible on the Island of Montreal. Urban deprivation was not confined to the inner city. (SM)

  3. CDM sustainable development impacts developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olhoff, Anne; Markandya, Anil; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Taylor, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), an innovative cooperative mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, is designed with the dual aim of assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development (SD) and of assisting industrialised countries in achieving compliance with their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction commitments. The SD dimension is not merely a requirement of the CDM; it should be seen as a main driver for developing country interest in participating in CDM projects. This is so, since apart from GHG emission reductions CDM projects will have a number of impacts in the host countries, including impacts on economic and social development and on the local environment. Furthermore, the selecting of the SD criteria and the assessment of the SD impacts are sovereign matters of the host countries in the current operationalisation of the Kyoto Protocol. National authorities can thus use the SD dimension to evaluate key linkages between national development goals and CDM projects, with the aim of selecting and designing CDM projects so that they create and maximise synergies with local development goals. (au)

  4. Transition to non-toxic gunshot use in Olympic shooting: policy implications for IOC and UNEP in resolving an environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

    2013-10-01

    Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a formal Olympic partner on environmental protection, has no stated policy on contamination from lead ammunition, despite having declared lead a Priority Area for remedial action, and is pressing to remove lead from the global human environment. The IOC Sport and Environment Commission and UNEP could examine the continued use of lead shot ammunition and advise the IOC Executive Board on appropriate changes in policy and rules that could halt the massive lead shot contamination of shooting range environments world-wide.

  5. IOC-UNEP review meeting on oceanographic processes of transport and distribution of pollutants in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The IOC-UNEP Review Meeting on Oceanographic Processes of Transfer and Distribution of Pollutants in the Sea was opened at the Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia on Monday, 15 May 1989. Papers presented at the meeting dealt with physical and geochemical processes in sea-water and sediment in transport mixing and dispersal of pollutants. The importance of mesoscale eddies and gyres in the open sea, wind-driven currents and upwelling events in the coastal zone, and thermohaline processes in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries was recognized. There is strong evidence that non-local forcing can drive circulation in the coastal area. Concentrations, horizontal and vertical distributions and transport of pollutants were investigated and presented for a number of coastal areas. Riverine and atmospheric inputs of different pollutants to the western Mediterranean were discussed. Reports on two on-going nationally/internationally co-ordinated projects (MEDMODEL, EROS 2000) were presented. Discussions during the meeting enabled an exchange of ideas between specialists in different disciplines to be made. It is expected that this will promote the future interdisciplinary approach in this field. The meeting recognized the importance of physical oceanographic studies in investigating the transfer and distribution of pollutants in the sea and in view of the importance of the interdisciplinary approach and bilateral and/or multilateral co-operation a number of recommendations were adopted

  6. Literacy promotion at the Montreal Children’s Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdos, Caroline; Ferdinand, Jae-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The foundations for language and literacy are set in utero when babies hear the tone of their mother’s voice (1). There is strong evidence of a positive relationship between early literacy experiences and language and academic outcomes (2). Unfortunately, many parents do not know about the benefits of reading to and with young children, and many children enter school without the basic skills needed to learn to read and succeed. Physicians who have contact with young families are in a distinctive position to promote reading, though despite its evidence base, it has not yet become a universal intervention. A short description of the projects at the Montreal Children’s Hospital is provided. PMID:29479189

  7. Clinical applications of positron emission tomography at Montreal Neurological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Montreal Neurological Institute occupies a leading position in positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain with the help of the following three techological gains: they have acquired a 'Therascan' positron emission tomograph manufactured by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.; also, a 'Baby Cyclotron' manufactured by Japan Steel Works Ltd.; and they have written a computer program to display the results in colour. Four short-lived isotopes are used; 11 C, 15 O, 18 F, 13 N. Studies of the oxygen uptake of tumours, their glucose metabolism (as monitored by 18 F labelled 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose), and their uptake of therapeutic agents, provide valuable research and diagnostic information. PET is also being used to study epilepsy and cerebrovascular disease

  8. The Montreal Lectures: 2 August - 2 October, 1944

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E

    2007-06-15

    The Second World War began in the summer of 1939 and spurred atomic science in the direction of weapons development. The United Kingdom (U.K.) was far ahead until about the summer of 1941 at which time the United States (U.S.) began to have serious interest in atomic weapons. Seen from Europe, the U.S. was a greater distance from the theatre of war and was deemed to be a safer place to conduct atomic research. In addition to good research centres it also had greater financial, manpower, and material resources. Early attempts at full collaboration between the U.K. and the U.S. met with little success and this led to the formation of a joint British-Canadian atomic weapons effort in 1942, with research laboratories located in Montreal, which were well up and running by spring 1943. The Montreal laboratory (ML) initially was administered by the National Research Council (NRC) and scientific direction was provided by the U.K. The ML was the foundation from which the Canadian nuclear industry evolved to the present time. Interest in atomic weapons development by the U.S. had been greatly accelerated by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 7 December 1941. By the beginning of 1943 it was spending 10 times as much as the U.K. on atomic weapons research. From then on, the U.S. set the Allied agenda for the development of atomic weapons, in varying degrees of collaboration with the U.K. and Canada. This spending which grew to about $2B by the middle of 1945, was directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under the Manhattan Project, officially established on 13 August 1942, and led by Gen. Leslie R. Groves From 17 September 1942. (author)

  9. The Montreal Lectures: 2 August - 2 October, 1944

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Second World War began in the summer of 1939 and spurred atomic science in the direction of weapons development. The United Kingdom (U.K.) was far ahead until about the summer of 1941 at which time the United States (U.S.) began to have serious interest in atomic weapons. Seen from Europe, the U.S. was a greater distance from the theatre of war and was deemed to be a safer place to conduct atomic research. In addition to good research centres it also had greater financial, manpower, and material resources. Early attempts at full collaboration between the U.K. and the U.S. met with little success and this led to the formation of a joint British-Canadian atomic weapons effort in 1942, with research laboratories located in Montreal, which were well up and running by spring 1943. The Montreal laboratory (ML) initially was administered by the National Research Council (NRC) and scientific direction was provided by the U.K. The ML was the foundation from which the Canadian nuclear industry evolved to the present time. Interest in atomic weapons development by the U.S. had been greatly accelerated by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 7 December 1941. By the beginning of 1943 it was spending 10 times as much as the U.K. on atomic weapons research. From then on, the U.S. set the Allied agenda for the development of atomic weapons, in varying degrees of collaboration with the U.K. and Canada. This spending which grew to about $2B by the middle of 1945, was directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under the Manhattan Project, officially established on 13 August 1942, and led by Gen. Leslie R. Groves From 17 September 1942. (author)

  10. Cyberinfrastructure for Open Science at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samir; Glatard, Tristan; Rogers, Christine; Saigle, John; Paiva, Santiago; MacIntyre, Leigh; Safi-Harab, Mouna; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Stirling, Jordan; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; MacFarlane, David; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Rioux, Pierre; Madjar, Cecile; Lecours-Boucher, Xavier; Vanamala, Sandeep; Adalat, Reza; Mohaddes, Zia; Fonov, Vladimir S; Milot, Sylvain; Leppert, Ilana; Degroot, Clotilde; Durcan, Thomas M; Campbell, Tara; Moreau, Jeremy; Dagher, Alain; Collins, D Louis; Karamchandani, Jason; Bar-Or, Amit; Fon, Edward A; Hoge, Rick; Baillet, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy; Evans, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming more of a requirement as technologies mature and as global research and communications diversify. As a result, researchers are looking for practical solutions, not only to enhance scientific collaborations, but also to acquire larger amounts of data, and to access specialized datasets. In many cases, the realities of data acquisition present a significant burden, therefore gaining access to public datasets allows for more robust analyses and broadly enriched data exploration. To answer this demand, the Montreal Neurological Institute has announced its commitment to Open Science, harnessing the power of making both clinical and research data available to the world (Owens, 2016a,b). As such, the LORIS and CBRAIN (Das et al., 2016) platforms have been tasked with the technical challenges specific to the institutional-level implementation of open data sharing, including: Comprehensive linking of multimodal data (phenotypic, clinical, neuroimaging, biobanking, and genomics, etc.)Secure database encryption, specifically designed for institutional and multi-project data sharing, ensuring subject confidentiality (using multi-tiered identifiers).Querying capabilities with multiple levels of single study and institutional permissions, allowing public data sharing for all consented and de-identified subject data.Configurable pipelines and flags to facilitate acquisition and analysis, as well as access to High Performance Computing clusters for rapid data processing and sharing of software tools.Robust Workflows and Quality Control mechanisms ensuring transparency and consistency in best practices.Long term storage (and web access) of data, reducing loss of institutional data assets.Enhanced web-based visualization of imaging, genomic, and phenotypic data, allowing for real-time viewing and manipulation of data from anywhere in the world.Numerous modules for data filtering, summary statistics, and personalized and configurable dashboards. Implementing

  11. Being a Creative and an Immigrant in Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Work on creative careers has focused on the main national populations, while little research has addressed the situation of artists and creators of immigrant origin or different ethnic groups to determine whether they have the same access to work and employment rights. To respond for a call for research on different ethnic groups in the cultural sector, or the ethnic consequences of the individualization of careers, we therefore undertook research on the creative careers of immigrants in Montreal. We were interested in how they emerged as an artist, how they developed their careers, the access and rights they have in terms of support to their career, as McRobbie seems to indicate that ethnicity adds its “own weight to the life chances of those who are attempting to make a living in these fields. We found that these immigrant artists consider their main difficulties to be the lack of social networks, access to various forms of support to compensate for financial risks and difficulties in finding a job. We conclude with a few suggestions: measures to facilitate networking for immigrants, more training and information on government programs, mentoring support, as well as the support from community organizations, associations, and programs.

  12. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  13. Commissioning of the first Manicouagan--Montreal 735 line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baril, G A; Cahill, K; Dupont, A; Roberge, G

    1966-01-01

    In order to meet increasing demand, Hydro-Quebec will develop seven hydro power sites on the Manicouagan and Outardes Rivers to generate a total of 5,700 MW and an additional 30 billion kWh by 1973. On August 22, 1962, it was decided that the power would be transmitted over a 650-km network, using three 735-kV lines and six stations. The wet switching surge withstand level was set at 1,350 kV, based on the results obtained with a transient network analyser. The main 735-kV equipment was purchased from several manufacturers to insure prompt delivery and continuity of service. On September 21st, 1965, the Manicouagan-Levis section of the first line was energized at 735 kV, transmitting 300 MW. A month later, the second section of the line was energized and the power generated at the Manicouagan 2 plant was thus transmitted to Montreal. So far, only two pieces of equipment have shown signs of failure without causing, however, any serious shutdown. Results of tests carried out show that operation of a 735-kV network is safe and economical.

  14. Growing Physics and Astronomy Public Outreach in Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Gabrielle; Lepo, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    AstroMcGill was founded in 2011 by an enthusiastic group of undergraduate students, graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. It serves as the education and public outreach (EPO) branch of the astronomy group within the Physics Department at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. Over the last five years, AstroMcGill has grown from organizing sporadic visits in a couple primary schools to running a successful inquiry-based outreach programme for grade 4-6 students, the McGill Space Explorers. During the same time span, the attendance at public AstroNight lectures ramped up from attracting a few dozen people to over 500 people each month. We will highlight the recent successes of the programme and our best guesses for the reasons behind this success. We will also discuss the challenges of working in a bilingual city as we juggle our majority anglophone volunteers, a mandatory french science curriculum for primary school children and the (somewhat) overlapping English- and French-speaking communities in the city.

  15. Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies: an open-access resource for instrument benchmarking and exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Gosselin, Nadia; Carrier, Julie; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-12-01

    Manual processing of sleep recordings is extremely time-consuming. Efforts to automate this process have shown promising results, but automatic systems are generally evaluated on private databases, not allowing accurate cross-validation with other systems. In lacking a common benchmark, the relative performances of different systems are not compared easily and advances are compromised. To address this fundamental methodological impediment to sleep study, we propose an open-access database of polysomnographic biosignals. To build this database, whole-night recordings from 200 participants [97 males (aged 42.9 ± 19.8 years) and 103 females (aged 38.3 ± 18.9 years); age range: 18-76 years] were pooled from eight different research protocols performed in three different hospital-based sleep laboratories. All recordings feature a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and an electroencephalography (EEG) montage of 4-20 channels plus standard electro-oculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory signals. Access to the database can be obtained through the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) website (http://www.ceams-carsm.ca/en/MASS), and requires only affiliation with a research institution and prior approval by the applicant's local ethical review board. Providing the research community with access to this free and open sleep database is expected to facilitate the development and cross-validation of sleep analysis automation systems. It is also expected that such a shared resource will be a catalyst for cross-centre collaborations on difficult topics such as improving inter-rater agreement on sleep stage scoring. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Choix linguistiques, changements et alternances de langue: Les comportements multilingues des italophones de Montreal (Linguistic Choices, Changes, and Code Switching: The Linguistics Behaviors of Italophones of Montreal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Normand

    A study of 15 fathers and their 16 sons in an italophone community in Montreal (Canada) focused on the usage of Italian, French, and English in communication between generations and in a variety of activities. Data were drawn from 45 hours of taped conversation in home and work settings, which included 4,848 instances of language contact. Of the…

  17. Seasonal Difference in Postthyroidectomy Hypocalcemia: A Montreal-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarella, Marco A; Forest, Véronique-Isabelle; Nhan, Carol; Leboeuf, Rébecca; Tamilia, Michael; Mlynarek, Alex M; Payne, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Hypocalcemia following thyroidectomy often prolongs hospital stay and is potentially life-threatening. The objective of this study is to determine whether the season when thyroidectomy is performed is associated with postoperative hypocalcemia. Retrospective case series of patients undergoing thyroid surgery from 2009 to 2015. Tertiary care academic institution in Montreal, Canada. A consecutive sample of 823 patients undergoing thyroidectomy by a single high-volume otolaryngologist for a suspected or confirmed thyroid malignancy. Patient demographics, procedure type, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and seasonal rate of hypocalcemia postthyroidectomy were calculated and compared. Average seasonal rates of postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia in the winter, spring, summer, and autumn were, respectively, 8.3% (8 of 216), 7.3% (12 of 165), 1.5% (3 of 201), and 3.5% (8 of 228; P operated in the winter were 5.6 times more likely to develop hypocalcemia as compared with those in the summer (P factoring in season when surgery was performed, procedure type, and preoperative vitamin D/calcium supplementation, surgery occurring in the winter predicted a hypocalcemia event (correlation coefficient [SE]: 0.72 [0.024], P = .026; 0.006 [0.025], P = .81; 0.004 [0.019], P = .82, respectively). In this study, patients undergoing thyroidectomy in the winter months were more likely to develop postoperative hypocalcemia when compared with those operated in the summer. Further studies are needed to understand the role of vitamin D in the observed seasonal difference in hypocalcemia rates. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  18. The recommissioning of Montreal's Palais des Congres; Le recommissioning du Palais des congres de Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Palais des Congres, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Deschamps, J.F. [Pageau Morel et Associes, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    An addition was constructed onto the Palais des Congres building in Montreal in 2002. When the energy performance of the newly recommissioned building failed to meet the expectations of the construction contractor, an Energy Savings Commission was created with a mandate was to reduce energy consumption by 25 per cent over a 3 to 5 year time period, representing a savings of $500,000 per year. The objective was to make advantageous changes that would not compromise occupant comfort or interior air quality. The Committee identified areas of possible improvements in the building's heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Improvements in lighting systems and humidity control were also investigated. The Committee identified necessary upgrades and evaluated the changes in terms of technical feasibility, financial profit and sustainability. The Committee was also responsible for acquiring the authorization needed to proceed with the investment and implement change. This paper listed the energy saving measures along with the associated savings in electricity and natural gas. It also listed the associated reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The energy saving measures undertaken by the Committee were based on 3 fundamental principles which included turning off equipment that was not being used in different areas of the building; optimizing the energy use of equipment; and, replacing or modifying inefficient equipment. In November 2005, the Palais des Congres hosted the Energy Efficiency Week, during which time it made use of CANMET's Diagnostic Agent for Building Operators (DABO) software package to achieve energy savings. A program aimed at training employees in energy efficiency was also implemented and feedback on key issues was acquired. Hydro-Quebec also contributed $25,000 towards the energy analysis performed by the Committee. The objective of saving $500,000 in energy costs over a 3 to 5 year period was met. 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Climate change impacts on pollinic productivity and allergic rhinitis in Montreal between 1994 and 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garneau, M.; Breton, M.; Fortier, I. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation defined the correlation between pollinic concentrations of ragweed and medical consultations for allergic rhinitis in Montreal between 1994 and 2002, taking into account meteorological variables and socio-economic factors. The spatio-temporal dynamic of pollinic, meteorological, socio-economic and epidemiological values was reconstituted from descriptive, geographical and statistical analyses. Throughout the ragweed pollinic seasons (August to October) between 1994 and 2002 in the Montreal island area, there were 7,138 consultations for allergic rhinitis. The study concluded that the lengthening of the pollinic seasons, as well as the increase in the average number of medical consultations, combined with the significant correlation linking the temperature to pollinic concentrations suggests that the population affected by pollen allergies will increase over the coming decades in Montreal, and that it will affect certain areas more than others, which is consistent with the anticipated impacts of the rise in temperatures forecasted by different models of climate scenarios.

  20. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN URBAN PLANNING. A CHALLENGE FOR A METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: MONTREAL AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores Lucero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.

  1. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE HIGHWAY 25 EXPANSION PROJECT ON AIR QUALITY IN MONTREAL USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIABURU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of the highway 25 expansion project on air quality in montreal using gis. The aim of the paper is to assess local air pollution implications of the Highway 25 expansion project from Montreal. The basic concept of the roadway air dispersion model consists in calculating air pollutant levels in the vicinity of a highway by considering it as a line source. To fulfill this assessment, GIS software was used in order to determine pollutant distribution around the study area based on data collected by existing air monitoring stations located in the City of Montreal. GIS interpolation methods, notably Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to generate maps of pollutant concentrations across the study area. From the results, recommendations will be made in regards to the project and appropriate mitigatory alternatives suggested.

  2. Validity of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in non-english speaking patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Syam; Justus, Sunitha; Meluveettil, Radhamani; Menon, Ramshekhar N; Sarma, Sankara P; Kishore, Asha

    2015-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is a brief and easy screening tool for accurately testing cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. We tested its validity for use in non-English (Malayalam) speaking patients with Parkinson's disease. We developed a Malayalam (a south-Indian language) version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment and applied to 70 patients with Parkinson's disease and 60 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Metric properties were assessed, and the scores were compared with the performance in validated Malayalam versions of Mini Mental Status Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Malayalam showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability and its scores correlated with Mini Mental Status Examination (patients: R = 0.70; P speaking Parkinson's disease patients for early screening and potential future interventions for cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Montreal -An Application of HAZUS-MH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keyan

    2011-12-01

    Seismic loss estimation for Montreal, Canada is performed for a 2% in 50 years seismic hazard using the HAZUS-MH4 tool developed by US Federal Emergency Management. The software is manipulated to accept a Canadian setting for the Montreal study region, which includes 522 census tracts. The accuracy of loss estimations using HAZUS is dependent on the quality and quantity of data collection and preparation. The data collected for Montreal study region comprise: (1) the building inventory (2) hazard maps regarding soil amplification, liquefaction, and landslides (3) population distribution at three different times of the day (4) census demographic information and (5) synthetic ground motion contour maps using three different ground motion prediction equations. All these data are prepared and assembled into geodatabases that are compatible with the HAZUS software. The study estimated that roughly 5% of the building stock would be damaged with direct economic losses evaluated at 1.4 billion dollars for a scenario corresponding to the 2% in 50 years scenario. The maximum number of casualties associated with this scenario corresponds to a time of occurrence of 2pm and would result in approximately 500 people being injured. Epistemic uncertainty was considered by obtaining damage estimates for three attenuation functions that were developed for Eastern North America. The results indicate that loss estimates are highly sensitive to the choice of the attenuation function and suggests that epistemic uncertainty should be considered both for the definition of the hazard function and in loss estimation methodologies. The next steps in the study should be to increase the size of the survey area to the Greater Montreal which includes more than 3 million inhabitants and to perform more targeted studies for critical areas such as downtown Montreal, and the south-eastern tip of Montreal. The current study was performed mainly for the built environment; the next phase will need to

  4. Progress towards more uniform assessment and reporting of soil disturbance for operations, research, and sustainability protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Curran; Richard E. Miller; Steven W. Howes; Douglas G. Maynard; Thomas A. Terry; Ronald L. Heninger; Thomas Niemann; Ken van Rees; Robert F. Powers; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    2005-01-01

    International protocols, such as those of the Montreal Process (MP), specify desired outcomes without specifying the process and components required to attain those outcomes. We suggest that the process and its components are critical to achieve desired outcomes. We discuss recent progress in northwestern North America, on three topics that will facilitate development...

  5. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M; Gold, Lois S.

    2008-01-01

    , and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified......, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude......Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe...

  6. National energy cost optimization and project implementation: Two different worlds?. Discussion paper in the framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.

    1994-08-01

    One of the main targets of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study is combining the techno-economic and purely economic modelling approaches into one overall modelling methodology for greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. This type of models can be categorized as bottom-up models, since technology data on a very detailed level result in costs and emissions on a national level. In contrast with, but not necessarily in conflict with these models, macro-economists rely in general on macro-economic models which derive economic projections from aggregated national and sectorial economic data. These so called top-down models describe the complete national economy. Therefore the energy sector is modelled in a very aggregated way. Since the micro-economic and techno-economic approaches can be classified both as bottom-up approaches, it could be expected that mutual understanding exists. However, this is not true for all issues in this field. Techno-economical views and micro-economic views differ for instance on the implementation of options. This topic drew attention during the UNEP study, next to other items as techno-economic and macro-economic model assessments of the costs of CO 2 abatement. One of the most important implementation issues is the so-called negative cost (benefit) potential of energy saving options, which exists in the techno-economic view at this very moment, but which is not implemented yet. In the view of micro-economic analysis this potential does not exist, since options which are profitable would have been implemented according to presently adopted cost-benefit theory. Several aspects of this controversy have been discussed extensively elsewhere. In this paper the two visions are summarized and it is discussed whether it is fruitful to combine techno-economic and micro-economic approaches in an overall methodological framework. 1 tabs., 8 refs

  7. Applicability of Montreal Process Criterion 1 - conservation of biological diversity - to rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2000-01-01

    Nine indicators of biodiversity conservation have been defined by the nations participating in the Montreal Process for assessing sustainability of temperate and boreal forests. Five of these indicators address compositional and spatial diversity of ecosystems; two address species diversity; and two are indirect measures of genetic diversity. Our objective was to...

  8. The Tanenbaum Open Science Institute: Leading a Paradigm Shift at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupon, Viviane; Seyller, Annabel; Rouleau, Guy A

    2017-08-30

    The Montreal Neurological Institute is adopting an Open Science Policy that will be enacted by the Tanenbaum Open Science Institute. The aim is to accelerate the generation of knowledge and novel effective treatments for brain disorders by freeing science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relocating Precarity and Resiliency within Montreal: The Artists' Bloc of the Immigrant Workers' Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Koby Rogers; Salamanca, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this document we describe our experience relocating precarity and resiliency by way of arts activism, to denounce and make visible social injustices experienced by im/migrant communities in Montreal. Under the umbrella of the Immigrant Workers' Centre, and other allies from the im/migrant workers' movement, we combine knowledge building, action…

  10. Temporal Evolution of Poststroke Cognitive Impairment Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Britta; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; van Mierlo, Maria L; Post, Marcel W M; de Kort, Paul L M; van Heugten, Caroline M

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is nowadays recommended for the screening of poststroke cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the temporal evolution of MoCA-assessed cognition after stroke. The objective of this study was to examine the temporal

  11. Temporal Evolution of Poststroke Cognitive Impairment Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Britta; Visser-Meily, Johanna M.A.; van Mierlo, Maria L.; Post, Marcel W. M.; de Kort, Paul. L. M.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    Background and Purpose-The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is nowadays recommended for the screening of poststroke cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the temporal evolution of MoCA-assessed cognition after stroke. The objective of this study was to examine the temporal pattern

  12. Face-offs in reproductive immunology: the Montreal forum meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, B Anne; Baines, Malcolm G

    2004-10-01

    The combined 12th International Congress of Immunology (ICI) and the 4th Annual Conference of the Federation of Clinical Immunological Societies (FOCIS) was held in Montreal, Canada July 18-23, 2004 and attracted over 6000 immunologists and almost 4000 abstracts. The host society, the Canadian Society for Immunology (CSI) spent many years in preparation for this large meeting and encouraged its members to propose topics for symposia and mini-symposia and to sponsor satellite meetings. With sponsorship of CSI; the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; the University of Guelph, Guelph, ON; Queen's University, Kingston, ON; McGill University, Montreal, QU, Canada; and the American Society for Reproductive Immunology, a focused, highly successful, one day satellite meeting on human uterine immunology was held. The highlights of the presentations and discussions are reported.

  13. The impact of the petrochemical industry in the economic development framework of the Montreal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, M.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the petrochemical industry in Canada was presented. The industry, which employs approximately 100,000 Canadians, has an annual production estimated to be in excess of 20 billion dollars. Similarly, in the province of Quebec, the petrochemical industry makes a very significant contribution to the economy of the province, especially to that of the Montreal region. Recent initiatives and investments by the Canadian Government in the petrochemical sector were summarized. Among these, subsidies to Petromont to improve and modernize its plant facilities in Varennes, to Himont Canada, also of Varennes, to develop a new manufacturing process, to Gaz Metropolitain to establish a centre of gas technology, were highlighted. These and other government measures and initiatives provide a solid foundation for the petrochemical industry to continue to play a pre-eminent role in the economy of the Montreal region

  14. Computer mapping as an aid in air-pollution studies: Montreal region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, J M

    1972-01-01

    Through the use of computer-mapping programs, an operational technique has been designed which allows an almost-instant appraisal of the intensity of atmospheric pollution in an urban region on the basis of epiphytic sensitivity. The epiphytes considered are essentially lichens and mosses growing on trees. This study was applied to the Montreal region, with 349 samplings statiions distributed nearly uniformly. Computer graphics of the findings are included in the appendix.

  15. Estimating the health benefits of planned public transit investments in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Louis-François; Eluru, Naveen; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Morency, Patrick; Plante, Celine; Morency, Catherine; Reynaud, Frederic; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Shamsunnahar, Yasmin; Faghih Imani, Ahmadreza; Drouin, Louis; Pelletier, Anne; Goudreau, Sophie; Tessier, Francois; Gauvin, Lise; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Since public transit infrastructure affects road traffic volumes and influences transportation mode choice, which in turn impacts health, it is important to estimate the alteration of the health burden linked with transit policies. We quantified the variation in health benefits and burden between a business as usual (BAU) and a public transit (PT) scenarios in 2031 (with 8 and 19 new subway and train stations) for the greater Montreal region. Using mode choice and traffic assignment models, we predicted the transportation mode choice and traffic assignment on the road network. Subsequently, we estimated the distance travelled in each municipality by mode, the minutes spent in active transportation, as well as traffic emissions. Thereafter we estimated the health burden attributed to air pollution and road traumas and the gains associated with active transportation for both the BAU and PT scenarios. We predicted a slight decrease of overall trips and kilometers travelled by car as well as an increase of active transportation for the PT in 2031 vs the BAU. Our analysis shows that new infrastructure will reduce the overall burden of transportation by 2.5 DALYs per 100,000 persons. This decrease is caused by the reduction of road traumas occurring in the inner suburbs and central Montreal region as well as gains in active transportation in the inner suburbs. Based on the results of our study, transportation planned public transit projects for Montreal are unlikely to reduce drastically the burden of disease attributable to road vehicles and infrastructures in the Montreal region. The impact of the planned transportation infrastructures seems to be very low and localized mainly in the areas where new public transit stations are planned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overview of UNEP's CDM activities. Enhancing a more equitable regional distribution of CDM project activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-15

    More than thirty months after the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, CDM transactions continue to gain momentum. By November 2007, 2,647 CDM projects are in the CDM pipeline. Of these, 827 are registered projects, and a further 154 are inthe registration process. The CDM Executive Board (CDM EB) has issued more than 82 million Certified Emissions Reductions (CER). In terms of number of projects by type of technology, renewables CDM projects are the leading type with 62% of the pipeline. However, N{sub 2}O, HFC and PFC projects have the biggest share (34%) of CERs expected to be generated by end of first commitment period. At the same time, more and more renewables and other non-industrial gases projects are going into the pipeline increasing their share of emissions reductions to be achieved. Geographically, the distribution of CDM projects has so far not been very equitable. A limited number of countries including China, India, Brazil and Mexico have captured the largest share of the global CDM project portfolio. Specific regions in the developing world, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, have been largely bypassed by the CDM market and are struggling to attract a decent number of CDM projects. In fact, of the total 2,647 projects, only 33 projects are in Sub-Saharan Africa where 21 of these are actually in South Africa, making the distribution even more skewed. (au)

  17. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  18. Argel, Buenos Aires, Montreal: el Comité de Cine del Tercer Mundo (1973 / 1974 / Algiers, Buenos Aires, Montreal: the Third World Cinema Committee (1973 / 1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mestman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El encuentro de cineastas de Argel (Argelia en diciembre de 1973 es bien conocido en los estudios sobre el cine del Tercer Mundo. En cuanto oportunidad de intercambio y discusión, este encuentro permitió la organización del trabajo de los cineastas y focalizó el debate en tres ejes principales: la contribución del cine a los procesos de liberación nacional, la descolonización de las pantallas del Tercer Mundo y la lucha contra la «alienación cultural». El resultado más importante fue la creación del Comité de Cine del Tercer Mundo. Solo seis meses más tarde, un nuevo encuentro tuvo lugar en Buenos Aires (Argentina. Por un lado, el presente ensayo muestra cómo un proyecto político-cinematográfico (el «tercermundismo» fue tomando forma gradualmente durante esos años y destaca el rol de ambas reuniones en la promoción de esta nueva identidad político-cultural. Por otro, este trabajo también propone la necesidad de incorporar a esta historia otro evento decisivo: los Rencontres Internationales pour un Nouveau Cinema, realizados en Montreal en 1974. Poco considerado incluso por la bibliografía especializada, este encuentro puede considerarse el más importante del cine polí- tico mundial de los años sesenta y setenta. Dada la cantidad y diversidad de los participantes de Europa, Estados Unidos, África y América Latina, la conferencia de Montreal fue crucial en la constitución del diálogo entre los cineastas políticos del Primer Mundo y la tendencia tercermundista construida entre Argel y Buenos Aires.Palabras clave: Tercer Mundo, tercermundismo, Tercer Cine, Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano, Federación Panafricana de CineastasAbstract:The filmmakers meeting held in Algiers (Algeria in December 1973 is a wellknown event among Third World Cinema´s studies. As an opportunity to exchange and discussion, this gathering organised the work of Third World filmmakers and focused the debate on three main issues: the contribution of

  19. Nerves and Nostalgia: Expression of Loss Among Greek Immigrants in Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Margaret; Wakewich-Dunk, Pamela

    1990-01-01

    The authors interviewed first-generation Greek immigrant women in Montreal about nonspecific somatic symptoms. The concept of nevra (nerves), which was central to these discussions, was used to link environmental and psychosocial variables with distress and painful physical states. The authors discuss the cultural construction of female identity in Greece and analyze the negative effect of immigration on self-esteem, often manifested as attacks of nevra. Metaphorical concepts, such as nevra, can be used to improve physician understanding and to facilitate communication with, and enhance care of, immigrant patients. PMID:21234036

  20. Revising the diagnosis of congenital amusia with the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Jasmin; Hamann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical survey of the prevalent usage of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA; Peretz et al., 2003) to assess congenital amusia, a neuro-developmental disorder that has been claimed to be present in 4% of the population (Kalmus and Fry, 1980). It reviews and discusses the current usage of the MBEA in relation to cut-off scores, number of used subtests, manner of testing, and employed statistics, as these vary in the literature. Furthermore, data are pres...

