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Sample records for undifferentiated bovine respiratory

  1. A comparison of the clinical field efficacy and safety of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease of cattle in western Canada.

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    Hoar, B R; Jelinski, M D; Ribble, C S; Janzen, E D; Johnson, J C

    1998-01-01

    We compared the field efficacy of a new antibiotic, florfenicol, with tilmicosin in the treatment of naturally occurring undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease. Beef calves with rectal temperatures greater than 40.5 degrees C and signs compatible with undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease were entered into the trial. Calves were randomly assigned to receive either florfenicol (20 mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly; 2 injections 48 h apart) or tilmicosin (10 mg/kg bodyweight subcutaneously; 1 injection). Clinical measures of efficacy included mortality, rectal temperature, illness index score, assessment of treatment success or failure, and the number of relapses or reinfections. Performance was assessed based on weight gains from day 0 to day 90. Two hundred and twenty calves entered the trial; 112 received florfenicol and 108 received tilmicosin. Seventeen deaths occurred between day 0 and day 90, but only 10 during the 28-day trial period. Seven calves receiving tilmicosin died, compared with 3 receiving florfenicol (P = 0.20). Of the 220 initial treatments, 45 (20%) were categorized as treatment failures; 27 in the tilmicosin group and 18 in the florfenicol group (P = 0.10). The number of calves experiencing a 2nd relapse was significantly different, with 17 of 30 (57%) calves on tilmicosin compared with 7 of 26 (27%) calves on florfenicol relapsing at least twice (P = 0.02). Average daily gains over 90 days were 1.55 kg/day for florfenicol-treated calves and 1.51 kg/day for tilmicosin-treated calves. No significant adverse reactions were noticed with either drug. Results indicate that florfenicol and tilmicosin are comparable in the treatment of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease in western Canada. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9524721

  2. Field study of the comparative efficacy of gamithromycin and tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease complex in beef feedlot calves.

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    Torres, Siddartha; Thomson, Dan U; Bello, Nora M; Nosky, Bruce J; Reinhardt, Chris D

    2013-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of gamithromycin with that of tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feedlot calves. 1,049 weaned crossbred beef calves. At each of 6 feedlots, newly arrived calves with BRDC were administered a single dose of gamithromycin (6.0 mg/kg, SC; n = 523) or tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg, SC; 526). Case-fatality and BRDC retreatment rates during the first 120 days after treatment, final body weight, and average daily gain (ADG), were compared between treatments. At 2 feedlots, calves were assigned clinical scores for 10 days after treatment to determine recovery rates for each treatment. Bioequivalence limits for gamithromycin and tulathromycin were calculated for outcomes for which there was no significant difference between treatments. Mean BRDC retreatment rate (17.7%) for calves administered gamithromycin was greater than that (9.0%) for calves administered tulathromycin. Mean case-fatality rate, final body weight, ADG, and clinical score 10 days after treatment did not differ significantly between treatments. Limits for mean differences within which gamithromycin was bioequivalent to tulathromycin were ± 2.4% for case-fatality rate, ± 13 kg for final body weight, and ± 0.1 kg/d for ADG. Calves administered gamithromycin had a higher BRDC retreatment rate than did calves administered tulathromycin; otherwise, the clinical efficacy did not differ between the 2 treatments for the treatment of BRDC in feedlot calves.

  3. Field study of the comparative efficacy of gamithromycin and tulathromycin for the control of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease complex in beef feedlot calves at high risk of developing respiratory tract disease.

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    Torres, Siddartha; Thomson, Dan U; Bello, Nora M; Nosky, Bruce J; Reinhardt, Chris D

    2013-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of gamithromycin with that of tulathromycin for control of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feedlot calves. 2,529 weaned crossbred beef calves. At each of 2 feedlots, calves at risk of developing BRDC were administered a single dose of gamithromycin (6.0 mg/kg, SC; n = 1,263) or tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg, SC; 1,266) metaphylactically. Health (BRDC morbidity, mortality, case-fatality, and retreatment rates) and performance (average daily gain, dry matter intake, and feed-to-gain ratio) outcomes were compared between treatments via classical hypothesis testing. Bioequivalence limits for gamithromycin and tulathromycin were established for outcomes for which no significant difference between treatments was detected. Mean BRDC morbidity rate (31.0%) for calves administered gamithromycin was greater than that (22.9%) for calves administered tulathromycin; otherwise, health and performance did not differ between treatments. Limits for mean differences within which gamithromycin was considered bioequivalent to tulathromycin were ± 10% for BRDC retreatment rate, ± 3.5% for BRDC mortality rate, ± 16% for case-fatality rate, ± 37 kg for final body weight, ± 0.1 kg/d for average daily gain, ± 0.3 kg/d for dry matter intake, and ± 0.7 for feed-to-gain ratio. The efficacy of gamithromycin did not differ from that of tulathromycin for all outcomes except morbidity rate; calves administered gamithromycin had a higher BRDC morbidity rate than did calves administered tulathromycin. On the basis of the bioequivalence limits established for this dataset, gamithromycin was considered equivalent to tulathromycin for the control of BRDC.

  4. Non-inferiority of nitric oxide releasing intranasal spray compared to sub-therapeutic antibiotics to reduce incidence of undifferentiated fever and bovine respiratory disease complex in low to moderate risk beef cattle arriving at a commercial feedlot.

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    Regev-Shoshani, G; McMullin, B; Nation, N; Church, J S; Dorin, C; Miller, C

    2017-03-01

    Undifferentiated fever, or bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc), is a challenging multi-factorial health issue caused by viral/bacterial pathogens and stressors linked to the transport and mixing of cattle, negatively impacting the cattle feedlot industry. Common practice during processing at feedlots is administration of antibiotic metaphylaxis to reduce the incidence of BRDc. Nitric oxide (NO) is a naturally occurring nano-molecule with a wide range of physiological attributes. This study evaluated the metaphylactic use of intranasal NO releasing spray (NORS) to control BRDc incidence in calves at low-moderate risk of developing BRDc, arriving at a commercial feedlot as compared to conventional antibiotic metaphylaxis. One thousand and eighty crossbred, multiple-sourced, commingled, commercial, weaned beef calves were screened, enrolled, randomized and treated upon arrival. Animals appearing sick were pulled (from their pen) by blinded pen keepers then assessed for BRDc symptoms; blood samples were taken for haptoglobin quantification and the animals were rescued with an antibiotic. After 35 days both groups showed no significant difference in BRDc incidence (5.2% of animals from NORS group and 3.2% from antibiotic group). Average daily weight gain of animals at day 150 for the NORS cohort was 1.17kg compared to 1.18kg for the antibiotic group (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in mortality in the first 35 days (p=0.7552), however, general mortality over 150 days trended higher in the antibiotic cohort. NORS treatment was shown to be safe, causing neither distress nor adverse effects on the animals. This large randomized controlled study in low-moderate BRDc incidence risk calves demonstrates that NORS treatment, as compared to conventional metaphylactic antibiotics, is non-inferior based on BRDc incidence and other metrics like weight and mortality. These data justify further studies in higher BRDc incidence risk populations to evaluate NORS as

  5. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

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    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  6. Long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from immature and adult bovine testes.

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    Suyatno; Kitamura, Yuka; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Minami, Naojiro; Yamada, Masayasu; Imai, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Undifferentiated spermatogonia eventually differentiate in the testis to produce haploid sperm. Within this cell population, there is a small number of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSCs are rare cells in the testis, and their cellular characteristics are poorly understood. Establishment of undifferentiated cell line would provide an indispensable tool for studying their biological nature and spermiogenesis/spermatogenesis in vitro. However, there have been few reports on the long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia in species other than rodents. Here, we report the derivation and long-term in vitro culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia cell lines from immature and adult bovine testes. Cell lines from immature testes were maintained in serum-free culture conditions in the presence of glial-cell-line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) and bovine leukemia inhibitory factor (bLIF). These cell lines have embryonic stem (ES)-like cell morphology, express pluripotent-stem-cell-specific and germ-cell-specific markers at the protein and mRNA levels, and contributed to the inner cell mass (ICM) of embryos in the blastocyst stage. Meanwhile, cell lines established from adult testes were maintained in low-serum media in the presence of 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO). These cell lines have characteristics resembling those of previously reported male mouse germ cell lines as confirmed by their botryoidally aggregated morphology, as well as the expression of germ-cell-specific markers and pluripotent stem cell markers. These findings could be useful for the development of long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia, which could aid in conservation of species and improvement of livestock production through genome editing technology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

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    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  8. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

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    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  9. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

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    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs.

  10. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

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    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  11. Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex.

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    Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Kelling, Clayton L; Ambagala, Aruna

    2007-12-01

    Bovine respiratory tract disease is a multi-factorial disease complex involving several viruses and bacteria. Viruses that play prominent roles in causing the bovine respiratory disease complex include bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and parinfluenza-3 virus. Bacteria that play prominent roles in this disease complex are Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis. Other bacteria that infect the bovine respiratory tract of cattle are Histophilus (Haemophilus) somni and Pasteurella multocida. Frequently, severe respiratory tract disease in cattle is associated with concurrent infections of these pathogens. Like other pathogens, the viral and bacterial pathogens of this disease complex have co-evolved with their hosts over millions of years. As much as the hosts have diversified and fine-tuned the components of their immune system, the pathogens have also evolved diverse and sophisticated strategies to evade the host immune responses. These pathogens have developed intricate mechanisms to thwart both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses of their hosts. This review presents an overview of the strategies by which the pathogens suppress host immune responses, as well as the strategies by which the pathogens modify themselves or their locations in the host to evade host immune responses. These immune evasion strategies likely contribute to the failure of currently-available vaccines to provide complete protection to cattle against these pathogens.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

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    Dassanayake, Rohana P.; Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Briggs, Robert E.; Tatum, Fred M.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activi...

  13. Bovine respiratory disease associated with Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil

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    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a complex multifactorial and multi-etiological disease entity that is responsible for the morbidity and mortality particularly in feedlot cattle from North America. Information relative to the occurrence of BRD in Brazil and the associated infectious agents are lacking. This study investigated the participation of infectious agents of BRD in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 11% (10/90 of cattle (n, 450 with clinical manifestations of respiratory distress were analyzed by targeting specific genes of the principal infectious pathogens of BRD. In addition, pulmonary fragments of one the animals that died were collected for histopathological and molecular diagnoses. The nucleic acids of Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were identified in 20% (2/10 of the nasopharyngeal swabs of the animals with respiratory distress; another contained only BRSV RNA. Moreover, the nucleic acids of both infectious agents were amplified from the pulmonary fragments of the animal that died with histopathological evidence of bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia; the nasopharyngeal swab of this animal also contained the nucleic acids of both pathogens. Additionally, all PCR and/or RT-PCR assays designed to detect the specific genes of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus -1, bovine parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine coronavirus yielded negative results. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the isolates of H. somni circulating in Brazil are similar to those identified elsewhere, while there seem to be diversity between the isolates of BRSV within cattle herds from different geographical locations of Brazil.

  14. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin versus a combination of florfenicol-oxytetracycline in the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory disease in large numbers of sheep

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    Mohsen Champour; Alinaghi Taghipour

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of tulathromycin (TUL) with a combination of florfenicol (FFC) and long-acting oxytetracycline (LAOTC) in the treatment of naturally occurring undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. In this study, seven natural outbreaks of sheep pneumonia in Garmsar, Iran were considered. From these outbreaks, 400 sheep exhibiting the signs of respiratory diseases were selected, and the sheep were randomly divided into two equa...

  15. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

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    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni.

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    Rohana P Dassanayake

    Full Text Available Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni. Four, 30-mer peptides corresponding to the functional region of NK-lysin helices 2 and 3 were synthesized and assessed for antibacterial activity on four bovine pneumonic H. somni isolates. Although there were some differences in the efficiency of bactericidal activity among the NK-lysin peptides at lower concentrations (2-5 μM, all four peptides effectively killed most H. somni isolates at higher concentrations (10-30 μM as determined by a bacterial killing assay. Confocal microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of Live/Dead Baclight stained H. somni (which were preincubated with NK-lysin peptides were consistent with the killing assay findings and suggest NK-lysin peptides are bactericidal for H. somni. Among the four peptides, NK2A-derived peptide consistently showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all four H. somni isolates. Electron microscopic examination of H. somni following incubation with NK-lysin revealed extensive cell membrane damage, protrusions of outer membranes, and cytoplasmic content leakage. Taken together, the findings from this study clearly demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of all four bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides against bovine H. somni isolates.

  17. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin versus a combination of florfenicol-oxytetracycline in the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory disease in large numbers of sheep

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    Mohsen Champour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of tulathromycin (TUL with a combination of florfenicol (FFC and long-acting oxytetracycline (LAOTC in the treatment of naturally occurring undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. In this study, seven natural outbreaks of sheep pneumonia in Garmsar, Iran were considered. From these outbreaks, 400 sheep exhibiting the signs of respiratory diseases were selected, and the sheep were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was treated with a single injection of TUL (dosed at 2.5 mg/kg body weight, and the second group was treated with concurrent injections of FFC (dosed at 40 mg/kg bwt and LAOTC (dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt. In the first group, 186 (93% sheep were found to be cured 5 days after the injection, and 14 (7% sheep needed further treatment, of which 6 (3% were cured, and 8 (4% died. In the second group, 172 (86% sheep were cured after the injections, but 28 (14% sheep needed further treatment, of which 10 (5% were cured, and 18 (9% died. This study revealed that TUL was more efficacious as compared to the combined treatment using FFC and LAOTC. As the first report, this field trial describes the successful treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in large numbers of sheep. Thus, TUL can be used for the treatment of undifferentiated respiratory diseases in sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 279-284

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay.

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    Costa, M; García, L; Yunus, A S; Rockemann, D D; Samal, S K; Cristina, J

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in calves resulting in a substantial economic loss for the cattle industry worldwide. In order to determine the presence of BRSV in Uruguay, an immunoenzymatic test was set up, using a recombinant BRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen. The N protein was produced in Sf9 insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus expressing the N protein. Serum samples collected from one hundred cattle from four different geographic regions of Uruguay were analyzed. Antibodies against the N protein of BRSV were detected in 95% of the serum samples analyzed. These results show for the first time the presence of BRSV antibodies and suggest a widespread BRSV infection in the cattle population of Uruguay.

  19. The association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in Ontario feedlot calves.

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    Martin, S W; Bohac, J G

    1986-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. A total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). Titer...

  20. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway.

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    Klem, Thea B; Rimstad, Espen; Stokstad, Maria

    2014-01-14

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. BRSV infection was detected either serologically and/or virologically in 18 (86%) of 21 outbreaks and in most cases as a single viral agent. When serology indicated that bovine coronavirus and/or bovine parainfluenza virus 3 were present, the number of BRSV positive animals in the herd was always higher, supporting the view of BRSV as the main pathogen. Sequencing of the G gene of BRSV positive samples showed that the current circulating Norwegian BRSVs belong to genetic subgroup II, along with other North European isolates. One isolate from an outbreak in Norway in 1976 was also investigated. This strain formed a separate branch in subgroup II, clearly different from the current Scandinavian sequences. The currently circulating BRSV could be divided into two different strains that were present in the same geographical area at the same time. The sequence variations between the two strains were in an antigenic important part of the G protein. The results demonstrated that BRSV is the most important etiological agent of epidemics of BRD in Norway and that it often acts as the only viral agent. The phylogenetic analysis of the Norwegian strains of BRSV and several previously published isolates supported the theory of geographical and temporal clustering of BRSV.

  1. Bovine pasteurellosis and other bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

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    Griffin, Dee

    2010-03-01

    Despite technological, biologic, and pharmacologic advances the bacterial component of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex continues to have a major adverse effect on the health and wellbeing of stocker and feeder cattle. Overlooked in this disappointing assessment is evaluation of the effects that working with younger, lighter-weight cattle have on managing the bacterial component of the BRD complex. Most problems associated with BRD come from cattle taken from and comingled with cattle operations that have inconsistent or nonexistent cattle health management. This article reviews the biologic, clinical, and management aspects of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis, primarily as related to current production management considerations of stocker and feeder cattle. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

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    Gilberto Vaughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission.

  3. The role of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine respiratory disease outbreaks in veal calf feedlots.

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    Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Duet, Arnaud; Meyer, Gilles; Dernburg, Ann; Bézille, Pierre; Poumarat, François; Le Grand, Dominique

    2008-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and relative importance of Mycoplasma bovis among the pathological agents implicated in bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we surveyed 135 veal calves from nine feedlots in eastern France during naturally occurring outbreaks of respiratory disease. Occurrence of respiratory pathogens, M. bovis, bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus and parainfluenza-3 (PI3) virus was investigated by seroconversion and isolation of bacteria and viruses from broncho-alveolar fluids. M. bovis and pathogenic respiratory bacteria were isolated in eight of the nine feedlots, and from 106 and 32, respectively, of the 135 tested animals. Seroconversion to PI3 virus occurred in four lots. BVD and BRS viruses were detected in eight and one lot, respectively. M. bovis was the most frequently isolated aetiologic agent in these BRD outbreaks, spreading early and widely throughout the affected units (60-100% rate of isolation and seroconversion). These results stress the importance of M. bovis in the BRD complex.

  4. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

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    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  5. Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk against two indirect ELISAs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Toft, Nils; Stokstad, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. The Norwegian control program against these infections is based on herd-level diagnosis using a new multiplex immunoassay. The objective of this study...

  6. Development of a one-run real-time PCR detection system for pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Mai; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Sugimura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Komatsu, Natsumi; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Naoi, Yuki; Sano, Kaori; Okazaki-Terashima, Sachiko; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Sato, Reiichiro; Asai, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2017-03-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them. The assay performance was assessed using standard curves from synthesized DNA. In addition, the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking solutions extracted from nasal swabs that were negative by Dembo respiratory-PCR for nucleic acids of pathogens or synthesized DNA. All primer-probe sets showed high sensitivity. In this study, a total of 40 nasal swab samples from cattle on six farms were tested by Dembo respiratory-PCR. Dembo respiratory-PCR can be applied as a screening system with wide detection targets.

  7. Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orro, Toomas; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Rikula, Ulla; Huovilainen, Anita; Alasuutari, Sakari; Sihvonen, Liisa; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Bovine acute phase proteins (APPs), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were evaluated as inflammatory markers during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves (n = 10) presented mild to moderate signs of respiratory disease. Secondary bacterial infections, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma dispar as major species, were detected in tracheobronchial lavage samples. Concentrations of SAA and LBP increased at week 1 had the highest values at week 3 and decreased at week 4 of outbreak. Some calves had high Hp concentrations at week 3, but AGP concentrations did not rise during respiratory disease. Higher SAA, LBP and Hp concentrations at a later stage of BRD (week 3) were associated with the low BRSV-specific IgG(1) production, suggesting that these calves had enhanced inflammatory response to the secondary bacterial infection. In conclusion, APPs (especially SAA and LBP) are sensitive markers of respiratory infection, and they may be useful to explore host response to the respiratory infections in clinical research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.

  9. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M; Herrler, Georg

    2014-02-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this purpose, two culture systems for well-differentiated BAEC were used: the air-liquid interface (ALI) system, where filter-grown BAEC differentiate into a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) where BAEC are maintained in the original tissue organisation. Comparative infection studies demonstrated that entry and release of BPIV3 occurred specifically via the apical membrane with ciliated cells being the major target cells. By contrast, airway epithelial cells were largely resistant to infection by BHV-1. When the epithelial barrier was abolished by opening tight junctions or by injuring the cell monolayer, BHV-1 infected mainly basal cells. Respiratory epithelial cells were also refractory to infection by BRSV. However, this virus infected neither differentiated epithelial cells nor basal cells when the integrity of the epithelial barrier was destroyed. In contrast to cells of the airway epithelium, subepithelial cells were susceptible to infection by BRSV. Altogether, these results indicate that the three viruses of the same disease complex follow different strategies to interact with the airway epithelium. Possible entry mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Histophilus somni biofilm formation in cardiopulmonary tissue of the bovine host following respiratory challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Indra; Shao, Jian Q.; Annadata, Satish

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms form in a variety of host sites following infection with many bacterial species. However, the study of biofilms in a host is hindered due to the lack of protocols for the proper experimental investigation of biofilms in vivo. Histophilus somni is an agent of respiratory and systemic...... diseases in bovines, and readily forms biofilms in vitro. In the present study the capability of H. somni to form biofilms in cardiopulmonary tissue following experimental respiratory infection in the bovine host was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy...... haemagglutinin (FHA), predicted to be involved in attachment. Thus, this investigation demonstrated that H. somni is capable of forming a biofilm in its natural host, that such a biofilm may be capable of harboring other bovine respiratory disease pathogens, and that the genes responsible for biofilm formation...

  11. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonur, Leenadevi; Maley, Madeleine; Gilray, Janice; Crook, Tara; Laming, Ellie; Turnbull, Dylan; Nath, Mintu; Willoughby, Kim

    2012-03-28

    Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii) nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI) and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binding (MGB) and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and analyze data from controlled studies on the effectiveness of vaccinating cattle with commercially available viral antigen vaccines for mitigation of the effects of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Systematic review and meta-analysis. 31 studies comprising 88 trials. Studies that reported the effectiveness of commercially available bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3) vaccines for protection of cattle against BRDC or its components were included in the analysis. Studies or trials were categorized as natural exposure or experimental challenge and were further divided by the viral antigen evaluated and vaccine type (modified-live virus [MLV] or inactivated vaccine). Meta-analysis was performed; summary Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios were determined, and Forest plots were generated. In natural exposure trials, beef calves vaccinated with various antigen combinations had a significantly lower BRDC morbidity risk than did nonvaccinated control calves. In trials evaluating BHV-1 and MLV BVDV vaccines in experimental challenge models, vaccinated calves had a lower BRDC morbidity risk than did control calves; however, in experimental challenge trials evaluating MLV BRSV and PI3 vaccines, no significant difference in morbidity or mortality risk was found between vaccinated and control calves. Estimating clinical efficacy from results of experimental challenge studies requires caution because these models differ substantially from those involving natural exposure. The literature provides data but does not provide sufficiently strong evidence to guide definitive recommendations for determining which virus components are necessary to include in a vaccination program for prevention or mitigation of BRDC in cattle.

  13. Pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlots conferring multidrug resistance via integrative conjugative elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Cassidy L; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Booker, Calvin W; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD.

  14. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  15. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the o......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... that the vaccine induced only sparse levels of antibodies probably due to the presence of maternally derived antibodies at the time of vaccination. Necropsy findings in 5 calves revealed changes typical for infectious pneumonia with involvment of BRSV. In conclusion, vaccination of calves against BRSV in 2 Danish...

  16. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonur Leenadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  17. Genetic and antigenic analysis of the G attachment protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvander, M.; Vilcek, S.; Baule, C.

    1998-01-01

    Antigenic and genetic studies of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were made on isolates obtained from three continents over 27 years. Antigenic variation between eight isolates was initially determined using protein G-specific monoclonal antibodies. Four distinct reaction patterns were...... of a 731 nucleotide fragment in the G protein gene. Nine of the BRSV strains were analysed by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons whereas sequences of 18 BRSV and three human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains were obtained from GenBank. The analysis revealed similarities of 88-100% among BRSV...

  18. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    Full Text Available Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq. The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease.

  19. Tissue Tropism in Host Transcriptional Response to Members of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Susanta K; Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Grupioni, Natalia V; Seabury, Christopher M; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L; Regitano, Luciana C A; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2017-12-20

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common infectious disease of beef and dairy cattle and is characterized by a complex infectious etiology that includes a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens. We examined the global changes in mRNA abundance in healthy lung and lung lesions and in the lymphoid tissues bronchial lymph node, retropharyngeal lymph node, nasopharyngeal lymph node and pharyngeal tonsil collected at the peak of clinical disease from beef cattle experimentally challenged with either bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis. We identified signatures of tissue-specific transcriptional responses indicative of tropism in the coordination of host's immune tissue responses to infection by viral or bacterial infections. Furthermore, our study shows that this tissue tropism in host transcriptional response to BRD pathogens results in the activation of different networks of response genes. The differential crosstalk among genes expressed in lymphoid tissues was predicted to be orchestrated by specific immune genes that act as 'key players' within expression networks. The results of this study serve as a basis for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies and for the selection of cattle with enhanced resistance to BRD.

  20. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF BAN HUANG ORAL LIQUID FOR TREATING BOVINE RESPIRATORY DISEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhou, Xu-Zheng; Niu, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Xi-Wang; Cheng, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Ban Huang oral liquid was developed as a veterinary compound preparation by the Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the oral liquid preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, Ban Huang, is safe and effective for treating respiratory diseases in cattle. Acute oral toxicity experiments were conducted in Wistar rats and Kunming mice via oral administration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the drug against Mycoplasma bovis in vitro with the double dilution method was 500 mg/mL, indicating good sensitivity. The results of laboratory pathogen testing, analysis of clinical symptoms, and analysis of pathological anatomy were combined to diagnose bovine respiratory diseases in 147 Simmental cattle caused by mixed infections of M. bovis , bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, and Mannheimia haemolytica . These cattle were randomly divided into three groups: drug treatment group 1 (treated via Tilmicosin injection), drug treatment group 2 (treated with Shuang Huang Lian oral liquid combined with Tilmicosin injection), and drug treatment group 3 (treated with Ban Huang oral liquid combined with Tilmicosin injection). Treatment effects were observed within 7 days. The results showed no toxicity and a maximum tolerated dose greater than 20 g/kg BW. For the 87 cattle in drug-treatment group, the cure rate was 90.80%, whereas the response rate was 94.25%. The cure rate of drug treatment group was increased by 14.13% in comparison with that of drug control group 1 and by 7.47% in comparison with that of drug control group 2 (both P bovine respiratory diseases, especially for mixed infection caused by M. bovis , bacteria, and viruses.

  1. Respiratory explants as a model to investigate early events of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Teodoro, Giovanni; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Di Provvido, Andrea; Orsini, Gianluca; Ronchi, Gaetano Federico; D'Angelo, Anna Rita; D'Alterio, Nicola; Sacchini, Flavio; Scacchia, Massimo

    2018-01-12

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Knowledge on CBPP pathogenesis is fragmented and hampered by the limited availability of laboratory animal and in vitro models of investigation. The purpose of the present study is to assess respiratory explants as useful tools to study the early stages of CBPP. Explants were obtained from trachea, bronchi and lungs of slaughtered cattle, tested negative for Mycoplasma spp. and for the major bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. The interaction of Mmm with explant cells was studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC), double-labelling indirect immunofluorescence (DLIIF) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Mmm capability to survive and proliferate within the explants was evaluated by standard microbiological procedures. Finally, the putative cellular internalization of Mmm was further investigated by the gentamicin invasion assay. IHC and DLIIF indicated that Mmm can colonize explants, showing a marked tropism for lower airways. Specifically, Mmm was detected on/inside the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells, the alveolar macrophages and the endothelial cells. The interaction between Mmm and explant cells was abolished by the pre-incubation of the pathogen with bovine anti-Mmm immune sera. Mmm was able to survive and proliferate in all tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, during the entire time course of the experiments. LSCM and gentamicin invasion assay both confirmed that Mmm can enter non-phagocytic host cells. Taken together, our data supports bovine respiratory explants as a promising tool to investigate CBPP, alternative to cattle experimental infection.