  1. Processo de adaptação da bateria Montreal de avaliação da comunicação: bateria MAC - ao português brasileiro Adaptation process to Brazilian Portuguese of the Montreal communication evaluation battery: MAC battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochele Paz Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo apresentar a adaptação do "Protocole Montréal d'Évaluation de la Communication - Protocole MEC" (Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação - Bateria MAC ao Português Brasileiro. Esta bateria canadense foi construída para avaliar quatro processamentos comunicativos de ativação do hemisfério direito: discursivo, pragmático-inferencial, léxico-semântico e prosódico. Participaram do estudo seis tradutores, três juízes especialistas, 54 juízes não-especialistas e 16 participantes dos estudos piloto. Os procedimentos gerais promovidos foram tradução, análise de critérios psicolingüísticos por juízes e aplicação do instrumento em estudos piloto. As tarefas Interpretação de metáforas, Discurso narrativo e Julgamento semântico exigiram um processo de adaptação mais complexo e rigoroso. Com base em critérios psicolingüísticos, realizaram-se algumas mudanças nos estímulos, com a finalidade principal de manutenção do objetivo de cada tarefa do instrumento original. Este instrumento neuropsicológico pode ser uma ferramenta de avaliação da comunicação de indivíduos com lesão de hemisfério direito, lesão frontal, traumatismo crânio-encefálico e demência.This research aims to present the adaptation of the "Protocole Montréal d'Évaluation de la Communication - Protocole MEC" (Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery - MAC Battery to Brazilian Portuguese, in accordance with psycholinguistics criteria. MAC Battery is a Canadian instrument constructed to evaluate right hemisphere communicative and linguistic abilities, considering four processing domains: discoursive, pragmatic-inferential, lexical-semantic and prosodic. The participants were six translators, three specialist judges, 54 non-specialist judges and 16 subjects from pilot studies. Adaptation procedures included translation, judge analysis of psycholinguistics criteria and two pilot tests. Some tasks required

  2. Montreal Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    , and the space age modernism of the 1960s following the Expo 67 and Quebec’s Quiet Revolution. This is reflected in the city’s thriving retro culture through the study of two groups of retro shops. In circulating specific memories and objects in a specific context, retro is an important negotiation of the past...

  3. Continuing global significance of emissions of Montreal Protocol-restricted halocarbons in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, D. F.; Lin, J. C.; Romashkin, P. A.; Daube, B. C.; Gerbig, C.; Matross, D. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    Contemporary emissions of six restricted, ozone-depleting halocarbons, chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11, CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-113 (CCl2FCClF2), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and Halon-1211 (CBrClF2), and two nonregulated trace gases, chloroform (CHCl3) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), are estimated for the United States and Canada. The estimates derive from 900 to 2900 in situ measurements of each of these gases within and above the planetary boundary layer over the United States and Canada as part of the 2003 CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne-North America (COBRA-NA) study. Air masses polluted by anthropogenic sources, identified by concurrently elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO), SF6, and CHCl3, were sampled over a wide geographical range of these two countries. For each polluted air mass, we calculated emission ratios of halocarbons to CO and employed the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model to determine the footprint associated with the air mass. Gridded CO emission estimates were then mapped onto the footprints and combined with measured emission ratios to generate footprint-weighted halocarbon flux estimates. We present statistically significant linear relationships between halocarbon fluxes (excluding CCl4) and footprint-weighted population densities, with slopes representative of per capita emission rates. These rates indicate that contemporary emissions of five restricted halocarbons (excluding CCl4) in the United States and Canada continue to account for significant fractions (7-40%) of global emissions.

  4. Modeling climate effects on hip fracture rate by the multivariate GARCH model in Montreal region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Reza; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Changes in extreme meteorological variables and the demographic shift towards an older population have made it important to investigate the association of climate variables and hip fracture by advanced methods in order to determine the climate variables that most affect hip fracture incidence. The nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous variable-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARMA X-GARCH) and multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) time series approaches were applied to investigate the nonlinear association between hip fracture rate in female and male patients aged 40-74 and 75+ years and climate variables in the period of 1993-2004, in Montreal, Canada. The models describe 50-56 % of daily variation in hip fracture rate and identify snow depth, air temperature, day length and air pressure as the influencing variables on the time-varying mean and variance of the hip fracture rate. The conditional covariance between climate variables and hip fracture rate is increasing exponentially, showing that the effect of climate variables on hip fracture rate is most acute when rates are high and climate conditions are at their worst. In Montreal, climate variables, particularly snow depth and air temperature, appear to be important predictors of hip fracture incidence. The association of climate variables and hip fracture does not seem to change linearly with time, but increases exponentially under harsh climate conditions. The results of this study can be used to provide an adaptive climate-related public health program and ti guide allocation of services for avoiding hip fracture risk.

  5. Solar water heating at Ikea's Montreal store; Chauffage solaire de l'eau courante au magasin Ikea de Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagana, A.; Sonmor, K. [Ecovision experts-conseils inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    The Ikea store in Montreal has integrated an energy efficient solar water heater into its building infrastructure. In June 2010, 30 fixed solar panels were installed on the roof to recuperate energy from the sun for hot water use in the restaurant and store facilities. Prior to this installation, the store was using natural gas for water heating purposes. During a sunny summer day, the solar water heater can provide 100 percent of the hot water needs of the store, even though it was designed to provide only one-third of the heating requirements. The panels are made of copper and painted with black titanium paint. A solution of water and antifreeze circulates in the panels. Digital controls are used at the pumps to control the temperature. The Ikea store uses approximately 3,100 gallons of water per day. The panels provide more than 60 MWh of energy, and represent a savings of 8440 cubic metres of natural gas, and a savings of 19.7 tons of carbon dioxide. The panels cost $1,300 and the return on investment is estimated to be 15.6 years. 3 figs.

  6. Large-Eddy Simulation of pollutant dispersion in downtown Montreal: Evaluation of the convective and turbulent mass fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gousseau, P.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Large-Eddy Simulation of pollutant dispersion from a stack on the roof of a low-rise building in downtown Montreal is performed. Two wind directions are considered, with different wind flow patterns and plume behaviours. The resulting mean concentration field is observed and analysed with

  7. A comparison of the mini mental state exam to the Montreal cognitive assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadikoff, Cindy; Fox, Susan H.; Tang-Wai, David F.; Thomsen, Teri; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Wadia, Pettarusup; Miyasaki, Janis; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Lang, Anthony E.; Marras, Connie

    2008-01-01

    Dementia is an important and increasingly recognized problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) often fails to detect early cognitive decline. The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a brief tool developed to detect mild cognitive impairment that assesses a

  8. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4...

  9. The Montreal General Hospital Pain Centre (1974-2000: The Contributions of Ronald Melzack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Jeans

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper chronicles the development of the Montreal General Hospital Pain Centre from its inception in 1974 to the present. Highlighted in particular are the contributions of Ronald Melzack to this history. Data for the article arose, in the main, from an interview with Dr Melzack carried out earlier in the year. Discussions with former and present members of the pain centre team, including former graduate students, provided additional information. The article begins with a recounting of those individuals and events that inspired Ron early in his 'pain career' to pursue his dream of a multidisciplinary pain centre, the first of its kind in Canada. The forces that helped shape the development of this centre and the challenges that had to be overcome are described.

  10. Bank of Montreal v. Dynex Petroleum Ltd.: the priority of overriding royalties and net profit interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearlove, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The practice by the petroleum industry of granting overriding royalties (ORRs) and net profit interests (NPIs), was discussed. Some of the reasons for granting ORRs or NPIs included: (1) securing a lease, (2) obtaining geological information, (3) a condition of employment, or (4) acceptance of risk in exploration. In the recent case of Bank of Montreal versus Dynex Petroleum Ltd., it was held that in Alberta, ORRs and NPIs issuing out of a lessee's interest in an oil and gas lease cannot be a grant of interest in land. The effect of this decision is that it will make it difficult to create an ORR or NPI that is not merely a contract. An appeal is expected

  11. Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery--Portuguese version: age and education effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Mônica de Souza; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Mineiro, Ana; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2015-01-01

    To verify age and education effects on communication performance of healthy adults in the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery, Portuguese version (MAC-PT). The sample comprised 90 healthy adults from Portugal, European Portuguese speakers, divided into nine groups according to educational level (4-9, 10-13, and > 13 years of formal schooling) and age (19-40, 41-64, and 65-80 years). The influence of age and education was assessed by comparing mean scores between groups, using a two-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests (p ≤ 0.05). The results showed that participants' performance was influenced by age in pragmatic-inferential, discursive, and prosodic tasks. Education had the greatest influence on the performance in all processes evaluated by the MAC-PT. Age and education seem to influence the communicative performance and should be considered in the assessment of neurological patients.

  12. Required internship in diagnostic radiology in the fifth year of medicine at Montreal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Georges, G.; Raymond-Tremblay, D.; Danais, S.; Dussault, R.; Grignon, A.; Lafortune, M.; Saltiel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of methodology, organization, and evaluation confronting the radiology departments of the university hospitals affiliated with the University of Montreal, the medical students, and the University itself in connection with an elective internship in radiology offered in the fifth year of medicine, resulted in the formation of a committee to reorganize the course of study. In this concise article the authors describe this and other measures taken by the University to solve these problems. The committees' main purpose was to restructure the internship which was made compulsory so that future physicians would be prepared to draw on the resources of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. To this end, the committee formulated the objectives, content, evaluation system, and pedagogical methods to be used in those courses. The 25 self-teaching modules, together with the observation and practical interpretation of radiology sessions, proved highly useful in solving the initial problems, and were of particular interest to the students. (author)

  13. Musical cognition in Alzheimer's disease: application of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Rendace, Lidia; Parisi, Francesco; D'Antonio, Fabrizia; Imbriano, Letizia; de Lena, Carlo; Trebbastoni, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess certain musical abilities in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 30 healthy controls by using the complete version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This battery evaluates melodic (scale, contour, and interval) and temporal (rhythm and meter) perception of music and musical memory. We found that altered musical processing is a common feature in AD. Despite that, AD subjects show partially spared abilities for temporal organization of music, though not for melodic perception and musical memory. This peculiar dysfunctional pattern could depend on the neurodegenerative involvement of some specific areas for music perception and memory in the brains of AD patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of additional musical tests like the MBEA on larger samples to confirm our preliminary data. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Stéphane; Therrien, Marie-Christine; Normandin, Julie-Maude

    2010-05-01

    Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal. Stéphane Beauregard M.Sc. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Julie-Maude Normandin Ph.D. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Marie-Christine Therrien Professor École nationale d'administration publique The proposed paper presents preliminary results on the resilience of organizations managing critical infrastructure in the Metropolitan Montreal area (Canada). A resilient city is characterized by a network of infrastructures and individuals capable of maintaining their activities in spite of a disturbance (Godschalk, 2002). Critical infrastructures provide essential services for the functioning of society. In a crisis situation, the interruption or a decrease in performance of critical infrastructures could have important impacts on the population. They are also vulnerable to accidents and cascading effects because on their complexity and tight interdependence (Perrow, 1984). For these reasons, protection and security of the essential assets and networks are one of the objectives of organizations and governments. But prevention and recovery are two endpoints of a continuum which include also intermediate concerns: ensuring organizational robustness or failing with elegance rather than catastrophically. This continuum also includes organizational resilience (or system), or the ability to recover quickly after an interruption has occurred. Wildavsky (1988) proposes that anticipation strategies work better against known problems while resilience strategies focus on unknown problems. Anticipation policies can unnecessarily immobilize investments against risks, while resilience strategies include the potential for a certain sacrifice in the interests of a more long-term survival and adaptation to changing threats. In addition, a too large confidence in anticipation strategies can bring loss of capacity of an

  15. Soundscape studies in Montreal's Biodome: using enclosed ecosystems to explain biodiversity to the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher Favret, K. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Biodome in Montreal is a unique public museum with over 750 species organized into five different ecosystems. We spent several weeks obtaining soundscapes from three of these: Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador Coast, and Sub-Antarctic Islands. The idea was to leverage the accessibility and known biodiversity of these mesocosms to calibrate instruments, evaluate methods for assessing biodiversity, and educate people ranging from the penguin keeper to the general public about soundscape ecology and biodiversity assessments. The Gulf of St. Lawrence exhibit has hundreds of fish that belong to 20 species swimming in 2.5 million gallons of seawater, with seabirds and invertebrates nearby. The Sub-Antarctic Islands exhibit, by contrast, has four species of penguins. As part of Montreal's Space for Life program, there is a searchable index of the species available to the public: http://espacepourlavie.ca/en/fauna-and-flora-biodome.The emerging field of soundscape ecology offers a new approach for effectively monitoring changes in sounds generated by communities ranging from urban centers to oceans. The entropy-based approach pioneered by Sueur et al., (2008) characterizes acoustic spectrograms based on the spectral space-filling properties of the sound producers. By calculating the complexity of the acoustic environment, we can detect cycles over various time scales. Disturbed systems can be detected by changes in the timing and frequency of sounds filling various "niches" in the soundscape that might act as early warnings of changes induced on scales from single events to climate shifts. These changes range from presence or absence of vocalizations by individual species, to changes in the higher order statistics of the daily sound structures that include sounds with physical, biological, and human origins. Here we show what we have learned so far about comparing enclosed ecosystems to the real world outside, and some of the challenges and rewards of using soundscape

  16. Evaluation of air quality in arenas on the Island of Montreal : winter 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.; Beausoleil, M.; Lefebvre, L.

    2007-03-01

    For the past twenty years, cases of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning have been reported in arenas in Quebec. A 1997 evaluation of air quality in 332 arenas in 9 different countries revealed that 40 per cent of arenas worldwide have high concentration of NO 2 . In Quebec, an air quality review at arenas in Montreal drew similar conclusions, that 69 per cent of the arenas have high concentrations of CO and/or NO 2 . In 1997, Quebec's environmental health committee established criteria of 20 ppm for CO, and 0.5 ppm for NO 2 in arenas, in order to ensure that athletes and the public at large do not suffer negative effects related to the presence of combustible gases. This information was distributed to the administrative personnel in arenas in Quebec by means of an awareness and information campaign. Since then, the number of arenas that have met these criteria for air quality in arenas in Montreal has climbed from 31 per cent in 1997 to 83 per cent in 2004. The practices put into action by arena administrators include: 1) regular maintenance of ice surface cleaning machines and other equipment that use fuel, 2) judicious use of ventilation so that gases can be evacuated from the premises, and, 3) periodic measurements of CO and NO 2 during peak usage times such as tournaments. Other means of lowering gas emissions have also shown to be helpful, such as replacement of ice surface cleaning machines with electrical ones, installation of CO and NO 2 detectors close to the rink surface so that ventilation machines could be activated, and the measurement and constant registration of these gases. It was concluded that these measures could help maintain good air quality in arenas. 15 refs., 1 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  18. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. C Appendix C to Subpart A of Part... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Panama ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Papua New Guinea ✓ ✓ Paraguay ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Peru ✓ ✓ ✓ Philippines ✓ ✓ ✓ Poland... 29. Colombia 30. Comoros 31. Congo 32. Congo, Democratic Republic of 33. Cook Islands 34. Cost Rica...

  19. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  20. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  1. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): validation study for frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Alves, Lara; Duro, Diana; Santana, Isabel

    2012-09-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief instrument developed for the screening of milder forms of cognitive impairment, having surpassed the well-known limitations of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The aim of the present study was to validate the MoCA as a cognitive screening test for behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Three matched subgroups of participants were considered: bv-FTD (n = 50), Alzheimer disease (n = 50), and a control group of healthy adults (n = 50). Compared with the MMSE, the MoCA demonstrated consistently superior psychometric properties and discriminant capacity, providing comprehensive information about the patients' cognitive profiles. The diagnostic accuracy of MoCA for bv-FTD was extremely high (area under the curve AUC [MoCA] = 0.934, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.866-.974; AUC [MMSE] = 0.772, 95% CI = 0.677-0.850). With a cutoff below 17 points, the MoCA results for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and classification accuracy were significantly superior to those of the MMSE. The MoCA is a sensitive and accurate instrument for screening the patients with bv-FTD and represents a better option than the MMSE.

  2. Cross-Cultural Applicability of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Ciarán; Shaikh, Madiha

    2017-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is widely used to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). While there are many available versions, the cross-cultural validity of the assessment has not been explored sufficiently. We aimed to interrogate the validity of the MoCA in a cross-cultural context: in differentiating MCI from normal controls (NC); and identifying cut-offs and adjustments for age and education where possible. This review sourced a wide range of studies including case-control studies. In addition, we report findings for differentiating dementias from NC and MCI from dementias, however, these were not considered to be an appropriate use of the MoCA. The subject of the review assumes heterogeneity and therefore meta-analyses was not conducted. Quality ratings, forest plots of validated studies (sensitivity and specificity) with covariates (suggested cut-offs, age, education and country), and summary receiver operating characteristic curve are presented. The results showed a wide range in suggested cutoffs for MCI cross-culturally, with variability in levels of sensitivity and specificity ranging from low to high. Poor methodological rigor appears to have affected reported accuracy and validity of the MoCA. The review highlights the necessity for cross-cultural considerations when using the MoCA, and recognizing it as a screen and not a diagnostic tool. Appropriate cutoffs and point adjustments for education are suggested.

  3. Sustainability Assessment of the Residential Land Use in Seven Boroughs of the Island of Montreal, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High resource utilization in the residential sector, and the associated environmental impacts, are central issues in the growth of urban regions. Land-use urban planning is a primary instrument for the proper development of cities; an important point is the consideration of the urban form’s influence on resource utilization intensity. Emergy synthesis, an energy-based methodological approach that allows the quantification and integration of both natural and human-generated flows interacting in urban environments, was used to assess sustainability of the residential land use of seven boroughs on the Island of Montreal. Natural resources, food, water, acquired goods and services, electricity and fuels were the main flows considered in the analysis. Results suggest that income, household size and distance to downtown are the variables affecting resource utilization intensity more noticeably and that allocation of green area coverage is an important parameter for controlling land use intensity. With the procedure used for calculating resource use intensity in the seven boroughs, it is possible to generate a tool to support urban planning decision-making for assessing sustainable development scenarios. Future research should consider urban green space potential for accommodating local waste treatment systems, acting as a greenhouse gas emissions sink and promoting human health.

  4. Setting the census household into its urban context: Visualizations from 19th-century Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Olson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organized by household, North American census data promoted research into household composition, but discouraged research into connections between urban households. Yet these constitute "communications communities" that powerfully influence demographic decisions (Szreter 1996. Objective: How can we uncover relations between urban households? From spatial cues, can we infer social connections that generate constraints on or incentives for the formation of a household, its break-up, reconstitution, or relocation? Methods: For Montreal and its suburbs, 1881‒1901, we employ double geocoding and lot-level precision to explore a dozen types of relationships. Samples for experiment are drawn from a local historical geographic information system (HGIS that integrates tax roll and directory with census data. Results: 'Family' was socially embedded at three levels. Neighbouring of kin was strategic, and kinship was a factor in employment, enterprise, and property development as well as residential choices. In managing property, family networks operated with a horizon of four generations. Conclusions: Introduction of geographic coordinates offers a critical set of neglected cues to relationships between households, such as business partnerships, credit, or use of transit or telephone. In an urban HGIS, advantageous features are lot-level precision and facilities for coding and matching addresses to accommodate alternative levels of spatial aggregation. Contribution: Geocoding is shown to be a breakthrough innovation for exploring urban connectivity. Experiments with maps and networks as tools of visual thinking invite us to rethink the 'census family' at higher levels of relatedness.

  5. Evaluating Recall and Recognition Memory Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: Applicability for Alzheimer's and Huntington's Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Santoro, Maya S; Goldstein, Jody; Gluhm, Shea; Gilbert, Paul E; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2016-12-01

    We sought to investigate whether the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) could provide a brief assessment of recall and recognition using Huntington disease (HD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) as disorders characterized by different memory deficits. This study included 80 participants with HD, 64 participants with AD, and 183 community-dwelling control participants. Random-effects hierarchical logistic regressions were performed to assess the relative performance of the normal control (NC), participants with HD, and participants with AD on verbal free recall, cued recall, and multiple-choice recognition on the MoCA. The NC participants performed significantly better than participants with AD at all the 3 levels of assessment. No difference existed between participants with HD and NC for cued recall, but NC participants performed significantly better than participants with HD on free recall and recognition. The participants with HD performed significantly better than participants with AD at all the 3 levels of assessment. The MoCA appears to be a valuable, brief cognitive assessment capable of identifying specific memory deficits consistent with known differences in memory profiles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term.

  7. Perceptions, Preferences, and Behavior Regarding Energy and Environmental Costs: The Case of Montreal Transport Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Daher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing travel-related fuel and environmental information to transport users is becoming increasingly relevant. However, the impact of providing such information on users’ travel behavior is yet to be determined. This research examined the perceptions and preferences related to the fuel consumption costs, greenhouse gas (GHG social costs, and health-related air pollution costs, and the influence such information could have on travel behavior. Examining the case of Montreal transport users, the authors conducted a survey in which the respondents were asked general and stated preference questions. The respondents were found to be unaware of the energy and environmental footprints of their travel. Approximately 85% of the respondents were not able to estimate GHG social costs and health-related air pollution costs across different modes. The respondents generally overestimated these costs and they interestingly reported higher environmental costs for public transport (metro compared to cars. They also preferred to receive such information in monetary units, and they were more comfortable in receiving the information through mobile applications over other tools/means. The research also found that fuel and environmental information influence respondents’ travel decisions especially their route choices. Finally, the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 7 Canadian dollars/month in exchange for obtaining the information.

  8. Psychic centrality: reflections on two psychohistoriographic cultural therapy workshops in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Frederick W; Guzder, Jaswant; Robertson-Hickling, Hilary; Snow, Stephen; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2010-02-01

    The use of psychohistoriographic cultural therapy (PCT) developed in Jamaica is described in the context of two workshops in Montreal. PCT is a form of group intervention that seeks to elicit and clarify the "psychic centrality" of a group. Psychic centrality refers to a sense of psychological containment or organization of diverse individual points of view through creating a historical map of collective experience. In PCT, this collective map is constructed and techniques borrowed from creative arts therapies are used to develop a performance. This performance provides additional containment and fosters a group process that can contain collective conflicts. The performance can also be used to engage an audience, working to contain conflict while representing diverse perspectives within the group. Factors that may contribute to the effectiveness of PCT and those that may derail the process are identified through the systematic comparison of the two workshops. PCT was demonstrated to cross successfully from a Third to a First World culture, and established potential as a method to facilitate group conflict resolution and for the promotion of pluralistic civil societies.

  9. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination reliable change indices in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Sulc, Zdenek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Stepankova, Hana

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive tests are used repeatedly to assess the treatment response or progression of cognitive disorders. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a valid screening test for mild cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to establish 90% reliable change indices (RCI) for the MoCA together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in cognitively healthy older adults. We analyzed 197 cognitively healthy and functional independent volunteers aged 60-94 years, who met strict inclusion criteria for four consecutive years. The RCI methods by Chelune and Hsu were used. For 1, 2, and 3 years, the 90% RCI for MoCA using Chelune's formula were -4 ≤, ≥4; -4 ≤, ≥4 and -5 ≤, ≥4 points, respectively, and -3 ≤, ≥3 for the MMSE each year. Ninety percent RCI for MoCA using Hsu's formula ranged from -6 to 0, respectively, and +3 to +8 dependent on the baseline MoCA. Our study demonstrated RCI for the MoCA and MMSE in a 3-year time period that can be used for the estimation of cognitive decline or improvement in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. SCREENING FOR POSTSTROKE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT VIA MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION AND MONTREAL COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  11. El programa de prevención de Montreal: lecciones para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Chaux

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Prevention Program has demonstrated a mayor world success in prevention of delinquency and violence. The most aggressive students of second and third grade participated in an intervention that had two components. First, several activities were done to develop social abilities and competencies. These activities occurred in small groups with one or two aggressive boys and other prosocial kids. Second, the families of the aggressive boys were visited several times in a two year period in order to help them develop child rearing practices such as constructive management of conflicts and crisis, handling of rewards, and monitoring the child behavior. Assessment demonstrated that the program decreased the delinquent and aggressive behavior, and also some risk behaviors such as drug use, early sexual activities, gang membership and school dropout. Some of these effects are still measurable in adulthood, almost 15 years after participating in the program. The article presents a detailed analysis of this experience, and also eight lessons for Colombia, among them, that the prevention is rewarding, especially when done early in life.

  12. Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones.

  13. Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Harri M.; Hebert, Nancy; Dautremepuits, Claire; Cejka, Patrick; Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of treated Montreal sewage effluents on juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A comprehensive panel of immunological assays was used to evaluate the effects of exposure for 1 and 4 weeks to 1, 3, 10 and 20% sewage effluent. Phagocytic ingestion of fluorescent latex beads by head kidney macrophages and granulocytes was suppressed following 1-week of exposure, with the highest exposure concentration being the most suppressive. Phagocytic activity returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. The cytotoxic activity of head kidney derived non-specific cytotoxic cells was enhanced after a 1-week exposure, especially at the lowest exposure concentration, and returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS and ConA activation was not affected following sewage effluent exposure, but nonactivated, spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 4 weeks of exposure. Plasma lysozyme activity was elevated at lowest exposure concentration after 4 weeks. No changes were noted in either the blood leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio or in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The proportion of circulating granulocytes increased following exposure for 4 weeks to the low effluent concentration. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by effluent exposure suggesting that mechanisms other than stress influenced the observed immunomodulation. In summary, this study demonstrates that sewage effluent can alter the immune functions of rainbow trout

  14. Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Harri M. [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)], E-mail: harri.salo@ktl.fi; Hebert, Nancy; Dautremepuits, Claire [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada); Cejka, Patrick [Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant, 12 001 Maurice-Duplessis, Montreal, Que. H1C 1V3 (Canada); Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)

    2007-10-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of treated Montreal sewage effluents on juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A comprehensive panel of immunological assays was used to evaluate the effects of exposure for 1 and 4 weeks to 1, 3, 10 and 20% sewage effluent. Phagocytic ingestion of fluorescent latex beads by head kidney macrophages and granulocytes was suppressed following 1-week of exposure, with the highest exposure concentration being the most suppressive. Phagocytic activity returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. The cytotoxic activity of head kidney derived non-specific cytotoxic cells was enhanced after a 1-week exposure, especially at the lowest exposure concentration, and returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS and ConA activation was not affected following sewage effluent exposure, but nonactivated, spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 4 weeks of exposure. Plasma lysozyme activity was elevated at lowest exposure concentration after 4 weeks. No changes were noted in either the blood leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio or in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The proportion of circulating granulocytes increased following exposure for 4 weeks to the low effluent concentration. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by effluent exposure suggesting that mechanisms other than stress influenced the observed immunomodulation. In summary, this study demonstrates that sewage effluent can alter the immune functions of rainbow trout.

  15. Associations between grass and weed pollen and emergency department visits for asthma among children in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héguy, Léa; Garneau, Michelle; Goldberg, Mark S; Raphoz, Marie; Guay, Frédéric; Valois, Marie-France

    2008-02-01

    Asthma among children is a major public health problem worldwide. There are increasing number of studies suggesting a possible association between allergenic pollen and exacerbations of asthma. In the context of global climate change, a number of future climate and air pollution scenarios predict increases in concentrations of pollen, an extension of the pollen season, and an increase in the allergenicity of pollen. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the short-term effects of exposure to grass and weed pollen on emergency department visits and readmissions for asthma among children aged 0-9 years living in Montreal between April and October, 1994-2004. Time-series analyses were carried out using parametric log-linear overdispersed Poisson models that were adjusted for temporal variations, daily weather conditions (temperature, atmospheric pressure), and gaseous air pollutants (ozone and nitrogen dioxide). We have found positive associations between emergency department visits and concentrations of grass pollen 3 days after exposure. The effect of grass pollen was higher on emergency department readmissions as compared to initial visits. Weak negative associations were found between weed pollen (including ragweed pollen) and emergency department visits 2 days after exposure. The data indicate that among children, emergency department visits increased with increasing concentrations of grass pollen.

  16. Comparison of Alternate and Original Items on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena; Huang, Mei; Koski, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that measurement error when using the new alternate MoCA versions to monitor change over time could be related to the use of items that are not of comparable difficulty to their corresponding originals of similar content. The objective of this study was to compare the difficulty of the alternate MoCA items to the original ones. Five selected items from alternate versions of the MoCA were included with items from the original MoCA administered adaptively to geriatric outpatients (N = 78). Rasch analysis was used to estimate the difficulty level of the items. None of the five items from the alternate versions matched the difficulty level of their corresponding original items. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of a Rasch analysis-based approach for selecting items during the process of development of parallel forms. The results suggest that better match of the items from different MoCA forms by their difficulty would result in higher sensitivity to changes in cognitive function over time.

  17. Protocol for the mathematical simulation of hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio

    2000-01-01

    UNEP Governing Council in 1981 called for reduction in CFC use and production capacity and recommends convention for protection of ozone layer. UNEP Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Preparation of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the same time the International Institute of Refrigeration Congress in Paris focused on ozone depletion and global warming, the Natural Resources Defence Council sued U.S. EPA for failure to protect the ozone layer as required by the Clean Air Act (UNEP, 1998a)

  18. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  19. Velódromo Olímpico de Montreal – Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taillibert, Roger

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available This stadium is one of the most interesting ones that have been constructed lately. It has the following basic conditions: harmonious integration with the other Olympic installations; possibilities for future enlargements; total absence of supports; perfect permeability for the natural daylight; and perfect insulations in view of the hard climate of Montreal. Bearing these features in mind, the building consists of two parts: — The velodrome itself with lawn; 285.70 m long and 7.50 m wide courses with a slope varying between 18° and 48° with regard to the horizontal line; gallery for the public; auxiliary premises; dressing rooms, etc. — And the regular spheric roof the plan form of which represents three segments beginning with one buttress in the northeast end and increasing to three buttresses in the southeast end. This entirely self-supporting dome is 172 m long with a maximum height of 32 m. The total surface is 15,000 m2. The work was calculated by means of computers and was carried out with prefabricated pieces of concrete so as to achieve a better quality control of the concrete, and above all, a greater exactness of the prefabricated members. This was an indispensable factor in this case, where the maximum admissible error in most of the pieces was only 1.5 mm.Es uno de los estadios más interesantes de los últimos tiempos, con las siguientes condiciones básicas: armónica integración con las restantes instalaciones olímpicas; posibilidad de transformación para futuras aplicaciones; total ausencia de soportes; amplia permeabilidad a la luz natural; y perfecta estanquidad ante las duras condiciones climáticas de Montreal. Partiendo de estas premisas, el edificio consta de dos partes: — El velódromo propiamente dicho, con: césped; pista de carreras de 285,70 m de desarrollo, 7,50 m de anchura e inclinación variable entre 18° y 48° respecto a la horizontal; gradas para el público; locales auxiliares

  20. Awareness of cytomegalovirus and risk factors for susceptibility among pregnant women, in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizman, Sarah; Lamarre, Valérie; Coic, Lena; Kakkar, Fatima; Le Meur, Jean-Baptiste; Rousseau, Céline; Boucher, Marc; Tapiero, Bruce

    2016-03-15

    Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have generated a mounting interest in identifying mothers susceptible to CMV. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of CMV susceptibility and CMV awareness, among pregnant women, in Montreal, Quebec. Between April and December 2012, women delivering at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte Justine were recruited for the study. Stored serum from the first trimester of pregnancy was tested for CMV IgG. Knowledge about CMV and socio-demographic characteristics were collected via standardized questionnaire. Four hundred and ninety one women were enrolled in the study. Overall, 225 mothers (46%) were seronegative for CMV, and 85% (n = 415) were unaware of CMV or the associated risks in pregnancy. Significant risk factors for CMV seronegative status included Canadian vs. foreign born (aOR 6.88, 95% CI 4.33-10.94), and high vs. low family income (aOR 4.68, 95% CI 2.09-10.48). Maternal employment status was the only significant predictor of CMV unawareness, with unemployed mothers at the highest risk (aOR 85.6, 95% CI 17.3-421.3). Nearly half of pregnant women studied were at risk of primary infection, and yet, the majority was unaware of potential risks associated with CMV. Canadian born mothers and those with a high socioeconomic status were more likely to be CMV seronegative. Increased education about CMV infection, through public health interventions and obstetrician/pediatric counseling, is needed for all pregnant women.

  1. Mental Health Status, Health Care Utilisation, and Service Satisfaction among Immigrants in Montreal: An Epidemiological Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean

    2017-08-01

    To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P Immigrants had significantly lower rates of health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.

  2. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2016-10-01

    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Revising the diagnosis of congenital amusia with the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jasmin; Hamann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical survey of the prevalent usage of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA; Peretz et al., 2003) to assess congenital amusia, a neuro-developmental disorder that has been claimed to be present in 4% of the population (Kalmus and Fry, 1980). It reviews and discusses the current usage of the MBEA in relation to cut-off scores, number of used subtests, manner of testing, and employed statistics, as these vary in the literature. Furthermore, data are presented from a large-scale experiment with 228 German undergraduate students who were assessed with the MBEA and a comprehensive questionnaire. This experiment tested the difference between scores that were obtained in a web-based study (at participants' homes) and those obtained under laboratory conditions with a computerized version of the MBEA. In addition to traditional statistical procedures, the data were evaluated using Signal Detection Theory (SDT; Green and Swets, 1966), taking into consideration the individual's ability to discriminate and their response bias. Results show that using SDT for scoring instead of proportion correct offers a bias-free and normally distributed measure of discrimination ability. It is also demonstrated that a diagnosis based on an average score leads to cases of misdiagnosis. The prevalence of congenital amusia is shown to depend highly on the statistical criterion that is applied as cut-off score and on the number of subtests that is considered for the diagnosis. In addition, three different subtypes of amusics were found in our sample. Lastly, significant differences between the web-based and the laboratory group were found, giving rise to questions about the validity of web-based experimentation.

  4. Revising the diagnosis of congenital amusia with the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin ePfeifer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical survey of the prevalent usage of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA; Peretz et al., 2003 to assess congenital amusia, a neuro-developmental disorder that has been claimed to be present in 4% of the population (Kalmus and Fry, 1980. It reviews and discusses the current usage of the MBEA in relation to cut-off scores, number of used subtests, manner of testing, and employed statistics, as these vary in the literature. Furthermore, data are presented from a large-scale experiment with 228 German undergraduate students who were assessed with the MBEA and a comprehensive questionnaire. This experiment tested the difference between scores that were obtained in a web-based study (at participants’ homes and those obtained under laboratory conditions with a computerized version of the MBEA. In addition to traditional statistical procedures, the data were evaluated using Signal Detection Theory (SDT; Green and Swets, 1966, taking into consideration the individual’s ability to discriminate and their response bias. Results show that using SDT for scoring instead of proportion correct offers a bias-free and normally distributed measure of discrimination ability. In addition it is also demonstrated that a diagnosis based on an average score leads to cases of misdiagnosis. The prevalence of congenital amusia is shown to depend highly on the statistical criterion that is applied as cut-off score and on the number of subtests that is considered for the diagnosis. In addition, three different subtypes of amusics were found in our sample. Lastly, significant differences between the web-based and the laboratory group were found, giving rise to questions about the validity of web-based experimentation.

  5. Revising the diagnosis of congenital amusia with the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jasmin; Hamann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical survey of the prevalent usage of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA; Peretz et al., 2003) to assess congenital amusia, a neuro-developmental disorder that has been claimed to be present in 4% of the population (Kalmus and Fry, 1980). It reviews and discusses the current usage of the MBEA in relation to cut-off scores, number of used subtests, manner of testing, and employed statistics, as these vary in the literature. Furthermore, data are presented from a large-scale experiment with 228 German undergraduate students who were assessed with the MBEA and a comprehensive questionnaire. This experiment tested the difference between scores that were obtained in a web-based study (at participants’ homes) and those obtained under laboratory conditions with a computerized version of the MBEA. In addition to traditional statistical procedures, the data were evaluated using Signal Detection Theory (SDT; Green and Swets, 1966), taking into consideration the individual’s ability to discriminate and their response bias. Results show that using SDT for scoring instead of proportion correct offers a bias-free and normally distributed measure of discrimination ability. It is also demonstrated that a diagnosis based on an average score leads to cases of misdiagnosis. The prevalence of congenital amusia is shown to depend highly on the statistical criterion that is applied as cut-off score and on the number of subtests that is considered for the diagnosis. In addition, three different subtypes of amusics were found in our sample. Lastly, significant differences between the web-based and the laboratory group were found, giving rise to questions about the validity of web-based experimentation. PMID:25883562

  6. Criterion and convergent validity of the Montreal cognitive assessment with screening and standardized neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Benjamin; Middleton, Laura E; Masellis, Mario; Stuss, Donald T; Harry, Robin D; Kiss, Alex; Black, Sandra E

    2013-12-01

    To compare the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) with the criterion standard of standardized neuropsychological testing and to compare the convergent validity of the MoCA with that of existing screening tools and global measures of cognition. Cross-sectional observational study. Tertiary care hospital-based cognitive neurology subspecialty clinic. A convenience sample of 107 individuals with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=75) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=32) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. In addition to the MoCA, all participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and detailed neuropsychological testing. Convergent validity was supported, with MoCA scores correlating well with the MMSE (correlation coefficient (r)=0.66, Pvalidity was supported, with MoCA subscores according to cognitive domain correlating well with analogous neuropsychological tests and, in the case of memory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.86), executive (AUC=0.79), and visuospatial function (AUC=0.79), being reasonably sensitive to impairment in those domains. The MoCA is a valid assessment of cognition that shows good agreement with existing screening tools and global measures (convergent validity) and was superior to the MMSE in this regard. The MoCA domain-specific subscores align with performance on more-detailed neuropsychological tests, suggesting not only good criterion validity for the MoCA, but also that it may be useful in guiding further neuropsychological testing. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination are both valid cognitive tools in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, T B; Churilov, L; Linden, T; Bernhardt, J

    2013-08-01

    To determine the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as screening tools for cognitive impairment after stroke. Cognitive assessments were administered over 2 sessions (1 week apart) at 3 months post-stroke. Scores on the MoCA and MMSE were evaluated against a diagnosis of cognitive impairment derived from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (the criterion standard). Sixty patients participated in the study [mean age 72.1 years (SD = 13.9), mean education 10.5 years (SD = 3.9), median acute NIHSS score 5 (IQR 3-7)]. The MoCA yielded lower scores (median = 21, IQR = 17-24; mean = 20.0, SD = 5.4) than the MMSE (median = 26, IQR = 22-27; mean = 24.2, SD = 4.5). MMSE data were more skewed towards ceiling than MoCA data (skewness = -1.09 vs -0.73). Area under the receiver operator curve was higher for MoCA than for MMSE (0.87 vs 0.84), although this difference was not significant (χ(2) = 0.48, P = 0.49). At their optimal cut-offs, the MoCA had better sensitivity than the MMSE (0.92 vs 0.82) but poorer specificity (0.67 vs 0.76). The MoCA is a valid screening tool for post-stroke cognitive impairment; it is more sensitive but less specific than the MMSE. Contrary to the prevailing view, the MMSE also exhibited acceptable validity in this setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Evaluating the relationship between education level and cognitive impairment with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancar Demir, Esra; Özcan, Tuba

    2015-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as 'a cognitive decline greater than that expected for an individual's age and education level but that does not interfere notably with activities of daily life'. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening test for MCI. We investigated the performance of the Turkish version of the MoCA in detecting MCI among elderly persons in a rural area, the majority of whom have a low level of education. We evaluated 50 consecutive men referred from an outpatient clinic. Educational level was divided into three categories: group 1, less than primary (5 years). We evaluated the effect of education on MoCA scores and compared subjects' test performance among the different categories of education level. A total of 50 male patients with MCI (mean age: 70.74 ± 7.87) met the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in the total scores based on education or in the subscores for visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, abstraction and delayed recall. Language was the only domain that showed significant differences between the groups. In post-hoc analysis, differences were found between groups 1 and 3 and between groups 1 and 2. Group 1 had significantly lower scores for language. The repeat subscore for language was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. In fluency, there were significant differences between groups 2 and 3 and between group 1 and 3. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the applicability of the Turkish version of MoCA in populations with little education. Our results emphasize the need to adapt the language sections of this test, so it can be easily used in populations with low education levels. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  10. [Factors associated with dental consultation in children in Talca (Chile) and in Chilean immigrants in Montreal (Canada)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Loreto; Icaza, Gloria; Contreras, Violeta; Correa, Gloria; Canales, Tatiana; Mejía, Gloria; Oxman-Martínez, Jacqueline; Moreau, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    To identify the factors that influence the use of dental services in 4-7-year-olds and in 10-13-year-olds resident in the cities of Talca (Chile) and Montreal (Canada). A nonprobabilistic cross-sectional study was carried out in 147 boys and girls in Talca and in 94 boys and girls in Montreal between 2009 and 2011. Sociodemographic variables were recorded in parents and children, including age and sex. Data were also gathered on parental education, family composition, and proximity to health centers within neighborhoods. The data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and the robust Cox regression model (with constant time) with a significance level of 0,05. In Talca, parental education was significantly associated with dental care visits at least twice a year. The children of parents with university education were 2.20 times more likely to consult a dentist (95% CI: 1.30-3.73). Children whose parents perceived their children's health positively were 53% (OR = 0,47; 95% CI: 0,28-0,77) less likely to consult a dentist. In Montreal, the children of parents with university education were 2.10 times more likely to consult a dentist (95%CI: 1.17-3.76), while older children (10-13 years) were 2.11 (95% CI: 1.15-3.88) times more likely to consult a dentist. In both cities, parental education level was associated with the use of dental services. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of alumni and employer surveys for internal quality assurance of the DVM program at the University of Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle Y; Vrins, André

    2010-01-01

    Annual alumni and employer surveys, initially designed as outcomes assessment tools, were integrated into a new internal quality assurance strategy to improve the doctor of veterinary medicine program at the University of Montreal's Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire. Data collected annually from the classes of 2004-2007 indicated that alumni and their employers were generally satisfied with their level of preparation after one year of professional activity. Specific weaknesses were found in non-technical skills such as communication and resource management. These data were used in support of other forms of feedback to guide curricular reform.

  12. Office-Based Screening for Dementia in Parkinson Disease: The Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale in 4 Longitudinal Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Benjamin K; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Anang, Julius B M; Nomura, Takashi; Rios-Romenets, Silvia; Nakashima, Kenji; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B

    2018-06-01

    Parkinson disease dementia dramatically increases mortality rates, patient expenditures, hospitalization risk, and caregiver burden. Currently, predicting Parkinson disease dementia risk is difficult, particularly in an office-based setting, without extensive biomarker testing. To appraise the predictive validity of the Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale, an office-based screening tool consisting of 8 items that are simply assessed. This multicenter study (Montreal, Canada; Tottori, Japan; and Parkinson Progression Markers Initiative sites) used 4 diverse Parkinson disease cohorts with a prospective 4.4-year follow-up. A total of 717 patients with Parkinson disease were recruited between May 2005 and June 2016. Of these, 607 were dementia-free at baseline and followed-up for 1 year or more and so were included. The association of individual baseline scale variables with eventual dementia risk was calculated. Participants were then randomly split into cohorts to investigate weighting and determine the scale's optimal cutoff point. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated and correlations with selected biomarkers were investigated. Dementia, as defined by Movement Disorder Society level I criteria. Of the 607 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.4 [10.1]; 376 men [62%]), 70 (11.5%) converted to dementia. All 8 items of the Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale independently predicted dementia development at the 5% significance level. The annual conversion rate to dementia in the high-risk group (score, >5) was 14.9% compared with 5.8% in the intermediate group (score, 4-5) and 0.6% in the low-risk group (score, 0-3). The weighting procedure conferred no significant advantage. Overall predictive validity by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.877 (95% CI, 0.829-0.924) across all cohorts. A cutoff of 4 or greater yielded a sensitivity of 77.1% (95% CI, 65.6-86.3) and a specificity of 87.2% (95% CI, 84.1-89.9), with a

  13. A Decontamination Process to Remove Metals and Stabilise Montreal Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mercier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Urban Community (MUC treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (tds/day during physicochemical wastewater treatment. The sludges are burned and contribute to the greenhouse effect by producing atmospheric CO2. Moreover, the sludge emanates a nauseating odour during its thermal stabilisation and retains unpleasant odours for the part (25% that is dried and granulated. To solve this particular problem, the treatment plant authorities are currently evaluating an acidic chemical leaching (sulfuric or hydrochloric acid process at a pH between 2 and 3, using an oxidizing agent such as ferric chloride or hydrogen peroxide (METIX-AC technology, patent pending; [20]. They could integrate it to a 70 tds/day granulated sludge production process. Verification of the application of METIX-AC technology was carried out in a pilot plant set up near the sludge production plant of the MUC. The tests showed that METIX-AC technology can be advantageously integrated to the process used at the MUC. The residual copper (274 ± 58 mg/kg and cadmium (5.6 ± 2.9 mg/kg concentrations in the treated sludge meet legislation standards. The results have also shown that odours have been significantly eliminated for the dewatered, decontaminated, and stabilized biosolids (> 97% compared to the non-decontaminated biosolids. A high rate of odour elimination also was obtained for the liquid leached biosolids (> 93%, compared to the untreated liquid biosolids. The fertilising value (N and P is well preserved by the METIX-AC process. Dissolved organic carbon measurements have showed that little organic matter is brought in solution during the treatment. In fact, the average concentration of dissolved organic carbon measured in the treated liquid phase is 966 ± 352 mg/l, whereas it is 1190 ± 325 mg/l in untreated sludge. The treated sludge was first conditioned with an organic polymer and a coagulant aid. It was successfully dewatered with

  14. Thirty Years After Bill 101: A Contemporary Perspective on Attitudes Towards English and French in Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kircher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a 2007 study that was conducted amongst 147 young anglophone, francophone and allophone Montrealers in order to shed light on their attitudes towards English and French in terms of status and solidarity. The study made use of both a questionnaire and a matched-guise experiment. The findings indicate that while a certain amount of status was attributed to French, most likely as a result of language policy and planning measures such as Bill 101, significantly more status was attributed to English—most likely a result of the utilitarian value that the language holds as the global lingua franca. Regarding the solidarity dimension, it appears that while the respondents recognised the social desirability of having an affective attachment to the French language, at a more private level, they held more positive attitudes towards English. These can tentatively be explained in terms of the respondents’ social identity. Résumé L’article ci-dessous présente une recherche menée en 2007 parmi 147 étudiants montréalais (anglophones, francophones et allophones qui eut pour objectif d’examiner leurs attitudes envers l’anglais comparé au français en terme de statut et de solidarité. Un questionnaire et une étude des faux-couples furent utilisés comme méthodes de recherche. Les résultats indiquent qu’un certain statut est attribué au français, ce qui est probablement une conséquence des lois langagières comme la Loi 101. Néanmoins, un statut plus important est attribué à l’anglais, ce qui est probablement une conséquence de sa valeur utilitaire comme lingua franca globale. En ce qui concerne la dimension de la solidarité, bien que les jeunes montréalais semblent conscients de l’importance sociale de se sentir attachés à la langue française, lorsque l’on considère un aspect plus personnel, ils tendent à manifester des attitudes plus positives envers l’anglais. Ces attitudes plus positives

  15. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among elderly persons in Montreal, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mark S; Burnett, Richard T; Stieb, David M; Brophy, James M; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Valois, Marie-France; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2013-10-01

    Persons with underlying health conditions may be at higher risk for the short-term effects of air pollution. We have extended our original mortality time series study in Montreal, Quebec, among persons 65 years of age and older, for an additional 10 years (1990-2003) to assess whether these associations persisted and to investigate new health conditions. We created subgroups of subjects diagnosed with major health conditions one year before death using billing and prescription data from the Quebec Health Insurance Plan. We used parametric log-linear Poisson models within the distributed lag non-linear models framework, that were adjusted for long-term temporal trends and daily maximum temperature, for which we assessed associations with NO2, O3, CO, SO2, and particles with aerodynamic diameters 2.5 μm in diameter or less (PM2.5). We found positive associations between daily non-accidental mortality and all air pollutants but O3 (e.g., for a cumulative effect over a 3-day lag, with a mean percent change (MPC) in daily mortality of 1.90% [95% confidence interval: 0.73, 3.08%] for an increase of the interquartile range (17.56 μg m(-3)) of NO2). Positive associations were found amongst persons having cardiovascular disease (cumulative MPC for an increase equal to the interquartile range of NO2=2.67%), congestive heart failure (MPC=3.46%), atrial fibrillation (MPC=4.21%), diabetes (MPC=3.45%), and diabetes and cardiovascular disease (MPC=3.50%). Associations in the warm season were also found for acute and chronic coronary artery disease, hypertension, and cancer. There was no persuasive evidence to conclude that there were seasonal associations for cerebrovascular disease, acute lower respiratory disease (defined within 2 months of death), airways disease, and diabetes and airways disease. These data indicate that individuals with certain health conditions, especially those with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and cancer, may

  16. Acquisition and Processing of High Resolution Hyperspectral Imageries for the 3d Mapping of Urban Heat Islands and Microparticles of Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, R.; Baudouin, Y.; Cavayas, F.

    2017-10-01

    Ville de Montreal wanted to develop a system to identify heat islands and microparticles at the urban scale and to study their formation. UQAM and UdeM universities have joined their expertise under the framework "Observatoire Spatial Urbain" to create a representative geospatial database of thermal and atmospheric parameters collected during the summer months. They innovated in the development of a methodology for processing high resolution hyperspectral images (1-2 m). In partnership with Ville de Montreal, they integrated 3D geospatial data (topography, transportation and meteorology) in the process. The 3D mapping of intraurban heat islands as well as air micro-particles makes it possible, initially, to identify the problematic situations for future civil protection interventions during extreme heat. Moreover, it will be used as a reference for the Ville de Montreal to establish a strategy for public domain tree planting and in the analysis of urban development projects.

  17. Effect of phenotype on health care costs in Crohn's disease: A European study using the Montreal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odes, Selwyn; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Wolters, Frank; Hoie, Ole; Moum, Bjørn; Bernklev, Tomm; Yona, Hagit; Russel, Maurice; Munkholm, Pia; Langholz, Ebbe; Riis, Lene; Politi, Patrizia; Bondini, Paolo; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Katsanos, Kostas; Clofent, Juan; Vermeire, Severine; Freitas, João; Mouzas, Iannis; Limonard, Charles; O'Morain, Colm; Monteiro, Estela; Fornaciari, Giovanni; Vatn, Morten; Stockbrugger, Reinhold

    2007-12-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract associated with life-long high health care costs. We aimed to determine the effect of disease phenotype on cost. Clinical and economic data of a community-based CD cohort with 10-year follow-up were analyzed retrospectively in relation to Montreal classification phenotypes. In 418 patients, mean total costs of health care for the behavior phenotypes were: nonstricturing-nonpenetrating 1690, stricturing 2081, penetrating 3133 and penetrating-with-perianal-fistula 3356 €/patient-phenotype-year (P<0.001), and mean costs of surgical hospitalization 215, 751, 1293 and 1275 €/patient-phenotype-year respectively (P<0.001). Penetrating-with-perianal-fistula patients incurred significantly greater expenses than penetrating patients for total care, diagnosis and drugs, but not surgical hospitalization. Total costs were similar in the location phenotypes: ileum 1893, colon 1748, ileo-colonic 2010 and upper gastrointestinal tract 1758 €/patient-phenotype-year, but surgical hospitalization costs differed significantly, 558, 209, 492 and 542 €/patient-phenotype-year respectively (P<0.001). By multivariate analysis, the behavior phenotype significantly impacted total, medical and surgical hospitalization costs, whereas the location phenotype affected only surgical costs. Younger age at diagnosis predicted greater surgical expenses. Behavior is the dominant phenotype driving health care cost. Use of the Montreal classification permits detection of cost differences caused by perianal fistula.

  18. Whispers of the Unspeakable: New York and Montreal Newspaper Coverage of the Oscar Wilde Trials in 1895

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Greg Robinson’s article “Whispers of the Unspeakable: New York and Montreal Newspaper Coverage of the Oscar Wilde Trials in 1895,” originally published in 2010 in the French-language journal Rue des Beaux Arts, no. 24 (2010, is here republished and—with much gratitude—translated (for the original text, please see http://www.oscholars.com/RBA/twenty-four/24.7/Articles.htm. Robinson’s transnational study focuses on how reading the specific language of newspaper reports of the Oscar Wilde case, literally from a distance, from places less emotionally attached to and nationally distinct from the scandal’s epicenter in London, England, provides insight into “the state of everyday public knowledge and discussion of (homosexuality, at least west of the Atlantic”; thus Robinson’s fascinating research, which involves numerous newspapers—from the elite New York Times to the New York Herald, from the Montreal Daily Star to the French-language papers of Quebec—concludes that the popular press, read transnationally, offers key insights into the developing attitudes toward and levels of interest in the newly forming identity of the “homosexual” across societies.

  19. Second workshop of participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP project on monitoring of pollution in the marine environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2 - first phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Second Workshop of Participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP Project on Monitoring of Pollution in the Marine Environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2) was attended by 29 participants from 10 countries (Senegal, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroun, Congo and Gabon). Levels of metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum components in marine biota were discussed in seven scientific reports which were presented by the participating scientists (Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, The Gambia, ghana and Cameroun). Three of the presented reports were on organochlorines and four dealt with trace metal levels in marine organisms. The Representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reviewed the results obtained during the data quality assurance intercalibration exercises carried out in the region during the first phase. The result received are still within acceptable range. However, there seems to be a trend for values to be higher than the range of finally certified concentrations. Considering that most results were clearly better in the second exercise, after equipment service, part of the earlier deviation might be attributed to instrument malfunctions. These results can be regarded as fairly encouraging for the future development in the West and Central African marine pollution monitoring programme. Refs, tabs

  20. Montreal Cognitive Assessment for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J; Creavin, Sam T; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Noel-Storr, Anna H; Brayne, Carol; Cullum, Sarah

    2015-10-29

    Dementia is a progressive syndrome of global cognitive impairment with significant health and social care costs. Global prevalence is projected to increase, particularly in resource-limited settings. Recent policy changes in Western countries to increase detection mandates a careful examination of the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests for dementia. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at various thresholds for dementia and its subtypes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Science Citation Index, PsycINFO and LILACS databases to August 2012. In addition, we searched specialised sources containing diagnostic studies and reviews, including MEDION (Meta-analyses van Diagnostisch Onderzoek), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), HTA (Health Technology Assessment Database), ARIF (Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility) and C-EBLM (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Committee for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine) databases. We also searched ALOIS (Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group specialized register of diagnostic and intervention studies). We identified further relevant studies from the PubMed 'related articles' feature and by tracking key studies in Science Citation Index and Scopus. We also searched for relevant grey literature from the Web of Science Core Collection, including Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index (Thomson Reuters Web of Science), PhD theses and contacted researchers with potential relevant data. Cross-sectional designs where all participants were recruited from the same sample were sought; case-control studies were excluded due to high chance of bias. We searched for studies from memory clinics, hospital clinics, primary care and community populations. We excluded studies of early onset dementia, dementia from a secondary cause, or studies where participants were selected on the basis

  1. Evaluation protocol for amusia: Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Conceição; Martins, Jorge; Teixeira, Pedro; Alves, Marisa; Bastos, José; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Amusia is a disorder that affects the processing of music. Part of this processing happens in the primary auditory cortex. The study of this condition allows us to evaluate the central auditory pathways. To explore the diagnostic evaluation tests of amusia. The authors propose an evaluation protocol for patients with suspected amusia (after brain injury or complaints of poor musical perception), in parallel with the assessment of central auditory processing, already implemented in the department. The Montreal Evaluation of Battery of amusia was the basis for the selection of the tests. From this comprehensive battery of tests we selected some of the musical examples to evaluate different musical aspects, including memory and perception of music, ability concerning musical recognition and discrimination. In terms of memory there is a test for assessing delayed memory, adapted to the Portuguese culture. Prospective study. Although still experimental, with the possibility of adjustments in the assessment, we believe that this assessment, combined with the study of central auditory processing, will allow us to understand some central lesions, congenital or acquired hearing perception limitations.

  2. Evaluation of air quality in arenas on the Island of Montreal : winter 2006-2007; Evaluation de la qualite de l'air dans les arenas de l'Ile de Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.; Beausoleil, M.; Lefebvre, L.

    2007-03-15

    For the past twenty years, cases of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning have been reported in arenas in Quebec. A 1997 evaluation of air quality in 332 arenas in 9 different countries revealed that 40 per cent of arenas worldwide have high concentration of NO{sub 2}. In Quebec, an air quality review at arenas in Montreal drew similar conclusions, that 69 per cent of the arenas have high concentrations of CO and/or NO{sub 2}. In 1997, Quebec's environmental health committee established criteria of 20 ppm for CO, and 0.5 ppm for NO{sub 2} in arenas, in order to ensure that athletes and the public at large do not suffer negative effects related to the presence of combustible gases. This information was distributed to the administrative personnel in arenas in Quebec by means of an awareness and information campaign. Since then, the number of arenas that have met these criteria for air quality in arenas in Montreal has climbed from 31 per cent in 1997 to 83 per cent in 2004. The practices put into action by arena administrators include: 1) regular maintenance of ice surface cleaning machines and other equipment that use fuel, 2) judicious use of ventilation so that gases can be evacuated from the premises, and, 3) periodic measurements of CO and NO{sub 2} during peak usage times such as tournaments. Other means of lowering gas emissions have also shown to be helpful, such as replacement of ice surface cleaning machines with electrical ones, installation of CO and NO{sub 2} detectors close to the rink surface so that ventilation machines could be activated, and the measurement and constant registration of these gases. It was concluded that these measures could help maintain good air quality in arenas. 15 refs., 1 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Risk of lung cancer associated with six types of chlorinated solvents: results from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods: Two case-control studies of occupation and lung cancer were conducted in Montreal, including 2,016 cases and 2,001 population controls. Occupational exposure to a host of agents was evaluated using a combination of subject-reported job history and expert assessment. We e...

  4. L'evaluation du francais des jeunes Anglo-montrealais par leurs pairs francophones (Evaluation of the French of Young Montreal Anglophones by Their Francophone Peers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Pierrette; Sankoff, Gillian

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the reactions of francophone Montrealers (n=116) to the recorded speech of English speakers using French. Particular focus is on finding out which linguistic traits of speech triggered the judgments on the speakers' competence and to what extent they met the judges expectations with regard to their job suitability. (Author/VWL)

  5. Indoor air quality, ventilation and energy conservation. Trip report 5th J Cartier Conference, Montreal 1992, FAGO report 92.37.K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This trip report serves as a brief description of my visit to the 5th International Jacques Carrier Conference, in Montreal 1992. First some general infonnation about the conference is presented. Then there is a list of contributions. This is followed by a brief indication of my own contribution,

  6. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  7. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is superior to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detection of korsakoffs syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Van Der Stigchel, Stefan; Appelhof, Britt; Wijnia, Jan W.; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) are brief screening instruments for cognitive disorders. Although these instruments have frequently been used in the detection of dementia, there is currently little knowledge on the validity to detect Korsakoffs

  8. Manganese concentrations in the air of the Montreal (Canada) subway in relation to surface automobile traffic density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudia, Nacera; Gareau, Lise; Zayed, Joseph [GRIS Interdisciplinary Health Research Group, University of Montreal (Canada); Halley, Renee [Transport Montreal Society (Canada); Kennedy, Greg [Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Lambert, Jean [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal (Canada)

    2006-07-31

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn), used since 1976 in Canadian gasoline as an octane enhancer. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles. Several studies carried out by our research group have established a correlation between atmospheric Mn concentrations and automobile traffic density, suggesting that MMT in gasoline could play a significant role. This study aims to measure Mn concentrations in the air of the underground subway in Montreal (Canada) and to examine the relation with nearby surface automobile traffic density and, by extension, with the use of MMT in gasoline. Three subway stations were chosen for their location in different microenvironments with different traffic densities. Respirable (MnR<5 {mu}m) and total Mn (MnT) were sampled over two weeks, 5 days/week, 12 h/day. For the station located in the lower traffic density area, relatively low levels of MnR and MnT were found, with averages of 0.018 and 0.032 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. These concentrations are within the range of the background levels in Montreal. For the other two stations, the average concentrations of MnR were twice as high and exceeded the US EPA reference concentration of 0.05 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Although there may be several sources of Mn from different components of the subway structure and vehicles, no correlation was found between subway traffic and atmospheric Mn in the subway. Since the air in the underground subway is pumped directly from outside without filtration, our findings strongly suggest that the combustion of MMT in automobiles is an important factor. (author)

  9. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  10. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  12. Average number of compressors in operation per day in 25 skating rinks of the City of Montreal; Nombre moyens de compresseurs par jour en fonction dans 25 arenas de la Ville de Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, C. [Ville de Montreal, PQ (Canada). Direction des Immeubles Gestion de l' Energie et du Genie Climatique

    2002-09-30

    Since the summer of 2001, 25 skating rinks from the territory of the old City of Montreal have been linked through a network to the remote management system. This initiative enables the people responsible for the skating rink to easily obtain statistics on the operation of refrigeration systems and to compile this information in the memory of a personal computer (PC). Each compressor system is equipped with a current transformer which acts as proof of monitored operation by the remote management system. Every minute, the compressors are asked in sequence to report on their status. The process by which the data is entered, filtered and analysed was explained and an example provided to better illustrate the concept. As a rule, management believes that it is possible to lower the power of existing refrigeration systems and to select new refrigeration systems according to the data acquired. Based on the results obtained so far, the power of some of the refrigeration systems has already been reduced by letting go one or two of the six refrigeration circuits of a skating rink. 2 tabs.

  13. Individual- and area-level disparities in access to the road network, subway system and a public bicycle share program on the Island of Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have examined potential disparities in access to transportation infrastructures, an important determinant of population health. To examine individual- and area-level disparities in access to the road network, public transportation system, and a public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. Examining associations between sociodemographic variables and access to the road network, public transportation system, and a public bicycle share program, 6,495 adult respondents (mean age, 48.7 years; 59.0 % female) nested in 33 areas were included in a multilevel analysis. Individuals with lower incomes lived significantly closer to public transportation and the bicycle share program. At the area level, the interaction between low-education and low-income neighborhoods showed that these areas were significantly closer to public transportation and the bicycle share program controlling for individual and urbanicity variables. More deprived areas of the Island of Montreal have better access to transportation infrastructure than less-deprived areas.