  2. Infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from caprine lungs by viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Keil, Günther M; Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Ganter, Martin; Herrler, Georg

    2014-05-14

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are important pathogens associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Non-bovine ruminants such as goats may also be infected and serve as a virus reservoir to be considered in the development of control strategies. To evaluate the susceptibility of caprine airway epithelial cells to infection by viruses of BRDC, we established a culture system for differentiated caprine epithelial cells. For this purpose, we generated precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), in which cells are retained in their original structural configuration and remain viable for more than a week. The three bovine viruses were found to preferentially infect different cell types. Ciliated epithelial cells were the major target cells of BPIV3, whereas BHV-1 preferred basal cells. Cells infected by BRSV were detected in submucosal cell layers. This spectrum of susceptible cells is the same as that reported recently for infected bovine PCLS. While infection of caprine cells by BRSV and BPIV3 was as efficient as that reported for bovine cells, infection of caprine cells by BHV-1 required a tenfold higher dose of infectious virus as compared to infection of bovine airway cells. These results support the notion that non-bovine ruminants may serve as a reservoir for viruses of BRDC and introduce a culture system to analyze virus infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from the caprine lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  4. Agreement Among 4 Sampling Methods to Identify Respiratory Pathogens in Dairy Calves with Acute Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D; Credille, B; Lehenbauer, T W; Berghaus, R; Aly, S S; Champagne, J; Blanchard, P; Crossley, B; Berghaus, L; Cochran, S; Woolums, A

    2017-05-01

    Four sampling techniques commonly are used for antemortem identification of pathogens from cattle with bovine respiratory disease (BRD): the nasal swab (NS), guarded nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transtracheal wash (TTW). Agreement among these methods has not been well characterized. To evaluate agreement among TTW and NS, NPS, or BAL for identification of viral and bacterial pathogens in dairy calves with BRD. One hundred dairy calves with naturally acquired BRD. Calves were sampled by all 4 methods. Viral agents were identified by real-time RT-PCR, bacteria were identified by aerobic culture, and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) isolates were speciated by PCR. Agreement among TTW and NS, NPS, or BAL was evaluated by calculating the kappa statistic and percent positive agreement. McNemar's exact test was used to compare the proportions of positive results. Agreement among TTW and NS, TTW and NPS, and TTW and BAL, was very good for identification of P. multocida, M. haemolytica, and M. bovis. For bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), agreement with TTW was moderate for NS, good for NPS, and very good for BAL. For bovine coronavirus (BCV), agreement with TTW was moderate for NS and NPS, and good for BAL. McNemar's test was significant only for BCV, indicating that for this pathogen the proportion of positive results from NS and NPS could not be considered comparable to TTW. This study provides guidance for veterinarians selecting diagnostic tests for antemortem identification of pathogens associated with BRD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Duration of immunity of a four-valent vaccine against bovine respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Philippe-Reversat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the duration of immunity over 6 months of a vaccine against key bovine respiratory disease pathogens: Parainfluenza 3, Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea and Mannheimia haemolytica. This was performed by challenge on colostrum-deprived calves at the age of 2 weeks. Recent European field isolates were used as challenge strains. Clinical signs and pathogen excretion or presence were monitored. Field relevance of the viral challenge strains was analysed using phylogenic analysis. Significant reduction of excretion of the 3 viruses in vaccinated animals was a consistent finding, demonstrating the efficacy of the vaccine. Reducing shedding is indeed key to interrupting the infection transmission chain and helping to achieve the protective effects of immunisation that extend beyond the individual. A significant reduction of clinical signs and lung lesions following the Mannheimia haemolytica challenge was also observed in vaccinated animals versus controls. Comparison of the challenge strains to an array of global and European strains, including recent ones, demonstrated a high genetic proximity, supporting the potential for the vaccine to maintain similar levels of efficacy in the field over a 6-month period post vaccination.

  6. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of Oral Administration of Sodium Iodide to Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemake, B M; Vander Ley, B L; Newcomer, B W; Heller, M C

    2018-01-01

    The prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) in beef cattle is important to maintaining health and productivity of calves in feeding operations. Determine whether BRD bacterial and viral pathogens are susceptible to the lactoperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/iodide (LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - ) system in vitro and to determine whether the oral administration of sodium iodide (NaI) could achieve sufficient concentrations of iodine (I) in the respiratory secretions of weaned beef calves to inactivate these pathogens in vivo. Sixteen weaned, apparently healthy, commercial beef calves from the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching herd. In vitro viral and bacterial assays were performed to determine susceptibility to the LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - system at varying concentrations of NaI. Sixteen randomly selected, healthy crossbred beef weanlings were administered 70 mg/kg NaI, or water, orally in a blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Blood and nasal secretions were collected for 72 hours and analyzed for I - concentration. Bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi were all inactivated or inhibited in vitro by the LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - reaction. Oral administration of NaI caused a marked increase in nasal fluid I concentration with a C max  = 181 (1,420 μM I), T 12 , a sufficient concentration to inactivate these pathogens in vitro. In vitro, the LPO/H 2 O 2 /I - system inactivates and inhibits common pathogens associated with BRD. The administration of oral NaI significantly increases the I concentration of nasal fluid indicating that this system might be useful in preventing bovine respiratory infections. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004...

  9. Spatial patterns of Bovine Corona Virus and Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Swedish beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Camilla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both bovine coronavirus (BCV and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV infections are currently wide-spread in the Swedish dairy cattle population. Surveys of antibody levels in bulk tank milk have shown very high nationwide prevalences of both BCV and BRSV, with large variations between regions. In the Swedish beef cattle population however, no investigations have yet been performed regarding the prevalence and geographical distribution of BCV and BRSV. A cross-sectional serological survey for BCV and BRSV was carried out in Swedish beef cattle to explore any geographical patterns of these infections. Methods Blood samples were collected from 2,763 animals located in 2,137 herds and analyzed for presence of antibodies to BCV and BRSV. Moran's I was calculated to assess spatial autocorrelation, and identification of geographical cluster was performed using spatial scan statistics. Results Animals detected positive to BCV or BRSV were predominately located in the central-western and some southern parts of Sweden. Moran's I indicated global spatial autocorrelation. BCV and BRSV appeared to be spatially related: two areas in southern Sweden (Skaraborg and Skåne had a significantly higher prevalence of BCV (72.5 and 65.5% respectively; almost the same two areas were identified as being high-prevalence clusters for BRSV (69.2 and 66.8% respectively. An area in south-east Sweden (Kronoberg-Blekinge had lower prevalences for both infections than expected (23.8 and 20.7% for BCV and BRSV respectively. Another area in middle-west Sweden (Värmland-Dalarna had also a lower prevalence for BRSV (7.9%. Areas with beef herd density > 10 per 100 km2 were found to be at significantly higher risk of being part of high-prevalence clusters. Conclusion These results form a basis for further investigations of between-herds dynamics and risk factors for these infections in order to design effective control strategies.

  10. Prevalence, characterization and antibiotic resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from bovine respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Rezagholipour, Mojtaba; Fallah, Sepideh; Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Chelliah, Shamini; Velappan, Rita Devi; Wei, Kelvin Swee Chuan; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, characterization and antibiotic resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from calves with respiratory infection in Iran. P. multocida was detected in 141/169 bovine respiratory infection cases on Iranian dairy and beef farms. P. multocida were grouped into serogroups A (126/141), D (12/141), and B (3/141). Of the P.  multocida isolates, all harboured the psl, ompH, oma87, fimA, ptfA, nanB, and nanH genes, 139/141 had hsf-2, and 115/141 pfhA, and tadD. The isolates were most frequently resistant to penicillin G (43/141 resistant isolates; 30.5%) and streptomycin (31/141; 22%). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Efficacy of metaphylactic florfenicol therapy during natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, B; Duchateau, L; Van de Ven, J; Laevens, H; Opsomer, G; Haesebrouck, F; De Kruif, A

    2008-10-01

    The efficacy of an injectable formulation of florfenicol (300 mg/mL) as metaphylactic control of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was evaluated in two double-blind randomly controlled field studies on two Dutch veal calf herds (A and B). Cattle aged not older than 3 months and in the direct presence of calves with clinical respiratory disease were randomly allocated to treatment with 40 mg/kg florfenicol subcutaneously (s.c.) a positive control treatment (12.5 mg/kg tilmicosin p.o. twice daily for five consecutive days in herd A, and 12.5 mg/kg doxycycline p.o. twice daily for five consecutive days in herd B), or a negative control (one placebo saline s.c. administration on D0). The predominant respiratory pathogens present in pretreatment respiratory samples from affected animals were Mycoplasma bovis and Pasteurella multocida in outbreaks A and B, respectively. Metaphylactic administration of florfenicol resulted in a statistically significant weight gain, decreased rectal temperature for five consecutive days after treatment and decreased metaphylactic failure percentages compared with both positive and negative control groups. In summary, these studies demonstrated that a single s.c. injection of florfenicol is effective and practical for control of the bacterial component of BRD in veal calves.

  12. BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ON CATTLE HERDS OF CAMPECHE STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Alberto Encalada Mena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High seroprevalence in Yucatan and proximity to the state of Campeche make it necessary to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB in the state of Campeche, Mexico. Thus the objective of the present work was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV of the state of Campeche, Mexico. The sampled of 36 cattle herds (842 sera were analyzed by indirect ELISA kit, in the 11 municipalities of Campeche. A survey to obtain risk factors (sex, age of animals, number of animals grazing density, management system, presence of sheep on the farm and access to the roadside was applied and calculated X2 for each variable considered. Of the total number of samples analyzed (842, 273 were positive (32.47%. The prevalence ranges found ranged from 0% to 84%, so in 9 of the herds there were no positive samples, indicating a 75% (27/36 of dispersion of this virus. X2 analysis indicated that all variables were significant and are risk factors regarding with respect to the variable seroprevalence of BRSV. The results indicate a wide circulation of BRSV and we suggest implement recommendations that will enable a lower spread of this virus in the cattle population.

  13. Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd

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    Ingrid Bortolin Affonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.

  14. Molecular survey of infectious agents associated with bovine respiratory disease in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn A; Okano, Werner; Balbo, Luciana C; Marcasso, Rogério A; Oliveira, Thalita E; Alfieri, Alice F; Negri Filho, Luiz C; Michelazzo, Mariana Z; Rodrigues, Silvio C; Baptista, Anderson L; Saut, João Paulo E; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the occurrence of infectious pathogens during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil that has a high risk of developing BRD. Nasopharyngeal swabs were randomly collected from steers ( n = 23) and assessed for the presence of infectious agents of BRD by PCR and/or RT-PCR assays. These included: Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3). Pulmonary sections of one steer that died with clinical BRD were submitted for pathology and molecular testing. The frequencies of the pathogens identified from the nasopharyngeal swabs were: H. somni 39% (9 of 23), BRSV 35% (8 of 23), BCoV 22% (5 of 23), and M. haemolytica 13% (3 of 23). PCR or RT-PCR assays did not identify P. multocida, M. bovis, BoHV-1, BVDV, or BPIV-3 from the nasopharyngeal swabs. Single and concomitant associations of infectious agents of BRD were identified. Fibrinous bronchopneumonia was diagnosed in one steer that died; samples were positive for H. somni and M. haemolytica by PCR. H. somni, BRSV, and BCoV are important disease pathogens of BRD in feedlot cattle in Brazil, but H. somni and BCoV are probably under-reported.

  15. Fever, feeding, and grooming behavior around peak clinical signs in bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaff-Rosenstein, R L; Gershwin, L J; Tucker, C B

    2016-09-01

    Feedlot cattle are monitored for the sickness response, both physiological and behavioral, to detect bovine respiratory disease (BRD), but this method can be inaccurate. Diagnostic accuracy may improve if the BRD sickness response is better understood. We hypothesized that steers around peak BRD would have fever, anorexia, and less grooming than controls. We also expected sickness response magnitude to be greater as clinical and pathological severity increased. Unvaccinated steers were assigned to challenge with 1 of 5 BRD viruses or bacteria (BRD challenge; = 4/pathogen; 20 total), based on susceptibility as determined by serology. Body weight-matched vaccinated animals were given sterile media (Control; = 4/pathogen; 20 total) and housed by treatment (5 pens/treatment). Rectal temperature was logged every 5 min between 0100 and 0700 h, and time spent feeding (24 h/d), in contact with a brush (13 h/d), and self-licking (24 h/d) were collected from video recordings. Steers were examined and a clinical score (CS) was assigned daily. Bovine respiratory disease challenge steers were euthanized after 5 to 15 d (timing was pathogen specific) and the proportion of grossly affected lung (%LUNG) was recorded. The day of highest CS (peak; d 0) for each BRD challenge steer and the 2 preceding days were analyzed for all variables except self-licking (d 0 only); analogous days were included for Controls. Penwise mixed models (pen was the experimental unit) were used to determine which sickness response elements differed between treatments before and at peak disease, and regression using individual-steer data was used to describe relationships between disease severity ( = 35 for CS and = 20 for %LUNG) and fever, anorexia, and grooming. Bovine respiratory disease challenge steers had fever (1.1°C higher; grooming was not a good measure. The sickness response is greater as BRD severity increases; fever is most closely related to CS and anorexia is most closely related to %LUNG

  16. Establishing presence of antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3 and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 in blood serum of cattle using indirect immunoenzyme probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 92 samples of bovine blood serum were examined for the presence of antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus using indirect immunoenzyme probe - iELISA. Specific antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were established in 46, or 50% blood serum samples. Investigations of the 92 blood serum samples of cattle for the presence of antibodies against the parainfluenza virus 3 (PI 3, revealed their presence in 77, or 83.69% of the samples, and the presence of antibodies against the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 was established in 19, or 20.65% of the samples.

  17. Antibody responses against epitopes on the F protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus differ in infected or vaccinated cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, R.S.; Hensen, E.J.; Langedijk, J.P.M.; Daus, F.; Middel, W.G.J.; Kramps, J.A.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    1997-01-01

    The fusion protein F of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important target for humoral and cellular immune responses, and antibodies against the F protein have been associated with protection. However, the F protein can induce antibodies with different biological activity, possibly

  18. A multicenter, randomized trial comparing synthetic surfactant with modified bovine surfactant extract in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, E; Vollman, J; Giebner, D; Maurer, M; Dreyer, G; Bailey, L; Anderson, M; Mefford, L; Beaumont, E; Sutton, D; Puppala, B; Mangurten, HH; Secrest, J; Lewis, WJ; Carteaux, P; Bednarek, F; Welsberger, S; Gosselin, R; Pantoja, AF; Belenky, A; Campbell, P; Patole, S; Duenas, M; Kelly, M; Alejo, W; Lewallen, P; DeanLieber, S; Hanft, M; Ferlauto, J; Newell, RW; Bagwell, J; Levine, D; Lipp, RW; Harkavy, K; Vasa, R; Birenbaum, H; Broderick, KA; Santos, AQ; Long, BA; Gulrajani, M; Stern, M; Hopgood, G; Hegyi, T; Alba, J; Christmas, L; McQueen, M; Nichols, N; Brown, M; Quissell, BJ; Rusk, C; Marks, K; Gifford, K; Hoehn, G; Pathak, A; Marino, B; Hunt, P; Fox, [No Value; Sharpstein, C; Feldman, B; Johnson, N; Beecham, J; Balcom, R; Helmuth, W; Boylan, D; Frakes, C; Magoon, M; Reese, K; Schwersenski, J; Schutzman, D; Soll, R; Horbar, JD; Leahy, K; Troyer, W; Juzwicki, C; Anderson, P; Dworsky, M; Reynolds, L; Urrutia, J; Gupta, U; Adray, C

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of a synthetic surfactant (Exosurf Neonatal, Burroughs-Wellcome Co) and a modified bovine surfactant extract (Survanta, Ross Laboratories) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design. Multicenter, randomized trial. Setting. Thirty-eight

  19. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J.; Bree, de Freddy M.; Wal, van der Fimme J.; Kooij, Engbert A.; Koene, Miriam G.J.; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck

  20. Extensive sequence divergence among bovine respiratory syncytial viruses isolated during recurrent outbreaks in closed herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotides coding for the extracellular part of the G glycoprotein and the full SH protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were sequenced from viruses isolated from numerous outbreaks of BRSV infection. The isolates included viruses isolated from the same herd (closed dairy farms...... and veal calf production units) in different years and from all confirmed outbreaks in Denmark within a short period. The results showed that identical viruses were isolated within a herd during outbreaks and that viruses from recurrent infections varied by up to 11% in sequence even in closed herds....... It is possible that a quasispecies variant swarm of BRSV persisted in some of the calves in each herd and that a new and different highly fit virus type (master and consensus sequence) became dominant and spread from a single animal in connection with each new outbreak. Based on the high level of diversity...

  1. Association of bovine respiratory disease or vaccination with serologic response in dairy heifer calves up to three months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M Claire; Leslie, Ken E; Godden, Sandra M; Hodgins, Douglas C; Lissemore, Kerry D; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) or vaccination with serologic response in calves. 94 Holstein calves. To assess the association between BRD and antibody titers, 38 calves bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1), and parainfluenza virus type 3 at 2 weeks of age (n = 6), 5 weeks of age (6), and both 2 and 5 weeks of age (6) or were assigned to be unvaccinated controls (6). Blood samples were obtained at I, 2, 5, and 12 weeks for determination of serum neutralization antibody titers against the vaccine viruses, bovine coronavirus, and Mannheimia haemolytica. Antibody rates of decay were calculated. Calves with initial antibody titers against BRSV < 1:64 that were treated for BRD had a slower rate of anti-BRSV antibody decay than did similar calves that were not treated for BRD. Calves with high initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1 had lower odds of BRD than did calves with low initial antibody titers against those 2 pathogens. Vaccination at 2 or 5 weeks of age had no effect on the rate of antibody decay. Clinical BRD and the serologic response of dairy calves were associated with initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1. Serologic or clinical responses to viral exposure may differ in calves with low passive immunity.

  2. Comparative analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from bovine respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Jánosi, Szilárd; Makrai, László

    2015-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration.

  3. RNA-seq based transcriptional map of bovine respiratory disease pathogen "Histophilus somni 2336".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Kumar

    Full Text Available Genome structural annotation, i.e., identification and demarcation of the boundaries for all the functional elements in a genome (e.g., genes, non-coding RNAs, proteins and regulatory elements, is a prerequisite for systems level analysis. Current genome annotation programs do not identify all of the functional elements of the genome, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs. Whole genome transcriptome analysis is a complementary method to identify "novel" genes, small RNAs, regulatory regions, and operon structures, thus improving the structural annotation in bacteria. In particular, the identification of non-coding RNAs has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Histophilus somni, one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD as well as bovine infertility, abortion, septicemia, arthritis, myocarditis, and thrombotic meningoencephalitis. In this study, we report a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of H. somni strain 2336 using RNA-Seq method.The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map identified 94 sRNAs in the H. somni genome of which 82 sRNAs were never predicted or reported in earlier studies. We also identified 38 novel potential protein coding open reading frames that were absent in the current genome annotation. The transcriptome map allowed the identification of 278 operon (total 730 genes structures in the genome. When compared with the genome sequence of a non-virulent strain 129Pt, a disproportionate number of sRNAs (∼30% were located in genomic region unique to strain 2336 (∼18% of the total genome. This observation suggests that a number of the newly identified sRNAs in strain 2336 may be involved in strain-specific adaptations.

  4. Comparison of single vaccination versus revaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (types 1a and 2a), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Step, Douglas L; Krehbiel, Clinton R; Burciaga-Robles, Luis O; Holland, Ben P; Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W; Bechtol, David T; Brister, David L; Hutcheson, John P; Newcomb, Harold L

    2009-09-01

    Objective-To compare effects of administration of a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine once with administration of the same vaccine twice on the health and performance of cattle. Design-Randomized, controlled trial. Animals-612 mixed-breed male cattle with unknown health histories. Procedures-Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (single vaccination treatment group [SVAC group] vs revaccination treatment group [REVAC group]) during the preconditioning phase of production. All cattle were given a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine. Eleven days later, REVAC group cattle received a second injection of the same vaccine. During the finishing phase of production, cattle from each treatment group were either vaccinated a third time with the modified-live respiratory virus vaccine or given no vaccine. Health observations were performed daily. Blood and performance variables were measured throughout the experiment. Results-During preconditioning, no significant differences were observed in performance or antibody production between groups. Morbidity rate from bovine respiratory disease was lower for SVAC group cattle; however, days to first treatment for bovine respiratory disease were not different between groups. No significant differences in body weights, daily gains, or dry-matter intake between groups were observed during the finishing phase. Revaccination treatment group cattle had improved feed efficiency regardless of vaccination protocol in the finishing phase. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Vaccination once with a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine was as efficacious as vaccination twice in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease of high-risk cattle, although feed efficiency was improved in REVAC group cattle during the finishing period.

  5. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Seroepidemiological study of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BoHV-1, PI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3) in dairy cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Edris; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Noaman, Vahid; Bahriari, Masumeh; Morovati, Hasan; Hatami, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in calves are responsible for major economic losses in both beef and dairy production. Several viruses, such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPI-3V), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine adenoviruses (BAV), are detected in most clinical cases with respiratory signs. The aim of this study is to define seroprevalences of five major viral causes of bovine respiratory infections in cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province). The population targeted was 642 dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian) from 25 farms. Samples of blood serum from female cattle were examined. Sera were tested by commercial ELISA kits to detect antibody against BRSV, BoHV-1, BPI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test. In the present study, seroprevalences of BRSV, BoHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BAV-3 were 51.1%, 72%, 84.4%, 49.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. The present study shows that infections of bovine respiratory viruses are very common in cattle in Esfahan.

  7. CD335 (NKp46+ T-Cell Recruitment to the Bovine Upper Respiratory Tract during a Primary Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahwa A. Osman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine natural killer (NK cells were originally defined by the NK activation receptor CD335 [natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46], but following the discovery of NKp46 expression on human T-cells, the definition of conventional bovine NK cells was modified to CD335+CD3− cells. Recently, a bovine T-cell population co-expressing CD335 was identified and these non-conventional T-cells were shown to produce interferon (IFN-γ and share functional properties with both conventional NK cells and T-cells. It is not known, however, if CD335+ bovine T-cells are recruited to mucosal surfaces and what chemokines play a role in recruiting this unique T-cell subpopulation. In this study, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1, which is closely related to herpes simplex virus-1, was used to investigate bovine lymphocyte cell populations recruited to the upper respiratory tract following a primary respiratory infection. Immunohistochemical staining with individual monoclonal antibodies revealed significant (P < 0.05 recruitment of CD335+, CD3+, and CD8+ lymphocyte populations to the nasal turbinates on day 5 following primary BHV-1 infection. Dual-color immunofluorescence revealed that cells recruited to nasal turbinates were primarily T-cells that co-expressed both CD335 and CD8. This non-conventional T-cell population represented 77.5% of CD355+ cells and 89.5% of CD8+ cells recruited to nasal turbinates on day 5 post-BHV-1 infection. However, due to diffuse IFN-γ staining of nasal turbinate tissue, it was not possible to directly link increased IFN-γ production following BHV-1 infection with the recruitment of non-conventional T-cells. Transcriptional analysis revealed CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL9 gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05 upregulated in nasal turbinate tissue following BHV-1 infection. Therefore, no single chemokine was associated with recruitment of non-conventional T-cells. In conclusion, the specific recruitment of CD335+ and CD8

  8. Safety, bioavailability and mechanism of action of nitric oxide to control Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in calves entering a feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Shoshani, G; Vimalanathan, S; Prema, D; Church, J S; Reudink, M W; Nation, N; Miller, C C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDc), a multi-factorial disease, negatively impacts the cattle industry. Nitric oxide (NO), a naturally occurring molecule, may have utility controlling incidence of BRDc. Safety, bioavailability, toxicology and tolerance/stress of administering NO to cattle is evaluated herein. Thirteen, crossbred, multiple-sourced, commingled commercial weaned beef calves were treated multiple times intranasally over a 4 week period with either a nitric oxide releasing solution (treatment) or saline (control). Exhaled NO, methemoglobin percent (MetHg) and serum nitrites demonstrated biological availability as a result of treatment. Cortisol levels, tissue nitrites, behavior and gross and macroscopic pathology of organs were all normal. Moreover, preliminary in vitro studies using Mannheimia haemolytica, Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, Bovine Parainfluenza-3 and Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus, suggest a potential explanation for the previously demonstrated efficacy for BRDc. These data confirm the bioavailability, safety and lack of residual of NO treatment to cattle, along with the bactericidal and virucidal effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Demonstration of the metaphylactic use of gamithromycin against bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease in a multicentre farm trial

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, D.; Casartelli, A.; Fraisse, F.; Manavella, C.; Marteau, R.; Rehbein, S.; Wiedemann, M.; Yoon, S.

    2011-01-01

    On five commercial cattle rearing sites across Europe, a total of 802 young cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida and/or Mycoplasma bovis were enrolled into a multicentre, controlled field trial. Half were treated with a single dose of gamithromycin at 6 mg/kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection and half received an injection of a saline placebo as the control. All animals wer...

  10. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (pibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune response, and improved clinical outcomes. However lung

  11. New interpretive criteria for danofloxacin antibacterial susceptibility testing against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael T; Papich, Mark G; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent approved for use in veterinary medicine to treat and control bovine respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida. Susceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint (≤0.25 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≥22 mm) values for danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida were first approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2003. However, intermediate and resistant breakpoint values were not established because only susceptible wild-type populations were evident at the time of breakpoint approvals. Since then, nonsusceptible isolates of M. haemolytica and P. multocida have been identified. We report danofloxacin intermediate MIC breakpoint (0.5 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (18-21 mm), as well as danofloxacin-resistant MIC breakpoint (≥1 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≤17 mm), based on scattergram plots of MIC values versus disk zone diameters and calculated error-bound rates using M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolates recovered from bovine respiratory disease in North America in 2004-2014. These newly established intermediate and resistant clinical breakpoint values have been endorsed by CLSI and can be used for interpreting results from antibacterial susceptibility testing of danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolated from bovine respiratory disease.

  12. Market Impacts of Reducing the Prevalence of Bovine Respiratory Disease in United States Beef Cattle Feedlots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamina Keiko Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a common endemic disease among North American feedlot cattle. BRD can lead to significant economic losses for individual beef cattle feedlot producers through mortality and morbidity. With promising new management and technology research that could reduce BRD prevalence, this study evaluates the potential impacts of a reduction of BRD in the US beef cattle feedlot sector. Using a multi-market, multi-commodity partial equilibrium economic model of the US agricultural industry, we evaluate the market impacts of reduced BRD to producers from various livestock, meat, and feedstuffs industries. We find that as morbidity and mortality is reduced, beef cattle producers experience losses due to increased supplies (lower beef cattle prices and increased demand for feedstuff (higher feedstuff prices. Beef cattle processors see gains as the price of beef cattle is lower, whereas feedstuff producers gain from higher feedstuff prices. Producers in the allied industries (pork, lamb, poultry, and eggs see a small reduction in returns as consumers substitute with less expensive beef products. Consumers see gains in welfare as the increase in beef cattle supply results in lower beef prices. These lower beef prices more than offset the small increases in pork, lamb, poultry, and egg prices. Overall, the potential economic welfare change due to management and technologies that reduce BRD is a net gain for the US society as a whole.