  14. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Sobreira; Márcio A. Pena-Pereira; Alan L. Eckeli; Manoel A. Sobreira-Neto; Marcos H. N. Chagas; Maria P. Foss; Brenna Cholerton; Cyrus P. Zabetian; Ignacio F. Mata; Vitor Tumas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and dementia (PDD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS,...

  15. El Protocolo de Montreal relativo a las sustancias que agotan la capa de ozono (1999) y la enmienda de Beijing. Un análisis de sus contenidos, alcances y sus percusiones presentes.

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    El presente ensayo consta de cuatro partes, una desarrolla de manera actualizadalos alcances del Protocolo de Montreal ysus enmiendas, la segunda examina los alcances de la Enmienda de Beijing, seguido de un análisis del impacto que hatenido el Protocolo de Montreal para el país. Finalmente se repasa la ejecución del Protocolo y sus enmiendas en nuestropaís y se agregan consideraciones que su implementación ha supuesto en el desarrollo ...

  16. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada: A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Poder

    Full Text Available This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada. Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million, followed by education services ($10.7 million, recreational activities ($8.9 million, landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million, biodiversity ($1.2 million, and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million. Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  17. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  18. Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to the Municipality of Montreal-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, G.; Joly, R.; Guay, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explored the environmental impacts associated with Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to its refinery in the east-end of Montreal. The project plan is based on a 6 year horizon from 2006-2012. The additional reservoirs would store new products destined for the petrochemical industry and for consumers, thus improving the flexibility and reliability of the refinery. The products would include low sulfur diesel and ethanol gasoline. The project does not involve any increase in refining capacity, and is estimated to cost $15 million. The main issues associated with this project are ambient air quality, the protection of groundwater and soil, as well as the security of areas inhabited by neighbouring areas in risk of a major accident. Emissions of organic compounds, including benzene, are considered minimal considering the use of sealed floating roofs. Geomembranes will be installed under the storage tanks to ensure the protection of groundwater and soil. Any consequences to the population of neighbouring areas resulting from accidents inside the industrial park will be limited since the reservoirs will be located more than 1 km away from a populated area. Quebec's Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks recommended that this project be approved as long as the terms and measures of environmental regulations are respected, and that an emergency plan is submitted before the operation of the first reservoir. 1 tab

  19. Academic performance and educational pathways of young allophones: A comparative multivariate analysis of Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ledent

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using several local and provincial data banks enabling one to follow the school progression of the cohort of students who, in Canada’s three main immigration-destination cities, were expected to graduate secondary school in 2004, this article examines the academic performance and educational pathways of those students who at home use a language other the main language of schooling: non-French speakers in Montreal and non-English speakers in Toronto and Vancouver. First, after accounting for differences in characteristics, those students (target group are shown to succeed better than the remaining students (comparison group, especially in Vancouver. However, within the target group, there appear to be substantial differences in performance between linguistic subgroups, which are far from being similar in all three cities. Second, the individual and contextual factors that influence the academic performance of the students in the target group appear to be similar for some and different for others in the three cities, while presenting some more-or-less large discrepancies with the corresponding factors pertaining to the comparison group. The article concludes with a few policy implications.

  20. Detection and Differentiation of Frontotemporal Dementia and Related Disorders From Alzheimer Disease Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristy K L; Coleman, Brenda L; MacKinley, Julia D; Pasternak, Stephen H; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a cognitive screening tool used by practitioners worldwide. The efficacy of the MoCA for screening frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and related disorders is unknown. The objectives were: (1) to determine whether the MoCA detects cognitive impairment (CI) in FTD subjects; (2) to determine whether Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD subtypes and related disorders can be parsed using the MoCA; and (3) describe longitudinal MoCA performance by subtype. We extracted demographic and testing data from a database of patients referred to a cognitive neurology clinic who met criteria for probable AD or FTD (N=192). Logistic regression was used to determine whether dementia subtypes were associated with overall scores, subscores, or combinations of subscores on the MoCA. Initial MoCA results demonstrated CI in the majority of FTD subjects (87%). FTD subjects (N=94) performed better than AD subjects (N=98) on the MoCA (mean scores: 18.1 vs. 16.3; P=0.02). Subscores parsed many, but not all subtypes. FTD subjects had a larger decline on the MoCA within 13 to 36 months than AD subjects (P=0.02). The results indicate that the MoCA is a useful tool to identify and track progression of CI in FTD. Further, the data informs future research on scoring models for the MoCA to enhance cognitive screening and detection of FTD patients.

  1. Agreement and conversion formula between mini-mental state examination and montreal cognitive assessment in an outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Luqman; Meagher, David; O'Mahony, Edmond; O'Neill, Donagh; Mulligan, Owen; Murthy, Sutha; McCarthy, Geraldine; Adamis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-22

    To explore the agreement between the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) within community dwelling older patients attending an old age psychiatry service and to derive and test a conversion formula between the two scales. Prospective study of consecutive patients attending outpatient services. Both tests were administered by the same researcher on the same day in random order. The total sample (n = 135) was randomly divided into two groups. One to derive a conversion rule (n = 70), and a second (n = 65) in which this rule was tested. The agreement (Pearson's r) of MMSE and MoCA was 0.86 (P < 0.001), and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.57 (95%CI: 0.45-0.66). In the second sample MoCA scores were converted to MMSE scores according to a conversion rule from the first sample which achieved agreement with the original MMSE scores of 0.89 (Pearson's r, P < 0.001) and CCC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82-0.92). Although the two scales overlap considerably, the agreement is modest. The conversion rule derived herein demonstrated promising accuracy and warrants further testing in other populations.

  2. Conversion between mini-mental state examination, montreal cognitive assessment, and dementia rating scale-2 scores in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenoven, Inger; Aarsland, Dag; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E; Rick, Jacqueline; Chahine, Lama M; Dahodwala, Nabila; Trojanowski, John Q; Roalf, David R; Moberg, Paul J; Weintraub, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Validity of the mini-mental state examination and the montreal cognitive assessment in the prediction of driving test outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Ann M; Duncanson, Haley; Kapust, Lissa R; Xi, Patricia M; O'Connor, Margaret G

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive screening measures, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in predicting driving test outcome for individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Retrospective cohort study. A clinical driving evaluation program at a teaching hospital in the United States. Adult drivers who underwent assessment with the MMSE and MoCA as part of a comprehensive driving evaluation between 2010 and 2014 (N=92). MMSE and MoCA total scores were independent variables. The outcome measure was performance on a standardized road test. A preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment enhanced the validity of cognitive screening measures in the identification of at-risk drivers. In individuals with cognitive impairment there was a significant relationship between MoCA score and on-road outcome. Specifically, an individual was 1.36 times as likely to fail the road test with each 1-point decrease in MoCA score. No such relationship was detected in those without a diagnosis of cognitive impairment. For individuals who have not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment, neither the MMSE nor the MoCA can be reliably used as an indicator of driving risk, but for individuals with a preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment, the MoCA is a useful tool in this regard. A score on the MoCA of 18 or less should raise concerns about driving safety. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Is gentrification all bad? Positive association between gentrification and individual's perceived neighborhood collective efficacy in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Wasfi, Rania; Parker, George; Bornstein, Lisa; Caron, Jean; Kestens, Yan

    2017-07-14

    Collective efficacy has been associated with many health benefits at the neighborhood level. Therefore, understanding why some communities have greater collective efficacy than others is important from a public health perspective. This study examined the relationship between gentrification and collective efficacy, in Montreal Canada. A gentrification index was created using tract level median household income, proportion of the population with a bachelor's degree, average rent, proportion of the population with low income, and proportion of the population aged 30-44. Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to measure the association between gentrification and individual level collective efficacy. Gentrification was positively associated with collective efficacy. Gentrifiers (individuals moving into gentrifying neighborhoods) had higher collective efficacy than individuals that lived in a neighborhood that did not gentrify. Perceptions of collective efficacy of the original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods were not significantly different from the perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy of gentrifiers. Our results indicate that gentrification was positively associated with perceived collective efficacy. This implies that gentrification could have beneficial health effects for individuals living in gentrifying neighborhoods.

  5. Typology of sleep medication users and associated mental health and substance use from a Montreal epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Mitchell, Emma; Touré, El Hadj; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Caron, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Sleep medication is often reported as one of the most highly used psychotropic drugs in terms of past-year prevalence. Since their use often varies according to the characteristics of individuals, it is important to better understand these particular utilization patterns. The study aims to develop a typology of sleep medication users' characteristics, including their associated mental health and substance use. Residents from the epidemiological area of south-west Montreal, Quebec aged 15 years and older responded to a questionnaire in 2009 and 2011. Among the 1822 people who participated at both T1 and T2, 306 (17%) reported use of medication to help them sleep. These participants were selected for cluster analysis based on five variables related to mental health. The identified clusters were then tested for association with sociodemographic, psychosocial, and service use characteristics. A three-cluster solution emerged: 1) older individuals without mental health problems, drug use or psychotropic medication use; 2) individuals with elevated psychological distress, drug use and low social support, and 3) individuals with mood and anxiety disorders, using services for mental health and taking two or more psychotropic medications. The results establish the significance of problems related to mental health in differentiating sleep medication users. Consideration of these differences may improve the ability of health professionals to provide services that are better suited for patients, including interventions that increase the ability to cope with stress (cluster 2) and more integrated services for those with concurrent disorders (cluster 3).

  6. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia: Validity evidence and norms for adolescents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA is a battery of tests that assesses six music processing components: scale, contour, interval, rhythm, metric, and music memory. The present study sought to verify the psychometric characteristics of the MBEA in a sample of 150 adolescents aged 14-18 years in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to develop specific norms for this population. We used statistical procedures that explored the dimensional structure of the MBEA and its items, evaluating their adequacy from empirical data, verifying their reliability, and providing evidence of validity. The results for the difficult levels for each test indicated a trend toward higher scores, corroborating previous studies. From the analysis of the criterion groups, almost all of the items were considered discriminatory. The global score of the MBEA was shown to be valid and reliable (r K-R20=0.896 for assessing the musical ability of normal teenagers. Based on the analysis of the items, we proposed a short version of the MBEA. Further studies with larger samples and amusic individuals are necessary to provide evidence of the validity of the MBEA in the Brazilian milieu. The present study brings to the Brazilian context a tool for diagnosing deficits in musical skills and will serve as a basis for comparisons with single case studies and studies of populations with specific neuropsychological syndromes.

  7. From Osler's Library to the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Osler Library of the History of Medicine was opened in 1929 at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Sir William Osler (1849-1919), arguably McGill's and Canada's most famous doctor at the time, had bequeathed his magnificent library of almost 8,000 historical works in medicine and, to a lesser extent, science and literature to the university. Under the 30-year reign of its first librarian, Dr. W W. Francis, the Osler Library became famous for its rare books and for its connection with Sir William. Since the 1950s, however, the library has pursued an active collection development policy for both primary and secondary material that has taken it far beyond Osler's original gift. The library has grown in both the size and scope of its holdings and the services it offers to scholars and students of the history of medicine. These have made the Osler Library a major resource centre for studies in the history of the health sciences. This article looks at the Osler Library today in the hopes of making the range of its collections and services better known to the Canadian and international communities.

  8. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a preliminary assessment tool in general psychiatry: Validity of MoCA in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierus, J; Mosiołek, A; Koweszko, T; Wnukiewicz, P; Kozyra, O; Szulc, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was to obtain the initial data regarding the validity of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diagnosing cognitive impairment in psychiatrically hospitalized patients. The results in MoCA obtained from 221 patients were analyzed in terms of proportional participation of patients with particular diagnosis in three result ranges. In 67 patients, additional version of the scale was also used. Comparative analysis of average results in particular diagnostic groups (organically based disorders, disorders due to psychoactive substance use, psychotic disorders, neurotic disorders and personality disorders) was also carried out, as well as an analysis of the scale's accuracy as a diagnostic test in detecting organic disorders. The reliability of the test measured with between tests correlation coefficient rho=0.92 (P=.000). Significant differences between particular diagnoses groups were detected (J-T=13736; P=.000). The cutoff points of 23 turned out to have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity (0.82 and 0.70, respectively) in diagnosing organically based disorders. The area below the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC=0.854; P=.000) suggests that MoCA has a satisfactory value as a classifier. The initial data suggest MoCA's high value in prediction of future diagnosis of organically based disorders. The initial results obtained in particular group of diagnoses support construct validity of the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The NAA method at Polytechnique Montreal. An efficient alternative way to use the k0 NAA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilian, C.; Kennedy, G.

    2014-01-01

    At Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, the philosophy in performing neutron activation analysis (NAA) is long-term and application oriented. Thinking long-term implies a good understanding of the fundamentals of the method, of the samples, of the tools, reactor and detectors, and there must be constant innovation that is experimentally validated with extensive measurements. Application oriented means a NAA method developed to provide users with fast, sensitive, accurate and reliable analyses for various types of materials. This philosophy dictates the manner in which the developments in the areas of NAA software, peak-area calculation, dead-time correction, detection efficiency model, k 0 and Q 0 values, neutron moderation and neutron self-shielding are carried out. This paper presents a survey of the Laboratory’s methodology, reviewing a few of its unique features such as detector efficiency calibration and sample related perturbations of the neutron activation. These features are used as examples to provide the reader with an understanding of the philosophy and the evolution of the NAA method at Ecole Polytechnique. (author)

  10. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.; Nziramasanga, N.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  11. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Grohnheit, P.E.

    1992-04-01

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO 2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO 2 . The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO 2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  12. Comparison of spatiotemporal prediction models of daily exposure of individuals to ambient nitrogen dioxide and ozone in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Stephane; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Crouse, Dan L; Smargiassi, Audrey; Burnett, Richard T; Logan, Travis; Cavellin, Laure Deville; Goldberg, Mark S

    2017-07-01

    In previous studies investigating the short-term health effects of ambient air pollution the exposure metric that is often used is the daily average across monitors, thus assuming that all individuals have the same daily exposure. Studies that incorporate space-time exposures of individuals are essential to further our understanding of the short-term health effects of ambient air pollution. As part of a longitudinal cohort study of the acute effects of air pollution that incorporated subject-specific information and medical histories of subjects throughout the follow-up, the purpose of this study was to develop and compare different prediction models using data from fixed-site monitors and other monitoring campaigns to estimate daily, spatially-resolved concentrations of ozone (O 3 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) of participants' residences in Montreal, 1991-2002. We used the following methods to predict spatially-resolved daily concentrations of O 3 and NO 2 for each geographic region in Montreal (defined by three-character postal code areas): (1) assigning concentrations from the nearest monitor; (2) spatial interpolation using inverse-distance weighting; (3) back-extrapolation from a land-use regression model from a dense monitoring survey, and; (4) a combination of a land-use and Bayesian maximum entropy model. We used a variety of indices of agreement to compare estimates of exposure assigned from the different methods, notably scatterplots of pairwise predictions, distribution of differences and computation of the absolute agreement intraclass correlation (ICC). For each pairwise prediction, we also produced maps of the ICCs by these regions indicating the spatial variability in the degree of agreement. We found some substantial differences in agreement across pairs of methods in daily mean predicted concentrations of O 3 and NO 2 . On a given day and postal code area the difference in the concentration assigned could be as high as 131ppb for O 3 and 108ppb

  13. Mundialización, acción colectiva e iniciativa local en la reconversión de Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Luis Klein

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto presenta un análisis del rol que juegan las iniciativas locales de base comunitaria en los procesos de desarrollo local, en el marco de la reconversión de las economías metropolitanas impulsada por la mundialización. La reconversión lleva a las metrópolis a especializarse en sectores económicos de alto tenor científico-técnico. Esto pone en peligro la viabilidad de los sectores más tradicionales, y sobre todo, fragiliza a la dotación de los espacios intrametropolitanos (municipios, distritos, barrios en los cuales estos sectores se habían especializado, en tanto que medios de vida y de trabajo. A partir del caso de Montreal, se verá que en estos espacios tienen lugar experiencias alternativas cuyo objetivo es el de conectar a las colectividades excluidas de la reconversión que se experimenta en los sectores de alta tecnología, la cual es impulsada por las fuerzas del mercado. Esto auspicia una vía de reconversión más incluyente desde el punto de vista social, en la cual la innovación tecnológica se combina con la innovación social. Pero también muestra que esta asociatividad es el resultado de un proceso en el cual las iniciativas locales, a través de acciones colectivas, estructuran el territorio, delimitan espacios de identidad y construyen las bases de un modelo de desarrollo en el cual lo económico se inserta en lo social, y en el cual el medio territorial se construye progresivamente.This text presents an analysis of the role played by communitarian based local initiatives in the process of local development, within the frame of the metropolitan economic reconversion driven by globalization. Reconversion makes metropolis specialize in high economic sectors, both technically and scientifically developed. This fact puts in danger the viability of the more traditional sectors and overall, fragilizes the endowment of intrametropolitan spaces (municipalities, districts, neighbourhoods in wich those sectores had

  14. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  15. Enteric disease episodes and the risk of acquiring a future sexually transmitted infection: a prediction model in Montreal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Melissa; Allard, Robert; Bédard, Lucie; Latreille, Jérôme; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-11-01

    The sexual transmission of enteric diseases poses an important public health challenge. We aimed to build a prediction model capable of identifying individuals with a reported enteric disease who could be at risk of acquiring future sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Passive surveillance data on Montreal residents with at least 1 enteric disease report was used to construct the prediction model. Cases were defined as all subjects with at least 1 STI report following their initial enteric disease episode. A final logistic regression prediction model was chosen using forward stepwise selection. The prediction model with the greatest validity included age, sex, residential location, number of STI episodes experienced prior to the first enteric disease episode, type of enteric disease acquired, and an interaction term between age and male sex. This model had an area under the curve of 0.77 and had acceptable calibration. A coordinated public health response to the sexual transmission of enteric diseases requires that a distinction be made between cases of enteric diseases transmitted through sexual activity from those transmitted through contaminated food or water. A prediction model can aid public health officials in identifying individuals who may have a higher risk of sexually acquiring a reportable disease. Once identified, these individuals could receive specialized intervention to prevent future infection. The information produced from a prediction model capable of identifying higher risk individuals can be used to guide efforts in investigating and controlling reported cases of enteric diseases and STIs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Quick screening of cognitive function in Indian multiple sclerosis patients using Montreal cognitive assessment test-short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshpreet Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS are now well recognized worldwide, but unfortunately this domain has been less explored in India due to many undermining factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive impairments in Indian MS patients with visual or upper limb motor problems with the help of short version of Montreal cognitive assessment test (MoCA. Subjects and Methods: Thirty MS patients and 50 matched controls were recruited for the 12 points MoCA task. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis was performed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity of the 12 points MoCA in differentiating cognitively impaired patients and controls. Results: The mean 12 points MoCA scores of the controls and MS patients were 11.56 ± 0.67 and 8.06 ± 1.99, respectively. In our study, the optimal cut-off value for 12 points MoCA to be able to differentiate patients with cognitive impairments from controls is 10/12. Accordingly, 73.3% patients fell below the cut off value. Both the groups did not have significant statistical differences with regard to age and educational years. Conclusion: The 12 points, short version of MoCA, is a useful brief screening tool for quick and early detection of mild cognitive impairments in subjects with MS. It can be administered to patients having visual and motor problems. It is of potential use by primary care physicians, nurses, and other allied health professionals who need a quick screening test. No formal training for administration is required. Financial and time constraints should not limit the use of the proposed instrument.

  17. Social capital and obesity among adults: Longitudinal findings from the Montreal neighborhood networks and healthy aging panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Hsuan; Moore, Spencer; Dube, Laurette

    2018-06-01

    Curbing the worldwide increase in obesity requires upstream social interventions that modify the environment in which obesity emerges. Recent studies have suggested that social capital and networks may influence a person's risk of obesity. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed whether social capital and networks reduce obesity risk in adult populations. In this study, the data come from three waves (2008, 2010, and 2013) of the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Health Aging Panel (N=2606). Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) with obesity defined as a BMI>30. Name and position generator instruments captured network measures of social capital, including: (1) upper reachability, (2) range, (3) diversity and (4) the number of kin ties. Questions on generalized trust and participation were used to assess cognitive and structural dimensions of social capital. Separate random effects logistic regression was used to examine the association among social network characteristics, social capital, and obesity. We found the greater the number of kin ties in a person's network, the greater the risk of obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.62). Adults with higher network diversity (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.96) and high generalized trust (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77) were at a lower the risk of obesity. The current study confirmed that higher network capital and trust were protective against obesity, while having kin ties was not. Disentangling the multidimensional role that social capital plays can lead to more effective interventions to reduce obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of montreal cognitive assessment and mini-mental state examination in evaluating cognitive domain deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kwok Chu Wong

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH, and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients.We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2-4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score <-1.65 (below the fifth percentile. Cognitive impairment was defined as two or more cognitive domain deficits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193.Both the MoCA and the MMSE were successful in differentiating between patients with and without cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment at both assessment periods. At 1 year post-ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009.Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases.

  19. The Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment in persons with mild subacute stroke: relationship to functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toglia, Joan; Fitzgerald, Kerri A; O'Dell, Michael W; Mastrogiovanni, Andrea R; Lin, C David

    2011-05-01

    To compare Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) global and subscores in classifying cognitive impairment in persons with mild stroke and to explore the relationship between admission and discharge functional status and improvement. Retrospective analysis of data. Acute rehabilitation unit of a large urban university-affiliated hospital. Inpatients with stroke (N=72; mean age, 70y; median time poststroke, 8.5d) and mild neurologic (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4) and cognitive deficits (median MMSE score, 25). Not applicable. Admission cognitive status was assessed by using the MMSE and MoCA. The motor subscale of the FIM instrument (mFIM) and motor relative functional efficiency was used to assess discharge functional status and improvement. The MoCA classified more persons as cognitively impaired than the MMSE (89% vs 63%, respectively; using a cutoff score of 27 on the MMSE and 26 on the MoCA). The MoCA also showed less of a ceiling effect than the MMSE, higher internal reliability (Cronbach α=.78 compared with α=.60), and marginally stronger associations with discharge functional status (r=.40; P<.001) than the MMSE (r=0.30; P<.05). The MoCA visuoexecutive subscore was the strongest predictor of functional status (P=.01) and improvement (P=.02) in global and subscores for both tests. The MoCA may be an important cognitive screening tool for persons with stroke and mild cognitive dysfunction on an acute rehabilitation unit. Lower visuoexecutive subscores may assist in identifying persons at risk for decreased functional gains in self-care and mobility (mFIM) during inpatient rehabilitation. The findings justify further validation studies of the MoCA in persons with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling vehicle operating speed on urban roads in Montreal: a panel mixed ordered probit fractional split model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Chakour, Vincent; Chamberlain, Morgan; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2013-10-01

    Vehicle operating speed measured on roadways is a critical component for a host of analysis in the transportation field including transportation safety, traffic flow modeling, roadway geometric design, vehicle emissions modeling, and road user route decisions. The current research effort contributes to the literature on examining vehicle speed on urban roads methodologically and substantively. In terms of methodology, we formulate a new econometric model framework for examining speed profiles. The proposed model is an ordered response formulation of a fractional split model. The ordered nature of the speed variable allows us to propose an ordered variant of the fractional split model in the literature. The proposed formulation allows us to model the proportion of vehicles traveling in each speed interval for the entire segment of roadway. We extend the model to allow the influence of exogenous variables to vary across the population. Further, we develop a panel mixed version of the fractional split model to account for the influence of site-specific unobserved effects. The paper contributes substantively by estimating the proposed model using a unique dataset from Montreal consisting of weekly speed data (collected in hourly intervals) for about 50 local roads and 70 arterial roads. We estimate separate models for local roads and arterial roads. The model estimation exercise considers a whole host of variables including geometric design attributes, roadway attributes, traffic characteristics and environmental factors. The model results highlight the role of various street characteristics including number of lanes, presence of parking, presence of sidewalks, vertical grade, and bicycle route on vehicle speed proportions. The results also highlight the presence of site-specific unobserved effects influencing the speed distribution. The parameters from the modeling exercise are validated using a hold-out sample not considered for model estimation. The results indicate

  1. Validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Screener in Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Poulsen, Marie K; Woo, Mary A

    Cognitive deficits are common, long-term sequelae in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have undergone surgical palliation. However, there is a lack of a validated brief cognitive screening tool appropriate for the outpatient setting for adolescents with CHD. One candidate instrument is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. The purpose of the research was to validate scores from the MoCA against the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd Edition (WRAML2), a widely accepted measure of cognition/memory, in adolescents and young adults with CHD. We administered the MoCA and the WRAML2 to 156 adolescents and young adults ages 14-21 (80 youth with CHD and 76 healthy controls who were gender and age matched). Spearman's rank order correlations were used to assess concurrent validity. To assess construct validity, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences in scores in youth with CHD and the healthy control group. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were also calculated. The MoCA median scores in the CHD versus healthy controls were (23, range 15-29 vs. 28, range 22-30; p young adults aged 14-21 with CHD when a cutoff score of 26 is used to differentiate youth with and without significant cognitive impairment. Future studies are needed in other adolescent disease groups with known cognitive deficits and healthy populations to explore the generalizability of validity of MoCA scores in adolescents and young adults.

  2. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  3. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  4. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  5. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  6. La acción comunitaria en la inserción social en Montreal: un estudio de caso en la colectividad haitiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Victoria Vega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines contributions to the strengthening of social cohesion by community organizations for social integration in the city of Montreal, based on the Center N A Rive case. The aim is to identify the strategies used by these organizations in order to increase social cohesion on the basis of immigrant integration. The methodology used is the case study. The research made it possible to identify the social innovations the organization studied had achieved in the field of literacy among adult immigrants, as well as its contributions in terms of access to employment, civic empowerment of immigrants at risk of social exclusion, and development of social entrepreneurship among immigrants.

  7. [The Assistance maternelle de Montreal (1912-1961). An example of marginalization of philanthropic active women in the field of care for pregnants (French)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, D

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the story of the Assistance maternelle de Montreal, an organization founded in 1912 by a group of bourgeois catholic women to provide material assistance and free medical services to poor pregnant mothers of the city. I want to show that even if the timid intervention of the Quebec state allowed the AM to survive during the almost 50 years, the rise of the experts in the health field--a phenomenon to which the AM has largely contributed--and in the philanthropic sector led to the marginalization of the female volunteers within the very institution they had created.

  8. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  9. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  10. Music Perception by Cochlear Implant and Normal Hearing Listeners as Measured by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William B.; Tobey, Emily; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the utility/possibility of using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) test (Peretz, Champod, & Hyde, 2003) to assess the music perception abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. Design The MBEA was used to measure six different aspects of music perception (Scale, Contour, Interval, Rhythm, Meter, and Melody Memory) by CI users and normal hearing (NH) listeners presented with stimuli processed via CI simulations. The spectral resolution (number of channels) was varied in the CI simulations to determine: (a) the number of channels (4, 6, 8, 12, 16) needed to achieve the highest levels of music perception and (b) the number of channels needed to produce levels of music perception performance comparable to that of CI users. Results CI users and NH listeners performed higher on temporal-based tests (Rhythm and Meter) than on pitch-based tests (Scale, Contour, and Interval) – a finding that is consistent with previous research studies. The CI users' scores on pitch-based tests were near chance. The CI users' (but not NH listeners') scores for the Memory test, a test that incorporates an integration of both temporal-based and pitch-based aspects of music, were significantly higher than the scores obtained for the pitch-based Scale test and significantly lower than the temporal-based Rhythm and Meter tests. The data from NH listeners indicated that 16 channels of stimulation did not provide the highest music perception scores and performance was as good as that obtained with 12 channels. This outcome is consistent with other studies showing that NH listeners listening to vocoded speech are not able to utilize effectively F0 cues present in the envelopes, even when the stimuli are processed with a large number (16) of channels. The CI user data appear to most closely match with the 4- and 6- channel NH listener conditions for the pitch-based tasks. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, both CI

  11. Music perception by cochlear implant and normal hearing listeners as measured by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William B; Tobey, Emily; Loizou, Philipos C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility/possibility of using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) test (Peretz, et al., Ann N Y Acad Sci, 999, 58-75) to assess the music perception abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The MBEA was used to measure six different aspects of music perception (Scale, Contour, Interval, Rhythm, Meter, and Melody Memory) by CI users and normal-hearing (NH) listeners presented with stimuli processed via CI simulations. The spectral resolution (number of channels) was varied in the CI simulations to determine: (a) the number of channels (4, 6, 8, 12, and 16) needed to achieve the highest levels of music perception and (b) the number of channels needed to produce levels of music perception performance comparable with that of CI users. CI users and NH listeners performed higher on temporal-based tests (Rhythm and Meter) than on pitch-based tests (Scale, Contour, and Interval)--a finding that is consistent with previous research studies. The CI users' scores on pitch-based tests were near chance. The CI users' (but not NH listeners') scores for the Memory test, a test that incorporates an integration of both temporal-based and pitch-based aspects of music, were significantly higher than the scores obtained for the pitch-based Scale test and significantly lower than the temporal-based Rhythm and Meter tests. The data from NH listeners indicated that 16 channels of stimulation did not provide the highest music perception scores and performance was as good as that obtained with 12 channels. This outcome is consistent with other studies showing that NH listeners listening to vocoded speech are not able to use effectively F0 cues present in the envelopes, even when the stimuli are processed with a large number (16) of channels. The CI user data seem to most closely match with the 4- and 6-channel NH listener conditions for the pitch-based tasks. Consistent with previous studies, both CI users and NH listeners

  12. Lung cancer risk among workers in the construction industry: results from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Richardson, Lesley; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2015-09-22

    Given the large number of workers in the construction industry, it is important to derive accurate and valid estimates of cancer risk, and in particular lung cancer risk. In most previous studies, risks among construction workers were compared with general populations including blue and white collar workers. The main objectives of this study were to assess whether construction workers experience excess lung cancer risk, and whether exposure to selected construction industry exposures carries excess risks. We wished to address these objectives within the sub-population of blue collar workers. Two case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Combined, they included 1593 lung cancer cases and 1427 controls, of whom 1304 cases and 1081 controls had been blue collar workers. Detailed lifetime job histories were obtained and translated by experts into histories of exposure to chemical agents. The two key analyses were to estimate odds ratio (OR) estimates of lung cancer risk: a) for all blue-collar construction workers compared with other blue-collar workers, and b) for construction workers exposed to each of 20 exposure agents found in the construction industry compared with construction workers unexposed to those agents. All analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for socio-demographic factors and smoking history. The OR for all construction workers combined was 1.11 (95 % CI: 0.90-1.38), based on 381 blue collar construction workers. Analyses of specific exposures were hampered by small numbers and imprecise estimates. While none of 20 occupational agents examined was significantly associated with lung cancer, the following agents manifested non-significantly elevated ORs: asbestos, silica, Portland cement, soil dust, calcium oxide and calcium sulfate. Compared with other blue collar workers, there was only a slight increased risk of lung cancer for subjects who ever held an occupation in the construction industry. The analyses of

  13. Captive breeding of the barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis) at the Montreal Biodome, with comparison notes on two other captive-bred skate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Serge; Pépin, Serge; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Misserey, Laurent; Rojas, Salvador

    2008-03-01

    In 1997, the Montreal Biodome obtained five barndoor skates (Dipturus laevis) from the waters off Boston, Massachusetts. Six years later, those specimens began reproducing, and the first egg case was collected in November 2003. Since then, 73 hatchlings have been born and raised. Egg cases were observed year round, and annual fecundity was measured for the first time: one female laid 69 eggs in 2005, 85 in 2006 and 115 in 2007. Egg incubation was longer than believed previously, ranging from 342 to 494 days. Hatching occurred throughout the year. Hatchlings averaged 193 mm total length and 128 mm disk width and weighed 32 g. They were fed krill and diced fish. All but one survived the first month. A photo identification system was useful in recognizing two groups of 10 specimens during their first year, and transponders could be inserted in the wing muscles of 1-year-old skates. Total lengths at birth and at age 2 were similar to the data reported from the wild, suggesting a similar growth pattern in captivity. The reproduction characteristics of the barndoor skate were compared with those of two other skate species currently bred at the Montreal Biodome, the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata) and the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata). Zoo Biol 27:145-153, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. ‘THE BIGGEST MISTAKE GOD EVER MADE WAS TO CREATE JUNKIES’: UNSAFE INJECTION PRACTICES, HEALTH CARE DISCRIMINATION AND OVERDOSE DEATHS IN MONTREAL, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozaghi, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existence of prevention programmes in Montreal, Canada, injection drug users (IDUs continue to share their injection drug equipment. This practice has led to an increase in the incidences of HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV among IDUs since 2003. The present study was conducted to explore factors contributing to the increased risks of this morbidity. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted as drug users were actively involved in their routine activities. The participants’ narratives indicate that IDUs in Montreal are involved in risky injection behaviour that increases HIV, HCV and bacterial transmission. Moreover, IDUs in Montreal are at an increased risk of overdose and death when they are forced to inject in public washrooms or alleys. In addition, many IDUs have placed the general public at risk by discarding their used needles in public parks, sidewalks and public washrooms. Furthermore, many IDUs in Montreal have faced discrimination and are refused treatment by the health care system. Micro- environmental factors, such as a paucity of safe injection sites, inaccessibility of injection equipment and discrimination all seem to be contributing factors in recent increases in HIV and HCV in Montreal.Malgré les programmes de prévention qui existent à Montréal, Canada, les utilisateurs de drogues injectables (UDI continuent de partager leurs seringues. Cette pratique a mené à une augmentation de l’incidence du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH et du virus de l’hépatite C (VHC parmi les UDI depuis 2003. La présente étude a été menée afin d’examiner les facteurs qui contribuent à l’augmentation des risques de cette morbidité. Des entretiens qualitatifs semi-directifs ont été réalisés pendant que les utilisateurs faisaient usage de drogues. Les commentaires recueillis auprès des participants ont confirmé que les UDI de Montréal adoptent des comportements d’injection qui augmentent les

  15. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  17. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  18. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  19. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  20. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  1. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  2. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  3. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  4. Review of plants to mitigate particulate matter, ozone as well as nitrogen dioxide air pollutants and applicable recommendations for green roofs in Montreal, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, Shannon

    2018-05-28

    In urbanized regions with expansive impervious surfaces and often low vegetation cover, air pollution due to motor vehicles and other combustion sources, is a problem. The poor air quality days in Montreal, Quebec are mainly due to fine particulate matter and ozone. Businesses using wood ovens are a source of particulates. Careful vegetation selection and increased green roof usage can improve air quality. This paper reviews different green roofs and the capability of plants in particulate matter (PM), ozone (O 3 ) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) level reductions. Both the recommended green roof category and plants to reduce these pollutants in Montreal's zone 5 hardiness region are provided. Green roofs with larger vegetation including shrubs and trees, or intensive green roofs, remove air pollutants to a greater extent and are advisable to implement on existing, retrofitted or new buildings. PM is most effectively captured by pines. The small Pinus strobus 'Nana', Pinus mugho var. pumilio, Pinus mugho 'Slowmound' and Pinus pumila 'Dwarf Blue' are good candidates for intensive green roofs. Drought tolerant, deciduous broadleaved trees with low biogenic volatile organic compound emissions including Japanese Maple or Acer palmatum 'Shaina' and 'Mikawa-Yatsubusa' are options to reduce O 3 levels. Magnolias are tolerant to NO 2 and it is important in their metabolic pathways. The small cold-tolerant Magnolia 'Genie' is a good option to remove NO 2 in urban settings and to indirectly reduce O 3 formation. Given the emissions by Montreal businesses' wood ovens, calculations performed based on their respective complex roof areas obtained via Google Earth Pro indicates 88% Pinus mugho var. pumilio roof coverage can annually remove 92.37 kg of PM 10 of which 35.10 kg is PM 2.5 . The removal rates are 4.00 g/m 2 and 1.52 g/m 2 for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively. This paper provides insight to addressing air pollution through urban rooftop greening. Copyright

  5. Accessibility to health care facilities in Montreal Island: an application of relative accessibility indicators from the perspective of senior and non-senior residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morency Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical access to health care facilities is known to influence health services usage. As societies age, accessibility to health care becomes an increasingly acute public health concern. It is known that seniors tend to have lower mobility levels, and it is possible that this may negatively affect their ability to reach facilities and services. Therefore, it becomes important to examine the mobility situation of seniors vis-a-vis the spatial distribution of health care facilities, to identify areas where accessibility is low and interventions may be required. Methods Accessibility is implemented using a cumulative opportunities measure. Instead of assuming a fixed bandwidth (i.e. a distance threshold for measuring accessibility, in this paper the bandwidth is defined using model-based estimates of average trip length. Average trip length is an all-purpose indicator of individual mobility and geographical reach. Adoption of a spatial modelling approach allows us to tailor these estimates of travel behaviour to specific locations and person profiles. Replacing a fixed bandwidth with these estimates permits us to calculate customized location- and person-based accessibility measures that allow inter-personal as well as geographical comparisons. Data The case study is Montreal Island. Geo-coded travel behaviour data, specifically average trip length, and relevant traveller's attributes are obtained from the Montreal Household Travel Survey. These data are complemented with information from the Census. Health care facilities, also geo-coded, are extracted from a comprehensive business point database. Health care facilities are selected based on Standard Industrial Classification codes 8011-21 (Medical Doctors and Dentists. Results Model-based estimates of average trip length show that travel behaviour varies widely across space. With the exception of seniors in the downtown area, older residents of Montreal Island tend to be

  6. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  7. Bilinguisme et problematique des langues ethniques. Enquete sur le comportement linguistique des jeunes montrealais d'origine italienne (Bilingualism and the Problem of Ethnic Languages. A Study of the Linguistic Behavior of Young Montrealers of Italian Descent). Publication B-149.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, Bruno

    A study is reported of the language behavior of trilingual 9-to-12-year-old native Italian speakers in Montreal, some of whom were studying Italian on Saturdays and some of whom were not. The study focused on their available vocabulary in the three languages (Italian, French, and English) and on their language productivity during their various…

  8. The impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Quebec electricity market : business opportunities, protection of reference levels, and trading of emission credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legault, R. F.

    2003-01-01

    Helimax Energy is a consulting company located in Montreal, Quebec specializing in wind energy on the national and international scene. In Canada, Helimax has worked (or is currently working) in seven provinces. To date, 96 contracts in renewable energy sources have been fulfilled throughout the world, of which 66 projects deal with wind energy. Several factors explain the growth of wind energy. These include a constant reduction of cost, Kyoto Protocol (environmental conscience), energy policies, social acceptance, technological maturity, reliability, and availability of funds to name a few. Europe is the world leader in the wind energy market. Canada represents a market ripe for expansion. The Kyoto Protocol was discussed and the relative value of carbon credits was examined with the help of a graph. The value of carbon credits remains marginal in the context of clean development mechanisms, unless a very polluting technology (in terms of carbon emissions) is replaced and the credit carbon cost is relatively high. tabs., figs

  9. Beyond Condoms: Risk Reduction Strategies Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men Receiving Rapid HIV Testing in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Joanne; McFadyen, Amélie; Haig, Thomas; Blais, Martin; Cox, Joseph; Brenner, Bluma; Rousseau, Robert; Émond, Gilbert; Roger, Michel; Wainberg, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have adapted their sexual practices over the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic based on available data and knowledge about HIV. This study sought to identify and compare patterns in condom use among gay, bisexual, and other MSM who were tested for HIV at a community-based testing site in Montreal, Canada. Results showed that while study participants use condoms to a certain extent with HIV-positive partners and partners of unknown HIV status, they also make use of various other strategies such as adjusting to a partner's presumed or known HIV status and viral load, avoiding certain types of partners, taking PEP, and getting tested for HIV. These findings suggest that MSM who use condoms less systematically are not necessarily taking fewer precautions but may instead be combining or replacing condom use with other approaches to risk reduction.

  10. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Emmanuelle; Pena-Pereira, Márcio A; Eckeli, Alan L; Sobreira-Neto, Manoel A; Chagas, Marcos H N; Foss, Maria P; Cholerton, Brenna; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Mata, Ignacio F; Tumas, Vitor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and dementia (PDD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests. There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others. Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  11. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Sobreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI and dementia (PDD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD.Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests.Results There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others.Conclusion Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  12. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  13. Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S; Valois, Marie-France

    2014-07-01

    The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults-a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries-may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49%] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27% (95%CI: 2.08-21.29%) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect.

  14. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  15. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  16. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  17. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  18. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  19. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  20. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  1. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  2. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  3. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  4. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  5. [Computerized clinical protocol for occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsench, J; Ferrer, J; Nogueras, J

    1988-11-01

    In making a protocol it is necessary that all members of the team who are going to collect information have the same unity of criterion about the different variables that compose it. The drawing up of this document is as much or more necessary than the protocol itself. In this work we all data collected in the protocol and we give the explanations of each concept.

  6. Socio-economic status and time trends associated with early ART initiation following primary HIV infection in Montreal, Canada: 1996 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraj, Vikram; Cox, Joseph; Lebouché, Bertrand; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Cao, Wei; Li, Taisheng; Ponte, Rosalie; Thomas, Réjean; Szabo, Jason; Baril, Jean-Guy; Trottier, Benoit; Côté, Pierre; LeBlanc, Roger; Bruneau, Julie; Tremblay, Cécile; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Guidelines regarding antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV infection have varied over time, with the 2015 World Health Organization recommendation suggesting ART initiation at the time of diagnosis regardless of CD4 T-cell counts. Herein, we investigated the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors in addition to time trends on early ART initiation among participants of the Montreal Primary HIV Infection Study. The Montreal Primary HIV Infection Study is a prospective cohort established in three community medical centres (CMCs) and two university medical centres (UMCs). Recently diagnosed HIV-infected adults were categorized as receiving early (vs. delayed) ART if ART was initiated within 180 days of the baseline visit. Associations between early ART initiation and socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural information were examined. Independent associations of factors linked with early ART initiation were determined using multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 348 participants had a documented date of HIV acquisition of age of participants was 35 (28; 42) years and the majority were male (96%), having paid employment (63%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (78%) and one to four sexual partners in the last three months (70%). Participants presented with a median IQR HIV plasma viral load of 4.6 (3.7; 5.3) log 10 copies/ml, CD4 count of 510 (387; 660) cells/μl and were recruited in CMCs (52%) or UMCs (48%). Early ART initiation was observed in 47% of the participants and the trend followed a V-shaped curve with peaks in 1996 to 1997 (89%) and 2013 to 2015 (88%) with a dip in 2007 to 2009 (22%). Multivariable analyses showed that having a paid employment adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.95), lower CD4 count (aOR per 50 cell increase: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99) and care at UMCs (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.06 to 3.90) were independently associated with early ART initiation. Early ART initiation during primary

  7. Analyse des attitudes envers les sciences chez des eleves du secondaire d'origine haitienne de milieux defavorises de la region de Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fils-Aime, Nestor

    Having in perspective the slight representativeness of students, from Haitian background, from the most unprivileged sections of the great region of Montreal in the scientific fields in High School and in the choices of career, this study intends to examine the effect of the individual characteristics as well as the associated factors related to the familial, scholastic, socio-economic, and cultural environment upon the attitudes of those students toward sciences. The analysis of the datum is based on the results of a questionnaire focusing on the socio-demographic profile of a group of students from fourth and fifth year attending two multiethnic High Schools of the North-Crown of Montreal as well as on the interviews with fifteen of those students who are from a haitian background. There were also interviews with some parents, a member of a community organism, some staff members of some schools as well as some Haitian-Quebecer professionals and scientists, in order to have a critical viewpoint upon the different positions expressed by the fifteen students. The Bronfenbrenner's ecosystemic model (1979, 1986) has been used as scope of reference allowing to draw the prominent aspects from the attitudes toward science in the students, from haitian background. The synthesis of ideas expressed by different interviewee reveals the existence of a environment not much enhancing the value of sciences around of students, from Haitian background. The socio-economic conditions, the familial practices, the ethnocultural status as well as some individual representations of sciences contribute to create and maintain some attitudes very little committed to sciences in those students. The study shows how much it is urgent to demystify the sciences by breaking with some stereotypes that prevent some categories of students from acceding to sciences. It also commands to politicians, concerning education, to be more open to ethnocultural differences and to explore some dynamic ways in

  8. Revitalización urbana y calidad de vida en el sector central de las ciudades de Montreal y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Tello Campos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El abandono y consiguiente despoblamiento del sector central asociado a una desenfrenada expansión y poblamiento de los sectores periféricos de muchas de las grandes ciudades norteamericanas como Montreal y México, es un problema de actualidad muy difícil de resolver. Encontrar las causas que provocan dicho proceso se convierte en una necesidad crítica para mejorar el diseño de políticas urbanas que promuevan la re-utilización del espacio central, desalentando la utilización de los periféricos. En función de diversos programas urbanos tanto Canadienses como Mexicanos implementados al momento en el sector central de las dos ciudades mencionadas, ésta tesis se apoya en dos estudios de campo y los correspondientes análisis estadísticos de correlación y de regresión entre otros, para explicar el estado que el continuo revitalización urbana-calidad de vida-calidad del lugar guarda en el sector central de los casos de estudio desde la propia perspectiva de sus residentes. Los resultados informan que en revitalización urbana, los residentes Canadienses favorecen más a los atributos de calidad del lugar mientras que sus homólogos Mexicanos favorecen más a los de calidad de vida. ABSTRACT:  The neglect and further depopulation in many of the large North American cities’ inner-cores such as Montreal and Mexico coupled with sprawl and repopulation in their peripheral areas is very much a today’s problem difficult to solve. Finding out the causes that incite that process becomes a critical need to improve the design of urban policies that promote the re-utilization of the central space, to discourage the equivalent in the peripherals one. Taking into account several urban Canadian and Mexican programs already implemented on those cities’ inner cores, this thesis makes use of two field surveys and the corresponding correlation and regression statistical analyses among others, to explain the current urban revitalization > quality

  9. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  10. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  11. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  12. The role of advocacy coalitions in a project implementation process: the example of the planning phase of the At Home/Chez Soi project dealing with homelessness in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Vallée, Catherine; Hurtubise, Roch; Lévesque, Paul-André

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the planning process (summer 2008 to fall 2009) of a Montreal project that offers housing and community follow-up to homeless people with mental disorders, with or without substance abuse disorders. With the help of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), advocacy groups that were able to navigate a complex intervention implementation process were identified. In all, 25 people involved in the Montreal At Home/Chez Soi project were surveyed through interviews (n=18) and a discussion group (n=7). Participant observations and documentation (minutes and correspondence) were also used for the analysis. The start-up phase of the At Home/Chez may be broken down into three separate periods qualified respectively as "honeymoon;" "clash of cultures;" and "acceptance & commitment". In each of the planning phases of the At Home/Chez Soi project in Montreal, at least two advocacy coalitions were in confrontation about their specific belief systems concerning solutions to address the recurring homelessness social problem, while a third, more moderate one contributed in rallying most key actors under specified secondary aspects. The study confirms the importance of policy brokers in achieving compromises acceptable to all advocacy coalitions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment cut-off score to clarify improvement of mild cognitive impairment after exercise training in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Marina; Sugie, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Teruyuki; Sengoku, Renpei; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Harada, Kazumasa; Kyo, Shunei; Ito, Hideki

    2018-02-02

    Physical exercise improves cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, information about whether the degree of MCI before exercise training affects improvement in cognitive function is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cut-off value in a MCI screening tool that predicts reversal to normal cognitive function after exercise training in older adults with MCI. Participants included 112 Japanese community-dwelling older adult outpatients (37 men, 75 women; mean age 76.3 years). We administered the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) before and after exercise training. MCI was defined as a MoCA-J score cognitive function. The MoCA-J cut-off score to predict cognitive function potentially reversible to normal was 23, with receiver operating characteristic analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.80, sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 69.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis to predict non-MCI after exercise training showed that MoCA-J score ≥23 (OR 6.9, P cognitive function that is potentially reversible to normal among community-dwelling Japanese older adults with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  15. A new day for CME/CPD in Canada: proceedings from the 1st Canada Regional Conference of the Global Alliance for Medical Education in Montreal, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Murray

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995, with the aim of advancing innovation in medical education. The 1st GAME Canada regional conference was held in Montreal on May 22, 2015, under the leadership of Suzanne Murray, who acted as programme chair, and GAME president Lisa Sullivan. The conference brought together a broad array of speakers and panellists, including experts from academic centres, health systems, accreditors, private organizations, and industry. Thirty-one key stakeholders participated in the event, demonstrating a strong commitment towards the improvement of best practice in continuing medical education (CME/continuing professional development (CPD. The conference included diverse presentations providing opportunities for reflection and discussion throughout the day. The participants actively took part in stimulating discussions that covered a large range of topics, including the need for enhanced networking and opportunities to learn from others, the challenges of assessment and the potential solutions, interprofessional education and competencies, and, finally, the future of a Canadian CME/CPD organization.

  16. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 3: patient-reported outcomes can facilitate shared decision-making and guide self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Lyddiatt, Anne; Ware, Patrick; Jaglal, Susan B; Riopelle, Richard J; Bingham, Clifton O; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Sawatzky, Richard; Santana, Maria; Bartlett, Susan J; Ahmed, Sara

    2017-09-01

    There is a shift toward making health care patient centered, whereby patients are part of medical decision-making and take responsibility for managing their health. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) capture the patient voice and can be used to engage patients in medical decision-making. The objective of this paper is to present important factors from patients', clinicians', researchers', and decision-makers' perspectives that influence successful adoption of PROs in clinical practice. Factors recommended in this paper were informed by a patient partner. Based on themes arising from the Montreal Accord proceedings, we describe factors that influence the adoption of PROs and how PROs can have a positive effect by enhancing communication and providing opportunities to engage patients, carers, and clinicians in care. Consideration of patient factors (e.g., health literacy), family support and networks (e.g., peer-support networks), technology (e.g., e-health), and health care system factors (e.g., resources to implement PROs) is necessary to ensure PROs are successfully adopted. PRO evaluation plans most likely to succeed over the long term are those incorporating PROs identified by patients as necessary for self-management and that coincide with providers' needs for collaboratively developing treatment plans with patients and families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A land use regression model for ambient ultrafine particles in Montreal, Canada: A comparison of linear regression and a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Ryswyk, Keith Van; Goldstein, Alon; Bagg, Scott; Shekkarizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Existing evidence suggests that ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) (regression model for UFPs in Montreal, Canada using mobile monitoring data collected from 414 road segments during the summer and winter months between 2011 and 2012. Two different approaches were examined for model development including standard multivariable linear regression and a machine learning approach (kernel-based regularized least squares (KRLS)) that learns the functional form of covariate impacts on ambient UFP concentrations from the data. The final models included parameters for population density, ambient temperature and wind speed, land use parameters (park space and open space), length of local roads and rail, and estimated annual average NOx emissions from traffic. The final multivariable linear regression model explained 62% of the spatial variation in ambient UFP concentrations whereas the KRLS model explained 79% of the variance. The KRLS model performed slightly better than the linear regression model when evaluated using an external dataset (R(2)=0.58 vs. 0.55) or a cross-validation procedure (R(2)=0.67 vs. 0.60). In general, our findings suggest that the KRLS approach may offer modest improvements in predictive performance compared to standard multivariable linear regression models used to estimate spatial variations in ambient UFPs. However, differences in predictive performance were not statistically significant when evaluated using the cross-validation procedure. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Javier; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-11-01

    To examine the risk of lung cancer among men associated with exposure to diesel engine emissions incurred in a wide range of occupations and industries. 2 population-based lung cancer case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) comprised 857 cases and 533 population controls; study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 population controls. A detailed job history was obtained, from which we inferred lifetime occupational exposure to 294 agents, including diesel engine emissions. ORs were estimated for each study and in the pooled data set, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, smoking history and selected occupational carcinogens. While it proved impossible to retrospectively estimate absolute exposure concentrations, there were estimates and analyses by relative measures of cumulative exposure. Increased risks of lung cancer were found in both studies. The pooled analysis showed an OR of lung cancer associated with substantial exposure to diesel exhaust of 1.80 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6). The risk associated with substantial exposure was higher for squamous cell carcinomas (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2) than other histological types. Joint effects between diesel exhaust exposure and tobacco smoking are compatible with a multiplicative synergistic effect. Our findings provide further evidence supporting a causal link between diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer. The risk is stronger for the development of squamous cell carcinomas than for small cell tumours or adenocarcinomas.

  19. Cognitive screening in substance users: Diagnostic accuracies of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Nicole; Batchelor, Jennifer; Draper, Brian; Demirkol, Apo; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Withall, Adrienne

    2018-03-01

    Despite the considerable prevalence of cognitive impairment in substance-using populations, there has been little investigation of the utility of cognitive screening measures within this context. In the present study the accuracy of three cognitive screening measures in this population was examined-the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A sample of 30 treatment-seeking substance users and 20 healthy individuals living in the community were administered the screening measures and a neuropsychological battery (NPB). Agreement of classification of cognitive impairment by the screening measures and NPB was examined. Results indicated that the ACE-R and MoCA had good discriminative ability in detection of cognitive impairment, with areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of .85 (95% confidence interval, CI [.75. .94] and .84 (95% CI [.71, .93]) respectively. The MMSE had fair discriminative ability (.78, 95% CI [.65, .93]). The optimal cut-score for the ACE-R was 93 (impairment = score of 92 or less), at which it correctly classified 89% of individuals as cognitively impaired or intact, while the optimal cut-score for the MoCA was cognitive impairment in the context of substance use.

  20. Bridging cognitive screening tests in neurologic disorders: A crosswalk between the short Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Moore, Tyler M; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Wolk, David A; Arnold, Steven E; Weintraub, Daniel A; Moberg, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    To provide a crosswalk between the recently proposed short Montreal Cognitive Assessment (s-MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) within a clinical cohort. A total of 791 participants, with and without neurologic conditions, received both the MMSE and the MoCA at the same visit. s-MoCA scores were calculated and equipercentile equating was used to create a crosswalk between the s-MoCA and MMSE. As expected, s-MoCA scores were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.82, P < .001) with MMSE scores. s-MoCA scores correctly classified 85% of healthy older adults and 91% of individuals with neurologic conditions that impair cognition. In addition, we provide an easy to use table that enables the conversion of s-MoCA score to MMSE score. The s-MoCA is quick to administer, provides high sensitivity and specificity for cognitive impairment, and now can be compared directly with the MMSE. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conversion Between Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Dementia Rating Scale-2 Scores in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenoven, Inger; Aarsland, Dag; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E.; Rick, Jacqueline; Chahine, Lama M.; Dahodwala, Nabila; Trojanowski, John Q.; Roalf, David R.; Moberg, Paul J.; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. PMID:25381961

  2. Validation of the Conversion between the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive assessment in Korean Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryul; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Aryun; Jang, Mi-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jeon, Beomseok

    2018-01-01

    Two conversion tables between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have recently been established for Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to validate them in Korean patients with PD and to evaluate whether they could be influenced by educational level. A total of 391 patients with PD who undertook both the Korean MMSE and the Korean MoCA during the same session were retrospectively assessed. The mean, median, and root mean squared error (RMSE) of the difference between the true and converted MMSE scores and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated according to educational level (6 or fewer years, 7-12 years, or 13 or more years). Both conversions had a median value of 0, with a small mean and RMSE of differences, and a high correlation between the true and converted MMSE scores. In the classification according to educational level, all groups had roughly similar values of the median, mean, RMSE, and ICC both within and between the conversions. Our findings suggest that both MMSE-MoCA conversion tables are useful instruments for transforming MoCA scores into converted MMSE scores in Korean patients with PD, regardless of educational level. These will greatly enhance the utility of the existing cognitive data from the Korean PD population in clinical and research settings.

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Beijing Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Adult Patients with OSAHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Ying; Dong, Jiaqi; Niu, Xun; Kong, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    The patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) tend to develop cognitive deficits, which usually go unrecognized, and can affect their daily life. The Beijing version of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA-BJ), a Chinese version of MoCA, has been used for the assessment of cognitive functions of OSAHS patients in clinical practice. So far, its reliability and validity have not been tested. This study examined the reliability and validity of MoCA-BJ in a cohort of adult OSAHS patients. 152 OSAHS patients, ranging from mild, moderate to severe, 49 primary snoring subjects and 40 normal controls were evaluated for cognitive functions by employing both MoCA-BJ and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Forty of them were re-tested by MoCA-BJ 14 days after the first test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminate and concurrent validity of MoCA-BJ were analyzed. Internal consistency reliability by Cronbach's alpha was adequate (0.73). Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), an measure of test-retest reliability, was 0.87 (Preliable and stable. The MoCA-BJ was capable of detecting cognitive dysfunction by visuospatial and total MoCA-BJ score.

  4. Case Study Regarding the Interests and Leisure Practices of Persons Aged 50 and over in Saint-Léonard, Suburb of Montreal: Seniors Vs. Baby Boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roult Romain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies have shown that leisure contributes to improving seniors’ quality of life. However, some of this research has also highlighted the fact that there are marked physical, socioeconomic, and cultural disparities in this population. Material and methods. To this end, this article presents the results of a survey conducted in 2015 in Montreal with 464 respondents aged 50 and over regarding their interests and leisure practices. Results. This study highlights the importance that persons in this age group give to physical and outdoor recreation as well as free and outdoor activities. However, this study has also confirmed that there exist, regarding the problem of leisure, more or less significant differences among seniors and baby boomers which need to be taken into account by local actors. Conclusions. The results obtained and the correlated analyses clearly indicate that the senior population is not homogeneous with respect to their practices and their leisure needs. This analytical finding confirms that leisure and community services must be planned, programmed, and promoted taking into account these generational differences, as well as physical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences.

  5. Validation of the Conversion between the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive assessment in Korean Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryul; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Aryun; Jang, Mi-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jeon, Beomseok

    2018-01-01

    Objective Two conversion tables between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have recently been established for Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to validate them in Korean patients with PD and to evaluate whether they could be influenced by educational level. Methods A total of 391 patients with PD who undertook both the Korean MMSE and the Korean MoCA during the same session were retrospectively assessed. The mean, median, and root mean squared error (RMSE) of the difference between the true and converted MMSE scores and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated according to educational level (6 or fewer years, 7–12 years, or 13 or more years). Results Both conversions had a median value of 0, with a small mean and RMSE of differences, and a high correlation between the true and converted MMSE scores. In the classification according to educational level, all groups had roughly similar values of the median, mean, RMSE, and ICC both within and between the conversions. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both MMSE-MoCA conversion tables are useful instruments for transforming MoCA scores into converted MMSE scores in Korean patients with PD, regardless of educational level. These will greatly enhance the utility of the existing cognitive data from the Korean PD population in clinical and research settings. PMID:29316782

  6. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  7. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  8. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  9. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  10. Deterministic secure communication protocol without using entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show a deterministic secure direct communication protocol using single qubit in mixed state. The security of this protocol is based on the security proof of BB84 protocol. It can be realized with current technologies.

  11. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  12. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Some aspects of the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCAfor evaluating cognitive impairment in Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Tumas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA is a short global cognitive scale, and some studies suggest it is useful for evaluating cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. However, its accuracy has been questioned in studies involving patients with low education. Objective: We sought to assess whether some of the MoCA subtests contribute to the low accuracy of the test. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of clinical data in a cohort of 71 patients with PD, most with less than 8 years of education. Patients were examined using the MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and the MoCA. The data were analyzed using mainly descriptive statistics. Results: We analyzed the data of 66 patients that were not demented according to the clinical evaluation and classified them using the proposed cut-off MoCA scores for diagnosis of MCI and dementia. Thirteen patients (19.7% were classified as having normal cognition, 24 (36.3% MCI and 29 (43.9% dementia. Patients with dementia had longer disease duration (p=0.016 and lower education (p=0.0001. Total MoCA scores had a an almost normal distribution with a wide range of scores and only one maximum score. Performance on the MoCA was highly correlated with education (correlation coefficient=0.66, p=0.0001. At least five of the 10 MoCA subtests showed significant floor effects. Conclusion: We believe that some of the MoCA subtests may be too difficult to be completed by PD patients with low educational level, thus contributing to the test's poor diagnostic accuracy.

  14. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case–control studies in Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case–control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979–1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996–2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist–hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9–1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8–1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7–4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  15. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes.

  16. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) as a predictor of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Brousseau, Mélanie; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S

    2014-04-01

    To assess the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score (MoCA-TS) and Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Retrospective chart review. Community-based memory clinic. Individuals meeting Petersen's MCI criteria (N = 165). Baseline MoCA scores at MCI diagnosis were collected from charts of eligible individuals with MCI, and MoCA-TS, MoCA-MIS, and a cognitive domain index score were calculated to assess their prognostic value in predicting conversion to AD. One hundred fourteen participants progressed to AD (MCI-AD), and 51 did not (nonconverters; MCI-NC); 90.5% of participants with MCI with a MoCA-TS less than 20/30 and a MoCA-MIS less than 7/15 at baseline converted to AD within the average follow-up period of 18 months, compared with 52.7% of participants with MCI above the cutoffs on both scores. Individuals with multiple-domain amnestic MCI had the highest AD conversion rates (73.9%). Identifying individuals with MCI at high risk of conversion to AD is important clinically and for selecting appropriate subjects for therapeutic trials. Individuals with MCI with a low MoCA-TS and a low newly devised memory index score (MoCA-MIS) are at greater risk of short-term conversion to AD. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Bergeron, Patrick; Cohen, Alan A; Niyonsenga, Théophile

    2015-04-09

    Understanding health care utilization by neighbourhood is essential for optimal allocation of resources, but links between neighbourhood immigration and health have rarely been explored. Our objective was to understand how immigrant composition of neighbourhoods relates to health outcomes and health care utilization of individuals living with diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of administrative data using a retrospective cohort of 111,556 patients living with diabetes without previous cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and living in the metropolitan region of Montreal (Canada). A score for immigration was calculated at the neighbourhood level using a principal component analysis with six neighbourhood-level variables (% of people with maternal language other than French or English, % of people who do not speak French or English, % of immigrants with different times since immigration (immigration scores, those living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores were less likely to die, to suffer a CVD event, to frequently visit general practitioners, but more likely to visit emergency departments or a specialist and to use an antidiabetic drug. These differences remained after controlling for patient-level variables such as age, sex, and comorbidities, as well as for neighbourhood attributes like material and social deprivation or living in the urban core. In this study, patients with diabetes living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores had different health outcomes and health care utilizations compared to those living in neighbourhoods with low immigration scores. Although we cannot disentangle the individual versus the area-based effect of immigration, these results may have an important impact for health care planning.