  13. Parainfluenza-3 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus: intraherd correlation adjusted for sensitivity and specificity

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    José Segura C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and design effects (D estimates adjusted or unadjusted for sensibility (Se and specificity (Sp of the diagnostic tests using a Bayesian procedure. Materials and methods. Sera from 232 animals from 44 randomly selected herds, to detect antibodies against parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV3 from non-vaccinated dual-purpose cattle from Colima Mexico, were used. Only 176 animals from 33 herds were used to evaluate the presence of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV. Results. The ICC and D values adjusted and unadjusted for PIV3 were 0.33, 2.73, 0.32, and 2.71, respectively. For BRSV the values were 0.31, 2.64, 0.28 and 2.49. Conclusions. The adjusted or unadjusted ICC and D estimates were similar because of the high Se and Sp of the diagnostic tests and the relatively high prevalence of the diseases here studied.

  14. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses.

  15. Vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) proteins protects calves against RSV challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.; Most, van der R.G.; Suezer, Y.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Daus, F.J.; Sutter, G.; Schrijver, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and calves. Bovine RSV (bRSV) is a natural pathogen for cattle, and bRSV infection in calves shares many features with the human infection. Thus, bRSV infection in cattle provides the ideal setting to

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michele Anholt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001 and P. multocida (p = 0.002. Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Klima, Cassidy; Allan, Nick; Matheson-Bird, Heather; Schatz, Crystal; Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Otto, Simon Jg; Peters, Delores; Schmid, Karin; Olson, Merle; McAllister, Tim; Ralston, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni , and Trueperella pyogenes . We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida , and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates) was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica ( p  BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  18. Investigation of polymerase chain reaction assays to improve detection of bacterial involvement in bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin J; Blackburn, Paul; Elliott, Mark; Patterson, Tony I A P; Ellison, Sean; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Ball, Hywel J

    2014-09-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes severe economic losses to the cattle farming industry worldwide. The major bacterial organisms contributing to the BRD complex are Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Trueperella pyogenes. The postmortem detection of these organisms in pneumonic lung tissue is generally conducted using standard culture-based techniques where the presence of therapeutic antibiotics in the tissue can inhibit bacterial isolation. In the current study, conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to assess the prevalence of these 5 organisms in grossly pneumonic lung samples from 150 animals submitted for postmortem examination, and the results were compared with those obtained using culture techniques. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected in 51 cases (34%) by PCR and in 33 cases (22%) by culture, H. somni was detected in 35 cases (23.3%) by PCR and in 6 cases (4%) by culture, Myc. bovis was detected in 53 cases (35.3%) by PCR and in 29 cases (19.3%) by culture, P. multocida was detected in 50 cases (33.3%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, and T. pyogenes was detected in 42 cases (28%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, with all differences being statistically significant. The PCR assays indicated positive results for 111 cases (74%) whereas 82 cases (54.6%) were culture positive. The PCR assays have demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of all 5 organisms in cases of pneumonia in cattle in Northern Ireland than was detected by current standard procedures. © 2014 The Author(s).

  19. Linking disease epidemiology and livestock productivity: The case of bovine respiratory disease in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew; Valarcher, Jean-François; Hagglünd, Sara; Raboisson, Didier; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing over the impact of livestock farming on environment and public health. The livestock industry is faced with the double constraint of limiting its use of natural resources and antimicrobials while ensuring its economic sustainability. In this context, reliable methods are needed to evaluate the effect of the prevention of endemic animal diseases on the productivity of livestock production systems. In this study, an epidemiological and productivity model was used to link changes in Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) incidence with the productivity of the beef and dairy cattle sectors in France. Cattle production parameters significantly affected by BRD were selected through literature review. Previous field study results and national cattle performance estimates were used to infer growth performances, mortality rates and carcass quality in the cattle affected and not affected by BRD. A steady-state deterministic herd production model was used to predict the productivity of the dairy and beef sector and their defined compartments (breeding-fattening, feedlot young bulls, and feedlot veal) in case of BRD incidence reduction by 20%, 50% or 100%. Results suggested that BRD should be controlled at a priority in beef breeding farms as eradication of BRD in beef calves would increase the whole beef sector’s productivity by 4.7–5.5% while eradication in other production stages would result in lower productivity gain in their respective sectors. However, the analysis performed at compartment level showed that, in both the beef and dairy sector, young bull and veal feedlot enterprises derive more economic benefits from BRD eradication for their own compartment (increase in productivity of 8.7–12.8% for beef young bulls) than the breeding farms (increase in productivity of 5.1–6% for beef calves), which may limit the investments in BRD control. PMID:29206855

  20. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.

  1. Linking disease epidemiology and livestock productivity: The case of bovine respiratory disease in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Delabouglise

    Full Text Available Concerns are growing over the impact of livestock farming on environment and public health. The livestock industry is faced with the double constraint of limiting its use of natural resources and antimicrobials while ensuring its economic sustainability. In this context, reliable methods are needed to evaluate the effect of the prevention of endemic animal diseases on the productivity of livestock production systems. In this study, an epidemiological and productivity model was used to link changes in Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD incidence with the productivity of the beef and dairy cattle sectors in France. Cattle production parameters significantly affected by BRD were selected through literature review. Previous field study results and national cattle performance estimates were used to infer growth performances, mortality rates and carcass quality in the cattle affected and not affected by BRD. A steady-state deterministic herd production model was used to predict the productivity of the dairy and beef sector and their defined compartments (breeding-fattening, feedlot young bulls, and feedlot veal in case of BRD incidence reduction by 20%, 50% or 100%. Results suggested that BRD should be controlled at a priority in beef breeding farms as eradication of BRD in beef calves would increase the whole beef sector's productivity by 4.7-5.5% while eradication in other production stages would result in lower productivity gain in their respective sectors. However, the analysis performed at compartment level showed that, in both the beef and dairy sector, young bull and veal feedlot enterprises derive more economic benefits from BRD eradication for their own compartment (increase in productivity of 8.7-12.8% for beef young bulls than the breeding farms (increase in productivity of 5.1-6% for beef calves, which may limit the investments in BRD control.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Concordance Between Antimicrobial Susceptibility Genotypes and Phenotypes of Bacterial Isolates Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Owen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended laboratory culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing timelines hinder rapid species identification and susceptibility profiling of bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease, the most prevalent cause of cattle mortality in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing offers a culture-independent alternative to current bacterial identification methods, but requires a library of bacterial reference genomes for comparison. To contribute new bacterial genome assemblies and evaluate genetic diversity and variation in antimicrobial resistance genotypes, whole-genome sequencing was performed on bovine respiratory disease–associated bacterial isolates (Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida from dairy and beef cattle. One hundred genomically distinct assemblies were added to the NCBI database, doubling the available genomic sequences for these four species. Computer-based methods identified 11 predicted antimicrobial resistance genes in three species, with none being detected in M. bovis. While computer-based analysis can identify antibiotic resistance genes within whole-genome sequences (genotype, it may not predict the actual antimicrobial resistance observed in a living organism (phenotype. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 64 H. somni, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates had an overall concordance rate between genotype and phenotypic resistance to the associated class of antimicrobials of 72.7% (P < 0.001, showing substantial discordance. Concordance rates varied greatly among different antimicrobial, antibiotic resistance gene, and bacterial species combinations. This suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes are needed to complement genomically predicted antibiotic resistance gene genotypes to better understand how the presence of antibiotic resistance genes within a given bacterial species could potentially impact optimal bovine respiratory

  3. Microbiological and histopathological findings in cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease of feedlot cattle in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Calvin W; Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Morley, Paul S; Jim, G Kee; Pittman, Tom J; Schunicht, Oliver C; Perrett, Tye; Wildman, Brian K; Fenton, R Kent; Guichon, P Timothy; Janzen, Eugene D

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the microbiologic agents and pathologic processes in fatal bovine respiratory disease (BRD) of feedlot cattle and to investigate associations between agents and pathologic processes. Ninety feedlot calves diagnosed at necropsy with BRD and 9 control calves without BRD were examined, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and histopathologic studies. Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) (peracute, acute, and subacute cases) and Mycoplasma bovis (MB) (subacute, bronchiolar, and chronic cases) were the most common agents identified in fatal BRD cases. Significant associations (P BRD of feedlot cattle.

  4. A mixed treatment meta-analysis of antibiotic treatment options for bovine respiratory disease - An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Yuan, C; Cullen, J N; Coetzee, J F; da Silva, N; Wang, C

    2016-09-15

    Bovine respiratory disease is the most economically important disease of feedlot cattle in North America. Choice of antibiotic is a critical factor for producers and veterinarians. We previously published a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis that combined evidence from published trials and published estimates of comparative efficacy for 12 antibiotics registered for use in the USA. Some of the comparative efficacy estimates were based only on indirect evidence. Since the original review was published, new studies that provide direct evidence of comparative efficacy have been published. We updated the original review to include the current evidence. We also compared the results from the indirect estimates from the prior model with the observed results from randomized control trials. We repeated the original search and found that five of the new studies met the criteria for inclusion in the updated review. Four of these studies provided new data on direct comparisons of active drugs. The results from one study (performed in 2002) that compared ceftiofur pinna and enrofloxacin were inconsistent with the network and were excluded from the analysis. Three new direct comparison studies examined gamithromycin compared with tulathromycin, florfenicol, and tilmicosin. The results of our analysis suggested that the indirect estimates from the prior model provided reasonable estimates of the risk ratios revealed by the primary studies. For example, for the comparison of gamithromycin (referent) with tulathromycin, the original model predicted a risk ratio of re-treatment of 0.54 (95% credible interval 0.27-0.87). The subsequent randomized controlled trial revealed that the observed risk ratio of re-treatment was 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.78). The results of other comparisons were also similar. For the gamithromycin (referent) to florfenicol comparison, the observed randomized trial RR was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 0.83-1.64) and the indirect estimate of

  5. Implementing Precision Antimicrobial Therapy for the Treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease: Current Limitations and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lhermie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic efficacy of an early treatment protocol with an infection-stage adjusted fluoroquinolone regimen was evaluated in a field study on young bulls (YBs presenting signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD. A total of 195 YB (Charolais, Limousin, and Rouge-des-Prés breeds from 6 farms implementing or not prophylactic antimicrobial treatments (PROPHY or absence were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experiment groups based on time of detection of BRD and first-line marbofloxacin regimen, early adjusted dose [Early 2 (E2] or late standard dose [Late 10 (L10]. Each YB was administered orally a reticulo-rumen bolus, allowing continuous monitoring of ruminal temperature. In the E2 group, YB presenting early signs of BRD, i.e., an increase in ruminal temperature over 40.2°C and persisting more than 12 h, confirmed by a clinical examination showing no or mild signs of BRD, were given 2 mg/kg of marbofloxacin. In the L10 group, YBs presenting moderate or severe signs of BRD at visual inspection, confirmed at clinical examination, were given 10 mg/kg of marbofloxacin. If needed, YBs were given a relapse treatment. The YBs were followed for 30 days. The proportions of first and relapse treatments were calculated, as well as the therapeutic efficacy at day 10. In the E2 group, the first-line treatments’ proportion was significantly higher (P < 0.05, while the relapse treatments’ proportion tended to be higher (P = 0.08, than in the L10 group. Evolution of clinical scores (CSs of diseased YB was followed for 10 days. In both groups, CS and rectal temperature decreased significantly 24 h after treatment (P < 0.05. Treatment incidences (TI representing antimicrobial consumption assessed on used daily doses (UDD were calculated. Antimicrobial consumption of marbofloxacin and relapse treatments were not significantly different between the groups. These values were strongly influenced by the recourse to a prophylactic

  6. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P meal interval were associated with a decreased BRD hazard up

  7. Dembo-PCR technique for the detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Kishimoto, Mai; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Nunomura, Yuki; Kokawa, Saki; Kimura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kirino, Yumi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Nonaka, Nariaki; Mekata, Hirohisa; Aoki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Mai; Umetsu, Moeko; Morita, Tatsushi; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Asai, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Makino, Shinji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Abi, Ahmad Jan; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2017-12-28

    The bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds and rodents. However, experimental data that supports this possibility are scarce. We collected total 117 samples and screened for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo-PCR, based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples showed positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin, salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, and Neospora caninum ; some samples contained multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus represented the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting the important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggests that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of the abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.

  8. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E

    2016-06-24

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine

  9. Mycoplasmas and bovine respiratory disease: studies related to pathogenicity and the immune response--a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, C J

    1983-01-01

    Three species of mycoplasma have been established as being of importance as causes of pneumonia in housed calves, based on pathogenicity studies and frequency of association with the disease. These three species are Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum. M. bovis is the most pathogenic of these species but the disease outbreaks with which it is associated are sporadic. M. dispar is regularly isolated from pneumonic calves but is also found causing mild superficial and asymptomatic infections of the respiratory mucosa. The bovine ureaplasmas are serologically complex. They are distinct from ureaplasmas isolated from other non-ruminants by PAGE analysis, G + C content of DNA, and serology. A second species within the genus ureaplasma has been proposed to accommodate the bovine ureaplasmas, U. diversum. Control of mycoplasma respiratory infections of cattle based on immunization might be possible. Calves have been immunized against M. bovis and immunity has been related to antibody in the lung. M. dispar appears less immunogenic in calves than M. bovis and this may contribute to its pathogenicity.

  10. Chimeric Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins Replaced by Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase and Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stope, Matthias B.; Karger, Axel; Schmidt, Ulrike; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2001-01-01

    Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (BRSV) expressing glycoproteins of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) instead of BRSV glycoproteins were generated from cDNA. In the BRSV antigenome cDNA, the open reading frames of the major BRSV glycoproteins, attachment protein G and fusion protein F, were replaced individually or together by those of the BPIV-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and/or fusion (F) glycoproteins. Recombinant virus could not be recovered from cDNA when the BRSV F open reading frame was replaced by the BPIV-3 F open reading frame. However, cDNA recovery of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HNF, with both glycoproteins replaced simultaneously, and of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HN, with the BRSV G protein replaced by BPIV-3 HN, was successful. The replication rates of both chimeras were similar to that of standard rBRSV. Moreover, rBRSV-HNF was neutralized by antibodies specific for BPIV-3, but not by antibodies specific to BRSV, demonstrating that the BRSV glycoproteins can be functionally replaced by BPIV-3 glycoproteins. In contrast, rBRSV-HN was neutralized by BRSV-specific antisera, but not by BPIV-3 specific sera, showing that infection of rBRSV-HN is mediated by BRSV F. Hemadsorption of cells infected with rBRSV-HNF and rBRSV-HN proved that BPIV-3 HN protein expressed by rBRSV is functional. Colocalization of the BPIV-3 glycoproteins with BRSV M protein was demonstrated by confocal laser scan microscopy. Moreover, protein analysis revealed that the BPIV-3 glycoproteins were present in chimeric virions. Taken together, these data indicate that the heterologous glycoproteins were not only expressed but were incorporated into the envelope of recombinant BRSV. Thus, the envelope glycoproteins derived from a member of the Respirovirus genus can together functionally replace their homologs in a Pneumovirus background. PMID:11533200

  11. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tråvén Madeleine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV and bovine corona virus (BCV affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001 bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01 of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great

  12. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gerard M; O'Neill, Rónan G; Lee, Alison M; McElroy, Máire C; More, Simon J; Monagle, Aisling; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans.

  13. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus seroprevalence and risk factors in feedlot cattle from Córdoba and Santa Fe, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferella, Alejandra; Pérez Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Margineda, Carlos; Aznar, Natalia; Sammarruco, Ayelen; Dus Santos, María Jose; Mozgovoj, Marina

    2017-11-30

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the causative agents of respiratory disease in cattle all over the world, leading to important economic losses. The aim of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of BRSV in feedlot cattle of Argentina and the risk factors associated with the disease. Results showed a high individual seroprevalence of 78.64% (95% confidence interval adjusted [CI]=66.55-90.75%) against the virus. Positive association was found between the presence of high BRSV neutralizing antibody titers, and the following risk factors: cattle age, source of animals, presence of clinical respiratory signs and herd size. This work contributes to updating the understanding of its epidemiology in Argentinean feedlots and poses the need for reevaluating vaccination strategies against this virus in order to control infection and its impact on productivity. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-Dimensional Structure of Bovine NADH : Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Heel, Marin G. van; Bruggen, Ernst F.J. van

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the structure of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone (Q) oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.3) by image analysis of electron micrographs. A three-dimensional reconstruction was calculated from a tilt-series of a two-dimensional crystal of the molecule. Our interpretation of the

  15. The change in differing leukocyte populations during vaccination to bovine respiratory disease and their correlations with lung scores, health records, and average daily gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the most economically important disease in U.S. feedlots. Infection can result in morbidity, mortality, and reduced average daily gain. Cheap and reliable genetic methods of prediction and (or) protection from BRD would be highly advantageous to the industry. T...

  16. An experimental infection model for reproduction of calf pneumonia with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) based on one combined exposure of calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Uttenthal, Åse; Viuff, B.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been recognised as an important pathogen in calf pneumonia for 30 years, but surprisingly few effective infection models for studies of the immune response and the pathogenesis in the natural host have been established. We present a reproducible...

  17. Demonstration of the metaphylactic use of gamithromycin against bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease in a multicentre farm trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, D; Casartelli, A; Fraisse, F; Manavella, C; Marteau, R; Rehbein, S; Wiedemann, M; Yoon, S

    2011-03-05

    On five commercial cattle rearing sites across Europe, a total of 802 young cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida and/or Mycoplasma bovis were enrolled into a multicentre, controlled field trial. Half were treated with a single dose of gamithromycin at 6 mg/kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection and half received an injection of a saline placebo as the control. All animals were observed daily for 14 days for signs of BRD as defined by set criteria. The proportion of metaphylactic preventive treatment successes, defined as animals surviving to day 14 without signs of BRD, in the gamithromycin-treated group (86 per cent) was significantly (P=0.0012) higher than in the saline-treated controls (61 per cent). Morbidity among the treated animals was reduced by 64 per cent compared with the controls.

  18. Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) poses significant challenges to the clinician as there are numerous infectious etiologies, operating singly or most often in combination. Clinical signs alone may not be diagnostic and the diagnostic laboratory is often used to assist the clinician. Recently many molecular-based tests have been taken from the research laboratory to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. This review describes the "traditional tests" and several "molecular tests" and discusses the benefits and limitations of the tests and their interpretation. Clinicians should consult with their diagnostic laboratory regarding the interpretation of the test results. The rate of development and use of molecular diagnostic tests have outpaced validation, standardization, and standards for interpretation relative to their use in BRD diagnostics.

  19. Efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease associated with induced Mycoplasma bovis infections in young dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Kevin S; Rae, Al; Windsor, G David; Tilt, Nicola; Rowan, Tim G; Sunderland, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) due to Mycoplasma bovis was determined following experimental infection. Two highly pathogenic strains of M. bovis (with minimum inhibitory concentration values for tulathromycin of 1 and >64 microg/ml) were inoculated into 145 calves. Four days after inoculation, calves with clinical BRD were treated subcutaneously with saline or tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg). Compared with saline, BRD-related withdrawals, peak rectal temperatures, and lung lesion scores were significantly lower for tulathromycin-treated calves (P BRD due to M. bovis in calves regardless of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the challenge strain (1 or >64 microg/ml).

  20. Demonstration of the metaphylactic use of gamithromycin against bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease in a multicentre farm trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, D.; Casartelli, A.; Fraisse, F.; Manavella, C.; Marteau, R.; Rehbein, S.; Wiedemann, M.; Yoon, S.

    2011-01-01

    On five commercial cattle rearing sites across Europe, a total of 802 young cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida and/or Mycoplasma bovis were enrolled into a multicentre, controlled field trial. Half were treated with a single dose of gamithromycin at 6 mg/kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection and half received an injection of a saline placebo as the control. All animals were observed daily for 14 days for signs of BRD as defined by set criteria. The proportion of metaphylactic preventive treatment successes, defined as animals surviving to day 14 without signs of BRD, in the gamithromycin-treated group (86 per cent) was significantly (P=0.0012) higher than in the saline-treated controls (61 per cent). Morbidity among the treated animals was reduced by 64 per cent compared with the controls. PMID:21493573

  1. Metagenomic characterization of the virome associated with bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle identified novel viruses and suggests an etiologic role for influenza D virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Namita; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Torres, Siddartha; Li, Feng; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease affecting the cattle industry. The pathogenesis of BRD is complex and includes contributions from microbial pathogens as well as host, environmental and animal management factors. In this study, we utilized viral metagenomic sequencing to explore the virome of nasal swab samples obtained from feedlot cattle with acute BRD and asymptomatic pen-mates at six and four feedlots in Mexico and the USA, respectively, in April-October 2015. Twenty-one viruses were detected, with bovine rhinitis A (52.7 %) and B (23.7 %) virus, and bovine coronavirus (24.7 %) being the most commonly identified. The emerging influenza D virus (IDV) tended to be significantly associated (P=0.134; odds ratio=2.94) with disease, whereas viruses commonly associated with BRD such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus were detected less frequently. The detection of IDV was further confirmed using a real-time PCR assay. Nasal swabs from symptomatic animals had significantly more IDV RNA than those collected from healthy animals (P=0.04). In addition to known viruses, new genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus and enterovirus E were identified and a newly proposed species of bocaparvovirus, Ungulate bocaparvovirus 6, was characterized. Ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 was also detected for the first time in North America to our knowledge. These results illustrate the complexity of the virome associated with BRD and highlight the need for further research into the contribution of other viruses to BRD pathogenesis.

  2. A mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of metaphylaxis treatments for bovine respiratory disease in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, K M; Theurer, M E; Larson, R L; White, B J; Apley, M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials approved for parenteral metaphylactic use in feeder and stocker calves on morbidity and mortality for bovine respiratory disease with the use of a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. An initial literature review was conducted in April 2016 through Pubmed, Agricola, and CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau) for randomized controlled trials for metaphylaxis antimicrobial administered parentally to incoming feedlot or stocker calves within 48 h of arrival. The final list of publications included 29 studies, with a total of 37 trials. There were 8 different metaphylactic antimicrobials. Final event outcomes were categorized into bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity cumulative incidence d 1 to ≤ 60 of the feeding period, BRD morbidity cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout of the feeding period, BRD mortality cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout of the feeding period, and BRD retreatment cumulative incidence morbidity d 1 to closeout of the feeding period. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence for all the event outcomes to determine mean odds ratio (OR) with 95% credibility intervals (CrIs) for all metaphylactic antimicrobial comparisons. The "upper tier" treatment arms for morbidity d 1 to ≤ 60 included tulathromycin, gamithromycin, and tilmicosin. For BRD mortality cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout and BRD retreatment morbidity d 1 to closeout, classifying the treatment arms into tiers was not possible due to overlapping 95% CrIs. The results of this project accurately identified differences between metaphylactic antimicrobials, and metaphylactic antimicrobial options appear to offer different outcomes on BRD morbidity and mortality odds in feedlot cattle.

  3. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Jan B W J; de Bree, Freddy M; van der Wal, Fimme J; Kooi, Engbert A; Koene, Miriam G J; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F; Wisselink, Henk J

    2017-04-08

    In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR are based on the V3/V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of the three Mycoplasma species. The analytical sensitivity of the RespoCheck triplex real-time PCR was, as determined by spiking experiments of the Mycoplasma strains in Phosphate Buffered Saline, 300 colony forming units (cfu)/mL for M. dispar, and 30 cfu/mL for M. bovis or M. bovirhinis. The analytical sensitivity of the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCRwas, as determined on purified DNA, 10 fg DNA per assay for M. dispar and 100 fg fo rM. bovis and M. bovirhinis. The analytical specificity of the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR was, as determined by testing Mycoplasmas strains (n = 17) and other bacterial strains (n = 107), 100, 98.2 and 99.1% for M. bovis, M. dispar and M. bovirhinis respectively. The RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR was compared with the PCR/DGGE analysis for M. bovis, M. dispar and M. bovirhinis respectively by testing 44 BALF samples from calves. In conclusion, the RespoCheck PCR assay can be a valuable tool for timely and accurate detection of three Mycoplasma species associated with in bovine respiratory disease.

  4. Development and evaluation of a Luminex multiplex serology assay to detect antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, with comparison to existing ELISA detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steve; Wakeley, Phil; Wibberley, Guy; Webster, Kath; Sawyer, Jason

    2011-03-07

    Detection of circulating antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) using ELISA is widely used for veterinary diagnostics and surveillance. In this paper, the potential of a multiplex serology test based on Luminex technology, where all antibodies are simultaneously detected in a single assay was investigated. The performance of "in-house" separate ELISAs which use relatively crude lysates of cultured virus as capture antigens, was compared to the multiplex assay where the same antigens were covalently bound to the fluorescent beads used in the Luminex platform. A panel of field serum samples was tested by the multiplex assay in parallel with the separate routine ELISAs to provide a comparison between tests. The BHV-1 and PI3V components of the multiplex test showed similar sensitivities and specificities to the separate "in-house" ELISAs. The performance of the BVDV and BRSV components was less successful and was attributed to relatively low signal strength for these antigens, leading to higher assay variability and a reduced ability to distinguish positive and negative samples compared to the "in-house" ELISAs. The results illustrated that antigens commonly used successfully in ELISAs cannot always be transferred for use in alternative assay systems. The use of recombinant BVDV E2 protein was investigated and was shown to lead to an appreciable increase in signal strength compared to the use of crude BVDV antigen in the Luminex system. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporary carriage of bovine coronavirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus by fomites and human nasal mucosa after exposure to infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Klem, Thea; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Gjerset, Britt; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2018-01-22

    In order to prevent spread of the endemic pathogens bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) between herds, knowledge of indirect transmission by personnel and fomites is fundamental. The aims of the study were to determine the duration of viral RNA carriage and the infectivity of viral particles on fomites and human nasal mucosa after exposure to BCoV and BRSV. During two animal infection experiments, swabs were collected from personnel (nasal mucosa) and their clothes, boots and equipment after contact with calves shedding either virus. Viral RNA was quantified by RT-qPCR or droplet digital RT-PCR (RT-ddPCR), and selected samples with high levels of viral RNA were tested by cell culture for infectivity. For BCoV, 46% (n = 80) of the swabs from human nasal mucosa collected 30 min after exposure were positive by RT-qPCR. After two, four and six hours, 15%, 5% and 0% of the swabs were positive, respectively. Infective virions were not detected in mucosal swabs (n = 2). A high viral RNA load was detected on 97% (n = 44) of the fomites 24 h after exposure, and infective virions were detected in two of three swabs. For BRSV, 35% (n = 26) of the human nasal mucosa swabs collected 30 min after exposure, were positive by RT-ddPCR, but none were positive for infective virions. Of the fomites, 89% (n = 38) were positive for BRSV RNA 24 h after exposure, but all were negative for infective viruses. The results indicate that human nasal mucosa can carry both BCoV and BRSV RNA after exposure to virus shedding calves, but the carriage seems short-lived and the transmission potential is likely limited. High viral loads on contaminates fomites 24 h after exposure to infected animals, and detection of infective BCoV, indicate that contaminated fomites represent a significant risk for indirect transmission between herds.