  18. Sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III to everyday activity impairments in dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David

    2017-10-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most frequently used cognitive measures for dementia severity and linked to deficits in everyday functioning. Recently, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) increasingly substitute for the MMSE. However, there are no specific cutoffs in the ACE-III for mild dementia. The objectives of this exploratory study were to assess the sensitivity of each scale to everyday functioning and to examine the cutoffs between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. People with mild dementia completed the MMSE, MoCA and ACE-III, whilst informal carers completed the Revised Interview for Deteriorations in Daily Living Activities for Dementia to rate their relative's initiative and performance of instrumental activities of daily living and the Katz activities of daily living scale. Data were analysed using correlation analysis, raw score comparisons, Cohen's kappa and receiver operating characteristics analysis. Thirty-three dyads completed the measures. The ACE-III was the most sensitive tool for everyday functioning performance, whilst its language subscale was specifically related to initiation of activities. The most suitable cutoff on the ACE-III between mild and moderate dementia was 61. Findings suggest the ACE-III more efficiently identifies everyday functional impairments. Further research is required to confirm these exploratory analyses of the cutoff between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. Both functional impairment and stage of dementia are needed in the diagnostic process and in the clinical assessment of people with dementia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Validation of fatty acid intakes estimated by a food frequency questionnaire using erythrocyte fatty acid profiling in the Montreal Heart Institute Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, V; Brunet, J; Daneault, C; Tardif, J C; Des Rosiers, C; Lettre, G

    2015-12-01

    To improve the prevention, treatment and risk prediction of cardiovascular diseases, genetic markers and gene-diet interactions are currently being investigated. The Montreal Heart Institute (MHI) Biobank is suitable for such studies because of its large sample size (currently, n = 17 000), the availability of biospecimens, and the collection of data on dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids estimated from a 14-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We tested the validity of the FFQ by correlating dietary intakes of these fatty acids with their red blood cell (RBC) content in MHI Biobank participants. Seventy-five men and 75 women were selected from the Biobank. We successfully obtained RBC fatty acids for 142 subjects using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to test whether SFA scores and daily intakes (g day(-1)) of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs correlate with their RBC content. Based on covariate-adjusted analyses, intakes of n-3 PUFAs from vegetable sources were significantly correlated with RBC α-linolenic acid levels (ρ = 0.23, P = 0.007), whereas n-3 PUFA intakes from marine sources correlated significantly with RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (ρ = 0.29, P = 0.0008) and docosahexaenoic acid (ρ = 0.41, P = 9.2 × 10(-7)) levels. Intakes of n-6 PUFAs from vegetable sources correlated with RBC linoleic acid (ρ = 0.18, P = 0.04). SFA scores were not correlated with RBC total SFAs. The MHI Biobank 14-item FFQ can appropriately estimate daily intakes of n-3 PUFAs from vegetable and marine sources, as well as vegetable n-6 PUFAs, which enables the possibility of using these data in future studies. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. White matter microstructural damage in small vessel disease is associated with Montreal cognitive assessment but not with mini mental state examination performances: vascular mild cognitive impairment Tuscany study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Marco; Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Ciolli, Laura; Del Bene, Alessandra; Marini, Sandro; Nannucci, Serena; Pescini, Francesca; Valenti, Raffaella; Ginestroni, Andrea; Toschi, Nicola; Diciotti, Stefano; Mascalchi, Mario; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been proposed as a screening tool in vascular cognitive impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive to white matter microstructural damage. We investigated if diffusion tensor imaging-derived indices are more strongly associated with performances on MoCA or on the widely used mini mental state examination in patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease. Mild cognitive impairment patients with moderate/severe degrees of white matter hyperintensities on MRI were enrolled. Lacunar infarcts, cortical atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy and median values of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy of the cerebral white matter were studied and correlated with cognitive tests performances. Seventy-six patients (mean age 75.1±6.8 years, mean years of education 8.0±4.3) were assessed. In univariate analyses, a significant association of both MoCA and mini mental state examination scores with age, education, cortical atrophy, and medial temporal lobe atrophy was found, whereas mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated with MoCA. In partial correlation analyses, adjusting for all demographic and neuroimaging variables, both mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were associated only with MoCA (mean diffusivity: r= -0.275, P=0.023; fractional anisotropy: r=0.246, P=0.043). In patients with mild cognitive impairment and small vessel disease, diffusion tensor imaging-measured white matter microstructural damage is more related to MoCA than mini mental state examination performances. MoCA is suited for the cognitive screening of patients with small vessel disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Correlation between the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (Moca-INA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambe, Aldy Safruddin; Fitri, Fasihah Irfani

    2017-12-15

    As the rapid growth of the elderly population and the increased prevalence of Alezheimer's Disease and related disorders, there is an increasing need for effective cognitive screening. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most frequently used screening test of cognitive impairment because of its convenience. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) has been validated and recently been used as a cognitive screening tool. The aim of this study was to compare the MMSE and MoCA-INA scores and to determine the correlation between the MMSE and MoCA-INA scores in elderly. This was a cross-sectional study including 83 elderly subjects from November 2016 until June 2017. We performed MMSE and MoCA-INA for assessment of cognitive function and the time between each test was at least 30 minutes. The study included 83 subjects which were consisted of 46 (55.4%) males and 37 (44.6%) females. The mean age was 69.19 ± 4.23 ranging from 65 to 79 years old. The average MMSE scores was 24.96 ± 3.38 (range 14 to 30). The average MoCA-INA scores was 21.06 ± 4.56 (range 5 to 30). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the scores was 0.71 (p<0.005). There were no significant differences of both scores based on history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and previous stroke, but there was a significant difference in MMSE scores based on level of education. The MoCA-INA score showed a good correlation with the MMSE score. Both tests showed comparable results but MoCA-INA showed lower average with wider range of scores.

  2. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is superior to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detection of Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Appelhof, Britt; Wijnia, Jan W; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) are brief screening instruments for cognitive disorders. Although these instruments have frequently been used in the detection of dementia, there is currently little knowledge on the validity to detect Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) with both screening instruments. KS is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with profound declarative amnesia after thiamine deficiency. A representative sample of 30 patients with KS and 30 age-, education-, gender- and premorbid-IQ-matched controls was administered the MoCA and MMSE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated in addition to the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for various cut-off points on the MoCA and MMSE. Compared with the MMSE, the MoCA demonstrated consistently superior psychometric properties and discriminant validity--AUC: MoCA (1.00 SE .003) and MMSE (0.92 SE .033). When applying a cut-off value as suggested in the manuals of both instruments, the MMSE (< 24) misdiagnosed 46.7% of the patients, while the MoCA (< 26) diagnosed all patients correctly. As a screening instrument with the most optimal cut-offs, the MoCA (optimal cutoff point 22/23, 98.3% correctly diagnosed) was superior to the MMSE (optimal cutoff point 26/27, 83.3% correctly diagnosed). We conclude that both tests have adequate psychometric properties as a screening instrument for the detection of KS, but the MoCA is superior to the MMSE for this specific patient population.

  3. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Performance in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with “Normal” Global Cognition According to Mini-Mental State Examination Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem, Sarra; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Have, Tom Ten; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S.; Moberg, Paul J.; Wilkinson, Jayne R.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Stern, Matthew B.; Weintraub, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with “normal” global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. DESIGN A cross-sectional comparison of the MoCA and the MMSE. SETTING Two movement disorders centers at the University of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS A convenience sample of 131 patients with idiopathic PD who were screened for cognitive and psychiatric complications. MEASUREMENTS Subjects were administered the MoCA and MMSE, and only subjects defined as having a normal age- and education-adjusted MMSE score were included in the analyses (N = 100). As previously recommended in patients without PD, a MoCA score less than 26 was used to indicate the presence of at least mild cognitive impairment (MCI). RESULTS Mean MMSE and MoCA scores ± standard deviation were 28.8 ± 1.1 and 24.9 ± 3.1, respectively. More than half (52.0%) of subjects with normal MMSE scores had cognitive impairment according to their MoCA score. Impairments were seen in numerous cognitive domains, including memory, visuospatial and executive abilities, attention, and language. Predictors of cognitive impairment on the MoCA using univariate analyses were male sex, older age, lower educational level, and greater disease severity; older age was the only predictor in a multivariate model. CONCLUSION Approximately half of patients with PD with a normal MMSE score have cognitive impairment based on the recommended MoCA cutoff score. These results suggest that MCI is common in PD and that the MoCA is a more sensitive instrument than the MMSE for its detection. PMID:19170786

  4. Reliability, Validity, and Optimal Cutoff Score of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Changsha Version) in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Patients of Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiu-yun; Jin, Hui; Ding, Bin-rong; Yang, Xia; Lei, Zeng-hui; Bai, Song; Zhang, Ying-dong; Tang, Xiang-qi

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The goal of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Changsha version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CS) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients of Hunan Province, China, and to explore the optimal cutoff score for detecting vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) and vascular dementia (VD). Methods Three hundred and thirty-eight ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients (131 with normal cognition, 111 with VCI-ND, and 96 with VD) and 132 healthy controls were recruited. All participants accepted examination by the MoCA-CS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and other related scales. A detailed neuropsychological battery was used for making a final cognitive diagnosis. SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for reliability, validity examination, and optimal cutoff score detection. Results Cronbach's α of the MoCA-CS was 0.884, and test-retest and interrater reliability of the MoCA-CS were 0.966 and 0.926, respectively. MoCA-CS scores were highly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.867) and simplified intelligence quotients (r = 0.822). The results indicate that 1 point should be added for subjects with less than 6 years of education, and that the optimal cutoff score for detecting VCI-ND is 26/27 (sensitivity 96.1%, specificity 75.6%), whereas the optimal cutoff score for detecting VD is 16/17 (sensitivity 92.7%, specificity 96.3%). Conclusion The MoCA-CS has good reliability and validity, and is a useful cognitive screening instrument for detecting VCI in the Chinese population. PMID:23637698

  5. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting patients at higher risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YanHong; Lee, Wah Yean; Basri, Nur Adilah; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Merchant, Reshma A; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2012-11-01

    To examine the discriminant validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for dementia at a memory clinic setting. Memory clinic patients were administered the MoCA, MMSE, and a comprehensive formal neuropsychological battery. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes were dichotomized into two groups: single domain-MCI (sd-MCI) and multiple domain-MCI (md-MCI). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of the MoCA and the MMSE. Two hundred thirty patients were recruited, of which 136 (59.1%) were diagnosed with dementia, 61 (26.5%) with MCI, and 33 (14.3%) with no cognitive impairment (NCI). The majority of MCI patients had md-MCI (n = 36, 59%). The MoCA had significantly larger AUCs than the MMSE in discriminating md-MCI from the lower risk group for incident dementia (NCI and sd-MCI) [MoCA 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) vs. MMSE 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.92), p = 0.02). At their optimal cut-off points, the MoCA (19/20) remained superior to the MMSE (23/24) in detecting md-MCI [sensitivity: 0.83 vs. 0.72; specificity: 0.86 vs. 0.83; PPV: 0.79 vs. 0.72; NPV: 0.89 vs. 0.83; correctly classified: 85.1% vs. 78.7%]. The MoCA is superior to the MMSE in the detection of patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for incident dementia at a memory clinic setting.

  6. Brief screening for mild cognitive impairment in subcortical ischemic vascular disease: a comparison study of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment with the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Cao, Wen-wei; Mi, Jian-hua; Yu, Ling; Lin, Yan; Li, Yan-sheng

    2014-01-01

    To assess the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the detection of vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD). Among 102 SIVD patients, both cutoff scores of the MMSE and MoCA for differentiating VaMCI from no cognitive impairment (NCI) or differentiating VaMCI from vascular dementia (VaD) were determined by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Optimal sensitivity with specificity of cutoff scores was obtained after the raw scores were adjusted for education. After adjusting for education, the MoCA cutoff score for differentiating VaMCI from NCI was at 24/25 and that for differentiating VaMCI from VaD was at 18/19. After applying the adjusted MoCA scores from 19 to 24 to identify VaMCI in all SIVD patients, sensitivity was at 76.7% and specificity was at 81.4% (κ = 0.579). The adjusted cutoff score of the MMSE for differentiating VaMCI from NCI was at 28/29 and that for differentiating VaMCI from VaD was at 25/26. The sensitivity and specificity of the adjusted MMSE was at 58.1 and 71.2%, respectively, when using the score from 26 to 28 to identify VaMCI in SIVD patients (κ = 0.294). The MoCA detected subcortical VaMCI better than the MMSE. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Screening an elderly hearing impaired population for mild cognitive impairment using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Magdalene Yeok Leng; Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin

    2018-07-01

    To determine if there is an association between hearing loss and poorer cognitive scores on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and to determine if poor hearing acuity affects scoring on the cognitive screening tests of MMSE and MoCA. One hundred fourteen elderly patients (Singapore residents) aged between 55 and 86 years were sampled. Participants completed a brief history questionnaire, pure tone audiometry, and 2 cognitive screening tests-the MMSE and MoCA. Average hearing thresholds of the better ear in the frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were used for data analysis. Hearing loss was significantly associated with poorer cognitive scores in Poisson regression models adjusted for age. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were shown to decrease by 2.8% (P = .029), and MoCA scores by 3.5% (P = .013) for every 10 dB of hearing loss. Analysis of hearing-sensitive components of "Registration" and "Recall" in MMSE and MoCA using chi-square tests showed significantly poorer performance in the hearing loss group as compared to the normal hearing group. Phonetic analysis of target words with high error rates shows that the poor performance was likely contributed by decreased hearing acuity, on top of a possible true deficit in cognition in the hearing impaired. Hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive scores on MMSE and MoCA, and cognitive scoring is likely confounded by poor hearing ability. This highlights an important, often overlooked aspect of sensory impairment during cognitive screening. Provisions should be made when testing for cognition in the hearing-impaired population to avoid over-referral and subsequent misdiagnoses of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Reliability, Validity, and Optimal Cutoff Score of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Changsha Version in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Patients of Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-yun Tu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The goal of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Changsha version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CS in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients of Hunan Province, China, and to explore the optimal cutoff score for detecting vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND and vascular dementia (VD. Methods: Three hundred and thirty-eight ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients (131 with normal cognition, 111 with VCI-ND, and 96 with VD and 132 healthy controls were recruited. All participants accepted examination by the MoCA-CS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and other related scales. A detailed neuropsychological battery was used for making a final cognitive diagnosis. SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for reliability, validity examination, and optimal cutoff score detection. Results: Cronbach’s α of the MoCA-CS was 0.884, and test-retest and interrater reliability of the MoCA-CS were 0.966 and 0.926, respectively. MoCA-CS scores were highly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.867 and simplified intelligence quotients (r = 0.822. The results indicate that 1 point should be added for subjects with less than 6 years of education, and that the optimal cutoff score for detecting VCI-ND is 26/27 (sensitivity 96.1%, specificity 75.6%, whereas the optimal cutoff score for detecting VD is 16/17 (sensitivity 92.7%, specificity 96.3%. Conclusion: The MoCA-CS has good reliability and validity, and is a useful cognitive screening instrument for detecting VCI in the Chinese population.

  9. Comparison of the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in an Australian geriatrics clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarnette, Roger; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Antony, Deanna N; Svendrovski, Anton; Molloy, D William

    2017-06-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) accurately differentiates mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from mild dementia and normal controls (NC). While the MoCA is validated in multiple clinical settings, few studies compare it with similar tests also designed to detect MCI. We sought to investigate how the shorter Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen compares with the MoCA. Consecutive referrals presenting with cognitive complaints to a teaching hospital geriatric clinic (Fremantle, Western Australia) underwent a comprehensive assessment and were classified as MCI (n = 72) or dementia (n = 109). NC (n = 41) were a sample of convenience. The Qmci and MoCA were scored by trained geriatricians, in random order, blind to the diagnosis. Median Qmci scores for NC, MCI and dementia were 69 (+/-19), 52.5 (+/-12) and 36 (+/-14), respectively, compared with 27 (+/-5), 22 (+/-4) and 15 (+/-7) for the MoCA. The Qmci more accurately identified cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia), area under the curve (AUC) 0.97, than the MoCA (AUC 0.92), p = 0.04. The Qmci was non-significantly more accurate in distinguishing MCI from controls (AUC 0.91 vs 0.84, respectively = 0.16). Both instruments had similar accuracy for differentiating MCI from dementia (AUC of 0.91 vs 0.88, p = 0.35). At the optimal cut-offs, calculated from receiver operating characteristic curves, the Qmci (≤57) had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 93% for cognitive impairment, compared with 87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for the MoCA (≤23). While both instruments are accurate in detecting MCI, the Qmci is shorter and arguably easier to complete, suggesting that it is a useful instrument in an Australian geriatric outpatient population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Comparison of the montreal cognitive assessment and the mini-mental state examination as screening tests in hemodialysis patients without symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Cho, AJin; Min, Yang-Ki; Lee, Young-Ki; Jung, San

    2018-11-01

    Cognitive impairment in end-stage renal disease patients is associated with an increased risk of mortality. We examined the cognitive function in hemodialysis (HD) patients and compared the Korean versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (K-MoCA) and of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) to identify the better cognitive screening instrument in these patients. Thirty patients undergoing hemodialysis and 30 matched reference group of apparently healthy control were included. All subjects underwent the K-MoCA, K-MMSE and a neuropsychological test battery to measure attention, visuospatial function, language, memory and executive function. All cognitive data were converted to z-scores with appropriate age and education level prior to group comparisons. Cognitive performance 1.0 SD below the mean was defined as modest cognitve impairment while 1.5 below the mean was defined as severe cognitive impairment. Modest cognitive impairment in memory plus other cognitive domains was detected in 27 patients (90%) while severe cognitive impairment in memory plus other cognitive domains was detected in 23 (77%) patients. Total scores in the K-MoCA were significantly lower in HD patients than in the reference group. However, no significant group difference was found in the K-MMSE. The K-MMSE ROC AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.72 (0.59-0.85) and K-MoCA ROC AUC was 0.77 (0.65-0.89). Cognitive impairment is common but under-diagnosed in this population. The K-MoCA seems to be more sensitive than the K-MMSE in HD patients.

  11. Validation of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status and Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment Against Detailed Cognitive Testing and Clinical Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietemann, Vera; Kopczak, Anna; Müller, Claudia; Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Dichgans, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of cognitive status poststroke is recommended by guidelines but follow-up can often not be done in person. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) and the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (T-MoCA) are considered useful screening instruments. Yet, evidence to define optimal cut-offs for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) after stroke is limited. We studied 105 patients enrolled in the prospective DEDEMAS study (Determinants of Dementia After Stroke; NCT01334749). Follow-up visits at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months included comprehensive neuropsychological testing and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, both of which served as reference standards. The original TICS and T-MoCA were obtained in 2 separate telephone interviews each separated from the personal visits by 1 week (1 before and 1 after the visit) with the order of interviews (TICS versus T-MoCA) alternating between subjects. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves was determined. Ninety-six patients completed both the face-to-face visits and the 2 interviews. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves ranged between 0.76 and 0.83 for TICS and between 0.73 and 0.94 for T-MoCA depending on MCI definition. For multidomain MCI defined by multiple-tests definition derived from comprehensive neuropsychological testing optimal sensitivities and specificities were achieved at cut-offs <36 (TICS) and <18 (T-MoCA). Validity was lower using single-test definition, and cut-offs were higher compared with multiple-test definitions. Using Clinical Dementia Rating as the reference, optimal cut-offs for MCI were <36 (TICS) and approximately 19 (T-MoCA). Both the TICS and T-MoCA are valid screening tools poststroke, particularly for multidomain MCI using multiple-test definition. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Inter-observer agreement for Crohn's disease sub-phenotypes using the Montreal Classification: How good are we? A multi-centre Australasian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprasad, Krupa; Andrews, Jane M; Lawrance, Ian C; Florin, Timothy; Gearry, Richard B; Leong, Rupert W L; Mahy, Gillian; Bampton, Peter; Prosser, Ruth; Leach, Peta; Chitti, Laurie; Cock, Charles; Grafton, Rachel; Croft, Anthony R; Cooke, Sharon; Doecke, James D; Radford-Smith, Graham L

    2012-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) exhibits significant clinical heterogeneity. Classification systems attempt to describe this; however, their utility and reliability depends on inter-observer agreement (IOA). We therefore sought to evaluate IOA using the Montreal Classification (MC). De-identified clinical records of 35 CD patients from 6 Australian IBD centres were presented to 13 expert practitioners from 8 Australia and New Zealand Inflammatory Bowel Disease Consortium (ANZIBDC) centres. Practitioners classified the cases using MC and forwarded data for central blinded analysis. IOA on smoking and medications was also tested. Kappa statistics, with pre-specified outcomes of κ>0.8 excellent; 0.61-0.8 good; 0.41-0.6 moderate and ≤0.4 poor, were used. 97% of study cases had colonoscopy reports, however, only 31% had undergone a complete set of diagnostic investigations (colonoscopy, histology, SB imaging). At diagnosis, IOA was excellent for age, κ=0.84; good for disease location, κ=0.73; only moderate for upper GI disease (κ=0.57) and disease behaviour, κ=0.54; and good for the presence of perianal disease, κ=0.6. At last follow-up, IOA was good for location, κ=0.68; only moderate for upper GI disease (κ=0.43) and disease behaviour, κ=0.46; but excellent for the presence/absence of perianal disease, κ=0.88. IOA for immunosuppressant use ever and presence of stricture were both good (κ=0.79 and 0.64 respectively). IOA using MC is generally good; however some areas are less consistent than others. Omissions and inaccuracies reduce the value of clinical data when comparing cohorts across different centres, and may impair the ability to translate genetic discoveries into clinical practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  14. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  15. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Standardised handoff protocols have become necessary patient ... improve the perioperative handoff communications from the cardiac operating theatres to the ICU. ..... as you can imagine, there was push-back to the change.

  16. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  17. The Groningen protocol: another perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jotkowitz, A B; Glick, S

    2006-01-01

    The Groningen protocol allows for the euthanasia of severely ill newborns with a hopeless prognosis and unbearable suffering. We understand the impetus for such a protocol but have moral and ethical concerns with it. Advocates for euthanasia in adults have relied on the concept of human autonomy, which is lacking in the case of infants. In addition, biases can potentially influence the decision making of both parents and physicians. It is also very difficult to weigh the element of quality of...

  18. Constraining the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) budget using its global trend and inter-hemispheric gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley D.; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-07-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, the near-zero 2007-2012 emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage cannot be reconciled with the observed slow decline of atmospheric concentrations and the inter-hemispheric gradient (IHG) for CCl4. Our 3-D model simulations suggest that the observed IHG (1.5 ± 0.2 ppt for 2000-2012) is primarily caused by ongoing current emissions, while ocean and soil losses and stratosphere-troposphere exchange together contribute a small negative gradient (~0 - -0.3 ppt). Using the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG, we deduce that the mean global emissions for the 2000-2012 period are 393445 Gg/yr (~30% of the peak 1980s emissions) and a corresponding total lifetime of 353732 years.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  20. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  1. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  2. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  3. [Offsets under the Kyoto Protocol : a perspective on COP 4 negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.

    1998-01-01

    The achievements of the Kyoto Protocol were highlighted. These achievements include recognition of the need for Annex 1 countries (developed countries) to define concrete emissions reduction targets to be accomplished by 2012; recognition of specific needs of developing countries; need for measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change; recognition of the need that climate change policies and measures be cost effective; taking into account that economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change; recognition of the principle that corporations should promote a supportive and open international economic system leading to sustainable growth; and recognition that measures taken to combat climate change should not lead to unjustifiable discrimination in international trade. If the targets set at Kyoto are achieved, there will be an effective reduction in greenhouse gases of 5.2 per cent in relation to 1990 levels. The meeting in Buenos Aires should focus on strengthening the guidelines for actions agreed upon in Kyoto. Other major issues on the Buenos Aires Conference of Parties (COP 4) agenda should be to discuss ways and means to helping developing countries to deal with climate change issues within their own territories, agreement about definitive status of the Global Environmental Fund, arriving at a more precise definition of the Clean Development Mechanism, and first and foremost the development of credible national systems (i.e. Annex 1 countries) for the estimation of anthropogenic emission sources and removal by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol on the Ozone Layer, and shaping an adequate non-compliance system

  4. The Geneva Protocol of 1925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Elroy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices as well as the use of bacteriological methods of warfare

  5. A validation study of the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P Y; Wong, L L; Chan, C C; Leung, Jess L M; Yung, C Y

    2014-12-01

    To validate the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in identification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional study. Cognition clinic and memory clinic of a public hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 272 participants (dementia, n=130; mild cognitive impairment, n=93; normal controls, n=49) aged 60 years or above were assessed using HK-MoCA. The HK-MoCA scores were validated against expert diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) criteria for dementia and Petersen's criteria for mild cognitive impairment. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve and regression analyses. Additionally, comparison was made with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale. The optimal cutoff score for the HK-MoCA to differentiate cognitive impaired persons (mild cognitive impairment and dementia) from normal controls was 21/22 after adjustment of education level, giving a sensitivity of 0.928, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.920. Moreover, the cutoff to detect mild cognitive impairment was 21/22 with a sensitivity of 0.828, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.847. Score of the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect mild cognitive impairment was 26/27 with a sensitivity of 0.785, specificity of 0.816, and area under the curve of 0.857. At the optimal cutoff of 18/19, HK-MoCA identified dementia from controls with a sensitivity of 0.923, specificity of 0.918, and area under the curve of 0.971. The HK-MoCA is a useful cognitive screening instrument for use in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. A score of less than 22 should prompt further diagnostic assessment. It has comparable sensitivity with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination for detection of mild cognitive impairment. It is brief and feasible to conduct in the

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Beijing Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Adult Patients with OSAHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chen

    Full Text Available The patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS tend to develop cognitive deficits, which usually go unrecognized, and can affect their daily life. The Beijing version of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA-BJ, a Chinese version of MoCA, has been used for the assessment of cognitive functions of OSAHS patients in clinical practice. So far, its reliability and validity have not been tested. This study examined the reliability and validity of MoCA-BJ in a cohort of adult OSAHS patients.152 OSAHS patients, ranging from mild, moderate to severe, 49 primary snoring subjects and 40 normal controls were evaluated for cognitive functions by employing both MoCA-BJ and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Forty of them were re-tested by MoCA-BJ 14 days after the first test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminate and concurrent validity of MoCA-BJ were analyzed.Internal consistency reliability by Cronbach's alpha was adequate (0.73. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, an measure of test-retest reliability, was 0.87 (P<0.001. The total MoCA-BJ scores were significant higher in normal controls than in OSAHS groups (p<0.05. The performances of visuospatial ability in severe OSAHS group were significantly weaker than in normal controls and primary snoring group. The performances of executive ability in severe OSAHS patients were weaker than in normal controls. An optimal cut-off between normal controls and non-normal subjects was at 26 points (total MoCA score. Moreover, cut-off between non-severe and severe OSAHS was at 2 points on visuospatial subscale. Analysis of the correlation between MoCA total scores and MMSE total scores revealed a statistically significant, though relatively weak, correlation (r=0.41, P<0.05.In conclusion, our study showed that the Beijing version of the MoCA was reliable and stable. The MoCA-BJ was capable of detecting cognitive dysfunction by visuospatial and total MoCA-BJ score.

  7. Comparison of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment executive subtests in detecting post-stroke cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chen; Jin, Xianglan; Chen, Baoxin; Xue, Feiran; Niu, Huanmin; Guo, Rongjuan; Chen, Zhigang; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Le; Zhang, Yunling

    2017-12-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been shown to be more sensitive in detecting executive dysfunction than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). However, it is still not known whether all the MoCA executive subtests contribute to the superior sensitivity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine how much executive abnormality was detected by the MMSE and MoCA executive subtests in a population-based cohort of Chinese post-stroke patients. The MMSE and MoCA were collected from post-stroke patients (within 15 days to 1 month after stroke, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke) in 14 hospitals of northern and southern China (including 10 top-graded hospitals and 4 community hospitals) between June 2011 and September 2013. The proportions of patients with incorrect MoCA executive subtests and the proportions of patients with incorrect MMSE executive subtests were compared. A total of 1222 patients (703 men and 519 women, aged 62.06 ± 10.68 and 62.76 ± 9.86 years, respectively) were recruited. The MoCA detected more patients with executive dysfunction than the MMSE (OR 15.399, 95% CI 12.631-18.773; P < 0.001). The likelihood of incorrect MMSE executive tasks increased across decreasing scores of MoCA executive tasks (P < 0.001 for trend). Compared with the MMSE three-step command test (15.5%), the MoCA trail-making (57.8%), abstraction (48.0%) and abstraction (measurement tool; 45.7%) detected more patients with executive dysfunction (P < 0.001), whereas the MoCA digit span forwards (4.3%) and backwards (11.6%) detected fewer patients (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). The MoCA executive tasks are more sensitive in detecting executive dysfunction compared with the MMSE executive tasks. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2329-2335. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) performance in progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzato, Eleonora; Weis, Luca; Falup-Pecurariu, Cristian; Diaconu, Stefania; Siri, Chiara; Reali, Elisa; Pezzoli, Gianni; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Antonini, Angelo; Biundo, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    To determine if Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is more sensitive than the commonly used Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting cognitive abnormalities in patients with probable progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) compared with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this multicenter observational study, MMSE and MoCA were administered in a random order to 130 patients: 35 MSA, 30 PSP and 65 age, and education and gender matched-PD. We assessed between-group differences for MMSE, MoCA, and their subitems. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. The mean MMSE was higher than the mean MoCA score in each MSA (27.7 ± 2.4 vs. 22.9 ± 3.0, p < 0.0001), PSP (26.0 ± 2.9 vs. 18.2 ± 3.9, p < 0.0001), and PD (27.3 ± 2.0 vs. 22.3 ± 3.5, p < 0.0001). MoCA total score as well as its letter fluency subitem differentiated PSP from MSA and PD with high specificity and moderate sensitivity. More specifically, a cut-off score of 7 F-words or less per minute would support a diagnosis of PSP (PSP vs. PD: 86 % specificity, 70 % sensitivity; PSP vs. MSA: 71 % specificity, 70 % sensitivity). By contrast, MMSE presented an overall ceiling effect for most subitems, except for the pentagon scores, where PSP did less well than MSA or PD patients. These preliminary results suggest that PSP and MSA, similar to PD patients, may present normal MMSE and reduced MoCA performance. Overall, MoCA is more sensitive than MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment in atypical parkinsonism and together with verbal fluency would be a useful test to support PSP diagnosis.