  6. Inhibition of priming for bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific protective immune responses following parenteral vaccination of passively immune calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Gow, Sheryl; Bolton, Michael; Burdett, William; Nordstrom, Scott

    2014-12-01

    The effect of maternal antibodies (MatAb) on immunological priming by neonatal parenteral vaccination for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was addressed for the first time in experimental infection in 34 Holstein calves. Both vaccinated and control calves developed moderate to severe respiratory disease characteristic of acute BRSV infection. There were no differences in clinical signs, BRSV shed, arterial oxygen concentrations, or mortality between vaccinated and control calves after BRSV challenge approximately 11 wk after vaccination. There were no anamnestic antibody or cytokine responses in the vaccinates after challenge. Lung lesions were extensive in both groups, and although there was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) difference between groups, this difference was considered not biologically significant. These data indicate that stimulation of protective immune responses was inhibited by maternal antibodies when a combination modified-live BRSV vaccine was administered parenterally to young passively immune calves. Alternate routes of administration or different vaccine formulations should be used to successfully immunize young calves with good passive antibody transfer.

  7. In Vitro Activities of Florfenicol against Bovine and Porcine Respiratory Tract Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Priebe, Saskia; Schwarz, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Florfenicol in vitro activities for a total of 756 bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections of cattle and swine were comparatively investigated by the agar diffusion method and the microdilution broth method. Florfenicol showed high in vitro activity against Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Streptococcus suis, with all of the isolates inhibited by ≤2 μg of florfenicol per ml.

  8. A randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen for respiratory syncytial infection in a bovine model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to ...

  9. Distribution of bovine alpha-herpesviruses and expression of toll-like receptors in the respiratory system of experimentally infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Quintana, S; Leunda, M R; Odeón, A C; Pérez, S E

    2016-04-01

    This study provides an initial analysis of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) that might be implicated in alpha-herpesvirus infection of the bovine respiratory system. A significant variation in the expression of TLR3 and TLRs 7-9 during bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) acute infections and particularly an up-regulation during viral reactivation in respiratory tissues has been demonstrated. Furthermore, viral distribution in the respiratory tract of BoHV-1- and BoHV-5-infected calves at different stages of the infectious cycle was analysed. The wide distribution of BoHV DNA in the respiratory tract during acute infection was restricted during latent infection and the subsequent reactivation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Overall, the findings presented here contribute to the knowledge on the replication and dissemination of bovine alpha-herpesviruses. Furthermore, some of the immune factors triggered in the host that determine the different outcomes of infection by two closely related pathogens of cattle have been elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard M Murray

    Full Text Available The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99 and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34 were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3. Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME. Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (<10%. While serology indicated widespread exposure of both clinically normal and cattle submitted for PME to BPIV-3 and BRSV (seroprevalences of 91.6% and 84.7%, respectively, PCR identified BPIV-3 in only one animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans.

  11. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomonsen Charlotte M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. Conclusions This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  12. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Breum, Solvej Ø; Larsen, Lars E; Jakobsen, Jeanette; Høiby, Niels; Hammer, Anne S

    2012-11-26

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  13. Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading. © 2014 The Author(s).

  14. Diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia in Danish cattle: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) in lung tissue of naturally and experimentally infected cattle. Primers were selected from the gene coding the F fusion protein, which is relatively conserved...... among BRSV isolates. The RT-PCR assay was highly specific, it yielded positive reactions only when performed on BRSV-infected cell cultures or tissues. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was assessed as 5 TCID50. BRSV was detected in tissues of the respiratory tract and in the tracheobroncheal...

  15. Bovine respiratory disease: efficacy of different prophylactic treatments in veal calves and antimicrobial resistance of isolated Pasteurellaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rérat, M; Albini, S; Jaquier, V; Hüssy, D

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two prophylactic antibiotic treatments against bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in veal calves. In addition, the antibiotic susceptibilities of isolated Pasteurellaceae were tested. The calves were treated either on the day of arrival by a single administration of tulathromycin (group A, n=20), by a peroral administration of chlortetracycline, sulphadimidine, and tylosin (group B, n=20) for seven consecutive days, or were not prophylactically treated (group C, n=19). On the first day of clinically diagnosed BRD, transtracheal lavage samples were obtained prior to therapeutic treatment and were subsequently cultured. Pasteurellaceae isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents by the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations. During the first 56 d after arrival, different calves in group A and B suffered from one episode of clinically diagnosed BRD while calves of group C experienced two episodes. The average daily weight gain during the same period was significantly lower in group C (0.89 ± 0.04kg/d) than in the two prophylactically treated groups (1.14 ± 0.05 and 1.15 ± 0.04 kg/d for group A and B, respectively). The improved performance of groups A and B in comparison to group C could be related to a lower incidence of respiratory disorders during the first days after arrival in the prophylactically treated animals. No differences in the clinical efficacy were seen between the two tested prophylactic treatments. The most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated (n=79) were Pasteurella multocida (23% of isolated pathogens), Mycoplasma bovis (18%), and Mannheimia varigena (16%). For the isolated Pasteurellaceae, a high resistance pattern was observed to tylosin (83% of the tested P. multocida and 88% of the Mannheimia spp. isolates resistant) and tilmicosin (56% of the tested P. multocida isolates non-sensitive). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  17. The non-invasive and automated detection of bovine respiratory disease onset in receiver calves using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, A L; Cook, N J; Bench, C; Chabot, J B; Colyn, J; Liu, T; Okine, E K; Stewart, M; Webster, J R

    2012-10-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) causes considerable economic loss and biosecurity cost to the beef industry globally and also results in significant degradation to the welfare of affected animals. The successful treatment of this disease depends on the early, timely and cost effective identification of affected animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of an automated, RFID driven, noninvasive infrared thermography technology to determine BRD in cattle. Sixty-five calves averaging 220 kg were exposed to standard industry practices of transport and auction. The animals were monitored for BRD using conventional biometric signs for clinical scores, core temperatures, haematology, serum cortisol and infrared thermal values over 3 weeks. The data collected demonstrated that true positive animals for BRD based on a gold standard including core temperature, clinical score, white blood cell number and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio displayed higher peak infrared thermal values of 35.7±0.35 °C compared to true negative animals 34.9±0.22 °C (P<0.01). The study also demonstrated that such biometric data can be non-invasively and automatically collected based on a system developed around the animal's water station. It is concluded that the deployment of such systems in the cattle industry would aid animal managers and practitioners in the identification and management of BRD in cattle populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Pardon, Bart; Callens, Benedicte; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Opsomer, Geert; de Kruif, Aart; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds) for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type) and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal) defined daily dose (TIADD) and (actually) used daily dose (TIUDD). Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds) and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only) isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant) and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable). Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (presistance.

  19. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  20. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Seabury, Christopher M; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  1. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Replication and clearance of respiratory syncytial virus - Apoptosis is an important pathway of virus clearance after experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2002-01-01

    and the infections with human respiratory syncytial. virus and BRSV have similar clinical, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. In this study we used experimental BRSV infection in calves as a model of respiratory syncytial virus infection to demonstrate important aspects of viral replication...... and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was cleared...

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Savini, Giovanni; Orusa, Riccardo; Osawa, Takeshi; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-01-01

    Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR) and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) using serum neutralisation (SN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73%) out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69%) out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively). Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23%) and Aomori (14.28%). Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  4. Short communication. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 using serum neutralisation (SN and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73% out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69% out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively. Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23% and Aomori (14.28%. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  5. Evaluation of florfenicol for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, C W; Jim, G K; Guichon, P T; Schunicht, O C; Thorlakson, B E; Lockwood, P W

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in western Canada to evaluate the efficacy of florfenicol for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in feedlot calves. One hundred and twenty-five recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred, beef steer calves suffering from UF were allocated to 1 of 2 experimental groups as follows: florfenicol, which was intramuscular florfenicol administered at the rate of 20 mg/kg body weight at the time of allocation (day 0) and again 48 h later; or control, which was intramuscular saline administered at the same volume as florfenicol at the time of allocation and again 48 h later. Eighty-four calves were allocated to the florfenicol group and 41 calves were allocated to the control group. Outcome measures describing animal health, body weight, and rectal temperature parameters were used to determine the efficacy of florfenicol for the treatment of UF. The 1st relapse of UF, 2nd relapse of UF, overall mortality, bovine respiratory disease mortality, and haemophilosis mortality rates were significantly (P florfenicol group than in the control group. Animals in the florfenicol group were significantly (P florfenicol group was significantly (P florfenicol is an efficacious antimicrobial for the treatment of UF. PMID:9285135

  6. Treatment of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in juvenile calves with a single administration of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, J; González-Martín, J V; Elvira, L; Pagot, E; Voisin, F; Lequeux, G; Weingarten, A; de Haas, V

    2014-04-26

    The efficacy and safety of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation in the treatment of respiratory disease was evaluated in calves less than six weeks of age, compared with a positive control group treated with a well-established florfenicol formulation. A total of 210 calves, selected from nine sites in Belgium, France and Spain, showing severe signs of respiratory disease, were randomly assigned to treatment with either florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine (Resflor; MSD Animal Health) or florfenicol (Nuflor; MSD Animal Health), both administered subcutaneously once. Animals were clinically observed daily for 10 days following treatment initiation. The predominant respiratory pathogens were Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni. All isolates were subject to in vitro sensitivity testing and found susceptible to florfenicol. In both groups, rectal temperature dropped and clinical index (depression and respiratory signs) significantly improved after treatment. Specifically, for the change in rectal temperature from pretreatment to six hours post-treatment, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation was found significantly superior to florfenicol. Moreover, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation alleviated the clinical signs of disease more rapidly, and was demonstrated to be non-inferior to florfenicol on days 4 and 10. The use of the product combining florfenicol and flunixin in calves is safe and efficacious in the treatment of outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.

  7. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avyakta Kallam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL is a rare malignant hepatic tumor. A 47 year old male presented with symptoms of sour taste in his mouth, occasional nausea, indigestion and 15-pound weight loss over two months. He had an unremarkable upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Imaging showed a large liver mass in the left hepatic lobe that was resected and then reported as UESL. He went on to develop lung metastases and was initially treated with doxorubicin and ifosfamide followed by switching of therapy to gemcitabine and docetaxel due to progression of disease. He had a good response after two cycles and went on to receive four more cycles, achieving stable disease. We can therefore conclude that the combination of gemcitabine and docetaxel is a potential therapeutic option for patients with UESL.

  8. Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallam, Avyakta; Krishnamurthy, Jairam; Kozel, Jessica; Shonka, Nicole

    2015-12-29

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare malignant hepatic tumor. A 47 year old male presented with symptoms of sour taste in his mouth, occasional nausea, indigestion and 15-pound weight loss over two months. He had an unremarkable upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Imaging showed a large liver mass in the left hepatic lobe that was resected and then reported as UESL. He went on to develop lung metastases and was initially treated with doxorubicin and ifosfamide followed by switching of therapy to gemcitabine and docetaxel due to progression of disease. He had a good response after two cycles and went on to receive four more cycles, achieving stable disease. We can therefore conclude that the combination of gemcitabine and docetaxel is a potential therapeutic option for patients with UESL.

  9. Rapid Communication: Variance component estimates for Charolais-sired fed cattle and relative economic impact of bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J W; MacNeil, M D; Raymond, R C; McClain, A R; Van Eenennaam, A L

    2016-12-01

    Variance components were estimated and relative economic importance of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was derived from 3 yr of performance, morbidity, and mortality data collected from a single beef cattle finishing operation. One thousand one hundred eighty nine of 12,812 Charolais-sired calves were treated for BRD during the finishing period. Weaning weight (WW), DMI, days to harvest (D2H), HCW, yield grade (YG), and marbling score determined by image analysis (MARB) were collected to quantify the economic impact associated with treatment for BRD. Observed means and (co)variances for carcass and production traits were used to simulate populations of 10,000 healthy and 10,000 BRD treated calves. A bio-economic model was developed to derive the economic value associated with the incidence and number of treatments for BRD during the finishing period. Carcasses from healthy calves were worth $58.28 more on average compared to calves treated at least once for BRD. Heritability estimates for BRD were 0.15 when the trait was measured as number of treatments (0 to 4), and 0.14 when measured as incidence (0 or 1). The model indicated that D2H had the lowest relative economic importance in this system, with a cost of $1.91 per head for each additional day on feed. Furthermore, the relative economic value of BRD morbidity was approximately 10.65 greater than D2H when recording the BRD phenotype as the number of BRD treatments. The economic values of HCW, WW, and DMI were 11.47, 5.15, and 3.61 times more important than D2H, respectively. This indicates BRD morbidity has the second greatest relative economic value in this system, with a one percent increase in morbidity associated with an average loss of $2.08 per head. These results indicate that BRD morbidity can have an equal or greater economic importance when compared to carcass and production traits during the finishing period. Further, this indicates the opportunity exists to increase the genetic merit for

  10. Lentiviral modification of enriched populations of bovine male gonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-J; Cho, C M; Kim, B-G; Lee, Y-A; Kim, B-J; Kim, Y-H; Kim, C G; Schmidt, J A; Ryu, B-Y

    2014-01-01

    Undifferentiated germ cells have the capacity to develop into sperm capable of fertilizing oocytes and contributing genetic material to subsequent generations. The most primitive prepubertal undifferentiated germ cells include gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Gonocytes, present in the testis at birth, differentiate into SSC, which maintain spermatogenesis for the remainder of the male's life. Because of their capacity to contribute to lifelong spermatogenesis, undifferentiated germ cells are attractive targets for genetic modification to produce transgenic animals, including cattle. To maximize the efficiency of genetic modification of bovine gonocytes and SSC, effective enrichment techniques need to be developed. Selection of bovine gonocytes using differential plating was improved 8-fold (P green fluorescent protein. Transduction efficiency was 17%. Collectively, these data demonstrate effective methods for the selection and genetic modification of bovine undifferentiated germ cells.

  11. Infection of the upper respiratory tract of hamsters by the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-1 strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Takashi; Minakuchi, Moeko; Sagai, Mami; Kokuho, Takehiro; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2015-02-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is an important pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). We have generated a recombinant BPIV3 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rBPIV3-EGFP) based on the BN-1 strain isolated in Japan. After intranasal infection of hamsters with rBPIV3-EGFP, EGFP fluorescence was detected in the upper respiratory tract including the nasal turbinates, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. In the nasal turbinates, rBPIV3-EGFP attained high titers (>10(6) TCID50/g of tissue) 2-4 days after infection. Ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal turbinates and trachea were infected with rBPIV3-EGFP. Histopathological analysis indicated that mucosal epithelial cells in bronchi were shed by 6 days after infection, leaving non-ciliated cells, which may have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection leading to the development of BRDC. These data indicate that rBPIV3-EGFP infection of hamsters is a useful small animal model for studying the development of BPIV3-associated BRDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The reporting characteristics of bovine respiratory disease clinical intervention trials published prior to and following publication of the REFLECT statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totton, Sarah C; Cullen, Jonah N; Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the REFLECT Statement (Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials in livEstoCk and food safeTy) (published in 2010) was to provide the veterinary research community with reporting guidelines tailored for randomized controlled trials for livestock and food safety. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of REFLECT Statement reporting of items 1-19 in controlled trials published in journals between 1970 and 2017 examining the comparative efficacy of FDA-registered antimicrobials against naturally acquired BRD (bovine respiratory disease) in weaned beef calves in Canada or the USA, and to compare the prevalence of reporting before and after 2010, when REFLECT was published. We divided REFLECT Statement, items 3, 5, 10, and 11 into subitems, because each dealt with multiple elements requiring separate assessment. As a result, 28 different items or subitems were evaluated independently. We searched MEDLINE ® and CABI (CAB Abstracts ® and Global Health ® ) (Web of Science™) in April 2017 and screened 2327 references. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting of each item and subitem. Ninety-five references were eligible for the study. The reporting of the REFLECT items showed a point estimate for the prevalence ratio >1 (i.e. a higher proportion of studies published post-2010 reported this item compared to studies published pre-2010), apart from items 10.3, i.e., item 10, subitem 3 (who assigned study units to the interventions), 13 (the flow of study units through the study), 16 (number of study units in analysis), 18 (multiplicity), and 19 (adverse effects). Fifty-three (79%) of 67 studies published before 2010 and all 28 (100%) papers published after 2010 reported using a random allocation method in either the title, abstract, or methods (Prevalence ratio = 1.25; 95% CI (1.09,1.43)). However, 8 studies published prior to 2010 and 7 studies published post-2010 reported the term "systematic randomization" or variations of

  13. Undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu. Kalayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the spectrum and frequency of dysplasia-dependent and connective tissue dysplasia-associated disorders in adolescents. One hundred and ten 10-to-14-year-old pupils of one of the Leninsk-Kuznetsky schools were examined. The presence and degree of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UCTD were established according to the phenotypic characters; joint mobility was rated using the standard Beighton methods. The adolescents showed a high prevalence of the signs of UCTD whose degree corresponded to that of joint hypermobility. The latter was accompanied by joint pain in 89 (33,3% adolescents in the study group or concurrent with scoliosis in 77,8% and platypodia in 22,2%. In a control group (я=29, scoliosis and platypodia were 2 and 3,3 times rarer, respectively; complaints of arthralgia were absent. After 3 years, the number of adolescents with platypodia increased up to 33,3% in the study group and up to 10,3% in the control group; that of teenagers with scoliosis did up to 81,5and 41,4%, respectively. A larger number of adolescents with CTD were noted to have vegetovascular disorders, more commonly with parasympathotonia with insufficient autonomic performance support. A great difference was retained in the frequency of myopia and biliary dyskinesia and in the incidence of respiratory infections. Thus, the high prevalence of dysplasia-dependent disorders in adolescents suggests that there is a need for the early detection of the signs of CTD in children to timely implement a package of prevention and health-improvement measures.

  14. Detection of antibodies and risk factors for infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus 3 in dual-purpose farms in Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Chávez, Daniel; Segura-Correa, José C; García-Márquez, Luís Jorge; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso; Valdivia-Flores, Arturo Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out, from November 2007 to March 2008, to estimate the prevalence of and to determine risk factors associated with bovine syncytial respiratory virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV3) in dual-purpose herds in Colima, México. One hundred and seventy-six sera from 33 herds for PIV3 and 232 sera from 44 herds for BRSV were used. Sera were analyzed by indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies against BRSV and PIV3 in cattle herds to determine the seroprevalence of respiratory diseases. The apparent and true prevalences for PIV3 were 60.8% and 54.4% and for BRSV 52.2% and 50.8%, respectively. The percentage of herds showing at least one positive animal was 78.7% for PIV3, and 93.2% for BRSV. Age (≤ 12, 13-48, and >48 months old) and respiratory signs (no, yes) showed significant association (P < 0.05) with PIV3 and age with BRSV. This study showed that animals were exposed to both viruses and that age was the main risk factor. The need to establish new vaccination plans to effectively protect cattle against those infections in the state of Colima, Mexico is suggested.

  15. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) attachment and fusion proteins protects hamsters from challenge with human PIV3 and RSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Aurelia A; Mitiku, Misrach; MacPhail, Mia

    2003-08-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the main causes of ubiquitous acute respiratory diseases of infancy and early childhood, causing 20-25 % of pneumonia and 45-50 % of bronchiolitis in hospitalized children. The primary goal of this study was to create an effective and safe RSV vaccine based on utilizing attenuated bovine PIV3 (bPIV3) as a virus vector backbone. bPIV3 had been evaluated in human clinical trials and was shown to be attenuated and immunogenic in children as young as 2 months of age. The ability of bPIV3 to function as a virus vaccine vector was explored further by introducing the RSV attachment (G) and fusion (F) genes into the bPIV3 RNA genome. The resulting virus, bPIV3/RSV(I), contained an insert of 2900 nt, comprising two translationally competent transcription units. Despite this increase in genetic material, the virus replicated to high titres in Vero cells. This recombinant virus expressed the RSV G and F proteins sufficiently to evoke a protective immune response in hamsters upon challenge with RSV or human PIV3 and to elicit RSV neutralizing and PIV3 haemagglutinin inhibition serum antibodies. In effect, a bivalent vaccine was produced that could protect vaccinees from RSV as well as PIV3. Such a vaccine would vastly reduce the respiratory disease burden, the associated hospitalization costs and, most importantly, decrease morbidity and mortality of infants, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly.

  16. Can magnetic resonance imaging differentiate undifferentiated arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2005-01-01

    A high sensitivity for the detection of inflammatory and destructive changes in inflammatory joint diseases makes magnetic resonance imaging potentially useful for assigning specific diagnoses, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis in arthritides, that remain undifferentiated after...... conventional clinical, biochemical and radiographic examinations. With recent data as the starting point, the present paper describes the current knowledge on magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated arthritis....

  17. Effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Tang (Roderick); J.H. Schickli (Jeanne); M. MacPhail (Mia); F. Fernandes (Fiona); L. Bicha (Leenas); J. Spaete (Joshua); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Spaete (Richard); A.A. Haller (Aurelia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), harboring the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes of human PIV3, was used as a virus vector to express surface glycoproteins derived from two human pathogens, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory

  18. A single vaccination with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine primes the cellular immune response in calves with maternal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoschey Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of a single dose of an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV - Parainfluenaza type 3 (PI3 - Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh combination vaccine, in calves positive for maternal antibodies, was established in a BRSV infection study. Results As expected the single vaccination did not have any effect on the decline of BRSV-specific neutralising or ELISA antibody. The cellular immune system was however primed by the vaccination. In the vaccinated group virus excretion with nasal discharge was reduced, less virus could be re-isolated from lung tissues and the lungs were less affected. Conclusions These results indicate that a single vaccination with an inactivated BRSV vaccine was able to break through the maternal immunity and induce partial protection in very young calves. It can be speculated that the level and duration of protection will improve after the second dose of vaccine is administered. A two-dose basic vaccination schedule is recommended under field conditions.

  19. Proteome analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage from calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus-Insights in pathogenesis and perspectives for new treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägglund

    Full Text Available Human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV/BRSV are major causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children and calves, respectively. Shared epidemiological, clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of these viruses make comparative research highly relevant. To characterise the host response against BRSV infection, bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant (BAL from i non-vaccinated, BRSV-infected ii vaccinated, BRSV-infected and iii non-infected calves was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins were semi-quantified and protein expression was validated by immunoblotting. Correlations between selected proteins and pathology, clinical signs and virus shedding were investigated. Calves with BRSV-induced disease had increased total protein concentrations and a decreased number of proteins identified in BAL. The protein profile was characterised by neutrophil activation and a reduction in identified antioxidant enzymes. The presence of neutrophils in alveolar septa, the expression level of neutrophil-related or antioxidant proteins and LZTFL1 correlated significantly with disease. Citrullinated histone 3, an indicator of extracellular traps (ETs, was only detected in non-vaccinated, BRSV-infected animals. By bringing disequilibrium in the release and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, generating ETs and causing elastine degradation, exaggerated neutrophil responses might exacerbate RSV-induced disease. Neutrophil-mitigating or antioxidant treatments should be further explored.

  20. Illumina MiSeq 16S amplicon sequence analysis of bovine respiratory disease associated bacteria in lung and mediastinal lymph node tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dayle; Earley, Bernadette; Cormican, Paul; Murray, Gerard; Kenny, David Anthony; Waters, Sinead Mary; McGee, Mark; Kelly, Alan Kieran; McCabe, Matthew Sean

    2017-05-02

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. Next generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR amplicons (NGS 16S amplicon analysis) is a powerful culture-independent open reference method that has recently been used to increase understanding of BRD-associated bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of BRD cattle. However, it has not yet been used to examine the microbiome of the bovine lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to use NGS 16S amplicon analysis to identify bacteria in post-mortem lung and lymph node tissue samples harvested from fatal BRD cases and clinically healthy animals. Cranial lobe and corresponding mediastinal lymph node post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves diagnosed as BRD cases by veterinary laboratory pathologists and from clinically healthy calves. NGS 16S amplicon libraries, targeting the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq. Quantitative insights into microbial ecology (QIIME) was used to determine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which corresponded to the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Leptotrichiaceae, Mycoplasma, Pasteurellaceae, and Fusobacterium were the most abundant OTUs identified in the lungs and lymph nodes of the calves which died from BRD. Leptotrichiaceae, Fusobacterium, Mycoplasma, Trueperella and Bacteroides had greater relative abundances in post-mortem lung samples collected from fatal cases of BRD in dairy calves, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions. Leptotrichiaceae, Mycoplasma and Pasteurellaceae showed higher relative abundances in post-mortem lymph node samples collected from fatal cases of BRD in dairy calves, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions. Two Leptotrichiaceae sequence contigs were subsequently assembled from bacterial DNA-enriched shotgun sequences

  1. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 in fetal development of bovine respiratory and digestive tracts. Comparison of cell type-specific expression profiles and subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltner, Herbert; Seyrek, Kamel; Heck, Andrea; Sinowatz, Fred; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Histochemical monitoring of developmental processes is presently centered on protein-protein interactions. However, oligosaccharides have the potential to store and transmit biological information. Carbohydrate chains of cellular glycoconjugates present determinants for binding of endogenous lectins. This interaction can be relevant for developmental processes. In fact, beta-galactosides and their derivatives serve as ligands for members of the lectin family of galectins. Since it is unclear to what extent functions of different galectins differ or overlap, hereby introducing redundancy into this system, monitoring of galectin presence during tissue maturation should include more than one type of galectin (galectin fingerprinting). Here, we focus on the two most frequently described ones, namely the homodimeric prototype galectin-1 and the chimera-type galectin-3, the latter one so far not characterized from bovine tissue. In the first step, we have detected its presence biochemically in addition to the abundant galectin-1 in bovine respiratory and digestive tracts during development. Evidently, diversification of the primitive foregut will not lead to an alteration of this property. Immunohistochemistry revealed clear differences in the galectins' localization profiles. Galectin-1 expression is strong in mesenchymal cells, especially smooth muscle cells, while epithelial lining harbors galectin-3. A gradual increase in staining intensity with development is especially observed in the case of galectin-3. Notably, this change is accompanied by a shift from primarily nuclear localization to the cytoplasm, an alteration not seen for galectin-1. However, nuclear presence of galectin-1 is encountered. Thus, the delineation of differences in expression of galectin-1 and -3 with respect to cell types and in the developmental course of subcellular localization argues in favor of mediation of nonoverlapping functions by these two homologous, endogenous lectins.

  2. The effect of antimicrobial treatment and preventive strategies on bovine respiratory disease and genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates in a western Canadian feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Steven H.; Bateman, Ken G.; Rosengren, Leigh B.