  9. Diagnostic utility of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: major and mild neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Tau Ming; Feng, Lei; Gao, Qi; Ng, Tze Pin; Yap, Philip

    2015-02-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The new criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mild neurocognitive disorder (NCD) define participants with cognitive decline but no dementia, and major NCD (dementia). We explored the usefulness of MOCA to detect major and mild NCD. Cross-sectional test research. Tertiary hospital memory clinic and community-based Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS). Participants with questionable dementia (clinical dementia rating, CDR = 0.5) and early dementia (CDR ≤1) over a period of 1 year were identified from the memory clinic registry. The patient records were reviewed and the diagnostic labels of major and mild NCD were applied accordingly. Healthy controls (HC) (CDR = 0, Mini-Mental State Examination >26) were recruited from the on-going SLAS. Major and mild NCD were diagnosed based on medical history, clinical examination, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, locally validated bedside cognitive tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Clock Drawing Test), relevant laboratory investigations and standardized neuropsychological assessment. Two hundred fifty-one participants were included (41 mild NCD, 64 major NCD, 146 HC). On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the diagnostic performance by area under the curve (AUC) for MOCA was 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.0] for major NCD and 0.77 (95% CI 0.67-0.86) for mild NCD. For diagnosis of mild NCD, MOCA performed better in those with lower education (primary and below) (AUC 0.90) compared with those with secondary education and beyond (AUC 0.66). MOCA has high diagnostic utility for major NCD but its usefulness in detecting mild NCD is more modest. Possible reasons include greater heterogeneity in participants with mild NCD and how "quantified clinical assessment" in the DSM-5 mild NCD criteria

  10. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  12. The emissions gap report 2013: A UNEP synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, D.; Olhoff, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Alcamo, J.; Demkine, V. [UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya); Metz, B. [European Climate Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2013-11-01

    With this fourth assessment of the gap between ambitions and needs, the United Nations Environment Programme seeks to inform governments and the wider public on how far the response to climate change has progressed over the past year, and thus whether the world is on track to meet the 2 deg. C target. In addition to reviewing national pledges and actions, this year's assessment, for the first time, also reviews international cooperative initiatives which, while potentially overlapping, serve to complement national pledges and actions. From a technical standpoint, meeting the 2 deg. C target remains possible: it will take a combination of full implementation of current national pledges and actions, a scaling up of the most effective international cooperative initiatives, and additional mitigation efforts at the country level. All these efforts will require strengthened policies aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions. Crucially, they also require the promotion of development pathways that can concomitantly reduce emissions. As in the previous assessment, this year's report provides updated analyses of a number of tried and tested sector-specific policy options to achieve this goal. Specifically, we show that actions taken in the agricultural sector can lower emissions and boost the overall sustainability of food production. Replicating these successful policies, and scaling them up, would provide one option for countries to go beyond their current pledges and help close the 'emissions gap'. (LN)

  13. The Disappearing Forests. UNEP Environment Brief No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Tropical forests cover 20 percent of the Earth's land surface, but they are rapidly disappearing, with some estimating the loss of 7.5 million hectares a year. This bulletin provides a set of key facts relating to this problem. It details: (1) factors involving the rate at which the forests are disappearing; (2) some of the effects of these losses…

  14. Cleaning Up the Seas. UNEP Environment Brief No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    While the open oceans remain relatively unpolluted, many coastal areas are suffering from oil, sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural run-off. This document presents some of the key facts related to these kinds of water pollution. It focuses on the major sources of contamination in the world's seas, and provides an overview of how these…

  15. The Changing Atmosphere: UNEP Environment Brief No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Discussed are the following topics: (1) the greenhouse problem, including the processes involved and some possible resulting scenarios; (2) ozone, the "umbrella" protecting the earth from lethal concentrations of ultraviolet rays and the problem of decreasing ozone levels; (3) what could happen as the earth gets warmer (including…

  16. Safeguarding the World's Water. UNEP Environment Brief No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Two things make water a unique natural resource: (1) water is essential for human survival; and (2) the total amount of water in the world is constant. This document focuses on the increasingly difficult task of satisfying the collective thirst of people, industry, and agriculture without damaging the world's limited resources of fresh water. It…

  17. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  18. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison

  19. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  20. Art. 1 Eerste Protocol EVRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Het recht op bezit is niet in het Europees Verdrag ter bescherming van de rechten van de mens en de fundamentele vrijheden (hierna: EVRM) neergelegd, maar in het Eerste Protocol daarbij (hierna: EP), dat in 1954 in werking is getreden. Het is van belang voor ogen te houden dat de Tweede Wereldoorlog

  1. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  2. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  3. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  4. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  5. Cognitive Communications Protocols for SATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    communications protocols for satellite and space communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security as well as consumer ...communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security, and civilian as well as consumer telecommunications. Such cognitive...vulnerable against smart jammers that may attempt to learn the cognitive radios own behavior . In response, our second class of proposed algorithms

  6. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  7. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  8. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.

  9. Phase Transition in Protocols Minimizing Work Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2018-05-01

    For two canonical examples of driven mesoscopic systems—a harmonically trapped Brownian particle and a quantum dot—we numerically determine the finite-time protocols that optimize the compromise between the standard deviation and the mean of the dissipated work. In the case of the oscillator, we observe a collection of protocols that smoothly trade off between average work and its fluctuations. However, for the quantum dot, we find that as we shift the weight of our optimization objective from average work to work standard deviation, there is an analog of a first-order phase transition in protocol space: two distinct protocols exchange global optimality with mixed protocols akin to phase coexistence. As a result, the two types of protocols possess qualitatively different properties and remain distinct even in the infinite duration limit: optimal-work-fluctuation protocols never coalesce with the minimal-work protocols, which therefore never become quasistatic.

  10. Database communication protocol analyses and security detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qun; Liu Qiushi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduced the analysis of TDS protocol in the communication application between Client and Server about SYBASE and MICROSOFT SQL SERVER and do some test for some bugs existed in the protocol. (authors)

  11. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effort...

  12. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    and published reports of academic clinical drug trials. METHODS: A comparison was made between study protocols and their corresponding published reports. We assessed the overall consistency, which was defined as the absence of discrepancy regarding study type (categorized as either exploratory or confirmatory...... in 1999, 2001, and 2003, 95 of which fulfilled the eligibility criteria and had at least one corresponding published report reporting data on trial subjects. Overall consistency was observed in 39% of the trials (95% CI: 29 to 49%). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) constituted 72% (95% CI: 63 to 81......%) of the sample, and 87% (95% CI: 80 to 94%) of the trials were hospital based. CONCLUSIONS: Overall consistency between protocols and their corresponding published reports was low. Motivators for the inconsistencies are unknown but do not seem restricted to economic incentives....

  13. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  14. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  15. Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, Enzo

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero [it

  16. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  17. Behavior Protocols for Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2002), s. 1056-1076 ISSN 0098-5589 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Grant - others:Eureka(XE) Pepita project no.2033 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : behavior protocols * component-based programming * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2002

  18. Desensitization protocols and their outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kwaku; Lu, Amy; Ling, Min; Akalin, Enver

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, transplantation across previously incompatible barriers has increasingly become popular because of organ donor shortage, availability of better methods of detecting and characterizing anti-HLA antibodies, ease of diagnosis, better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection, and the availability of effective regimens. This review summarizes all manuscripts published since the first publication in 2000 on desensitized patients and discusses clinical outcomes including acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection rate, the new agents available, kidney paired exchange programs, and the future directions in sensitized patients. There were 21 studies published between 2000 and 2010, involving 725 patients with donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) who underwent kidney transplantation with different desensitization protocols. All studies were single center and retrospective. The patient and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively, at a 2-year median follow-up. Despite acceptable short-term patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate was 36% and acute antibody-mediated rejection rate was 28%, which is significantly higher than in nonsensitized patients. Recent studies with longer follow-up of those patients raised concerns about long-term success of desensitization protocols. The studies utilizing protocol biopsies in desensitized patients also reported higher subclinical and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. An association between the strength of DSAs determined by median fluorescence intensity values of Luminex single-antigen beads and risk of rejection was observed. Two new agents, bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and eculizumab, an anti-complement C5 antibody, were recently introduced to desensitization protocols. An alternative intervention is kidney paired exchange, which should be considered first for sensitized patients. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  19. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...

  20. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  1. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  2. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  3. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  5. Destruction of concentrated chlorofluorocarbons in India demonstrates an effective option to simultaneously curb climate change and ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Parlikar, Ulhas V.; Ahuja, Deepak; Sharma, Shiv; Chakraborty, Moumita A.; Maurya, Harivansh Prasad; Mallik, Mrinal; Gupta, P.K.; Kamyotra, J.S.; Bala, S.S.; Kapadia, B.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorofluorocarbons and halons are potent ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. • No provisions in the Montreal or in Kyoto Protocol to destroy stockpiles of concentrated CFCs. • The UNEP recommends 11 technologies for destruction of concentrated CFCs. • No studies have up to now investigated the potential of using cement kilns in developing countries. • The test demonstrated that the local Indian cement kiln was able to destroy high feeding rates of several concentrated CFC-gases effectively. - Abstract: The Montreal Protocol aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out production of substances that contribute to ozone depletion, currently covering over 200 individual substances. As most of these compounds are synthetic greenhouse gases, there is an opportunity to curb both ozone depletion and climate change simultaneously by requiring Parties of both the Montreal and the Kyoto Protocol to destroy their existing stocks of concentrated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Many emerging countries still possess stocks which need to be destroyed in an environmentally sound manner but costs may be prohibitive. The UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel identified in 2002 eleven destruction technologies which meet the criteria for environmentally sound destruction of chlorofluorocarbons. Cement kilns were among these, but no study has been reported in scientific literature assessing its destruction performance under real developing country conditions up to now. In contrast to incinerators and other treatment techniques, high temperature cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and can, if found technical feasible, be retrofitted and adapted cost-efficiently to destroy chemicals like CFCs. India has the second largest cement industry in the world and several hazardous waste categories have been tested successfully in recent years. The objective of this study was to carry out the first full scale

  6. Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Gerard Brosnahan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

  7. Ancestors protocol for scalable key management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Gollmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Group key management is an important functional building block for secure multicast architecture. Thereby, it has been extensively studied in the literature. The main proposed protocol is Adaptive Clustering for Scalable Group Key Management (ASGK. According to ASGK protocol, the multicast group is divided into clusters, where each cluster consists of areas of members. Each cluster uses its own Traffic Encryption Key (TEK. These clusters are updated periodically depending on the dynamism of the members during the secure session. The modified protocol has been proposed based on ASGK with some modifications to balance the number of affected members and the encryption/decryption overhead with any number of the areas when a member joins or leaves the group. This modified protocol is called Ancestors protocol. According to Ancestors protocol, every area receives the dynamism of the members from its parents. The main objective of the modified protocol is to reduce the number of affected members during the leaving and joining members, then 1 affects n overhead would be reduced. A comparative study has been done between ASGK protocol and the modified protocol. According to the comparative results, it found that the modified protocol is always outperforming the ASGK protocol.

  8. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; De Moor, Bart

    2006-01-01

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states

  10. Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.

  11. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  12. Publication trends of study protocols in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago S; Colquhoun, Heather L

    2017-09-04

    Growing evidence points for the need to publish study protocols in the health field. To observe whether the growing interest in publishing study protocols in the broader health field has been translated into increased publications of rehabilitation study protocols. Observational study using publication data and its indexation in PubMed. Not applicable. Not applicable. PubMed was searched with appropriate combinations of Medical Subject Headings up to December 2014. The effective presence of study protocols was manually screened. Regression models analyzed the yearly growth of publications. Two-sample Z-tests analyzed whether the proportion of Systematic Reviews (SRs) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among study protocols differed from that of the same designs for the broader rehabilitation research. Up to December 2014, 746 publications of rehabilitation study protocols were identified, with an exponential growth since 2005 (r2=0.981; p<0.001). RCT protocols were the most common among rehabilitation study protocols (83%), while RCTs were significantly more prevalent among study protocols than among the broader rehabilitation research (83% vs. 35.8%; p<0.001). For SRs, the picture was reversed: significantly less common among study protocols (2.8% vs. 9.3%; p<0.001). Funding was more often reported by rehabilitation study protocols than the broader rehabilitation research (90% vs. 53.1%; p<0.001). Rehabilitation journals published a significantly lower share of rehabilitation study protocols than they did for the broader rehabilitation research (1.8% vs.16.7%; p<0.001). Identifying the reasons for these discrepancies and reverting unwarranted disparities (e.g. low rate of publication for rehabilitation SR protocols) are likely new avenues for rehabilitation research and its publication. SRs, particularly those aggregating RCT results, are considered the best standard of evidence to guide rehabilitation clinical practice; however, that standard can be improved

  13. Protein blotting protocol for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A

    2014-01-01

    The transfer and immobilization of biological macromolecules onto solid nitrocellulose or nylon (polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)) membranes subsequently followed by specific detection is referred to as blotting. DNA blots are called Southerns after the inventor of the technique, Edwin Southern. By analogy, RNA blots are referred to as northerns and protein blots as westerns (Burnette, Anal Biochem 112:195-203, 1981). With few exceptions, western blotting involves five steps, namely, sample collection, preparation, separation, immobilization, and detection. In this chapter, protocols for the entire process from sample collection to detection are described.

  14. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  15. Using semantics for representing experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Olga; García, Alexander; López, Federico; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-11-13

    An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory. There is the need for a unified framework with respect to the syntactic structure and the semantics for representing experimental protocols. In this paper we present "SMART Protocols ontology", an ontology for representing experimental protocols. Our ontology represents the protocol as a workflow with domain specific knowledge embedded within a document. We also present the S ample I nstrument R eagent O bjective (SIRO) model, which represents the minimal common information shared across experimental protocols. SIRO was conceived in the same realm as the Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model that supports search, retrieval and classification purposes in evidence based medicine. We evaluate our approach against a set of competency questions modeled as SPARQL queries and processed against a set of published and unpublished protocols modeled with the SP Ontology and the SIRO model. Our approach makes it possible to answer queries such as Which protocols use tumor tissue as a sample. Improving reporting structures for experimental protocols requires collective efforts from authors, peer reviewers, editors and funding bodies. The SP Ontology is a contribution towards this goal. We build upon previous experiences and bringing together the view of researchers managing protocols in their laboratory work. Website: https://smartprotocols.github.io/ .

  16. Physical Therapy Protocols for Arthroscopic Bankart Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F; Mehta, Nabil; Owens, Brett D

    Outcomes after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be highly dependent on compliance and participation in physical therapy. Additionally, there are many variations in physician-recommended physical therapy protocols. The rehabilitation protocols of academic orthopaedic surgery departments vary widely despite the presence of consensus protocols. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Web-based arthroscopic Bankart rehabilitation protocols available online from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited orthopaedic surgery programs were included for review. Individual protocols were reviewed to evaluate for the presence or absence of recommended therapies, goals for completion of ranges of motion, functional milestones, exercise start times, and recommended time to return to sport. Thirty protocols from 27 (16.4%) total institutions were identified out of 164 eligible for review. Overall, 9 (30%) protocols recommended an initial period of strict immobilization. Variability existed between the recommended time periods for sling immobilization (mean, 4.8 ± 1.8 weeks). The types of exercises and their start dates were also inconsistent. Goals to full passive range of motion (mean, 9.2 ± 2.8 weeks) and full active range of motion (mean, 12.2 ± 2.8 weeks) were consistent with other published protocols; however, wide ranges existed within the reviewed protocols as a whole. Only 10 protocols (33.3%) included a timeline for return to sport, and only 3 (10%) gave an estimate for return to game competition. Variation also existed when compared with the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists' (ASSET) consensus protocol. Rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic Bankart repair were found to be highly variable. They also varied with regard to published consensus protocols. This discrepancy may lead to confusion among therapists and patients. This study highlights the importance of attending surgeons being very clear and specific with

  17. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  18. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, M.; Matei, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  19. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    This document describes the state of the art snd some of the main open problems in the area of unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. The most essential part of a cryptographic protocol is not its being secure. Imagine a cryptographic protocol which is secure, but where we do not know...... that it is secure. Such a protocol would do little in providing security. When all comes to all, cryptographic security is done for the sake of people, and the essential part of security is for people what it has always been, namely to feel secure. To feel secure employing a given cryptographic protocol we need...... to know that is is secure. I.e. we need a proof that it is secure. Today the proof of security of essentially all practically employed cryptographic protocols relies on computational assumptions. To prove that currently employed ways to communicate securely over the Internet are secure we e.g. need...

  20. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  1. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... active and adaptive corruptions in the random oracle model. Due to its simplicity, the protocol is extremely efficient and it allows to perform m 1-out-of-n OTs using only: - Computation: (n+1)m+2 exponentiations (mn for the receiver, mn+2 for the sender) and - Communication: 32(m+1) bytes (for the group...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...

  2. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  3. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Cachin, Christian; Vukolić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger for recording transactions, maintained by many nodes without central authority through a distributed cryptographic protocol. All nodes validate the information to be appended to the blockchain, and a consensus protocol ensures that the nodes agree on a unique order in which entries are appended. Consensus protocols for tolerating Byzantine faults have received renewed attention because they also address blockchain systems. This work discusses the process o...

  4. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  5. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  6. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal, Ittay; Gencer, Adem Efe; Sirer, Emin Gun; van Renesse, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential. This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is By...

  7. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  8. Search and nonsearch protocols for radiographic consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swensson, R.G.; Theodore, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Six radiologists, acting as film reviewers, used two different consultation protocols to differentiate among 292 ambiguous findings on chest films: 120 simulated nodules and 172 normal findings (previous readers' false-positive reports of nodules). The non-search protocol identified each finding (by location), and reviewers rated its likelihood as a nodule. The search protocol, which asked reviewers to report and rate all locations regarded as possible nodules on each film, assigned a default negative rating to any unreported finding (nodule or normal). Receiver operator characteristic analyses demonstrated a significantly higher accuracy for each reviewer's search- protocol discriminations between these nodules and confusing normal findings

  9. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pursley, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    .... Research results are presented on adaptive, energy-efficient, distributed protocols for mobile wireless networks that must operate effectively over unreliable communication links in highly dynamic...

  10. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  11. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  12. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  13. Tool Supported Analysis of Web Services Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    We describe an abstract protocol model suitable for modelling of web services and other protocols communicating via unreliable, asynchronous communication channels. The model is supported by a tool chain where the first step translates tables with state/transition protocol descriptions, often used...... e.g. in the design of web services protocols, into an intermediate XML format. We further translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in the model checking tool UPPAAL. We introduce two types of communication media abstractions in order...

  14. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, S.; Suda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  15. Effects of a peer support programme for youth social services employees experiencing potentially traumatic events: a protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stephane; Tremblay, Nicole; Goncalves, Jane; Bilodeau, Henriette; Geoffrion, Steve

    2017-06-24

    The use of peer support programmes to help workers experiencing potentially traumatic events (PTE) has increased in high-risk organisations in the last decades. However, the scientific evidence of its effectiveness is still very limited. This paper aims to describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study that assesses the efficacy of a peer support programme among youth social services employees exposed to a PTE at work on psychological well-being, work functioning and needs of support. This is a mixed-methods prospective study that will examine workers' evolution four times over a 12-month period in Canada. This study involves: (1) quantitative data obtained through self-administrated questionnaires among 222 workers, and (2) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of 45 workers. This study will compare findings from a cohort who received the support of a peer following a PTE (peer support-experimental protocol) as part of the experimental protocol of the Montreal Youth Social Services-University Institute (MYSS-UI), the second group of workers did not ask for the peer support (no peer support-experimental protocol) but was part of MYSS-UI, and the third group received standard organisational support from the Monteregie Youth Social Services (MYSS) (standard organisational protocol). The protocol and informed consent form complied with the ethics guidelines of the MYSS-UI. The Research Ethics Board of MYSS-UI and MYSS reviewed and accepted the protocol as required. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research and general public conferences, disseminated via a public report for the institute that funded the project and for all workers. Results of this study will influence decision making regarding intervention policies following PTE and peer support interventions may be expanded throughout the youth social services in Canada and worldwide. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  16. Secure Multi-Player Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge

    While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret...... sharing (VSS), as well as multi-party computation (MPC) belong to the most appealing and/or useful ones. The former two are basic tools to achieve better robustness of cryptographic schemes against malfunction or misuse by “decentralizing” the security from one single to a whole group of individuals...... (captured by the term threshold cryptography). The latter allows—at least in principle—to execute any collaboration among a group of players in a secure way that guarantees the correctness of the outcome but simultaneously respects the privacy of the participants. In this work, we study three aspects...

  17. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: tcff@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  18. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2009-01-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  19. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter Christian; Prayer, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  20. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  1. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  2. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  3. Wind power agreement protocol; Protocole d'accord eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this protocol of agreement is to propose to wind turbine fitters some models of contracts allowing the setting up of wind turbines on agricultural lots. These documents, which make an indissociable ensemble, apply to both phases of development of a wind power project: the feasibility study phase, for a duration comprised between 2 and 5 years (studies, administrative procedures, precise definition of the project), and the construction, exploitation and dismantling phase. These documents will serve as common guidelines for both the farmers and the wind turbine designers. Both parties agree to meet together in the future to propose some modifications of these texts if necessary. The four models of contracts are attached to the document: contract for the feasibility study phase, first contract between the landlord and the farmer for the cancellation of the rural lease, second contract between the landlord and the wind power exploitation company for the common right lease, and the third contract between the farmer and the wind power company for the indemnification convention. (J.S.)

  4. Analysis of a security protocol in ?CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pang

    2002-01-01

    textabstractNeedham-Schroeder public-key protocol; With the growth and commercialization of the Internet, the security of communication between computers becomes a crucial point. A variety of security protocols based on cryptographic primitives are used to establish secure communication over

  5. An Argument Approach to Observation Protocol Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Courtney A.; Gitomer, Drew H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Qi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a validity argument approach for use on observation protocols currently used to assess teacher quality for high-stakes personnel and professional development decisions. After defining the teaching quality domain, we articulate an interpretive argument for observation protocols. To illustrate the types of evidence that might…

  6. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.T. Romijn (Judi)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the

  7. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO 2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  8. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.

    2001-01-01

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  9. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process b...

  10. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  11. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  12. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  13. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  14. A Comparison Between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol: Session Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Haj Aliwi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many multimedia conferencing and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications have been developed due to the use of signaling protocols in providing video, audio and text chatting services between at least two participants. This paper compares between two widely common signaling protocols: InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX and the extension of the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (Jingle in terms of delay time during call setup, call teardown, and media sessions.

  15. A family of multi-party authentication protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, C.J.F.; Mauw, S.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a family of multi-party authentication protocols and discuss six novel protocols, which are members of this family. The first three generalize the well-known Needham-Schroeder-Lowe public-key protocol, the Needham-Schroeder private-key protocol, and the Bilateral Key Exchange protocol.

  16. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    A desirable goal for cryptographic protocols is to guarantee security when the protocol is composed with other protocol instances. Universally composable (UC) protocols provide this guarantee in a strong sense: A protocol remains secure even when composed concurrently with an unbounded number of ...

  17. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  18. Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test better suited than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) detection among people aged over 60? Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielska, Natalia; Sokołowski, Remigiusz; Mazur, Ewelina; Podhorecka, Marta; Polak-Szabela, Anna; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia

    2016-10-31

    Screening tests play a crucial role in dementia diagnostics, thus they should be very sensitive for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) assessment. Nowadays, the MiniMental State Examination (MMSE) is the most commonly used scale in cognitive function evaluation, albeit it is claimed to be imprecise for MCI detection. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), was created as an alternative method for MMSE. Aim. MoCA vs. MMSE credibility assessment in detecting MCI, while taking into consideration the sensitivity and specificity by cut-off points. A systematic literature search was carried out by the authors using EBSCO host Web, Wiley Online Library, Springer Link, Science Direct and Medline databases. The following medical subject headings were used in the search: mild cognitive impairment, mini-mental state examination, Montreal cognitive assessment, diagnostics value. Papers which met inclusion and exclusion criteria were chosen to be included in this review. At the end, for the evaluation of MoCA 20, and MMSE 13 studies were qualified. Research credibility was established by computing weighted arithmetic mean, where weight is defined as population for which the result of sensitivity and specificity for the cut-off point was achieved. The cut-offs are shown as ROC curve and accuracy of diagnosis for MoCA and MMSE was calculated as the area under the curve (AUC). ROC curve analysis for MoCA demonstrated that MCI best detection can be achieved with a cut-off point of 24/25 (n = 9350, the sensitivity of 80.48% and specificity of 81.19%). AUC was 0.846 (95% CI 0.823-0.868). For MMSE, it turned out that more important cut-off was of 27/28 (n = 882, 66.34% sensitivity and specificity of 72.94%). AUC was 0.736 (95% CI 0.718-0.767). MoCA test better meets the criteria for screening tests for the detection of MCI among patients over 60 years of age than MMSE.

  19. Live chat alternative security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  20. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  1. The Development of Korea Additional Protocol System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hye Won; Yeo, Jin Kyun

    2008-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the Safeguards Agreement) entered into force on 14 November 1975. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on 21 June 1999 and entered into force on 19 February 2004. ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15th since August 2004. Additional protocol reports were submitted through Protocol Reporter provided by IAEA. Annual declarations were simply uploaded and stored in the Accounting Information Treatment System of KINAC, which did not provide data analysis and management function. There have been demands for improvement to handle ever-increasing information. KAPS (Korea Additional Protocol System) has been developed to assist and administrate the additional protocol related works effectively. The new system enables integrated management including composition of additional protocol report and version control, periodical update of related information, results of IAEA complementary access to each facility

  2. New logistics protocols for distributed interactive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Darrin; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Felton, Erik; Herman, Deborah A.

    1995-06-01

    In today's environment, the transportation and maintenance of military forces is nearly as important as combat operations. Rapid deployment to regions of low-intensity conflict will become a very common training scenario for the U.S. military. Thus it is desirable to apply distributed simulation technology to train logistics personnel in their combat support roles. Currently, distributed interactive simulation (DIS) only contains rudimentary logistics protocols. This paper introduces new protocols designed to handle the logistics problem. The Newtonian protocol takes a physics-based approach to modeling interactions on the simulation network. This protocol consists of a family of protocol data units (PDUs) which are used to communicate forces in different circumstances. The protocol implements a small set of physical relations. This represents a flexible and general mechanism to describe battlefield interactions between network entities. The migratory object protocol (MOP) family addresses the transfer of control. General mechanisms provide the means to simulate resupply, repair, and maintenance of entities at any level of abstraction (individual soldier to division). It can also increase the fidelity of mine laying, enable handover of weapons for terminal guidance, allow for the distribution of aggregate-level simulation entities, provide capabilities for the simulation of personnel, etc.

  3. The Kyoto Protocol. An economic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the overall economics of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, in three main parts. The first part explores the structure of the Protocol and how this matches against classical economic criteria of an 'optimal' climate change agreement. This discussion also considers the nature of and reasons for shortcomings, and the prospects for its evolution. Given the various flexibilities in the agreement, the Kyoto Protocol is far more economically efficient in its structure than any previous global environmental agreement. The central conclusion is that, from an economic perspective, the Protocol's structure for industrialised country commitments is as good as could reasonably be expected. The second part of the paper explores more closely the economics of the commitments themselves and how they combine with the various flexibilities, briefly reviewing the available literature and using a simple spreadsheet model of how the commitments might combine with trading mechanisms under a range of assumptions. Flexibility is intrinsic and necessary, but it is argued that the allocations to Russia and Ukraine in particular mean that unlimited flexibility could render the Protocol's commitments weaker in their impacts than is economically desirable to address climate change. It is argued that, should this prove to be the case, access to the large surplus in the transition economies could be used as a control valve to limit the costs of the Protocol to within acceptable limits. Finally, the paper considers the issues of developing country involvement in the Kyoto Protocol, and the Protocol's longer-term impact and evolution, including its impact on technological evolution and dissemination and the evolution of future commitments. It is argued that taking account of such issues critically affects views of the Protocol

  4. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  5. Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sivalingam, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    ... (also called power aware) network protocols for wireless and mobile networks. Battery power limitations are a very serious concern, and it is essential to study energy efficient protocol design at different layers of the network protocol stack...

  6. Event-by-event simulation of quantum cryptography protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.; Raedt, H. De

    We present a new approach to simulate quantum cryptography protocols using event-based processes. The method is validated by simulating the BB84 protocol and the Ekert protocol, both without and with the presence of an eavesdropper.

  7. Protocolized hyperventilation enhances electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba-Arnau, Aida; Dalmau, Antonia; Soria, Virginia; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Ribes, Carmina; Sánchez-Allueva, Ana; Menchón, José Manuel; Urretavizcaya, Mikel

    2017-08-01

    Hyperventilation is recommended in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to enhance seizures and to increase patients' safety. However, more evidence is needed regarding its effects and the optimum method of application. This prospective study involving 21 subjects compared two procedures, protocolized hyperventilation (PHV) and hyperventilation as usual (HVau), applied to the same patient in two consecutive sessions. Transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPCO 2 ) was measured throughout all sessions. Ventilation parameters, hemodynamic measures, seizure characteristics, and side effects were also explored. PHV resulted in lower TcPCO 2 after hyperventilation (p=.008) and over the whole session (p=.035). The lowest TcPCO 2 was achieved after voluntary hyperventilation. Changes in TcPCO 2 from baseline showed differences between HVau and PHV at each session time-point (all p<.05). Between- and within-subjects factors were statistically significant in a general linear model. Seizure duration was greater in PHV sessions (p=.028), without differences in other seizure quality parameters or adverse effects. Correlations were found between hypocapnia induction and seizure quality indexes. Secondary outcomes could be underpowered. PHV produces hypocapnia before the stimulus, modifies patients' TcPCO 2 values throughout the ECT session and lengthens seizure duration. Voluntary hyperventilation is the most important part of the PHV procedure with respect to achieving hypocapnia. A specific ventilation approach, CO 2 quantification and monitoring may be advisable in ECT. PHV is easy to apply in daily clinical practice and does not imply added costs. Ventilation management has promising effects in terms of optimizing ECT technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  9. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  10. Security Protocol Review Method Analyzer(SPRMAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Narayanan, H. Iyyappa; Vinoth, R.

    2013-01-01

    This Paper is designed using J2EE (JSP, SERVLET), HTML as front end and a Oracle 9i is back end. SPRMAN is been developed for the client British Telecom (BT) UK., Telecom company. Actually the requirement of BT is, they are providing Network Security Related Products to their IT customers like Virtusa,Wipro,HCL etc., This product is framed out by set of protocols and these protocols are been associated with set of components. By grouping all these protocols and components together, product is...

  11. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  12. Establishing treatment protocols for clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Jerry R

    2003-03-01

    Each farm has a unique mix of mastitis pathogens and management procedures that have evolved over time. The herd veterinarian should work with the manager/owner to systematically develop treatment protocols that meet the needs and management of the farm. To establish a mastitis treatment protocol, it is necessary to develop a system to routinely identify clinical mastitis cases, develop a herd-specific severity level assessment system, manage the clinical mastitis cases based on severity level and culture result (when available), avoid antibiotic residues, and monitor the success of the system and alter the protocol as necessary.

  13. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  14. The Singapore protocol [for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, B.

    2005-01-01

    The qubit protocol for quantum key distribution presented in this talk is fully tomographic and more efficient than other tomographic protocols. Under ideal circumstances the efficiency is log 2 (4/3) = 0.415 key bits per qubit sent, which is 25% more than the efficiency of 1/3 = 0.333 for the standard 6-state protocol. One can extract 0.4 key bits per qubit by a simple two-way communication scheme, and can so get close to the information-theoretical limit. The noise thresholds for secure key bit generation in the presence of unbiased noise will be reported and discussed. (author)

  15. A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.

  16. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Is Superior to Standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam in Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study compares the usefulness of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA to Standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam (SMMSE for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM population. Methods. This prospective pilot study enrolled 30 community dwelling adults with Type 2 DM aged 50 years and above. Subjects were assessed using both the SMMSE and MoCA for MCI. In all subjects, depression and dementia were ruled out using the DSM IV criteria, and a functional assessment was done. MCI was diagnosed using the standard test, the European consortium criteria. Sensitivity and specificity analysis, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and Kappa statistic were calculated. Results. In comparison to consortium criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA were 67% and 93% in identifying individuals with MCI, and SMMSE were 13% and 93%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for MoCA were 84% and 56%, and for SMMSE were 66% and 51%, respectively. Kappa statistics showed moderate agreement between MoCA and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.4 and a low agreement between SMMSE and consortium criteria (kappa = 0.07. Conclusion. In this pilot study, MoCA appears to be a better screening tool than SMMSE for MCI in the diabetic population.

  17. Comparison between mini mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal cognitive assessment Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) as an early detection of cognitive impairments in post-stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Mistivani, I.; Rumende, C. M.; Kusumaningsih, W.

    2017-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as cognitive impairment that may never develop into dementia. Cognitive impairment is one long-term complication of a stroke. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is commonly used as a screening tool for cognitive impairment, has a low sensitivity to detect cognitive impairment, especially MCI. Alternatively, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) has been reported to have a higher sensitivity than the MMSE. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of MCI identified between the MMSE and MoCA-Ina in stroke patients. This was a cross-sectional study of stroke outpatients who attended the Polyclinic Neuromuscular Division, Rehabilitation Department, and Polyclinic Stroke, Neurology Department Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The proportion of MCI identified using the MMSE was 31.03% compared to 72.41% when using the MoCA-Ina. This difference was statistically significant (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.033). The proportion of MCI in stroke patients was higher when using the MoCA-Ina compared to the MMSE. The MoCA-Ina should be used as an alternative in the early detection of MCI in stroke patients, especially those undergoing rehabilitation.

  18. Taking an idea to a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Review Article: Taking an idea to a research protocol ... step is to identify the knowledge gap within the intended field of research by examining the background ... be found by writing a critical narrative review of the literature.

  19. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... results. The most important generalization is the support for all security properties of the geometric fragment proposed by [Gut14]....... their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...

  20. Oxygen tolerance test : A standardised protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: By following a standardised protocol for Oxygen Tolerance Test, an objective assessment and recordkeeping is possible. This shall entail a more effective screening during the initial diving medical examination.

  1. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  2. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Yoshito [University of Alaska; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Gregory, Don A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  3. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  4. Adaptive security protocol selection for mobile computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Soares Rocha, B.; Costa, D.N.O.; Moreira, R.A.; Rezende, C.G.; Loureiro, A.A.F.; Boukerche, A.

    2010-01-01

    The mobile computing paradigm has introduced new problems for application developers. Challenges include heterogeneity of hardware, software, and communication protocols, variability of resource limitations and varying wireless channel quality. In this scenario, security becomes a major concern for

  5. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  6. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  7. Verbal protocols as methodological resources: research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Baldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reflecting on the use of verbal protocols as a methodological resource in qualitative research, more specifically on the aspect regarded as the main limitation of a study about lexical inferencing in L2 (BALDO; VELASQUES, 2010: its subjective trait. The article begins with a brief literature review on protocols, followed by a description of the study in which they were employed as methodological resources. Based on that, protocol subjectivity is illustrated through samples of unparalleled data classification, carried out independently by two researchers. In the final section, the path followed to minimize the problem is presented, intending to contribute to improve efficiency in the use of verbal protocols in future research.

  8. Real-Time Fault Tolerant Networking Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    We made significant progress in the areas of video streaming, wireless protocols, mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, peer-to-peer systems, fault tolerant algorithms, dependability and timing analysis...

  9. Development of measurement protocols for quantum magnetometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Alexander

    and protocols to enhance the lifetime and the coherences of the NV center with the overall goal of enhancing the capabilities of this sensor in the field of magnetometry. In order to realize complex protocols, a sophisticated software control of the measurement setup is required. A general software framework......, is serving as rigorous framework to reduce the complexity of the setup configuration by a fundamental separation of tasks. As a consequence, the general idea of this framework is not limited to experiments with color centers in diamond, but can find application in any laboratory environment. The measurement...... of magnetic fields in the high-frequency GHz regimes is challenging. In this thesis, a continuous dynamical decoupling protocol is developed and implemented, which extends the capabilities of the NV sensor to probe GHz signals with a narrow bandwidth. Moreover, the protocol protects the system from noise...

  10. How to write a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research protocol is best viewed as a key to open the gates between the researcher and ... studies will be quantitative designs and these form the focus of this paper. ..... applied to the underlying clinical problem addressed by the study.

  11. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  12. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    events. Methods like strand spaces and the inductive method of Paulson have been designed to support an intensional, event-based, style of reasoning. These methods have successfully tackled a number of protocols though in an ad hoc fashion. They make an informal spring from a protocol to its......-nets. They have persistent conditions and as we show in this thesis, unfold under reasonable assumptions to a more basic kind of nets. We relate SPL-nets to strand spaces and inductive rules, as well as trace languages and event structures so unifying a range of approaches, as well as providing conditions under...... reveal. The last few years have seen the emergence of successful intensional, event-based, formal approaches to reasoning about security protocols. The methods are concerned with reasoning about the events that a security protocol can perform, and make use of a causal dependency that exists between...

  13. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  14. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  15. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  16. An Evaluation Methodology for Protocol Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Main Memory Requirement NS: Needham-Schroeder NSL: Needham-Schroeder-Lowe OCaml : Objective Caml POSIX: Portable Operating System...methodology is needed. A. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS FIELD As with any field, there is a specialized language used within the protocol analysis community. Figure...ProVerif requires that Objective Caml ( OCaml ) be installed on the system, OCaml version 3.09.3 was installed. C. WINDOWS CONFIGURATION OS

  17. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  18. Emulation of Industrial Control Field Device Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    today. The protocol operates at the application layer of the open systems interconnection ( OSI ) model, meaning it operates independently of the...the OSI model. Their job is to receive serial data from an MTU in the Modbus RTU or ASCII protocol, encapsulate and transmit the data to another modem...facing connection and out-of-band logging capabilities over the other LAN -facing connection. Despite the fact that the hardware configuration of the

  19. A Review of Fair Exchange Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AlOtaibi; Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Internet has become an essential business platform, aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations, consumers and even between consumers themselves. This technology revolution has brought e-commerce to an entirely new level, which therefore has raised some new security issues. Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and ...

  20. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek's spect...... of messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  1. Broadening and Simplifying the First SETI Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, M. A. G.

    The Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence, known informally as the First SETI Protocol, is the primary existing international guidance on this subject. During the fifteen years since the document was issued, several people have suggested revisions or additional protocols. This article proposes a broadened and simplified text that would apply to the detection of alien technology in our solar system as well as to electromagnetic signals from more remote sources.

  2. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  3. Dynamic Aggregation Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Said , Adel; William Ibrahim , Ashraf; Soua , Ahmed; Afifi , Hossam

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Sensor networks suffer from limited capabilities such as bandwidth, low processing power, and memory size. There is therefore a need for protocols that deliver sensor data in an energy-efficient way to the sink. One of those techniques, it gathers sensors' data in a small size packet suitable for transmission. In this paper, we propose a new Effective Data Aggregation Protocol (DAP) to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which prolongs the...

  4. Optimistic protocol for partitioned distributed database systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    A protocol for transaction processing during partition failures is presented which guarantees mutual consistency between copies of data-items after repair is completed. The protocol is optimistic in that transactions are processed without restrictions during the failure; conflicts are detected at repair time using a precedence graph and are resolved by backing out transactions according to some backout strategy. The protocol is then evaluated using simulation and probabilistic modeling. In the simulation, several parameters are varied such as the number of transactions processed in a group, the type of transactions processed, the number of data-items present in the database, and the distribution of references to data-items. The simulation also uses different backout strategies. From these results we note conditions under which the protocol performs well, i.e., conditions under which the protocol backs out a small percentage of the transaction run. A probabilistic model is developed to estimate the expected number of transactions backed out using most of the above database and transaction parameters, and is shown to agree with simulation results. Suggestions are then made on how to improve the performance of the protocol. Insights gained from the simulation and probabilistic modeling are used to develop a backout strategy which takes into account individual transaction costs and attempts to minimize total backout cost. Although the problem of choosing transactions to minimize total backout cost is, in general, NP-complete, the backout strategy is efficient and produces very good results

  5. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication, quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible. Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology. However, the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency, e.g., parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth. We have proposed two distinctive protocols, which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones. We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger—Horne—Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping. Another protocol, based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression, which can improve the efficiency of the network, works in the star-like network. The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption. In general, the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols. (general)

  6. Simulation and Evaluation of CTP and Secure-CTP Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses characteristics and qualities of two routing protocols – Collection Tree Protocol and its secure modification. The original protocol, as well as other protocols for wireless sensors, solves only problems of ra- dio communication and limited resources. Our design of the secure protocol tries to solve also the essential security ob- jectives. For the evaluation of properties of our protocol in large networks, a TOSSIM simulator was used. Our effort was to show the influence of the modification of the routing protocol to its behavior and quality of routing trees. We have proved that adding security into protocol design does not necessarily mean higher demands for data transfer, power consumption or worse protocol efficiency. In the paper, we manifest that security in the protocol may be achieved with low cost and may offer similar performance as the original protocol.

  7. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Trading. A PEEREA perspective after the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol and of the EU ETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The year 2005 was of particular importance for the climate change discussions. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force in February, following the Russian ratification. At the same time, the largest emission-trading scheme for CO2, the EU ETS came into operation. By the end of the year the first Meeting of the Parties to the UNFCCC took place in Montreal. The PEEREA Group discussed on several occasions the contribution of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms to boosting energy efficiency improvements. The role of energy efficiency projects in achieving climate change objectives was equally underlined. In 2004 a report was elaborated and subsequently printed on Carbon Trading and Energy Efficiency, with the understanding that the PEEREA Group will revisit the subject in order to reflect on new developments in this area. This paper, prepared by the Secretariat with the consultancy support of EcoSecurities, served the discussion and debate in the PEEREA Group on the latest developments and opportunities for energy efficiency in the climate change process. The paper provides only a brief introduction of the main concepts, as they were presented and discussed in the 2004 report. The focus is now on the operation of the EU ETS and on the implications for both EU and non EU PEEREA countries of the Linking Directive on the use of JI/CDM mechanisms in relation to improving energy efficiency

  8. MDEP Protocol VICWG-01. MDEP Protocol: Witnessed, Joint, and Multinational Vendor Inspection Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) was launched in 2006 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) with the aim of developing innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities reviewing new reactor designs. MDEP full members are regulators from Canada, People's Republic of China, Finland, France, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The United Arab Emirates and Turkey are associate members. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) acts as the Technical Secretariat for the MDEP. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) participates in many of the MDEP activities, including harmonisation efforts. The Vendor Inspection Cooperation Working Group (VICWG) is one of the issue-specific working groups that the MDEP members are undertaking with one long term goal of the VICWG being to maximize the use of the results obtained from other regulator's efforts in inspecting vendors. To accomplish this goal, it is vital that the regulators learn about each other's procedures, processes, and regulations. To facilitate the learning process the VICWG is coordinating vendor inspections among the involved regulatory authorities with the purpose of enhancing the understanding of each other's vendor inspection procedures. This programme is administered by the NEA. Involvement in specific inspections provides a number of opportunities for member state regulators to witness other regulators' inspection methods, gain useful information on the quality systems and manufacturing arrangements of specific vendors and where appropriate, actively participate in the inspection. The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidance to regulators that wish to carry out vendor inspections or participate in or witness other regulators' vendor inspections. It also provides

  9. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  10. MODELLING AND VERIFICATION OF KITSAT PACKET COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ro Lee

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to verify KITSAT 1/2 packet communication protocols, we model the AX.25 protocol and PACSAT protocol by using an extended Petri net and then verify the correctness, boundedness, liveness and deadlock freeness of packet protocols by utilizing reachability trees.

  11. Differential phase-time shifting protocol for QKD (DPTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols.......We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols....

  12. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  13. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  14. Nursing Music Protocol and Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael J; Coto, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Pain has always been a major concern for patients and nurses during the postoperative period. Therapies, medicines, and protocols have been developed to improve pain and anxiety but have undesirable risks to the patient. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies have been studied but have not been applied as regular protocols in the hospital setting. Music is one type of complementary and alternative medicine therapy that has been reported to have favorable results on reducing postoperative pain, anxiety, and opioid usage. However, music lacks a protocol that nurses can implement during the perioperative process. This paper is an in-depth literature review assessing a best practice recommendation and protocol that establishes a consensus in the use of music therapy. The results suggest that music therapy may consist of calming, soft tones of 60-80 beats per minute for at least 15-30 minutes at least twice daily during the pre- and postoperative periods. It is suggested that music only be used in conjunction with standards of care and not as the primary intervention of pain or anxiety. This evidence suggests that proper use of music therapy can significantly reduce surgical pain. Implementing these protocols and allowing the freedom of nursing staff to use them may lead to greater reductions in surgical pain and anxiety and a reduction in opioid use. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  16. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-05-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.

  17. Two Cheers for the Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Gallagher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Trafficking Protocol makes an easy target for attack. Its origins lie in an attempt to control a particularly exploitative form of migration that was challenging the ability of States to control their own borders. Its parent instrument is a framework agreement to address transnational organised crime. While paying fleeting attention to the rights of victims, the Protocol, with its emphasis on criminalisation and border protection is nowhere near being a human rights treaty. On top of all that it does not even have a credible enforcement mechanism, allowing states parties wide latitude in interpreting and applying their obligations. Strangely, these seemingly insurmountable flaws have not stopped the Protocol’s emergence as perhaps the single most important development in the fight against human trafficking. Without the Protocol, arguments around definitions would have continued to block the evolution of principles and rules. Without the Protocol it is likely that the human rights system would have continued its shameful tradition of sidelining issues such as forced labour, forced sex, forced marriage and the ritual exploitation of migrant workers through debt. Most critically, the Protocol provided the impetus and template for a series of legal and political developments that, over time, have served to ameliorate some of its greatest weaknesses, including the lack of human rights protections and of a credible oversight mechanism.

  18. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhomeja, L.D.; Soomro, I.A.; Malkani, Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity), Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared), etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike) communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth) from what the server has (e.g. WiFi), connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange), L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol), RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication) and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition) enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities. (author)

  19. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  20. Decellularization of placentas: establishing a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.P.C. Leonel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological biomaterials for tissue engineering purposes can be produced through tissue and/or organ decellularization. The remaining extracellular matrix (ECM must be acellular and preserve its proteins and physical features. Placentas are organs of great interest because they are discarded after birth and present large amounts of ECM. Protocols for decellularization are tissue-specific and have not been established for canine placentas yet. This study aimed at analyzing a favorable method for decellularization of maternal and fetal portions of canine placentas. Canine placentas were subjected to ten preliminary tests to analyze the efficacy of parameters such as the type of detergents, freezing temperatures and perfusion. Two protocols were chosen for further analyses using histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and DNA quantification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was the most effective detergent for cell removal. Freezing placentas before decellularization required longer periods of incubation in different detergents. Both perfusion and immersion methods were capable of removing cells. Placentas decellularized using Protocol I (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM TRIS, and 0.5% antibiotic preserved the ECM structure better, but Protocol I was less efficient to remove cells and DNA content from the ECM than Protocol II (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 0.05% trypsin, and 0.5% antibiotic.

  1. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle ( n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  2. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...... or truthfully reports that the edit distance between x and y is greater than k. For this problem, we give a randomized protocol in which Alice transmits at most O ˜ (klog 2 n) bits and each party’s time complexity is O ˜ (nlogn+k 2 log 2 n) . Our second result is a simultaneous protocol for edit distance over...... permutations. Here Alice and Bob both send a message to a third party (the referee) who does not have access to the input strings. Given the messages, the referee decides if the edit distance between x and y is at most k or not. For this problem we give a protocol in which Alice and Bob run a O...

  3. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  4. A class-chest for deriving transport protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strayer, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Development of new transport protocols or protocol algorithms suffers from the complexity of the environment in which they are intended to run. Modeling techniques attempt to avoid this by simulating the environment. Another approach to promoting rapid prototyping of protocols and protocol algorithms is to provide a pre-built infrastructure that is common to transport protocols, so that the focus is placed on the protocol-specific aspects. The Meta-Transport Library is a library of C++ base classes that implement or abstract out the mundane functions of a protocol, new protocol implementations are derived from base classes. The result is a fully viable user- level transport protocol implementation, with emphasis on modularity. The collection of base classes form a ``class-chest`` of tools .from which protocols can be developed and studied with as little change to a normal UNIX environment as possible.

  5. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B) is not a reliable screening tool for cognitive decline in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkers, C S; Beunders, A J M; Ensing, M H M; Barth, R E; Boelema, S; Devillé, W L J; Tempelman, H A; Coutinho, R A; Hoepelman, A I M; Arends, J E; van Zandvoort, M J E

    2018-02-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are frequently occurring comorbidities in HIV-positive patients, diagnosed by means of a neuropsychological assessment (NPA). Due to the magnitude of the HIV-positive population in Sub-Saharan Africa, easy-to-use cognitive screening tools are essential. This was a cross-sectional clinical trial involving 44 HIV-positive patients (on stable cART) and 73 HIV-negative controls completing an NPA, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), and a culturally appropriate cognitive screening tool, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B). HAND were diagnosed by calculating Z-scores using internationally published normative data on NPA, as well as by using data from the HIV-negative group to validate the MoCA-B. One hundred and seventeen patients were included (25% male, median age 35 years, median 11 years of education). A moderate correlation was found between the MoCA-B and NPA total Z-score (Pearson's r=0.36, p=0.02). Area under the curve (AUC) values for MoCA-B and IHDS were 0.59 and 0.70, respectively. The prevalence of HAND in HIV-positive patients was 66% when calculating Z-scores using published normative data versus 48% when using the data from the present HIV-negative cohort. The MoCA-B appeared not to be a valid screening tool for HAND in this setting. The prevalence of HAND in this setting is high, but appeared overestimated when using published norms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting multi-domain mild cognitive impairment in a Chinese sub-sample drawn from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YanHong; Yean Lee, Wah; Hilal, Saima; Saini, Monica; Wong, Tien Yin; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran

    2013-11-01

    We examined the discriminant validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting multiple-domain mild cognitive impairment (md-MCI) in a Chinese sub-sample drawn from elderly population-based study. This study included Chinese participants from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore (EDIS) study aged ≥ 60 years who underwent cognitive screening with the Abbreviated Mental Test and Progressive Forgetfulness Questionnaire. Screen-positive participants subsequently underwent MoCA, MMSE, and a comprehensive formal neuropsychological battery. MCI was defined by Petersen's criteria and further classified into single-domain MCI (sd-MCI) and md-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was computed for the MoCA and the MMSE in detecting md-MCI. A total of 300 participants were recruited: 128 (42.7%) were diagnosed with no cognitive impairment (NCI), 47 (15.7%) with sd-MCI, and 83 (28.0%) with md-MCI. Forty-one participants were excluded, 7 (2.3%) had dementia, and 34 (11.3%) had only objective cognitive impairment without subjective complaints. Although the MoCA had a significantly larger AUC than the MMSE (0.94 (95% CI = 0.91-0.97) vs. 0.91 (95% CI = 0.86-0.95), p= 0.04), at optimal cut-off points, the MoCA (19/20) was equivalent to the MMSE (25/26) in detecting md-MCI (sensitivity: 0.80 vs. 0.87, specificity: 0.92 vs. 0.80). Both screening tests had good discriminant validity and can be used in detecting md-MCI in a sub-sample of Chinese drawn from a population-based study.

  7. Measurement Error, Reliability, and Minimum Detectable Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Color Trails Test among Community Living Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Joanne; Savva, George M; O'Regan, Claire; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda; Cronin, Hilary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2016-05-31

    Knowing the reliability of cognitive tests, particularly those commonly used in clinical practice, is important in order to interpret the clinical significance of a change in performance or a low score on a single test. To report the intra-class correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC) for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Color Trails Test (CTT) among community dwelling older adults. 130 participants aged 55 and older without severe cognitive impairment underwent two cognitive assessments between two and four months apart. Half the group changed rater between assessments and half changed time of day. Mean (standard deviation) MMSE was 28.1 (2.1) at baseline and 28.4 (2.1) at repeat. Mean (SD) MoCA increased from 24.8 (3.6) to 25.2 (3.6). There was a rater effect on CTT, but not on the MMSE or MoCA. The SEM of the MMSE was 1.0, leading to an MDC (based on a 95% confidence interval) of 3 points. The SEM of the MoCA was 1.5, implying an MDC95 of 4 points. MoCA (ICC = 0.81) was more reliable than MMSE (ICC = 0.75), but all tests examined showed substantial within-patient variation. An individual's score would have to change by greater than or equal to 3 points on the MMSE and 4 points on the MoCA for the rater to be confident that the change was not due to measurement error. This has important implications for epidemiologists and clinicians in dementia screening and diagnosis.

  8. An one-time-pad key communication protocol with entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We present an one-time-pad key communication protocol that allows secure direct communication with entanglement. Alice can send message to Bob in a deterministic manner by using local measurements and public communication. The theoretical efficiency of this protocol is double compared with BB84 protocol. We show this protocol is unconditional secure under arbitrary quantum attack. And we discuss that this protocol can be perfectly implemented with current technologies.

  9. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-02-29

    The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79-0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86-0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these protocols can fully substitute

  10. Analysis of Security Protocols by Annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han

    . The development of formal techniques, e.g. control flow analyses, that can check various security properties, is an important tool to meet this challenge. This dissertation contributes to the development of such techniques. In this dissertation, security protocols are modelled in the process calculus LYSA......The trend in Information Technology is that distributed systems and networks are becoming increasingly important, as most of the services and opportunities that characterise the modern society are based on these technologies. Communication among agents over networks has therefore acquired a great...... deal of research interest. In order to provide effective and reliable means of communication, more and more communication protocols are invented, and for most of them, security is a significant goal. It has long been a challenge to determine conclusively whether a given protocol is secure or not...

  11. Breaking Megrelishvili protocol using matrix diagonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaki, Muhammad; Triantoro Murdiansyah, Danang; Adi Prabowo, Satrio

    2018-03-01

    In this article we conduct a theoretical security analysis of Megrelishvili protocol—a linear algebra-based key agreement between two participants. We study the computational complexity of Megrelishvili vector-matrix problem (MVMP) as a mathematical problem that strongly relates to the security of Megrelishvili protocol. In particular, we investigate the asymptotic upper bounds for the running time and memory requirement of the MVMP that involves diagonalizable public matrix. Specifically, we devise a diagonalization method for solving the MVMP that is asymptotically faster than all of the previously existing algorithms. We also found an important counterintuitive result: the utilization of primitive matrix in Megrelishvili protocol makes the protocol more vulnerable to attacks.

  12. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for paediatric neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Dawn E.; Thompson, Clare; Gunny, Roxanne; Jones, Rod; Cox, Tim; Chong, Wui Khean

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, radiologists are encouraged to have protocols for all imaging studies and to include imaging guidelines in care pathways set up by the referring clinicians. This is particularly advantageous in MRI where magnet time is limited and a radiologist's review of each patient's images often results in additional sequences and longer scanning times without the advantage of improvement in diagnostic ability. The difficulties of imaging small children and the challenges presented to the radiologist as the brain develops are discussed. We present our protocols for imaging the brain and spine of children based on 20 years experience of paediatric neurological MRI. The protocols are adapted to suit children under the age of 2 years, small body parts and paediatric clinical scenarios. (orig.)

  14. Demarcation of Security in Authentication Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Security analysis of communication protocols is a slippery business; many “secure” protocols later turn out to be insecure. Among many, two complains are more frequent: inadequate definition of security and unstated assumptions in the security model. In our experience, one principal cause...... for such state of affairs is an apparent overlap of security and correctness, which may lead to many sloppy security definitions and security models. Although there is no inherent need to separate security and correctness requirements, practically, such separation is significant. It makes security analysis...... easier, and enables us to define security goals with a fine granularity. We present one such separation, by introducing the notion of binding sequence as a security primitive. A binding sequence, roughly speaking, is the only required security property of an authentication protocol. All other...

  15. Will OPEC lose from the Kyoto Protocol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Jon; Dessai, Suraje; Webber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A range of energy-economy models forecast losses to members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) should the Kyoto Protocol come into force. These forecasts are a powerful influence in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations. They are used by OPEC to advance the agenda on the impacts of response measures, covertly arguing for compensation for lost oil revenues arising from implementation of the Protocol. This paper discusses this issue, and explores the key assumptions of these models and their uncertainties. Assumptions about carbon leakage, future availability of oil reserves, substitution, innovation, and capital turnover are considered. The paper suggests that losses will not affect OPEC countries equally, and that these losses are not likely to be as substantial as the models forecast. A range of policy measures are proposed to lessen any impact the Protocol may have on OPEC

  16. Structured Transition Protocol for Children with Cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients. This structured protocol depends on four areas of competency: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits (RISE. This protocol has not been tested and therefore challenges not realized. With a focus on medical, social, and educational/vocational aspects, we aim to improve transition for cystinosis patients in all aspects of their lives.

  17. Newborn hearing screening protocol in tuscany region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, Stefano; Ghirri, Paolo; Lazzerini, Francesco; Lenzi, Giovanni; Forli, Francesca

    2017-09-20

    Newborn hearing screening has to be considered the first step of a program for the identification, diagnosis, treatment and habilitation/rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment. In Tuscany Region of Italy, the universal newborn hearing screening is mandatory since november 2007. The first guidelines for the execution of the screening have been released in June 2008; then many other Italian regions partially or totally adopted these guidelines. On the basis of the experience from 2008 and according to the recent evidences in the scientific literature, a new screening protocol was released in Tuscany region. The new protocol is an evolution of the previous one. Some issues reported in the previous protocol and in the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing statement published in 2007 were revised, such as the risk factors for auditory neuropathy and for late onset, progressive or acquired hearing loss. The new updated guidelines were submitted to the Sanitary Regional Council and then they have been approved in August 2016. The updated screening protocol is mainly aimed to identify newborns with a congenital moderate-to-profound hearing loss, but it also provides indications for the audiological follow-up of children with risk's factor for progressive or late onset hearing loss; further it provides indications for the audiological surveillance of children at risk for acquired hearing impairment. Then, in the new guidelines the role of the family paediatrician in the newborn hearing screening and audiological follow-up and surveillance is underscored. Finally the new guidelines provide indications for the treatment with hearing aids and cochlear implant, in accordance with the recent Italian Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines. In the paper we report the modality of execution of the universal newborn hearing screening in the Tuscany Region, according to the recently updated protocol. The main features of the protocol and the critical issues are

  18. Turf Conversion Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings as a result of water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with converting turfgrass or other water-intensive plantings to water-wise and sustainable landscapes. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  19. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  20. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  1. Vicissitudes of Nagoya Protocol in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Blanco, Diana Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources is not only one of the central objectives of the Nagoya Protocol, but also a challenge for communities of scientists, researchers, and indigenous ancestral generally for the educational community. It is therefore essential to know what the real and material implications for the population, the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol, which despite having sufficient justification and argued, highlights the need to develop legal tools, economic, technological and education for proper and fair implementation.

  2. Evolution of a C2 protocol gateway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available real-time or slower than real-time, depending on the type of link and the data source: The gateway normally reads logged raw protocol data much faster than real-time; a simulation could also start running slower than real-time if it requires too... inherent support for logging and playback of the raw protocol data. From a software architecture perspective, each link has a corresponding link component that is responsible for opening and closing the connection, as well as reading and writing...

  3. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom......Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any...

  4. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Chen, Gongliang; Li, Jianhua; Li, Linsen; Alzahrani, Bander

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  5. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Mehmood

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  6. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  7. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    is formalised in an extension of the LySa process calculus with blinding signatures. The analysis, which is fully automatic, pinpoints previously undiscovered flaws related to verifiability and accuracy and we suggest modifications of the protocol needed for validating these properties....

  8. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  9. A Verifiable Language for Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    We develop a formal language for specifying cryptographic protocols in a structured and clear manner, which allows verification of many interesting properties; in particular confidentiality and integrity. The study sheds new light on the problem of creating intuitive and human readable languages...

  10. The Nagoya Protocol: Fragmentation or Consolidation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Richerzhagen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, a protocol on access and benefit-sharing (ABS of genetic resources was adopted, the so-called Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Before the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol, the governance architecture of ABS was already characterized by a multifaceted institutional environment. The use of genetic resources is confronted with many issues (conservation, research and development, intellectual property rights, food security, health issues, climate change that are governed by different institutions and agreements. The Nagoya Protocol contributes to increased fragmentation. However, the question arises whether this new regulatory framework can help to advance the implementation of the ABS provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. This paper attempts to find an answer to that question by following three analytical steps. First, it analyzes the causes of change against the background of theories of institutional change. Second, it aims to assess the typology of the architecture in order to find out if this new set of rules will contribute to a more synergistic, cooperative or conflictive architecture of ABS governance. Third, the paper looks at the problem of “fit” and identifies criteria that can be used to assess the new ABS governance architecture with regard to its effectiveness.

  11. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  12. Protocol design and implementation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of formal methods that support correct protocol design and implementation. These methods are placed in the framework of a design methodology for distributed systems that was studied and developed within the ESPRIT II Lotosphere project (2304). The paper focuses on

  13. On BAN logics for industrial security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agray, N.; Hoek, van der W.; Vink, de E.P.; Dunin-Keplicz, B.; Nawarecki, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on two case-studies of applying BAN logic to industrial strength security protocols. These studies demonstrate the flexibility of the BAN language, as it caters for the addition of appropriate constructs and rules. We argue that, although a semantical foundation of the formalism

  14. Radiotherapy QA of the DAHANCA 19 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe, E.; Andersen, E.; Hansen, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: It has been demonstrated that nonadherence to protocol-specified radiotherapy (RT) requirements is associated with reduced survival, local control and potentially increased toxicity [1]. Thus, quality assurance (QA) of RT is important when evaluating the results of clinical...

  15. Recursion Versus Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some very recent techniques from process algebra to draw interesting conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbee...

  16. Semantics and logic for security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.P.F.; Hasuo, I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sound BAN-like logic for reasoning about security protocols with theorem prover support. The logic has formulas for sending and receiving messages (with nonces, public and private encryptions, etc.), and has both temporal and epistemic operators (describing the knowledge of

  17. Monitoring System with Two Central Facilities Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caesar Firdaus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of data and information on government’s information system required proper way of defending against threat. Security aspect can be achieved by using cryptography algorithm, applying information hiding concept, and implementing security protocol. In this research, two central facilities protocol was implemented on Research and Development Center of Mineral and Coal Technology’s Cooperation Contract Monitoring System by utilizing AES and whitespace manipulation algorithm. Adjustment on the protocol by creating several rule of validation ID’s generation and checking processes could fulfill two of four cryptography objectives, consist of authentication and non-repudiation. The solid collaboration between central legitimization agency (CLA, central tabulating facility (CTF, and client is the main idea in two central facilities protocol. The utilization of AES algorithm could defend the data on transmission from man in the middle attack scenario. On the other hand, whitespace manipulation algorithm provided data integrity aspect of the document that is uploaded to the system itself. Both of the algorithm fulfill confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication.

  18. Formalization of Quantum Protocols using Coq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Boender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Information Processing, which is an exciting area of research at the intersection of physics and computer science, has great potential for influencing the future development of information processing systems. The building of practical, general purpose Quantum Computers may be some years into the future. However, Quantum Communication and Quantum Cryptography are well developed. Commercial Quantum Key Distribution systems are easily available and several QKD networks have been built in various parts of the world. The security of the protocols used in these implementations rely on information-theoretic proofs, which may or may not reflect actual system behaviour. Moreover, testing of implementations cannot guarantee the absence of bugs and errors. This paper presents a novel framework for modelling and verifying quantum protocols and their implementations using the proof assistant Coq. We provide a Coq library for quantum bits (qubits, quantum gates, and quantum measurement. As a step towards verifying practical quantum communication and security protocols such as Quantum Key Distribution, we support multiple qubits, communication and entanglement. We illustrate these concepts by modelling the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, which communicates the state of an unknown quantum bit using only a classical channel.

  19. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete computa...

  20. Behaviour Protocols Verification: Fighting State Explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, M.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2005), s. 22-30 ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : formal verification * software components * stateexplos ion * behavior protocols * parse trees Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software