    2013-01-01

    Feedlot calves (n = 3784) were systematically randomized and allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial study to receive metaphylactic oxytetracycline (OTC) on arrival or no antimicrobial, as well as florfenicol once subcutaneously or twice intramuscularly (48 h apart) if diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Calves of different treatment groups were comingled and followed from placement to re-implantation (~100 days). Animals receiving OTC had a reduced risk of BRD, an increased risk of arthritis, and no significant differences in average daily gain, BRD relapse, overall mortality, or BRD mortality. There were no significant differences between treatment protocols. Deep nasal swabs (n = 233) taken at arrival (n = 122), treatment (n = 77), and swabs from lungs and joints at postmortem (n = 34) were cultured for Mycoplasma bovis from 61 animals ill or dying of chronic pneumonia and arthritis and from 61 healthy calves. There was significant variation in diversity among isolates (n = 51) between study years and different cattle. Metaphylaxis or antimicrobial treatment did not affect the diversity of isolates. Except for tilmicosin, isolates were largely susceptible to tested antimicrobials. PMID:24293675

  3. Detection of antibodies and risk factors for infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus-3 in beef cattle of Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Calderón, J J; Segura-Correa, J C; Aguilar-Romero, F; Segura-Correa, V M

    2007-11-15

    We collected blood samples from 756 > or =2-year-old cattle in 54 herds in Yucatan, Mexico, and used all of those to determine the antibody seroprevalences (in an indirect enzyme-linked inmunosorbance assay) to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and risk factors for animal-level seropositivity. We used 728 of the same samples (from 52 of the same herds) to do the same for parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV3). Cattle were selected by two-stage cluster sampling. Herd-level and animal-level risk factors were obtained through a personal interview. We analyzed the data by using a random-effects multivariable logistic regression model for clustered observations. All herds had at least 3 (BRSV) or 5 (PIV3) seropositive animals. The animal-level true seroprevalences were: 90.8% (86.5, 95.2%) and 85.6% (80.9, 90.4%) for BRSV and PIV3, respectively. Animals in large herds and old animals had the highest odds of being seropositives to BRSV, and those risk factors plus animals born on the farm for PIV3 infection.

  4. The effect of antimicrobial treatment and preventive strategies on bovine respiratory disease and genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasma bovis isolates in a western Canadian feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Steven H; Bateman, Ken G; Rosengren, Leigh B

    2013-12-01

    Feedlot calves (n = 3784) were systematically randomized and allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial study to receive metaphylactic oxytetracycline (OTC) on arrival or no antimicrobial, as well as florfenicol once subcutaneously or twice intramuscularly (48 h apart) if diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Calves of different treatment groups were comingled and followed from placement to re-implantation (~100 days). Animals receiving OTC had a reduced risk of BRD, an increased risk of arthritis, and no significant differences in average daily gain, BRD relapse, overall mortality, or BRD mortality. There were no significant differences between treatment protocols. Deep nasal swabs (n = 233) taken at arrival (n = 122), treatment (n = 77), and swabs from lungs and joints at postmortem (n = 34) were cultured for Mycoplasma bovis from 61 animals ill or dying of chronic pneumonia and arthritis and from 61 healthy calves. There was significant variation in diversity among isolates (n = 51) between study years and different cattle. Metaphylaxis or antimicrobial treatment did not affect the diversity of isolates. Except for tilmicosin, isolates were largely susceptible to tested antimicrobials.

  5. Whole Genome Sequencing of a Canadian Bovine Gammaherpesvirus 4 Strain and the Possible Link between the Viral Infection and Respiratory and Reproductive Clinical Manifestations in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A. Gagnon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine gammaherpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a herpesvirus widespread in cattle populations, and with no clear disease association. Its genome contains a long unique coding region (LUR flanked by polyrepetitive DNA and 79 open reading frames (ORFs, with unique 17 ORFs, named Bo1 to Bo17. In 2009, a BoHV-4 strain was isolated (FMV09-1180503: BoHV-4-FMV from cattle with respiratory disease from Quebec, Canada, and its LUR was sequenced. Despite the overall high similarity, BoHV-4-FMV had the most divergent LUR sequence compared to the two known BoHV-4 reference strain genomes; most of the divergences were in the Bo genes and in the repeat regions. Our phylogenetic analysis based on DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase genes revealed that virus isolate was BoHV-4 gammaherpesvirus and clustered it together with European BoHV-4 strains. Because BoHV-4-FMV was isolated from animals presenting respiratory signs, we have updated the BoHV-4 Canadian cattle seroprevalence data and tried to find out whether there is a link between clinical manifestation and BoHV-4 seropositivity. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA was performed with nearly 200 randomized sera of dairy cattle from two Canadian provinces, Quebec (n = 100 and Ontario (n = 91. An additional set of sera obtained from Quebec, from the healthy (n = 48 cows or from the animals experiencing respiratory or reproductive problems (n = 75, was also analyzed by IFA. BoHV-4 seroprevalence in Canadian dairy cattle was 7.9% (Quebec: 6% and Ontario: 9.9%. Among animals from the Quebec-based farms, diseased animals showed higher BoHV-4 seropositivity than healthy animals (P < 0.05, with a significant 2.494 odds ratio of being seropositive in sick compared to healthy animals. Although there is no established direct link between BoHV-4 and specific diseases, these seroprevalence data suggest the possible involvement of BoHV-4 in dairy cattle diseases.

  6. Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Kass, Philip H; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized "BRD positive" if their total score was ≥4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to

  7. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Larson, Robert L; Harhay, Greg P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Harhay, Dayna M; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Schuller, Gennie; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined. RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

  8. The association of titers to Haemophilus somnus, and other putative pathogens, with the occurrence of bovine respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S W; Harland, R J; Bateman, K G; Nagy, E

    1998-10-01

    Serum samples were obtained from 602 calves (from 19 groups in four feedlots: three in Ontario, and one in Alberta) upon arrival at the feedlot and 28 d later. Of these calves, 202 developed bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and 400 did not develop BRD. Based on high antibody titers noted upon arrival, we infer that most calves were exposed to Haemophilus somnus prior to arrival at the feedlot. Within a group, calves with high titers on arrival had a reduced risk of developing BRD later. Most calves did not experience titer increases after arrival; however, calves that had stable or increasing titers had a relatively low risk of contracting BRD. The calves at greatest risk of BRD were those with titers on arrival of less than 6.8 units and subsequent titer decreases of more than 1 unit. The effects of both the titer on arrival and the titer change after arrival were stable when the serologic effects of a number of viruses and Mycoplasma agents were considered. Neither antibody titer on arrival nor titer change was related to weight gain differences among calves. Calves with BRD or calves with lower weight on arrival had decreased weight gains in the first 28-day feeding period. The high titers on arrival may have protected most calves against further infection with H. somnus. However, since the calves that developed BRD had large titer increases to a number of viruses and to Pasteurella haemolytica, while having decreased antibody titers to H. somnus, we infer that the existing antibodies were "used up" in combatting the agents, including H. somnus, which may have "caused" the BRD. Calves which were able to increase their antibody levels to H. somnus tended to have a reduced risk of BRD.

  9. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted.

  10. Prevalence and Quinolone Susceptibilities of Salmonella Isolated from the Feces of Preharvest Cattle Within Feedlots that Used a Fluoroquinolone to Treat Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley B; Renter, David G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen and antimicrobial resistance can be a human health concern. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (1) determine the prevalence and quinolone susceptibility of Salmonella in feces of preharvest commercial feedlot cattle and (2) determine if the prevalence and susceptibility of Salmonella isolates were associated with previous fluoroquinolone use within pens. Five feedlots in western Kansas and Texas were selected based on their use of a commercially licensed fluoroquinolone for initial treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Twenty pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 10 pens from each feedlot during early summer of 2012. Salmonella isolation was performed and microbroth dilution was used to determine susceptibility of isolates to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Prior antimicrobial treatment data were retrieved from feedlots' operational data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess associations between Salmonella prevalence and the number of fluoroquinolone treatments within pens while taking into consideration cattle demographic and management factors, as well as the hierarchical structure of the data. Overall, cumulative fecal prevalence of Salmonella was 38.0% (380/1000), but prevalence varied significantly (p fluoroquinolone treatments within a pen. All Salmonella isolates (n = 380) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, while one isolate exceeded the human breakpoint (≥32 μg/mL) for nalidixic acid. In conclusion, Salmonella fecal prevalence in preharvest cattle was highly variable among feedlots. Nearly all Salmonella isolates were susceptible to quinolones, despite the fact that a fluoroquinolone was used as the primary therapeutic antimicrobial to treat BRD in these feedlot populations.

  11. Efficacy of a florfenicol-flunixin meglumine combination product versus tulathromycin or ceftiofur crystalline free acid for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Sherry J; Perrett, Tye; Wildman, Brian K; Schunicht, Oliver C; Vogstad, Amanda R; Fenton, R Kent; Borciaga-Robles, Luis O; Pollock, Colleen M; Jim, G Kee; Berg, Janice; Booker, Calvin W

    2009-01-01

    In this field trial, a new combination product containing florfenicol and flunixin meglumine (FLOR-FM) was compared with commercially available products that contained only tulathromycin (TULA) or ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF; rectal temperature >/=105.0 degrees F) in beef calves that received long-acting oxytetracycline at feedlot arrival. The overall mortality rate of the FLOR FM group (2.0%) was significantly (P less than .050) lower than the rates in the TULA and CCFA groups (10.0% and 20.0%, respectively; 50 animals/group), even though the first UF relapse rate of the FLOR FM group was significantly (P less than .050) higher than that of the TULA group. In the FLOR FM group, this resulted in per-animal economic advantages of Can$46.23 (versus TULA) and Can$108.77 (versus CCFA) based on equal costs for initial UF therapy. These results demonstrate that it is more cost-effective to administer FLOR FM than TULA or CCFA for initial UF therapy in feedlot calves at high risk for bovine respiratory disease that receive metaphylactic long-acting oxytetracycline at feedlot arrival.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D; Li, M; Gehring, R; Harhay, D M; Lubbers, B V; White, B J; Capik, S F; KuKanich, B; Riviere, J E; Tessman, R K

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in plasma or in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) effect compartment. The study design was a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial utilizing three groups of 60 (362-592 lb) steers/bulls randomly allocated within origin to sham injection or gamithromycin mass medication. Cattle were evaluated daily for signs of BRD by a veterinarian blinded to treatment. Animals meeting the BRD case definition were enrolled and allocated to a sample collection scheme consisting of samples for bacterial isolation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs) and gamithromycin concentration determination (PELF and plasma). Gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica (n = 287) and P. multocida (n = 257) were determined using broth microdilution with frozen panels containing gamithromycin at concentrations from 0.03 to 16 μg/mL. A two-compartment plasma pharmacokinetic model with an additional compartment for gamithromycin in PELF was developed using rich data sets from published and unpublished studies. The sparse data from our study were then fit to this model using nonlinear mixed effects modeling to estimate individual parameter values. The resulting parameter estimates were used to simulate full time-concentration profiles for each animal in this study. These profiles were analyzed using noncompartmental methods so that PK/PD indices (AUC24 /MIC, AUC∞ /MIC, CMAX /MIC) could be calculated for plasma and PELF (also T>MIC) for each individual. The calculated PK/PD indices were indicative that for both M. haemolytica and P. multocida a higher drug

  13. Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Paris, Daniel H.; Arjyal, Amit; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Giri, Abhishek; Dolecek, Christiane; Day, Nick; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) are common in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively investigated the causes of UFIs in 627 patients presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Patients with microbiologically confirmed enteric fever (218 of 627; 34.8%) randomized to gatifloxacin or ofloxacin treatment were previously reported. We randomly selected 125 of 627 (20%) of these UFI patients, consisting of 96 of 409 (23%) cases with sterile blood cultures and 29 of 218 (13%) cases with enteric fever, for additional diagnostic investigations. We found serological evidence of acute murine typhus in 21 of 125 (17%) patients, with 12 of 21 (57%) patients polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Rickettsia typhi. Three UFI cases were quantitative PCR-positive for Rickettsia spp., two UFI cases were seropositive for Hantavirus, and one UFI case was seropositive for Q fever. Fever clearance time (FCT) for rickettsial infection was 44.5 hours (interquartile range = 26–66 hours), and there was no difference in FCT between ofloxacin or gatifloxacin. Murine typhus represents an important cause of predominantly urban UFIs in Nepal, and fluoroquinolones seem to be an effective empirical treatment. PMID:25667056

  14. Amiloride interferes with platelet- activating factor-induced respiratory burst and MMP-9 release in bovine neutrophils independent of Na+/H+ exchanger 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrazabal, C S; Carretta, M D; Hidalgo, M A; Burgos, R A

    2017-09-01

    Cytoplasmic pH homeostasis is required for an appropriate response in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). In these cells, chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are reduced by the use of Na + /H + exchanger (NHE-1) inhibitors, but these results are mainly obtained using amiloride, a non-selective NHE-1 inhibitor. In bovine PMNs, the role of NHE-1 in functional responses has not been confirmed yet. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NHE-1 using amiloride and zoniporide in pH regulation, ROS production, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) release and calcium flux in bovine PMNs induced by the platelet activation factor (PAF), additionally we evaluated the presence of NHE-1 and NHE-2 mRNA Our data show the presence only of NHE-1 but not NHE-2 in bovine PMNs. Amiloride or zoniporide inhibited the intracellular alkalization induced by PAF without affecting calcium flux. Amiloride diminished ROS production and MMP-9 release, while zoniporide enhanced ROS production without change the MMP-9 release induced by PAF. Our work led us to conclude that changes in intracellular pH induced by PAF are regulated by NHE-1 in bovine neutrophils, but the effects of amiloride on ROS production and MMP-9 release induced by PAF are not NHE-1 dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of an intranasal modified live bovine respiratory syncytial virus and temperature-sensitive parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine in 3-week-old calves experimentally challenged with PI3V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeel, Ilse; Ioannou, Faye; Riegler, Lutz; Salt, Jeremy S; Harmeyer, Silke S

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3V) challenge studies were undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a single intranasal dose of an attenuated live vaccine containing modified live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and temperature-sensitive PI3V in 3-week-old calves. In the first study, vaccine efficacy was evaluated in colostrum deprived calves. Nasal shedding of PI3V was highly significantly reduced in vaccinated calves challenged 10 days or 21 days after vaccination. In the second study, vaccine efficacy was assessed in calves with maternal antibodies against PI3V by challenge 66 days post-vaccination. Vaccination also significantly reduced PI3V excretion after challenge in this study. In both studies, clinical signs after challenge were very mild and were not different between vaccinated and control calves.

  17. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  18. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shailja Katoch; Shweta Dohru; Mandeep Sharma; Vikram Vashist; Rajesh Chahota; Prasenjit Dhar; Aneesh Thakur; Subhash Verma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The sam...

  19. A comparison of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, G K; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K; Johnson, J C; Lockwood, P W

    1999-01-01

    A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the efficacy of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot. One thousand and eighty recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef calves suffering from UF were allocated to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: florfenicol, which was intramuscular (i.m.) florfenicol administered at the rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) at the time of allocation (Day 0) and again 48 h later, or tilmicosin, which was subcutaneous (s.c.) tilmicosin administered once at the rate of 10 mg/kg BW on day 0. Five hundred and forty-four animals were allocated to the florfenicol group and 536 animals were allocated to the tilmicosin group. The chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) mortality rates were significantly (P florfenicol group than in the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in first UF relapse, second UF relapse, hemophilosis mortality, or miscellaneous mortality rates between the florfenicol and tilmicosin groups. Average daily gain (ADG) from arrival at the feedlot to the time of implanting and ADG from allocation to the time of implanting were significantly (P florfenicol group as compared with the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in arrival weight, allocation weight, implanting weight, or ADG from arrival to allocation between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, there was an advantage of $18.83 CDN per animal in the florfenicol group. The results of this study indicate that florfenicol is superior to tilmicosin for the treatment of UF because of lower chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and BRD mortality rates. However, interpretation of these observations must take into consideration the fact that these calves received meta

  20. Efficacy and safety of Ban Huang oral liquid for treating bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of laboratory pathogen testing, analysis of clinical symptoms, and analysis of pathological anatomy were combined to diagnose bovine respiratory diseases in 147 Simmental cattle caused by mixed infections of M. bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, and Mannheimia haemolytica.

  1. Efficacy and safety of a new 450 mg/ml florfenicol formulation administered intramuscularly in the treatment of bacterial bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, J; Rubion, S; Sarasola, P; Bonnier, M; Hartmann, M; de Haas, V

    2011-11-12

    The objective of the study was the safety and efficacy evaluation of a new 450 mg/ml florfenicol formulation in the treatment of naturally occurring respiratory disease when administered intramuscularly, compared with a positive control group treated with the well-established 300 mg/ml formulation. A total of 174 calves, selected from five sites in France and Spain, aged from 1 to 17 months, showing severe signs of respiratory disease, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the 300 mg/ml (3 ml/45 kg; Nuflor; MSD Animal Health) or 450 mg/ml (2 ml/45 kg; Nuflor Minidose; MSD Animal Health) florfenicol formulation, both administered intramuscularly twice, two days apart. Animals were clinically observed daily for 14 days following treatment initiation. The predominant pathogens present in pretreatment respiratory tract samples were Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Mycoplasma bovis and Histophilus somni were also present. All isolates were subjected to in vitro sensitivity testing and found susceptible to florfenicol. In both treatment groups, rectal temperature dropped and clinical index (depression and respiratory signs) significantly improved (Pflorfenicol formulation-treated animals were considered treatment successes on day 5. On day 14, 67.82 per cent of the animals were classified as treatment successes and among them 63.22 per cent were cured. The intramuscular injection of the new 450 mg/ml florfenicol formulation was found equally efficacious as the original 300 mg/ml formulation.

  2. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with...

  3. Chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein: effect of insert position on expression, replication, immunogenicity, stability, and protection against RSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Munir, Shirin; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Surman, Sonja; Mackow, Natalie; Yang, Lijuan; Buchholz, Ursula J; Collins, Peter L; Schaap-Nutt, Anne

    2014-04-01

    A recombinant chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza type 3 virus (rB/HPIV3) vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion F glycoprotein previously exhibited disappointing levels of RSV F immunogenicity and genetic stability in children (D. Bernstein et al., Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 31:109-114, 2012; C.-F. Yang et al., Vaccine 31:2822-2827, 2013). To investigate parameters that might affect vaccine performance and stability, we constructed and characterized rB/HPIV3 viruses expressing RSV F from the first (pre-N), second (N-P), third (P-M), and sixth (HN-L) genome positions. There was a 30- to 69-fold gradient in RSV F expression from the first to the sixth position. The inserts moderately attenuated vector replication in vitro and in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of hamsters: this was not influenced by the level of RSV F expression and syncytium formation. Surprisingly, inserts in the second, third, and sixth positions conferred increased temperature sensitivity: this was greatest for the third position and was the most attenuating in vivo. Each rB/HPIV3 vector induced a high titer of neutralizing antibodies in hamsters against RSV and HPIV3. Protection against RSV challenge was greater for position 2 than for position 6. Evaluation of insert stability suggested that RSV F is under selective pressure to be silenced during vector replication in vivo, but this was not exacerbated by a high level of RSV F expression and generally involved a small percentage of recovered vector. Vector passaged in vitro accumulated mutations in the HN open reading frame, causing a dramatic increase in plaque size that may have implications for vaccine production and immunogenicity. The research findings presented here will be instrumental for improving the design of a bivalent pediatric vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3, two major causes of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Moreover, this

  4. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  5. Management of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare neoplasm, and the third-most common paediatric hepatic malignancy. However, no treatment guidelines exist. No randomised, controlled trials support specific combinations of therapy. Objective. To compare presentation and management of ...

  6. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease presenting with prevalent interstitial lung disease: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfriso Paolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTDs are clinical entities characterised by signs and symptoms suggestive of a systemic autoimmune disease, which do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for a defined connective tissue disease. Lung involvement can complicate the course and management of the disease, often determining a worse outcome. Respiratory dysfunction as the first clinical manifestation has seldom been reported. We describe a case of a female patient who developed significant respiratory dysfunction as the principal clinical sign. Video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed and a histological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP was found. A pathological diagnosis suggested careful follow-up with extensive immunological screening which then detected Raynaud's phenomenon and positivity of antinuclear antibodies. After a multidisciplinary discussion (pneumologist, radiologist, pathologist and rheumatologist a final diagnosis of NSIP associated with UCTD was made. The diagnosis of UCTD should be considered when NSIP is diagnosed even in cases with evident first clinical manifestations of severe respiratory dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach in the field of interstitial lung disease with NSIP, also including rheumatologic expertise, is fundamental to achieve a prompt and correct diagnosis.

  7. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  8. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  9. Recovery of Moraxella ovis from the bovine respiratory tract and differentiation of Moraxella species by tDNA-intergenic spacer PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Boudewijn; Boyen, Filip; Baele, Margo; Dewulf, Jeroen; de Kruif, Aart; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Decostere, Annemie

    2007-03-10

    The purpose of the present study was to identify Moraxella (M.)--like organisms recovered from calves suffering from respiratory disease down to species level by means of tDNA-intergenic spacer length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR), and to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates using an agar dilution technique. A total of 16 isolates originating from 12 unrelated occasions were identified as Moraxella ovis, and tDNA fingerprinting showed clear delineation from other Moraxella species. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (in microg/mL) for 90% of the investigated isolates were combination trimethoprim-sulfonamides; 4 for erythromycin; 8 for tilmicosin; 1 for florfenicol and 0.125 for enrofloxacin.

  10. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the neck – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Peiwen Lim

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma very rarely affect the neck. We report a case of a 62 year old man who presented with a right sided skin lump which he noticed after sustaining a neck contusion in a road traffic accident about one year ago. The initial CT and ultrasound scans of the lump were suggestive of a thrombosed varix. Clinical examination showed a hard skin nodule with signs of tethering. He underwent a wide excision of the skin nodule and the histology showed undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma with margins involved. He subsequently underwent another re-excision of margins and pectoralis major flap reconstruction. Following surgery, he was also prescribed adjuvant radiotherapy and he remains well about 12 months after follow up. The surgical management of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the neck is challenging due to the proximity of critical neck structures and the need to obtain clear margins. Thus, adjuvant radiotherapy is often used to improve disease control. Keywords: Case report, Sarcoma, Margins, Surgery, Adjuvant radiotherapy

  11. Promoter DNA hypermethylation and gene repression in undifferentiated Arabidopsis cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berdasco

    Full Text Available Maintaining and acquiring the pluripotent cell state in plants is critical to tissue regeneration and vegetative multiplication. Histone-based epigenetic mechanisms are important for regulating this undifferentiated state. Here we report the use of genetic and pharmacological experimental approaches to show that Arabidopsis cell suspensions and calluses specifically repress some genes as a result of promoter DNA hypermethylation. We found that promoters of the MAPK12, GSTU10 and BXL1 genes become hypermethylated in callus cells and that hypermethylation also affects the TTG1, GSTF5, SUVH8, fimbrin and CCD7 genes in cell suspensions. Promoter hypermethylation in undifferentiated cells was associated with histone hypoacetylation and primarily occurred at CpG sites. Accordingly, we found that the process specifically depends on MET1 and DRM2 methyltransferases, as demonstrated with DNA methyltransferase mutants. Our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation may be another important epigenetic mechanism for the establishment and/or maintenance of the undifferentiated state in plant cells.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  13. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  14. Survival Outcomes for Combined Modality Therapy for Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Phoebe; Manes, R Peter; Schwam, Zachary G; Judson, Benjamin L

    2017-01-01

    Objective Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Multi-institutional studies examining outcomes of combined modality treatment versus other treatment modalities have not been performed. The objective of our study was to present outcomes for multimodality therapy through use of the National Cancer Database. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database. Methods A total of 435 cases of SNUC diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 were identified. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to find 5-year cumulative survival rates. Multivariate Cox regression evaluated overall survival based on treatment when adjusting for other prognostic factors (age, primary site, sex, race, comorbidity, insurance, and TNM stage). Within the surgery + chemoradiotherapy group, survival analysis was also performed to compare outcomes for induction and adjuvant chemotherapy. Results The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 41.5%, and 36.1% of patients received surgery with chemoradiotherapy. In multivariate analysis, surgery + chemoradiotherapy was associated with significantly improved overall survival versus surgery + radiotherapy and radiotherapy but not significantly different from chemoradiotherapy. Within the surgery + chemoradiotherapy group, induction and adjuvant chemotherapy groups did not have associated differences in survival. Conclusion Combined modality therapy (chemoradiotherapy or surgery + chemoradiotherapy) is associated with improved survival outcomes versus other treatment modalities in patients with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.

  15. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Randy E.; McGill, Jodi L.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Lippolis, John D.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Nonnecke, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of ...

  16. Primary renal undifferentiated sarcoma as an infiltrative mass in a 12 year old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Se Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated sarcomas are rare tumors not classified into any sarcoma subtype. Due to their rarity, imaging findings of undifferentiated sarcomas are poorly characterized. The purpose of this report was to present imaging findings of a pathologically confirmed undifferentiated sarcoma originated from the left kidney of a 12-year-old boy. The mass was infiltrative involving the renal pelvis. It mimicked massive hilar lymphadenopathy with a preserved renal contour visible by both ultrasonography and CT. Renal vein thrombosis was also observed. Although undifferentiated sarcomas are rare, they should be considered in differential diagnosis of infiltrative renal masses with renal pelvis invasion in children

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical illness for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnosis in beef cattle placed in feedlots: A systematic literature review and hierarchical Bayesian latent-class meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, E; Dendukuri, N; Schiller, I; Buczinski, S

    2016-12-01

    Diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle placed in feedlots is typically based on clinical illness (CI) detected by pen-checkers. Unfortunately, the accuracy of this diagnostic approach (namely, sensitivity [Se] and specificity [Sp]) remains poorly understood, in part due to the absence of a reference test for ante-mortem diagnosis of BRD. Our objective was to pool available estimates of CI's diagnostic accuracy for BRD diagnosis in feedlot beef cattle while adjusting for the inaccuracy in the reference test. The presence of lung lesions (LU) at slaughter was used as the reference test. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify research articles comparing CI detected by pen-checkers during the feeding period to LU at slaughter. A hierarchical Bayesian latent-class meta-analysis was used to model test accuracy. This approach accounted for imperfections of both tests as well as the within and between study variability in the accuracy of CI. Furthermore, it also predicted the Se CI and Sp CI for future studies. Conditional independence between CI and LU was assumed, as these two tests are not based on similar biological principles. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Estimated pooled Se CI and Sp CI were 0.27 (95% Bayesian credible interval: 0.12-0.65) and 0.92 (0.72-0.98), respectively, whereas estimated pooled Se LU and Sp LU were 0.91 (0.82-0.99) and 0.67 (0.64-0.79). Predicted Se CI and Sp CI for future studies were 0.27 (0.01-0.96) and 0.92 (0.14-1.00), respectively. The wide credible intervals around predicted Se CI and Sp CI estimates indicated considerable heterogeneity among studies, which suggests that pooled Se CI and Sp CI are not generalizable to individual studies. In conclusion, CI appeared to have poor Se but high Sp for BRD diagnosis in feedlots. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity among studies highlighted an urgent need to standardize BRD diagnosis in feedlots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  18. Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Undifferentiated Gastric Cancer in Patients with Severe Atrophic Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Maiko; Nakamura, Shinichi; Shiratori, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated gastric cancer generally develops in the atrophic gastric mucosa, although undifferentiated cancer is sometimes encountered in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. We characterized the endoscopic features of undifferentiated gastric cancer in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. Stage IA early gastric cancer was diagnosed in 501 patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2003 and March 2012. The endoscopic and pathological findings were compared among 29 patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis, 104 patients with undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate atrophic gastritis and 223 patients with well-differentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis. Endoscopic atrophic gastritis was classified according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification as no gastritis, C-1 and C-2 (mild), C-3 and O-1 (moderate) or O-2 and O-3 (severe). The tumors were larger and showed deeper mural invasion in the patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis than in those with well-differentiated cancer and severe gastritis or undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate gastritis. On endoscopy, undifferentiated cancer associated with severe gastritis was often red in color. It is often difficult to diagnose early undifferentiated gastric cancer, especially in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. The present study characterized the important endoscopic features of such tumors.

  19. Bem Sex Role Inventory Undifferentiated Score: A Comparison of Sexual Dysfunction Patients with Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Margretta; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined Bem Sex Role undifferentiated scores on 93 male sex offenders as compared with 50 male sexually dysfunctional patients. Chi-square analyses revealed significant difference: offenders obtained undifferentiated scores more often than did sexual dysfunctional population. Concluded that Bem Sex Role Inventory is useful in identifying sexual…

  20. Mucosal immunization of rhesus monkeys against respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B and human parainfluenza virus type 3 by using a live cDNA-derived vaccine based on a host range-attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vector backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander C; Wenzke, Daniel R; McAuliffe, Josephine M; St Claire, Marisa; Elkins, William R; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2002-02-01

    Reverse genetics was used to develop a two-component, trivalent live attenuated vaccine against human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroups A and B. The backbone for each of the two components of this vaccine was the attenuated recombinant bovine/human PIV3 (rB/HPIV3), a recombinant BPIV3 in which the bovine HN and F protective antigens are replaced by their HPIV3 counterparts (48). This chimera retains the well-characterized host range attenuation phenotype of BPIV3, which appears to be appropriate for immunization of young infants. The open reading frames (ORFs) for the G and F major protective antigens of RSV subgroup A and B were each placed under the control of PIV3 transcription signals and inserted individually or in homologous pairs as supernumerary genes in the promoter proximal position of rB/HPIV3. The level of replication of rB/HPIV3-RSV chimeric viruses in the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys was similar to that of their parent virus rB/HPIV3, and each of the chimeras induced a robust immune response to both RSV and HPIV3. RSV-neutralizing antibody titers induced by rB/HPIV3-RSV chimeric viruses were equivalent to those induced by infection with wild-type RSV, and HPIV3-specific antibody responses were similar to, or slightly less than, after infection with the rB/HPIV3 vector itself. This study describes a novel vaccine strategy against RSV in which vaccine viruses with a common attenuated backbone, specifically rB/HPIV3 derivatives expressing the G and/or F major protective antigens of RSV subgroup A and of RSV subgroup B, are used to immunize by the intranasal route against RSV and HPIV3, which are the first and second most important viral agents of pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide.

  1. BCNT studies for application to the undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Viaggi, Mabel E.; Cabrini, Romulo L.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia S.; Belli, Carolina; Larripa, Irene; Gangitano, David

    2000-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) lacks an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of 10 B-boronated compounds by some tumours, followed by irradiation with an appropriate neutron beam. The radioactive boron originated ( 11 B) decays releasing 7 Li, gamma rays and alpha particles, and these latter will destroy the tumour. In order to explore the possibility of applying BNCT to UTC we have studied the biodistribution of BPA. Animal Model: To develop an animal model of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC), which may be useful to study of BNCT. The UTC human cell line ARO was implanted into the back of the nude mice. We performed successive passages in mouse after tumor culturing in order to obtain an animal model similar to the human tumor. We studied the kinetics and the tumoral histology, the capability to induce metastasis, the biokinetics of in vitro growth, as well as cytogenetic and molecular aspects. Histological specimens of tumor showed extensive viability with high mitotic activity. At 117 days, the tumors reached a size of 1700 mm 3 and showed a central necrotic portion with a thin layer of viable cells presence of micro metastasis could be observed in the lung. The kinetics of growth both in vivo and in vitro showed that when the number of passages in mouse increases the growth rate decreases. The cytogenetic and molecular studies did not show differences between the original line and the sublines that could explain this phenotypic change. Moreover, the cytogenetic studies proved that the ARO cell line and its sublines showed a complex clonal karyotype including structural alterations with deletions and translocations involving chromosomes 5, 7, 8, 9p, 11p, 17q 19p, and 20q that were consistent with earlier reported data in UTC. In vivo BNCT studies: ARO cells were transplanted into the scapular region of NIH nude mice, and after 2 weeks BPA (350 or 600 mg/kg bw) was injected via i.p. The

  2. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Thomasz, L.; Longhino, J.

    2006-01-01

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 10 8 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm 3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  3. Progression rate of ankylosing spondylitis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Fan, Dazhi; Yang, Xiao; Li, Xiaona; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Mengmeng; Xu, Shengqian; Pan, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The idea that undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA) represents the early undifferentiated stage of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other well-defined SpA subtypes is well known. The gist of this study is to assess the rate estimate of patients with uSpA evolved to AS during long-term follow-up. Methods: A systematic search was implemented to identify pertinent articles. The primary outcome was the rate estimate that patients with uSpA fulfilling the diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria during follow-up. The rate estimate and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were pooled by the random-effects model in STATA 11.0 software. Meta-regression analyses were adopted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. The quality assessment was conducted by the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and the Begg test and the Egger test were applied to assess publication bias. Results: Sixteen papers were finally included in this study after screening 1299 citations. The pooled rate of patients with uSpA progression to AS synthesized from the 16 papers was 0.323 (95%CI 0.257–0.389). Subgroup analysis based on the length of follow-up showed that the rate at the time-point of 5, 8, and 10 years follow-up was 0.220 (95%CI 0.110–0.330), 0.291 (95%CI 0.257–0.325), and 0.399 (95%CI 0.190–0.608), respectively; while the rate in Asia, Europe, and Latin America was 0.367 (95%CI 0.282–0.452), 0.228 (95%CI 0.066–0.390), and 0.269 (95%CI 0.209–0.329), respectively. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the length of follow-up alone accounts for 45.23% of the total heterogeneity. Nearly half of the papers scored fair quality and none publication bias was identified based on the Begg test and the Egger test. Further, line chart describes an obviously increased trend for the patients with uSpA fulfilling the diagnosis of AS over time. Conclusion: The

  4. Characterization of Bovine 5′-flanking Region during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Jang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have been used as a powerful tool for research including gene manipulated animal models and the study of developmental gene regulation. Among the critical regulatory factors that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs, NANOG plays a very important role. Nevertheless, because pluripotency maintaining factors and specific markers for livestock ESCs have not yet been probed, few studies of the NANOG gene from domestic animals including bovine have been reported. Therefore, we chose mouse ESCs in order to understand and compare NANOG expression between bovine, human, and mouse during ESCs differentiation. We cloned a 600 bp (−420/+181 bovine NANOG 5′-flanking region, and tagged it with humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP as a tracing reporter. Very high GFP expression for bovine NANOG promoter was observed in the mouse ESC line. GFP expression was monitored upon ESC differentiation and was gradually reduced along with differentiation toward neurons and adipocyte cells. Activity of bovine NANOG (−420/+181 promoter was compared with already known mouse and human NANOG promoters in mouse ESC and they were likely to show a similar pattern of regulation. In conclusion, bovine NANOG 5-flanking region functions in mouse ES cells and has characteristics similar to those of mouse and human. These results suggest that bovine gene function studied in mouse ES cells should be evaluated and extrapolated for application to characterization of bovine ES cells.

  5. Spindle and Giant Cell Type Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Proximal Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Takao; Miyoshi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kenji; Kai, Keita; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Undifferentiated spindle and giant cell carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm arising in the extrahepatic bile duct. We herein present the case of a 67-year-old male who developed an undifferentiated spindle and giant cell carcinoma of the proximal bile duct. A nodular infiltrating tumor was located at the proximal bile duct, resulting in obstructive jaundice. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly spindle-shaped and giant cells and showed positive immunoreactivity for b...

  6. Chlamydiae as etiologic agents in chronic undifferentiated spondylarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John D; Gérard, Hervé C; Espinoza, Luis R; Ricca, Louis R; Valeriano, Joanne; Snelgrove, Jessica; Oszust, Cynthia; Vasey, Frank B; Hudson, Alan P

    2009-05-01

    The majority of patients with Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis do not present with the classic triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis/iritis, and urethritis. Moreover, acute chlamydial infections are often asymptomatic. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of synovial Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in patients with chronic undifferentiated spondylarthritis (uSpA). Study patients met the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group criteria for SpA, without evidence of ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, or preceding dysentery. Symptoms were present for >or=6 months. Each patient underwent a synovial biopsy; tissue and concomitantly obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C trachomatis and C pneumoniae DNA. Other data collected on the day of the biopsy included standard demographic information and medical history, including any known history of C trachomatis or C pneumoniae. Physical examination (including joint count, evaluation for dactylitis and/or enthesitis, and skin examination) and HLA-B27 typing were performed. Synovial tissue (ST) samples from 167 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were used as controls. Twenty-six patients met the entry criteria and underwent synovial biopsy (25 knee, 1 wrist). Sixteen of them (62%) were positive for C trachomatis and/or C pneumoniae DNA (10 for C trachomatis, 4 for C pneumoniae, and 2 for both). PCR analysis of ST revealed the presence of Chlamydia significantly more frequently in patients with uSpA than in OA controls (P<0.0001). No specific clinical characteristics differentiated Chlamydia-positive from Chlamydia-negative patients. PBMCs from 4 of the 26 uSpA patients (15%) were positive for Chlamydia, and Chlamydia was found in ST from 2 of these 4 patients. No significant correlation between PCR positivity and HLA-B27 positivity was found. The frequency of Chlamydia-positive ST samples

  7. O polietilenoglicol aumenta a penetração do vírus da diarréia viral bovina, do vírus da estomatite vesicular e do vírus sincicial respiratório bovino em células de cultivo Polyethylene glycol increases the penetration of bovine viral diarrhea virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dezengrini

    2009-06-01

    bovine enveloped viruses in culture cells. Penetration efficiency was measured by counting the number of viral plaques produced in bovine kidney cells (MDBK. The addition of 5% PEG (molecular weight 6.000 to the viral inoculum containing 100 TCID50 mL-1 (tissue culture median infectious dosis of each virus, during adsorption for 2h at 37°C, resulted in a significant increase in the number of plaques for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV (increase of 3.4-fold, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV (2.2-fold and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV (1.5-fold. The addition of 5% PEG to the inoculum of bovine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 5 (BoHV-1, BoHV-2 and BoHV-5 did not increase the number of viral plaques. On the other hand, PEG produced a reduction in the number of plaques by bovine parainfluenza virus (bPI-3V (1.4-fold. Furthermore, the addition of 5% PEG produced a 10- to 1000-fold increase in the sensitivity of BVDV detection in the serum of three persistently infected calves; and doubled the sensitivity of detection of BRSV in nasal secretions of two experimentally infected sheep. These results demonstrate that PEG enhances the efficiency of infection by BVDV, VSV and BRSV in cultured bovine cells and therefore may be used to increase the sensitivity of virus detection in clinical samples (viral isolation, and/or to increase virus titers in cell cultures.

  8. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such as ... need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  9. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  10. Focused cardiac ultrasound in the emergency department for patients admitted with respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    triage, patients with cardiac arrest, patients with undifferentiated shock, patients with cardiopulmonary instability, patients with respiratory symptoms, trauma patients with suspected cardiac injuries, and assessment of the fluid status before fluid loading. When using focused cardiac ultrasound (US...... help improve the diagnostic accuracy, the proportion of patients receiving appropriate treatment, and possibly the patient outcome. This article gives a practical guide and an overview of some of the current concepts of using focused cardiac US in patients admitted with respiratory symptoms....

  11. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium d...

  12. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  13. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  14. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  15. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for high-grade undifferentiated sarcomas of the uterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pautier, Patricia; Nam, Eun Ji; Provencher, Diane M.; Hamilton, Anne L.; Mangili, Giorgia; Siddiqui, Nadeem Ahmad; Westermann, Anneke M.; Reed, Nicholas Simon; Harter, Philipp; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas (HGUSs) are rare uterine malignancies arising from the endometrial stroma. They are poorly differentiated sarcomas composed of cells that do not resemble proliferative-phase endometrial stroma. High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas are characterized by aggressive

  16. FEATURES OF CLINICAL COURSE OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE IN NEWLY RECRUITED WITH CONNECTIVE TISSUE UNDIFFERENTIATED DYSPLASIA SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Kashkina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of connective tissue undifferentiated dysplasia syndrome against a background of psychological stress at newly recruited can promote the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease occurrence. To the utmost, correlation between the gastroesophageal reflux disease and such manifestations of connective tissue undifferentiated dysplasia syndrome as asthenic constitution, chest deformation, Gothic palate and hypermobility of joints was found

  17. Bone edema on magnetic resonance imaging is an independent predictor of rheumatoid arthritis development in patients with early undifferentiated arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer-Jensen, Anne; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2011-01-01

    To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients with early undifferentiated arthritis (UA).......To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients with early undifferentiated arthritis (UA)....

  18. A comparison of florfenicol-flunixin meglumine versus tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in fall-placed feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Berg, Janice; Hendrick, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new combination drug, florfenicol-flunixin meglumine, with tulathromycin for initial treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in fall-placed calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin on arrival at the feedlot. No significant differences were observed in UF relapses between the two drugs. Calves treated with florfenicol-flunixin had a lower crude case fatality rate (P = .0447) than calves treated with tulathromycin but did not have a significantly lower respiratory disease and histophilosis case fatality rate (P = .12). Whether the new florfenicol-flunixin product is more cost-effective than tulathromycin for the treatment of UF in fall-placed feedlot calves will depend on how the new product is priced in the marketplace relative to tulathromycin.

  19. Circulating microRNAs in serum from cattle challenged with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopat...

  20. Algorithm for identification of undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis: a multinational collaboration through the 3e initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazlewood, Glen; Aletaha, Daniel; Carmona, Loreto; Landewé, Robert B. M.; van der Heijde, Désirée M.; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Canhão, Helena; Catrina, Anca I.; Durez, Patrick; Edwards, Christopher J.; Leeb, Burkhard F.; Mjaavatten, Maria D.; Martinez-Osuna, Pindaro; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Serra-Bonett, Natali; Xavier, Ricardo M.; Zochling, Jane; Machado, Pedro; Thevissen, Kristof; Vercoutere, Ward; Bombardier, Claire

    2011-01-01

    To develop an algorithm for identification of undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA). An algorithm for identification of UPIA was developed by consensus during a roundtable meeting with an expert panel. It was informed by systematic reviews of the literature used to generate 10

  1. Imaging features of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver: a series of 15 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, Flaviu; Franchi-Abella, Stephanie; Pariente, Daniele; Merli, Laura; Adamsbaum, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumour occurring mostly in children ages 6-10 years. The discrepancy between its solid appearance on US and cystic-like appearance on CT has been described. To study the imaging particularities and similarities among our cases of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma and to report the errors in initial diagnoses. We conducted a retrospective study of 15 children with undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma diagnosed or referred to our hospital during 1997-2015 and analysed the clinical, biological and imaging data. We identified eight boys and seven girls ages 9 months to 14 years. Ten children presented with abdominal pain. Alpha-fetoprotein was slightly increased in one. Initial US and CT had been performed for all, while additional MRI had been done in two children. Initial CT demonstrated a hypoattenuated mass in all. Rupture was seen in five and intratumoural bleeding in seven children. Tumour volumes reduced during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 10 children. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma might be suggested in a non-secreting unifocal tumour with well-defined borders, fluid-filled spaces on US, hypoattenuation and serpiginous vessels on CT, and if there are signs of internal bleeding or rupture on CT or MRI. (orig.)

  2. Undifferentiated Embryonic Cell Transcription Factor 1 Regulates ESC Chromatin Organization and Gene Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Susanne M.; van den Boom, Vincent; Thummer, Rajkumar P.; Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Tesson, Bruno M.; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; O'Neill, Laura P.; Turner, Bryan M.; de Haan, Gerald; Eggen, Bart J. L.; O’Neill, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports showed that embryonic stem (ES) cells contain hyperdynamic and globally transcribed chromatin-properties that are important for ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate a role for undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) in regulating ES

  3. Azathioprine-induced shock in a patient suffering from undifferentiated erosive oligoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirtaş-Ertan, G.; Rowshani, A. T.; ten Berge, I. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Shock due to a hypersensitivity response to azathioprine is unpredictable, occurs seldom and bears a potentially fatal outcome. Azathioprine is widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and in solid organ transplantation. Here, we present a patient who suffered from undifferentiated

  4. Imaging features of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver: a series of 15 children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, Flaviu; Franchi-Abella, Stephanie; Pariente, Daniele [Bicetre Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Merli, Laura [Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Unit of Hepato-Biliary and Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery and Transplantation Centre, Rome (Italy); Adamsbaum, Catherine [Bicetre Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Paris Sud University, Faculty of Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, LTCI, CNRS, Telecom Paris Tech, Paris (France)

    2016-11-15

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumour occurring mostly in children ages 6-10 years. The discrepancy between its solid appearance on US and cystic-like appearance on CT has been described. To study the imaging particularities and similarities among our cases of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma and to report the errors in initial diagnoses. We conducted a retrospective study of 15 children with undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma diagnosed or referred to our hospital during 1997-2015 and analysed the clinical, biological and imaging data. We identified eight boys and seven girls ages 9 months to 14 years. Ten children presented with abdominal pain. Alpha-fetoprotein was slightly increased in one. Initial US and CT had been performed for all, while additional MRI had been done in two children. Initial CT demonstrated a hypoattenuated mass in all. Rupture was seen in five and intratumoural bleeding in seven children. Tumour volumes reduced during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 10 children. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma might be suggested in a non-secreting unifocal tumour with well-defined borders, fluid-filled spaces on US, hypoattenuation and serpiginous vessels on CT, and if there are signs of internal bleeding or rupture on CT or MRI. (orig.)

  5. Pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma of urinary bladder with calcified pulmonary metastasis: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mylarappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 29-year-old male who presented to us with hematuria, dysuria and bilateral flank pain. On evaluation, the patient was found to have primary pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma of bladder with calcified pulmonary metastasis, confirmed with computerized tomography scan and immunohistochemistry.

  6. Acute undifferentiated fever in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam: imprecise clinical diagnosis and irrational pharmaco-therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang L.; de Vries, Peter J.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nga, Tran T. Thanh; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of patients consulting commune primary healthcare posts for acute undifferentiated fever not being malaria (AUF), and to explore the diagnostic and therapeutic responses of the healthcare workers. METHODS: All patients presenting with AUF at 12 commune

  7. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  8. Possibility of Undifferentiated Human Thigh Adipose Stem Cells Differentiating into Functional Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hoon Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study aimed to investigate the possibility of isolating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from human thigh adipose tissue and the ability of human thigh adipose stem cells (HTASCs to differentiate into hepatocytes.MethodsThe adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were isolated from thigh adipose tissue. Growth factors, cytokines, and hormones were added to the collagen coated dishes to induce the undifferentiated HTASCs to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. To confirm the experimental results, the expression of hepatocyte-specific markers on undifferentiated and differentiated HTASCs was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical staining. Differentiation efficiency was evaluated using functional tests such as periodic acid schiff (PAS staining and detection of the albumin secretion level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.ResultsThe majority of the undifferentiated HTASCs were changed into a more polygonal shape showing tight interactions between the cells. The differentiated HTASCs up-regulated mRNA of hepatocyte markers. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that they were intensely stained with anti-albumin antibody compared with undifferentiated HTASCs. PAS staining showed that HTASCs submitted to the hepatocyte differentiation protocol were able to more specifically store glycogen than undifferentiated HTASCs, displaying a purple color in the cytoplasm of the differentiated HTASCs. ELISA analyses showed that differentiated HTASCs could secrete albumin, which is one of the hepatocyte markers.ConclusionsMSCs were islolated from human thigh adipose tissue differentiate to heapatocytes. The source of ADSCs is not only abundant abdominal adipose tissue, but also thigh adipose tissue for cell therapy in liver regeneration and tissue regeneration.

  9. Protein Composition of the Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1 Virion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Kaley A; Daugherty, Hillary C; Ander, Stephanie E; Jefferson, Victoria A; Shack, Leslie A; Pechan, Tibor; Nanduri, Bindu; Meyer, Florencia

    2017-02-20

    Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 1 is an important agricultural pathogen that infects cattle and other ruminants worldwide. Acute infection of the oro-respiratory tract leads to immune suppression and allows commensal bacteria to infect an otherwise healthy lower respiratory tract. This condition is known as the Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). BoHV-1 latently infects the host for life and periodical stress events re-initiate BRD, translating into high morbidity and large economic losses. To gain a better understanding of the biology of BoHV-1 and the disease it causes, we elucidated the protein composition of extracellular virions using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We detected 33 viral proteins, including the expected proteins of the nucleocapsid and envelope as well as other regulatory proteins present in the viral tegument. In addition to viral proteins, we have also identified packaged proteins of host origin. This constitutes the first proteomic characterization of the BoHV virion.

  10. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  11. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  12. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a condition marked by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood due to breathing excessively. ... aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing ... dioxide -- sometimes helps reduce symptoms when anxiety is the ...

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary Pleomorphic Undifferentiated Sarcoma—a Rare Renal Localization: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufiane Mellas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is known as a soft tissue sarcoma. Very few cases of this tumor originating from the renal parenchyma or renal capsule have been reported. We report a case of a 70-year-old patient admitted for enormous ureterohydronephrosis and pyelonephritis due to a pelvic ureter lithiasis. After draining by ureteral double J catheter, a nephroureterectomy was performed for nonfunctional kidney confirmed by scintigraphy. The histopathological study shows a pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient was sent to oncologists. Chemotherapy was proposed but the family decided to stop the treatment. The patient passed away 10 months later. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the very low occurrence of this renal tumor, which is extremely rare. Currently there is no consensus about its management. Our case extends the literature concerning this tumor.

  15. Primary CNS anaplastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma mimicking undifferentiated metastatic tumors: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianyu; Belverud, Shawn; Yeh, Albert Y; Bandovic, Jela; Farmer, Peter; Woldenberg, Rona F; Demopoulos, Alexis; Schulder, Michael; Li, Jian Yi

    2010-02-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare intracranial tumor, with an annual incidence of six per million population. Anaplastic variant of primary CNS diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is less common; to our knowledge, there is only one other case report in the world literature. We describe a 71 year old immunocompetent female without significant past medical history who presented with confusion and a homogeneously enhancing midline mass. The patient underwent craniotomy for tumor biopsy, followed by high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy despite a remarkably low performance status. Histologically, this tumor was composed of undifferentiated polymorphic tumor cells, multi-nucleated giant cells, extensive necrosis, and conspicuous mitotic activity, mimicking undifferentiated metastatic tumors. Immunohistochemical stains demonstrated immunopositivity of tumor cells for CD20, MUM-1, and BCL-6, and negative staining for CD3, CD10, and CD30. The clinical course, diagnostic workup, pathologic correlates, and treatment outcomes are described.

  16. Validity of ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis diagnoses in the Swedish National Patient Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, U; Exarchou, S; Sigurdardottir, V

    2015-01-01

    (AS) and undifferentiated SpA (uSpA) in the NPR against the established classification criteria [modified New York (mNY), Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS), Amor, and European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria]. METHOD: All patients with an ICD-8/9/10 code...... for AS or uSpA had high PPVs, suggesting that our case identification in the Swedish NPR can be used for nationwide, population-based, epidemiological studies of these diseases....

  17. Undifferentiated-type gastric adenocarcinoma: prognostic impact of three histological types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of the three constituents of undifferentiated-type gastric adenocarcinoma remains unclear. The present study assessed the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of undifferentiated-type mucinous adenocarcinoma (uMAC and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC compared with those of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Methods In total, 1,376 patients with undifferentiated-type gastric adenocarcinoma were included, consisting of 1,002 patients diagnosed with PDAC, 54 with uMAC and 320 with SRC. Clinicopathological factors and survival rates were compared among the three histological types. Results Significant differences in the distribution of pathological stages were observed among the groups. Patients with SRC had a significantly better survival rate than those with PDAC or uMAC, in both the all patients including non-curative resected patients and curative-resected groups. In addition, there was significant difference in survival between the PDAC and uMAC groups. Multivariate analysis suggested that age, gender, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis and curability significantly affected survival. Histological type was not an independent prognostic factor. There was no significant difference in the pattern of recurrence among the three groups. Conclusions The uMAC and SRC had worse and favorable prognosis compared with PDCA, respectively. However, there were no differences in survival by pathological stage, thus histological type was not an independent predictor of prognosis.

  18. Expression of Neural Markers by Undifferentiated Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Foudah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous expression of neural markers, already demonstrated in bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, has been considered as evidence of the MSCs’ predisposition to differentiate toward neural lineages, supporting their use in stem cell-based therapy for neural repair. In this study we have evaluated, by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry experiments, the expression of neural markers in undifferentiated MSCs from different sources: human adipose stem cells (hASCs, human skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hS-MSCs, human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs, and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and NeuN, unlike other evaluated markers, are spontaneously expressed by a very high percentage of undifferentiated hASCs, hS-MSCs, hPDLSCs, and hDPSCs. Conversely, the neural progenitor marker nestin is expressed only by a high percentage of undifferentiated hPDLSCs and hDPSCs. Our results suggest that the expression of βIII-tubulin and NeuN could be a common feature of stem cells and not exclusive to neuronal cells. This could result in a reassessment of the use of βIII-tubulin and NeuN as the only evidence proving neuronal differentiation. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the relevance of the spontaneous expression of these markers in stem cells.

  19. Differential expression of miRNA-423-5p in serum from cattle challenged with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. However, microRNA profiles in cattle exposed to BVDV are currently nonexistent and few studies have been reported; therefore,...

  20. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  1. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result is infection and malnutrition (22). On the other hand, there also consistent with previous reports (16,18) which .... formulation of livestock breeding policy. In proc. 5th. Britton S. Bovine tuberculosis: A cross-sectional and ... Ankara: Turkish-German Health. 1996: 343-349. Information Project, General Directorate of.

  2. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  3. Cryopreservation of putative pre-pubertal bovine spermatogonial stem cells by slow freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jung; Lee, Yong-An; Kim, Bang-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Gak; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Jung, Sang-Eun; Choi, Sun-Ho; Schmidt, Jonathan A; Ryu, Buom-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Development of techniques for the preservation of mammalian spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a critical step in commercial application of SSC based technologies, including species preservation, amplification of agriculturally valuable germ lines, and human fertility preservations. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for preservation of bovine SSCs using a slow freezing technique. To maximize the efficiency of SSC cryopreservation, the effects of various methods (tissue vs. cell freezing) and cryoprotective agents (trehalose, sucrose, and polyethylene glycol [PEG]) were tested. Following thawing, cells were enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia by differential plating and evaluated for recovery rate, proliferation capacity, and apoptosis. Additionally, putative stem cell activity was assessed using SSC xenotransplantation. The recovery rate, and proliferation capacity of undifferentiated spermatogonia were significantly greater for germ cells frozen using tissue freezing methods compared to cell freezing methods. Cryopreservation in the presence of 200 mM trehalose resulted in significantly greater recovery rate, proliferation capacity, and apoptosis of germ cells compared to control. Furthermore, cryopreservation using the tissue freezing method in the presence of 200 mM trehalose resulted in the production of colonies of donor-derived germ cells after xenotransplantation into recipient mouse testes, indicating putative stem cell function. Collectively, these data indicate that cryopreservation using tissue freezing methods in the presence of 200 mM trehalose is an efficient cryopreservation protocol for bovine SSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  5. Case of Six-Year Disease-Free Survival with Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Saito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas (UDC is rare and has a dismal prognosis. Here, we report a case of 6-year disease-free survival with a mixed type of UDC and UDC with osteoclast-like giant cells, with a high mitotic index as well as perineural, lymphatic, vessel, and diaphragmatic invasion. The patient underwent radical distal pancreatectomy and was subsequently treated with adjuvant chemotherapy using gemcitabine plus S-1 followed by maintenance chemotherapy with oral tegafur-uracil. The patient has been doing well with no evidence of recurrence for more than 6 years after surgery.

  6. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: indolent, tail-like recurrence of a high-grade tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpert, Justin S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Boland, Patrick [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Hameed, Meera [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Panicek, David M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Recurrence of a soft tissue sarcoma typically manifests as a round or oval mass at imaging, and recurrent high-grade soft tissue sarcomas generally enlarge relatively rapidly. We present a case of high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the calf of a 48-year-old male that recurred as a thin, curvilinear ''tail'' of enhancing tissue at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with extremely indolent growth over a 7-year period. The unusual imaging finding of a slowly enlarging ''tail'' should not be dismissed as postoperative changes, even for a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma. (orig.)

  7. A monoclonal antibody recognizes undifferentiation-specific carbohydrate moieties expressed on cell surface of the human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Jung; Ko, Seon-Yle; Ryu, Chun-Jeih; Jang, Young-Joo

    2017-05-01

    Human dental pulp cells are obtained from dental pulp tissue, and have the ability to form dentin and a pulp-like complex. Although adult stem cells have been identified from the primary culture by using specific cell surface markers, the identity of surface markers for the purification of stem cells within the dental pulp population are still unclear. Previously, we had constructed monoclonal antibodies against the undifferentiated cell-specific surface markers of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) by performing decoy immunization. Among them, a monoclonal antibody against the cell surface antigen of the undifferentiated hDPCs (named UPSA-1) was purified and its heavy and light chain consensus regions were analyzed. The cell surface binding affinity of UPSA-1 mAb on the undifferentiated hDPCs was stronger than that on the differentiated cells. When tunicamycin was applied to hDPSCs during culture, the cell surface binding affinity of the antibody was dramatically decreased, and dentinogenic differentiation was reduced. The purified UPSA-1 antigen band resulting from immunoprecipitation disappeared or shifted down on the SDS-PAGE by deglycosylation. These data suggested that glycosylation on the cell surface might be a marker of an undifferentiated state, and that UPSA-1 mAb might be useful for identifying the carbohydrate moiety on the cell surface of undifferentiated pulp cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intensive combined modality therapy of small round cell and undifferentiated sarcomas in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Dewan, R.; Watkins, E.; Kinsella, T.J.; Glatstein, E.; STeinberg, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-five patients (ages 4-35 years) with the following small round cell tumors and undifferentiated sarcoma were treated at the National Cancer Institute: Ewing's sarcome (n=32), peripheral neuroepithelioma (n=14), rhabdomyosarcoma (n=24), undifferentiated sarcoma (n=5). Most patients had poor prognostic features including 36 (48%) with metastatic disease, and 42 (56%) with central (truncal) tumors (22 in the pelvis). Treatment included 5 cycles of intensive induction chemotherapy with vincristine, cyclophosphamide and adriamycin, plus aggressive local radiation therapy using simulation and computerized treatment planning for all patients. Thereafter, complete clinical responses were consolidated with intensive chemotherapy, total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation. There were three local only failures, 10 local plus distant failures, 36 distant only failures, 3 treatment-related deaths, and one intercurrent death. Overall actuarial survival and event-free survival at 4 years are 49 and 29%, respectively. Actuarial freedom from local progression was seen in 74% of patients at 4 years, quite remarkable considering the bulk and location of most of these tumors. Without aggressive surgery, many of these high risk patients had satisfactory outcomes, but better systemic treatments are still needed.(author). 44 refs.; 8 figs.; 6 tabs

  9. PDGFRa amplification in multiple skin lesions of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: A clue for intimal sarcoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, Amélie; Vignon-Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Pedeutour, Florence; Le Maignan, Christine; Koskas, Fabien; Lebbé, Célèste; Janin, Anne; Battistella, Maxime

    2017-05-01

    A 62-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man was admitted for multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules on his lower limbs, corresponding to an undifferentiated proliferation of spindle and pleomorphic cells, with irregular nuclei and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells were negative for a large panel of immunohistochemical markers, except CD10. MDM2 immunohistochemical staining was also negative, leading to the diagnosis of Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte contre le Cancer grade III undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). Array-comparative genomic hybridization showed a highly complex karyotype, with amplification of the 4q12 region, an area that contains only the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRa) gene. This amplification of PDFGRa, molecular hallmark of intimal sarcoma (IS), led to the diagnosis of skin IS metastasis. A positron emission tomography showed a hypermetabolic mass protruding in the preaortic area, consistent with the diagnosis of aortic IS. Our study shows that a rare differential diagnosis in peripheral UPS can be IS skin metastasis, and underlines the importance of molecular analyses in UPS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Humaira; Hayyat, Abbas; Akhtar, Naeem; Rizwan, Syeda Fatima

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight early subclinical presentation of dengue viral infection (DVI) as an undifferentiated febrile illness. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Microbiology Department, Rawalpindi Medical College from March to September 2009. Stratified random sampling was used to select subjects from various urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi, and Serum IgG anti-dengue antibodies were detected by using 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the total 240 subjects, 69 (28.75%) were found to be positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies. Of the positive cases, 41 (59.4%) - comprising 31 (44.9%) urban residents - and 10 (14.4%) rural residents presented with a previous history of undifferentiated fever (p<0.05). It was concluded that primary DVI can present as subclinical form in healthy population residing in rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, which is an alarming situation indicating the spread of disease in the study area.

  11. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, H.; Hayyat, A.; Akhtar, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight early subclinical presentation of dengue viral infection (DVI) as an undifferentiated febrile illness. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Microbiology Department, Rawalpindi Medical College from March to September 2009. Stratified random sampling was used to select subjects from various urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi, and Serum IgG anti-dengue antibodies were detected by using 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the total 240 subjects, 69 (28.75%) were found to be positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies. Of the positive cases, 41 (59.4%) - comprising 31 (44.9%) urban residents - and 10 (14.4%) rural residents presented with a previous history of undifferentiated fever (p<0.05). It was concluded that primary DVI can present as subclinical form in healthy population residing in rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, which is an alarming situation indicating the spread of disease in the study area. (author)

  12. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.

    2014-01-01

    differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research...... describes the protein composition of human and bovine blastocoel fluid, which is surrounded by the trophectoderm and undifferentiated cells of the inner cell mass. In this study, we further examine the changes in the protein composition in both the primitive YS fluid and the embryonic cells during early...

  14. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  15. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  16. Bacterial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dee; Chengappa, M M; Kuszak, Jennifer; McVey, D Scott

    2010-07-01

    Pneumonia caused by the bacterial pathogens discussed in this article is the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality of the BRDC. Most of these infectious bacteria are not capable of inducing significant disease without the presence of other predisposing environmental factors, physiologic stressors, or concurrent infections. Mannheimia haemolytica is the most common and serious of these bacterial agents and is therefore also the most highly characterized. There are other important bacterial pathogens of BRD, such as Pasteurella multocida, Histophulus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Mixed infections with these organisms do occur. These pathogens have unique and common virulence factors but the resulting pneumonic lesions may be similar. Although the amount and quality of research associated with BRD has increased, vaccination and therapeutic practices are not fully successful. A greater understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the infecting bacteria and pathogenesis of pneumonia, as well as the characteristics of the organisms that allow tissue persistence, may lead to improved management, therapeutics, and vaccines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of complexes I, III, and IV within the bovine respirasome by single particle cryoelectron tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Stahlberg, Henning; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The respirasome is a multisubunit supercomplex of the respiratory chain in mitochondria. Here we report the 3D reconstruction of the bovine heart respirasome, composed of dimeric complex III and single copies of complex I and IV, at about 2.2-nm resolution, determined by cryoelectron tomography and

  19. Molecular epidemiology of bovine coronavirus on the basis of comparative analyses of the S gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lihong; Hägglund, Sara; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil

    2006-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a group 2 member of the genus Coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, is an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It causes diarrhea in adult animals (winter dysentery), as well as enteric and respiratory diseases in calves. The annual occurrence of BCoV epidemics...

  20. Sustained levels of FGF2 maintain undifferentiated stem cell cultures with biweekly feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lotz

    Full Text Available An essential aspect of stem cell culture is the successful maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Many types of stem cells are FGF2 dependent, and pluripotent stem cells are maintained by replacing FGF2-containing media daily, while tissue-specific stem cells are typically fed every 3rd day. Frequent feeding, however, results in significant variation in growth factor levels due to FGF2 instability, which limits effective maintenance due to spontaneous differentiation. We report that stabilization of FGF2 levels using controlled release PLGA microspheres improves expression of stem cell markers, increases stem cell numbers and decreases spontaneous differentiation. The controlled release FGF2 additive reduces the frequency of media changes needed to maintain stem cell cultures, so that human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be maintained successfully with biweekly feedings.

  1. Can Villin be Used to Identify Malignant and Undifferentiated Normal Digestive Epithelial Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robine, S.; Huet, C.; Moll, R.; Sahuquillo-Merino, C.; Coudrier, E.; Zweibaum, A.; Louvard, D.

    1985-12-01

    We have investigated the presence of villin (a Ca2+-regulated actin binding protein) in various tissues (normal or malignant) and in established cell lines by using sensitive immunochemical techniques on cell extracts and immunofluorescence analysis on frozen sections. Our results show that villin is a marker that can be used to distinguish normal differentiated epithelial cells from the simple epithelia lining the gastrointestinal tract and renal tubules. Villin is found in the absorptive cells of the small and large intestines, in the duct cells of pancreas and biliary system, and in the cells of kidney proximal tubules. Furthermore, undifferentiated normal and tumoral cells of intestinal origin in vivo and in cell culture express villin. Therefore, expression of villin is seen in cells that do not necessarily display the morphological features characteristic of their terminally differentiated state, such as the microvilli-lined brush border. We suggest the possible clinical implications of using villin as a marker in the diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas.

  2. Recurrent ovarian undifferentiated carcinoma resembling hepatoid morphology treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Kashima, Kastunori; Yachida, Nozomi; Motoyama, Teiichi; Enomoto, Takayuki

    2017-05-01

    Hepatoid carcinomas are undifferentiated epithelial carcinomas that are pathologically similar to hepatocellular carcinoma, but occur in a variety of organs. Hepatoid carcinomas, as strictly defined, typically produce α-fetoprotein. In addition, a standard effective chemotherapy regimen for hepatoid carcinoma has yet to be established. We present a case of advanced primary ovarian cancer that was pathologically similar to hepatoid carcinoma without staining for α-fetoprotein or hepatocyte paraffin 1. The primary ovarian, metastatic, and recurrent tumors shared similar pathological characteristics. Fourth-line chemotherapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and bevacizumab was effective in treating the recurrent tumor, even though this disease had recurred three times. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 regulates ESC chromatin organization and gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooistra, Susanne M; van den Boom, Vincent; Thummer, Rajkumar P

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports showed that embryonic stem (ES) cells contain hyperdynamic and globally transcribed chromatin-properties that are important for ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate a role for undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) in regulating ES...... cell chromatin structure. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis, we identified >1,700 UTF1 target genes that significantly overlap with previously identified Nanog, Oct4, Klf-4, c-Myc, and Rex1 targets. Gene expression profiling showed that UTF1 knock down results in increased expression...... of a large set of genes, including a significant number of UTF1 targets. UTF1 knock down (KD) ES cells are, irrespective of the increased expression of several self-renewal genes, Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) dependent. However, UTF1 KD ES cells are perturbed in their differentiation in response...

  4. New strategies for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenal, Guillermo J.

    2006-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer, which accounts for about 5-10% of thyroid cancer cases, is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the genetic changes that underlie thyroid cancer, as all kinds of tumors. The characterization of these proteins is being exploited to delineate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this cancer. This work is focused on those compounds or therapeutic approaches that are being used in clinical essays or in animal models. (author) [es

  5. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  6. Undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells protected by huprines against injury induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pera

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plays a central role in the stress. Huprines, a group of potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs, have shown a broad cholinergic pharmacological profile. Recently, it has been observed that huprine X (HX improves cognition in non transgenic middle aged mice and shows a neuroprotective activity (increased synaptophysin expression in 3xTg-AD mice. Consequently, in the present experiments the potential neuroprotective effect of huprines (HX, HY, HZ has been analyzed in two different in vitro conditions: undifferentiated and NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Cells were subjected to oxidative insult (H2O2, 200 µM and the protective effects of HX, HY and HZ (0.01 µM-1 µM were analyzed after a pre-incubation period of 24 and 48 hours. All huprines showed protective effects in both undifferentiated and NGF-differentiated cells, however only in differentiated cells the effect was dependent on cholinergic receptors as atropine (muscarinic antagonist, 0.1 µM and mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist, 100 µM reverted the neuroprotection action of huprines. The decrease in SOD activity observed after oxidative insult was overcome in the presence of huprines and this effect was not mediated by muscarinic or nicotinic receptors. In conclusion, huprines displayed neuroprotective properties as previously observed in in vivo studies. In addition, these effects were mediated by cholinergic receptors only in differentiated cells. However, a non-cholinergic mechanism, probably through an increase in SOD activity, seems to be also involved in the neuroprotective effects of huprines.

  7. Undifferentiated and Differentiated PC12 Cells Protected by Huprines Against Injury Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Marta; Camps, Pelayo; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego; Perez, Belen; Badia, Albert; Clos Guillen, M Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a central role in the stress. Huprines, a group of potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), have shown a broad cholinergic pharmacological profile. Recently, it has been observed that huprine X (HX) improves cognition in non transgenic middle aged mice and shows a neuroprotective activity (increased synaptophysin expression) in 3xTg-AD mice. Consequently, in the present experiments the potential neuroprotective effect of huprines (HX, HY, HZ) has been analyzed in two different in vitro conditions: undifferentiated and NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Cells were subjected to oxidative insult (H2O2, 200 µM) and the protective effects of HX, HY and HZ (0.01 µM–1 µM) were analyzed after a pre-incubation period of 24 and 48 hours. All huprines showed protective effects in both undifferentiated and NGF-differentiated cells, however only in differentiated cells the effect was dependent on cholinergic receptors as atropine (muscarinic antagonist, 0.1 µM) and mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist, 100 µM) reverted the neuroprotection action of huprines. The decrease in SOD activity observed after oxidative insult was overcome in the presence of huprines and this effect was not mediated by muscarinic or nicotinic receptors. In conclusion, huprines displayed neuroprotective properties as previously observed in in vivo studies. In addition, these effects were mediated by cholinergic receptors only in differentiated cells. However, a non-cholinergic mechanism, probably through an increase in SOD activity, seems to be also involved in the neuroprotective effects of huprines. PMID:24086337

  8. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  9. Enfermidade gastroentérica e respiratória em bezerros inoculados com amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2 Gastroenteric and respiratory disease in calves inoculated with brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV - 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Celso Sperotto Brum

    2002-10-01

    BVDV-2 foram capazes de reproduzir a enfermidade aguda quando inoculadas em bezerros e que as conseqüências clínico-patológicas da infecção foram mais severas nos animais mais jovens.Two Brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2 were inoculated in calves to evaluate their virulence and to study the pathogenesis of the infection. Previously to virus inoculation, the calves were immunossupressed with dexamethasone. Four 45 to 90-days-old calves (group A were inoculated with isolate SV-260 (n=2 or LV-96 (n=2, and four 6 to 8-months-old calves (group B were inoculated with isolate SV-260. Following virus inoculation, group A calves showed anorexia, depression, hyperthermia, signs of respiratory infection and profuse diarrhea, bloody in two cases. The respiratory and digestive signs progressed and the animals died or were euthanized in extremis between days 7 and 12 post-inoculation. Ulcers and erosions in the digestive tract (tongue, n=4; esophagus, n=1; rumen, n=1 and abomasum, n=3, edema of the lung (n=4 and abomasal mucosa (n=3; echimosis and suffusions in the spleen serosa (n=2, rumen, small intestine and ceccum (n=1, heart (n=1 and urinary bladder mucosa (n=1 and intestinal intussuseption (n=1 were the most prominent findings. Ulcerations and erosions accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltrates in the digestive tract mucosa and submucosa, and lymphoid depletion in lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches were frequently observed. Infectious virus was detected in several tissues and organs. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in epithelial cells of the digestive tract, in mononuclear cells of the perivascular and peribronchial spaces; in lymph node septae and capsule; and in lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells of the spleen and Peyer’s patches. Group B calves showed depression, hyperthermia, moderate signs of respiratory and digestive infection, small ulcerations in the tongue and recovered after a few days. These

  10. A Comparison of Androgynous, Feminine, Masculine, and Undifferentiated Women on Self-Esteem, Body Satisfaction, and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlicka, Thomas; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared sex-role orientations of female undergraduates (N=204) who completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Androgyny and masculinity were associated with self-esteem, body satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction. Androgynous and masculine subjects were generally similar and well adjusted; feminine and undifferentiated subjects were similar and less…

  11. Diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercoutere, Ward; Thevissen, Kristof; Bombardier, Claire; Landewé, Robert B. M.

    2011-01-01

    To review the available literature on the diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA) as an evidence base for generating multinational clinical practice recommendations in the 3e Initiative in Rheumatology. A systematic

  12. Inhibition by pectic oligosaccharides of the invasion of undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) to inhibit adherence to and invasion of undifferentiated (UC) and differentiated (DC) Caco-2 cells by Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) was investigated. It was observed that both adherence and invasion were significantly higher in UC than in DC. POS (2.5 ...

  13. Indistinguishable genomic profiles and shared prognostic markers in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma: different sides of a single coin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Francis, Princy; Bendahl, Pär-Ola

    2009-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) diagnostics and prognostics are challenging, particularly in highly malignant and pleomorphic subtypes such as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). We applied 32K BAC arrays and gene expression profiling to 18 extremity soft tissue LMS...

  14. Etiologies of acute undifferentiated fever and clinical prediction of scrub typhus in a non-tropical endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Chul; Chon, Sung-Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Scrub typhus usually presents as acute undifferentiated fever. This cross-sectional study included adult patients presenting with acute undifferentiated fever defined as any febrile illness for ≤ 14 days without evidence of localized infection. Scrub typhus cases were defined by an antibody titer of a ≥ fourfold increase in paired sera, a ≥ 1:160 in a single serum using indirect immunofluorescence assay, or a positive result of the immunochromatographic test. Multiple regression analysis identified predictors associated with scrub typhus to develop a prediction rule. Of 250 cases with known etiology of acute undifferentiated fever, influenza (28.0%), hepatitis A (25.2%), and scrub typhus (16.4%) were major causes. A prediction rule for identifying suspected cases of scrub typhus consisted of age ≥ 65 years (two points), recent fieldwork/outdoor activities (one point), onset of illness during an outbreak period (two points), myalgia (one point), and eschar (two points). The c statistic was 0.977 (95% confidence interval = 0.960-0.994). At a cutoff value ≥ 4, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.7% (79.0-98.1%) and 90.9% (86.0-94.3%), respectively. Scrub typhus, the third leading cause of acute undifferentiated fever in our region, can be identified early using the prediction rule. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Dexamethasone treatment differentially alters viral shedding and the antibody and acute phase protein response after multivalent respiratory vaccination in beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to examine immunosuppression induced by dexamethasone (DEX) administration in cattle upon immunological responses to a multivalent respiratory vaccine containing replicating and non-replicating agents. Steers ( n = 32; 209 +/- 8 kg) seronegative to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis...

  16. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  17. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  19. Acute undifferentiated fever in India: a multicentre study of aetiology and diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Kristine; Manoharan, Anand; Chandy, Sara; Chacko, Novin; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Patil, Suvarna; Henry, Anil; Nesaraj, Joel; Kuriakose, Cijoy; Singh, Ashita; Kurian, Siby; Gill Haanshuus, Christel; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjørn; Vasanthan Antony, George; Mathai, Dilip

    2017-10-04

    The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of malaria, bacteraemia, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, chikungunya and dengue among hospitalized patients with acute undifferentiated fever in India, and to describe the performance of standard diagnostic methods. During April 2011-November 2012, 1564 patients aged ≥5 years with febrile illness for 2-14 days were consecutively included in an observational study at seven community hospitals in six states in India. Malaria microscopy, blood culture, Dengue rapid NS1 antigen and IgM Combo test, Leptospira IgM ELISA, Scrub typhus IgM ELISA and Chikungunya IgM ELISA were routinely performed at the hospitals. Second line testing, Dengue IgM capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA), Scrub typhus immunofluorescence (IFA), Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), malaria PCR and malaria immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test (RDT) Parahit Total™ were performed at the coordinating centre. Convalescence samples were not available. Case definitions were as follows: Leptospirosis: Positive ELISA and positive MAT. Scrub typhus: Positive ELISA and positive IFA. Dengue: Positive RDT and/or positive MAC-ELISA. Chikungunya: Positive ELISA. Bacteraemia: Growth in blood culture excluding those defined as contaminants. Malaria: Positive genus-specific PCR. Malaria was diagnosed in 17% (268/1564) and among these 54% had P. falciparum. Dengue was diagnosed in 16% (244/1564). Bacteraemia was found in 8% (124/1564), and among these Salmonella typhi or S. paratyphi constituted 35%. Scrub typhus was diagnosed in 10%, leptospirosis in 7% and chikungunya in 6%. Fulfilling more than one case definition was common, most frequent in chikungunya where 26% (25/98) also had positive dengue test. Malaria and dengue were the most common causes of fever in this study. A high overlap between case definitions probably reflects high prevalence of prior infections, cross reactivity and subclinical infections, rather than high prevalence of

  20. Longitudinal analysis of quality of life in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudici M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michele Iudici, Rosaria Irace, Antonella Riccardi, Giovanna Cuomo, Serena Vettori, Gabriele Valentini Rheumatology Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Introduction/objectives: To prospectively assess the quality of life (QoL of patients affected by undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTDs and to identify factors associated with changes over time.Patients and methods: A total of 46 consecutive UCTD patients completed the Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire at presentation and then yearly. At each 6-month visit, all patients underwent a detailed history taking and a laboratory and physical assessment, in order to follow the evolution of the disease over time and to assess the the co-existence of fibromyalgia.Results: At presentation, scores lower than the average of the general population were detected in 34 (74% and 41 (89% patients in the physical and mental domains, respectively. No difference between patients with and without Raynaud’s phenomenon was detected. Fibromyalgia was the only independent variable associated with an impaired physical component summary score (p = 0.0009. No patient feature was found to be associated with the basal mental component summary score. During 24 months of follow-up, a significant improvement (ie, a change ≥5 from baseline in physical component summary and mental component summary scores was observed in 14 (33.3% and 20 (43.4% patients, respectively. Patients who significantly improved in the physical domain more frequently had a history of glucocorticoids intake (p < 0.001, while those who improved in the mental component more frequently had a history of either glucocorticoids (p = 0.043 or immunosuppressors (p = 0.037 intake during follow-up.Conclusion: UCTD patients perceive a worse QoL, regardless of Raynaud’s phenomenon Fibromyalgia is one of the major contributors of physical QoL, whereas no factor influencing

  1. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  2. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b calf: Effects on health, performance, BVDV type 1a titers, and circulating leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major culprit in the development of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) either directly via acute clinical illness or indirect effects of immunosuppression. Calves born persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are the primary transmission source of the virus; however...

  3. Promoted neuronal differentiation after activation of alpha4/beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in undifferentiated neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural progenitor is a generic term used for undifferentiated cell populations of neural stem, neuronal progenitor and glial progenitor cells with abilities for proliferation and differentiation. We have shown functional expression of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and gamma-aminobutyrate type-A receptors endowed to positively and negatively regulate subsequent neuronal differentiation in undifferentiated neural progenitors, respectively. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR by undifferentiated neural progenitors prepared from neocortex of embryonic rodent brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed mRNA expression of particular nAChR subunits in undifferentiated rat and mouse progenitors prepared before and after the culture with epidermal growth factor under floating conditions. Sustained exposure to nicotine significantly inhibited the formation of neurospheres composed of clustered proliferating cells and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction activity at a concentration range of 1 µM to 1 mM without affecting cell survival. In these rodent progenitors previously exposed to nicotine, marked promotion was invariably seen for subsequent differentiation into cells immunoreactive for a neuronal marker protein following the culture of dispersed cells under adherent conditions. Both effects of nicotine were significantly prevented by the heteromeric α4β2 nAChR subtype antagonists dihydro-β-erythroidine and 4-(5-ethoxy-3-pyridinyl-N-methyl-(3E-3-buten-1-amine, but not by the homomeric α7 nAChR subtype antagonist methyllycaconitine, in murine progenitors. Sustained exposure to nicotine preferentially increased the expression of Math1 among different basic helix-loop-helix proneural genes examined. In undifferentiated progenitors from embryonic mice

  4. Histologic and Genetic Advances in Refining the Diagnosis of “Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Viterbo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS is an inclusive term used for sarcomas that defy formal sub-classification. The frequency with which this diagnosis is assigned has decreased in the last twenty years. This is because when implemented, careful histologic assessment, immunohistochemistry, and ultra-structural evaluation can often determine lineage of differentiation. Further attrition in the diagnostic frequency of UPS may arise by using array-comparative genomic hybridization. Gene expression arrays are also of potential use as they permit hierarchical gene clustering. Appraisal of the literature is difficult due to a historical perspective in which specific molecular diagnostic methods were previously unavailable. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC classification has changed with different inclusion criteria. Taxonomy challenges also exist with the older term “malignant fibrous histiocytoma” being replaced by “UPS”. In 2010 an analysis of multiple sarcoma expression databases using a 170-gene predictor, re-classified most MFH and “not-otherwise-specified” (NOS tumors as liposarcomas, leiomyosarcomas or fibrosarcomas. Interestingly, some of the classifier genes are potential molecular therapeutic targets including Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, Nerve growth factor β (NGF β and Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR.

  5. MR imaging of myxofibrosarcoma and undifferentiated sarcoma with emphasis on tail sign; diagnostic and prognostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kang, Yusuhn; Choi, Ja-Young; Yi, Minkyong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han-Soo; Han, Ilkyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-City, Gyeongi-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To assess the prevalence of the tail sign in soft tissue sarcomas and determine whether the local recurrence rate differed based on the presence of the tail sign. In our retrospective study, myxofibrosarcoma (MFS, n = 25) and undifferentiated sarcoma (US, n = 38) comprised group 1, and the remaining tumours (n = 115) were assigned to group 2. Location, size, and imaging features of the tumours were assessed on MRI. The radiological-pathological correlation of the tail sign was analysed. The tail sign, thick fascial enhancement extending from the tumour margin, was more common and significantly thicker in group 1. In the subgroup analysis between MFS and US, there was no significant difference in the presence of a tail sign. Histological examination revealed extensive tumour cell infiltrations along the deep fascia from the main mass. Patients with a tail sign had a worse local recurrence-free survival than patients without it, not only in all tumours (p < 0.01), but also in group 1 (p = 0.019) The tail sign was a common MRI feature of both MFS and US, and was also associated with worse local recurrence-free survival. Radiologists should be aware of these MRI findings and inform the surgeon preoperatively in order to obtain a sufficient surgical margin to minimise the risk of local tumour recurrence. (orig.)

  6. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  7. Predict rheumatoid arthritis conversion from undifferentiated arthritis with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and laboratory indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xinwei; Li, Huixia; Zhan, Ying; Qu, Jin

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the clinical value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and laboratory indexes in predicting conversion from undifferentiated arthritis (UA) to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total 81 DMARD-naive UA patients were studied. 37 cases were ultimately diagnosed as RA, 32 cases were diagnosed as other types of arthritis, and the remaining cases were still UA during the 1-year follow-up. The DCE-MRI and laboratory measures were fed into a logistic regression analysis. Wash-in rate and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody served as the final variables into the regression equation (pCCP antibody positive achieved a sensitivity of 37.8% and specificity of 90.9%. The combination of wash-in rate and anti-CCP antibody positive improved specificity (100%) but not sensitivity (27.3%). The conversion from UA to RA is highly predictable. The wash-in rate of DCE-MRI can be used as an important biomarker to predict UA progression.

  8. Undifferentiated tropical febrile illness in Cordoba, Colombia: Not everything is dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Salim; Tique, Vaneza; Miranda, Jorge; Montes, Eney; Garzon, Denisses

    In Colombia, undifferentiated tropical febrile illness (UTFI) are frequent and of considerable concern. They also share many clinical features. Between 2012 and 2013 in an endemic tropical area of Cordoba, Colombia, we conducted a prospective study to establish an etiological diagnosis of UTFI. Using diagnostic tests for dengue, leptospirosis, hantavirus, malaria, rickettsia, brucellosis, hepatitis A and B on 100 patients recruited for the study. We identified 69 patients with presumed UTFI: leptospirosis (n=27), dengue (n=26), hantavirus infection (n=4), malaria (n=4), rickettsial infection (n=2), hepatitis A (n=1), and brucellosis (n=1); no hepatitis B cases were detected. Co-infections with malaria and leptospirosis (n=1), hepatitis A and dengue (n=1), hantavirus and dengue (n=1), hantavirus, dengue, and leptospirosis (n=1) were also identified. No etiologic agent was identified for 31 patients. We conclude that other etiologic agents besides dengue virus deserve greater attention by physicians and public health authorities in tropical area of Colombia. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma of the inner nose and the paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustrow, J.; Rudert, H.; Diercks, M.; Beigel, A.

    1989-01-01

    272 patients with tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were followed up from 1949 until 1982. 53% of the tumours were classified as squamous cell or undifferentiated carcinomata. The most common site of squamous cell carcinoma is the maxillary sinus (50%). Distant metastases and regional lymph node metastases are rarely seen at presentation regardless of the size of the primary tumour. Metastases usually indicate a tumour dependent death in the near future. The main prognostic indicators are the size of the tumour (significantly worse prognosis for T4 in comparison to T2 or T3 tumours) and the localisation (significantly better prognosis for tumours of the floor of the nasal cavity or the nasal septum compared to tumours of the paranasal sinuses). The age of the patient or the degree of differentiation of the tumour did not influence on the survival rate. Tumour dependent deaths rarely occur after more than five years. Patients were assigned to two treatment groups and matched according to the tumour stage. One group received surgery only, whereas the second group received a combined treatment of surgery with subsequent radiotherapy. There was a significant difference between the two groups in favour of the surgical treatment. According to these data we recommend surgical excision without postoperative irradiation in cases where complete removal of the tumor has been histologically proven. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Aging results in molecular changes in an enriched population of undifferentiated rat spermatogonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Catriona; Nagano, Makoto; Robaire, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    A strong correlation exists between increasing paternal age and a decline in reproductive function. Testis aging is associated with testicular atrophy, increased DNA damage, and de novo mutations. It is unclear whether these problems arise from the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), a buildup of anomalies as older germ cells progress through spermatogenesis, or both. We hypothesize that with the continual divisions of SSCs that maintain the germ cell population, an alteration of these cells occurs over time. To test this, we utilized young (4-mo-old) and aged (18- and 21-mo-old) transgenic rats that express GFP in germ cells only. We first examined the number and activity of SSCs from the different age groups by transplantation. Aged rats had numerically fewer SSCs than young rats (age, we isolated an SSC-enriched population of CD9-positive (CD9(+)) cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (confirmed by transplantation studies) and extracted RNA for microarray analysis. In the aged CD9(+) cells, 60 transcripts were upregulated and more than 500 downregulated compared to the young cells. An altered expression was found for transcripts involved in mitosis and in DNA damage response. These results suggest molecular alterations in the SSC-enriched population of aged CD9(+) cells, implying that reproductive aging originates in the undifferentiated cells of spermatogenesis.

  11. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm 3 or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future

  12. Application of a prediction model for the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Guajardo, Ana; Pérez-Barbosa, Lorena; Vega-Morales, David; Riega-Torres, Janett; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge; Garza-Elizondo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Different prediction rules have been applied to patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) to identify those that progress to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Leiden Prediction Rule (LPR) has proven useful in different UA cohorts. To apply the LPR to a cohort of patients with UA of northeastern Mexico. We included 47 patients with UA, LPR was applied at baseline. They were evaluated and then classified after one year of follow-up into two groups: those who progressed to RA (according to ACR 1987) and those who did not. 43% of the AI patients developed RA. In the RA group, 56% of patients obtained a score ≤ 6 and only 15% ≥ 8. 70% who did not progress to RA had a score between 6 and ≤ 8. There was no difference in median score of LPR between groups, p=0.940. Most patients who progressed to RA scored less than 6 points in the LPR. Unlike what was observed in other cohorts, the model in our population did not allow us to predict the progression of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolated Ro52 Antibodies as Immunological Marker of a Mild Phenotype of Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Larruga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD is used to describe undiagnosed patients that do not fulfill classification criteria for definite connective tissue disease (Systemic Lupus, Systemic Sclerosis, Sjögren Syndrome, and Dermatomyositis/Polymyositis. It is important to find serological markers as predictors of the evolution or severity of these diseases. The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate if there was a milder subgroup of UCTD with a special clinical profile consisting only in the presence of anti-Ro52 autoantibodies. Immunological and clinical records of 62 patients attending the hospital during 30 months were studied. Results showed a target population formed by mostly women, aged between 40 and 80 years at the moment of the study, with a registered age of onset between 40 and 60 years. Speckled pattern was the most frequent pattern found by indirect immunofluorescence. Given the obtained results and keeping in mind possible limitations because of sample size, isolated positive anti-Ro52 autoantibodies seem to lead to a benign effect in terms of evolution of the disease. As a future objective, the follow-up of these patients should be necessary to investigate new clinical symptoms, serological markers, or development of a definite connective tissue disease over time.

  14. Proteomic analysis of plasma membranes isolated from undifferentiated and differentiated HepaRG cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolowska Izabela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Liver infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, a DNA virus of the Hepadnaviridae family, leads to severe disease, such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The early steps of the viral life cycle are largely obscure and the host cell plasma membrane receptors are not known. HepaRG is the only proliferating cell line supporting HBV infection in vitro, following specific differentiation, allowing for investigation of new host host-cell factors involved in viral entry, within a more robust and reproducible environment. Viral infection generally begins with receptor recognition at the host cell surface, following highly specific cell-virus interactions. Most of these interactions are expected to take place at the plasma membrane of the HepaRG cells. In the present study, we used this cell line to explore changes between the plasma membrane of undifferentiated (− and differentiated (+ cells and to identify differentially-regulated proteins or signaling networks that might potentially be involved in HBV entry. Our initial study identified a series of proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma membrane of (− and (+ cells and are good candidates for potential cell-virus interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first study using functional proteomics to study plasma membrane proteins from HepaRG cells, providing a platform for future experiments that will allow us to understand the cell-virus interaction and mechanism of HBV viral infection.

  15. Response of the ruminant respiratory tract to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M R; Brogden, K A

    2000-07-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of loss to the sheep and cattle industry throughout the world. Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of domestic ruminants and causes serious outbreaks of acute pneumonia in neonatal, weaned and growing lambs, calves, and goats. M. haemolytica is also an important cause of pneumonia in adult animals. Transportation, viral infections with agents such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus or bovine respiratory syncytial virus, overcrowding, housing of neonates and weaned animals together and other stressful conditions predispose animals to M. haemolytica infection [1, 2]. This review assimilates some of the findings key to cellular and molecular responses of the lung from a pathologist's perspective. It includes some of what is known and underscores areas that are not fully understood.

  16. Age-dependent differences in cytokine and antibody responses after experimental RSV infection in a bovine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared...... "inflammatory" but weak humoral antiviral response in very young animals suggests that enhanced inflammation contributes to disease during RSV infection during the early postnatal period....

  17. Diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoutere, Ward; Thevissen, Kristof; Bombardier, Claire; Landewé, Robert B M

    2011-03-01

    To review the available literature on the diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in adult undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA) as an evidence base for generating multinational clinical practice recommendations in the 3e Initiative in Rheumatology. A systematic literature search was carried out using Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and abstracts presented at the 2007 and 2008 meetings of the American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism, searching for prognostic and diagnostic markers of acute-phase reactants in adult UPIA. Articles that fulfilled predefined inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed, and the quality was appraised. Likelihood ratios (LR), sensitivity, and specificity for diagnostic and prognostic outcomes were calculated. A total of 18 publications out of 3699 identified references were included in the review. Only a small number of studies with significant heterogeneity, including different outcome measures and different cutoff values, were eligible for review, so pooling data was not possible. Overall, LR showed poor diagnostic and prognostic performance for most investigated acute-phase reactants. Available data showed some value for erythrocyte sedimentation rate in establishing a diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis; some prognostic and diagnostic value for C-reactive protein; some prognostic value for plasma viscosity in predicting persistence of arthritis; and some diagnostic value for sulfhydryl levels and matrix metalloproteinase-3 in establishing a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. There is little published evidence concerning the diagnostic and predictive value of acute-phase reactants in patients with UPIA. Studies were heterogeneous, and "undifferentiated arthritis" was not well defined or was equivocally defined. The role of acute-phase reactants in diagnosing and predicting outcome in patients presenting with undifferentiated arthritis is

  18. A Predictive Model to Classify Undifferentiated Fever Cases Based on Twenty-Four-Hour Continuous Tympanic Temperature Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa H. Dakappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of undifferentiated fever is a major challenging task to the physician which often remains undiagnosed and delays the treatment. The aim of the study was to record and analyze a 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature and evaluate its utility in the diagnosis of undifferentiated fevers. This was an observational study conducted in the Kasturba Medical College and Hospitals, Mangaluru, India. A total of ninety-six (n=96 patients were presented with undifferentiated fever. Their tympanic temperature was recorded continuously for 24 hours. Temperature data were preprocessed and various signal characteristic features were extracted and trained in classification machine learning algorithms using MATLAB software. The quadratic support vector machine algorithm yielded an overall accuracy of 71.9% in differentiating the fevers into four major categories, namely, tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases. The area under ROC curve for tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases was found to be 0.961, 0.801, 0.815, and 0.818, respectively. Good agreement was observed [kappa = 0.618 (p<0.001, 95% CI (0.498–0.737] between the actual diagnosis of cases and the quadratic support vector machine learning algorithm. The 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature recording with supervised machine learning algorithm appears to be a promising noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool.

  19. A Predictive Model to Classify Undifferentiated Fever Cases Based on Twenty-Four-Hour Continuous Tympanic Temperature Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakappa, Pradeepa H; Prasad, Keerthana; Rao, Sathish B; Bolumbu, Ganaraja; Bhat, Gopalkrishna K; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of undifferentiated fever is a major challenging task to the physician which often remains undiagnosed and delays the treatment. The aim of the study was to record and analyze a 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature and evaluate its utility in the diagnosis of undifferentiated fevers. This was an observational study conducted in the Kasturba Medical College and Hospitals, Mangaluru, India. A total of ninety-six ( n = 96) patients were presented with undifferentiated fever. Their tympanic temperature was recorded continuously for 24 hours. Temperature data were preprocessed and various signal characteristic features were extracted and trained in classification machine learning algorithms using MATLAB software. The quadratic support vector machine algorithm yielded an overall accuracy of 71.9% in differentiating the fevers into four major categories, namely, tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases. The area under ROC curve for tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases was found to be 0.961, 0.801, 0.815, and 0.818, respectively. Good agreement was observed [kappa = 0.618 ( p machine learning algorithm. The 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature recording with supervised machine learning algorithm appears to be a promising noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool.

  20. Comparison of the gene expression profile of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cell lines and differentiating embryoid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Mahendra S

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of molecular pathways of differentiation of embryonic stem cells (hESC is critical for the development of stem cell based medical therapies. In order to identify biomarkers and potential regulators of the process of differentiation, a high quality microarray containing 16,659 seventy base pair oligonucleotides was used to compare gene expression profiles of undifferentiated hESC lines and differentiating embryoid bodies. Results Previously identified "stemness" genes in undifferentiated hESC lines showed down modulation in differentiated cells while expression of several genes was induced as cells differentiated. In addition, a subset of 194 genes showed overexpression of greater than ≥ 3 folds in human embryoid bodies (hEB. These included 37 novel and 157 known genes. Gene expression was validated by a variety of techniques including another large scale array, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, focused cDNA microarrays, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS analysis and immunocytochemisty. Several novel hEB specific expressed sequence tags (ESTs were mapped to the human genome database and their expression profile characterized. A hierarchical clustering analysis clearly depicted a distinct difference in gene expression profile among undifferentiated and differentiated hESC and confirmed that microarray analysis could readily distinguish them. Conclusion These results present a detailed characterization of a unique set of genes, which can be used to assess the hESC differentiation.

  1. Comparison of the gene expression profile of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cell lines and differentiating embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Cai, Jingli; Luo, Youngquan; Miura, Takumi; Mejido, Josef; Brimble, Sandii N; Zeng, Xianmin; Schulz, Thomas C; Rao, Mahendra S; Puri, Raj K

    2005-10-05

    The identification of molecular pathways of differentiation of embryonic stem cells (hESC) is critical for the development of stem cell based medical therapies. In order to identify biomarkers and potential regulators of the process of differentiation, a high quality microarray containing 16,659 seventy base pair oligonucleotides was used to compare gene expression profiles of undifferentiated hESC lines and differentiating embryoid bodies. Previously identified "stemness" genes in undifferentiated hESC lines showed down modulation in differentiated cells while expression of several genes was induced as cells differentiated. In addition, a subset of 194 genes showed overexpression of greater than > or = 3 folds in human embryoid bodies (hEB). These included 37 novel and 157 known genes. Gene expression was validated by a variety of techniques including another large scale array, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, focused cDNA microarrays, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) analysis and immunocytochemisty. Several novel hEB specific expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were mapped to the human genome database and their expression profile characterized. A hierarchical clustering analysis clearly depicted a distinct difference in gene expression profile among undifferentiated and differentiated hESC and confirmed that microarray analysis could readily distinguish them. These results present a detailed characterization of a unique set of genes, which can be used to assess the hESC differentiation.

  2. Conditionally replicating adenovirus prevents pluripotent stem cell–derived teratoma by specifically eliminating undifferentiated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Mitsui

    Full Text Available Incomplete abolition of tumorigenicity creates potential safety concerns in clinical trials of regenerative medicine based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. Here, we demonstrate that conditionally replicating adenoviruses that specifically target cancers using multiple factors (m-CRAs, originally developed as anticancer drugs, may also be useful as novel antitumorigenic agents in hPSC-based therapy. The survivin promoter was more active in undifferentiated hPSCs than the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT promoter, whereas both promoters were minimally active in differentiated normal cells. Accordingly, survivin-responsive m-CRA (Surv.m-CRA killed undifferentiated hPSCs more efficiently than TERT-responsive m-CRAs (Tert.m-CRA; both m-CRAs exhibited efficient viral replication and cytotoxicity in undifferentiated hPSCs, but not in cocultured differentiated normal cells. Pre-infection of hPSCs with Surv.m-CRA or Tert.m-CRA abolished in vivo teratoma formation in a dose-dependent manner following hPSC implantation into mice. Thus, m-CRAs, and in particular Surv.m-CRAs, represent novel antitumorigenic agents that could facilitate safe clinical applications of hPSC-based regenerative medicine.

  3. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  4. Respiratory Development and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubarth, Lori Baas; Quinn, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory development is crucial for all newborn infants. Premature infants may be born at an early stage of development and lack sufficient surfactant production. This results in respiratory distress syndrome. This article reviews the normal fetal development of the lung as well as the disorder that develops because of an early birth.

  5. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  6. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  7. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  8. Transcription profiling by array of the response of Arabidopsis cultivar Columbia etiolated seedlings and undifferentiated tissue culture cells to the spaceflight environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We address a key baseline question of whether gene expression changes are induced by the orbital environment and then we ask whether undifferentiated cells cells...

  9. Protective Role of Hypothermia Against Heat Stress in Differentiated and Undifferentiated Human Neural Precursor Cells: A Differential Approach for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Mild-hypothermia treatment induces attenuated heat shock response against heat stress resulting in induced HSP-70 expression that significantly improves structure and function of both undifferentiated human NPCs and differentiated neurons.

  10. Clinical, epidemiological and virological features of dengue virus infections in vietnamese patients presenting to primary care facilities with acute undifferentiated fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Thanh Nga, Tran Thi; Giao, Phan Trong; Hung, Le Quoc; van Nam, Nguyen; Binh, Tran Quang; Simmons, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Thinh; Rogier van Doorn, H.; de Jong, Menno D.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To explore clinical and virological characteristics and describe the epidemiology of dengue in patients who presented with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) at primary health centers (PHC) in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from

  11. Vegetative status characteristics in children with neurological pathology on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyazka O.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system are the most common pathological conditions detected in 20% - 85% of children and adolescents according to different authors' data. Assessment of the vegetative status in the period of intensive growth and differentiation of organs and tissues that is characteristic of childhood is of great practical importance. Identification of vegetative dysregulation is an important diagnostic measure in children's health status evaluation especially in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UNDCT taking into account its genetic determinism and debut in childhood. Genetically determined biochemical disorders in the connective tissue followed by formation of characteristic pathological substrates cause dysregulation of sympathoadrenal system and correlate with UNDCT severity degree. Material and methods. There were 100 children aged from 5 to 16 years engaged in the investigation. All of them were treated in the neurological department of the City clinical hospital №4. All patients were divided into two groups: basic group, which included 50 children with neurological disorders and UNDC, and control one, which consisted of 50 children with neurological disorders without UNDCT. The survey included obstetric history analysis, anthropometry to determine the ratio of longitudinal and transverse dimensions (the index of Vervica; clinical and neurological examination (study of reflex&motor areas, sensory function, coordination; laboratory methods (clinical blood count and biochemical blood tests to determine the level of potassium and calcium ions, instrumental methods (electroencephalography, rheoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Osokina's table was used for baseline autonomic tone assessment. The evaluation was conducted by counting the number of signs. Subsequently was performed the summation of the scores with the determination of the percentage of predominant

  12. Effect of extracellular matrix on bovine spermatogonial stem cells and gene expression of niche factors regulating their development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarinejad, V; Tajik, P; Movahedin, M; Youssefi, R; Shafiei, S; Mazaheri, Z

    2015-06-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) could influence cells function through providing structural and functional networks facilitating the cellular interactions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of culture on ECM versus plastic on bovine spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and growth factors regulating their development. Following isolation, bovine testicular cells were cultured on ECM-coated or uncoated (control) plates for 12 days. The colonization of SSCs was assessed by inverted microscope and the gene expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The colonization rate was greater in ECM than the control group (P<0.05). The expression of markers of undifferentiated spermatogonia increased in response to conventional culture (P<0.05). Conversely, the expression of ckit as a marker for differentiated spermatogonia was reduced following culture in the control and ECM groups (P<0.05), but this decrease was less in ECM group (P<0.05). Accordingly, while cells cultured on uncoated plates had greater expression of markers of undifferentiated spermatogonia (P<0.05), cells cultured on ECM-coated plates showed higher expression of ckit (P<0.05). Moreover, culture on ECM resulted in higher expression of kit ligand (Kitlg; P<0.05), whereas culture on plastic led to greater expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf; P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study revealed that the permissive effect of ECM on bovine SSCs differentiation in vitro, which was probably mediated through upregulation of KITLG expression. Moreover, the results imply that GDNF might contribute to germ cells self-renewal during conventional culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ARG1 Functions in the Physiological Adaptation of Undifferentiated Plant Cells to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanska, Agata K.; Schultz, Eric R.; Yao, JiQiang; Sng, Natasha J.; Zhou, Mingqi; Callaham, Jordan B.; Ferl, Robert J.; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Scientific access to spaceflight and especially the International Space Station has revealed that physiological adaptation to spaceflight is accompanied or enabled by changes in gene expression that significantly alter the transcriptome of cells in spaceflight. A wide range of experiments have shown that plant physiological adaptation to spaceflight involves gene expression changes that alter cell wall and other metabolisms. However, while transcriptome profiling aptly illuminates changes in gene expression that accompany spaceflight adaptation, mutation analysis is required to illuminate key elements required for that adaptation. Here we report how transcriptome profiling was used to gain insight into the spaceflight adaptation role of Altered response to gravity 1 (Arg1), a gene known to affect gravity responses in plants on Earth. The study compared expression profiles of cultured lines of Arabidopsis thaliana derived from wild-type (WT) cultivar Col-0 to profiles from a knock-out line deficient in the gene encoding ARG1 (ARG1 KO), both on the ground and in space. The cell lines were launched on SpaceX CRS-2 as part of the Cellular Expression Logic (CEL) experiment of the BRIC-17 spaceflight mission. The cultured cell lines were grown within 60 mm Petri plates in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs) that were housed within the Biological Research In Canisters (BRIC) hardware. Spaceflight samples were fixed on orbit. Differentially expressed genes were identified between the two environments (spaceflight and comparable ground controls) and the two genotypes (WT and ARG1 KO). Each genotype engaged unique genes during physiological adaptation to the spaceflight environment, with little overlap. Most of the genes altered in expression in spaceflight in WT cells were found to be Arg1-dependent, suggesting a major role for that gene in the physiological adaptation of undifferentiated cells to spaceflight.

  14. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease and interstitial lung disease: Trying to define patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, María Laura; Paulin, Francisco; Toledo, Heidegger Mateos; Fernández, Martín Eduardo; Caro, Fabián Matías; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge; Mejía, Mayra Edith

    To identify clinical or immunological features in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), in order to group them and recognize different functional and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) behavior. Retrospective cohort study. Patients meeting Kinder criteria for UCTD were included. We defined the following predictive variables: 'highly specific' connective tissue disease (CTD) manifestations (Raynaud's phenomenon, dry eyes or arthritis), high antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer (above 1: 320), and 'specific' ANA staining patterns (centromere, cytoplasmic and nucleolar patterns). We evaluated the following outcomes: change in the percentage of the predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) during the follow-up period, and HRCT pattern. Sixty-six patients were included. Twenty-nine (43.94%) showed at least one 'highly specific' CTD manifestation, 16 (28.57%) had a 'specific' ANA staining pattern and 29 (43.94%) high ANA titer. Patients with 'highly specific' CTD manifestations were younger (mean [SD] 52 years [14.58] vs 62.08 years [9.46], P<.001), were more likely men (10.34% vs 48.65%, P<.001) and showed a smaller decline of the FVC% (median [interquartile range] 1% [-1 to 10] vs -6% [-16 to -4], P<.006). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of highly specific manifestations was associated with improvement in the FVC% (B coefficient of 13.25 [95% confidence interval, 2.41 to 24.09]). No association was observed in relation to the HRCT pattern. The presence of 'highly specific' CTD manifestations was associated with female sex, younger age and better functional behavior. These findings highlight the impact of the clinical features in the outcome of patients with UCTD ILD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Stratifying the risk of lymph node metastasis in undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yukiko; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Maekawa, Shinya; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Inoue, Taisuke; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Sakamoto, Minoru; Sato, Tadashi; Kawaguchi, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Hideki; Mochizuki, Kunio; Hada, Masao; Oyama, Toshio; Yasumura, Tomotaka; Omata, Kosaku; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Naito, Keiichi; Hata, Hideo; Haba, Yoshiaki; Miyata, Kazuyuki; Saitoh, Haruhisa; Yamadera, Yoichi; Miura, Kazuo; Kawaoi, Akira; Abe, Tohru; Tsunoda, Hajime; Honda, Yuji; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study how lymph node metastasis (LNM) risk is stratified in undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (undiff-EGC) dependent on combinations of risk factors. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-seven cases with undiff-EGC undergoing gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy were examined retrospectively. Using clinicopathological factors of patient age, location, size, an endoscopic macroscopic tumor form, ulceration, depth, histology, lymphatic involvement (LI) and venous involvement (VI), LNM risk was examined and stratified by conventional statistical analysis and data-mining analysis. RESULTS: LNM was positive in 44 of 567 cases (7.8%). Univariate analysis revealed > 2 cm, protrusion, submucosal (sm), mixed type, LI and VI as significant prognostic factors and > 2 cm and LI-positive were independent factors by multivariate analysis. In preoperatively evaluable factors excluding LVI, sm and > 2 cm were independent factors. According to the depth and size, cases were categorized into the low-risk group [m and ≤ 2 cm, 0% (LNM incidence)], the moderate-risk group (m and > 2 cm, 5.6%; and sm and ≤ 2 cm, 6.0%), and the high-risk group (sm and > 2 cm, 19.3%). On the other hand, LNM occurred in 1.4% in all LI-negative cases, greatly lower than 28.2% in all LI-positive cases, and LNM incidence was low in LI-negative cases even in the moderate- and high-risk groups. CONCLUSION: LNM-related factors in undiff-EGC were depth and size preoperatively while those were LI and size postoperatively. Among these factors, LI was the most significantly correlated factor. PMID:25759537

  16. Radiation-induced apoptosis in undifferentiated cells of the developing brain as a biological defense mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minioru; Tamaru, Masao.

    1994-01-01

    Undifferentiated neural (UN) cells of the developing mammalian brain are highly sensitive to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation, transglutaminase activation, and internucleosomal DNA cleavage reveal radiation-induced cell death in the ventricular zone of the cerebral mantle and external granular layer of the cerebellum to be due to apoptosis. A statistically significant increase of cell mortality can be induced by 0.03 Gy X-irradiation, and the mortality increases linearly with increasing doses. It is not changed by split doses, probably because of the very slow repair of cellular damage and a lack of adaptive response. Although extensive apoptosis in the UN cell population results in microcephaly and mental retardation, it possesses the ability to recover from a considerable cell loss and to form the normal structure of the central nervous system. The number of cell deaths needed to induce tissue adnormalities in the adult murine brain rises in the range of 15-25% of the germinal cell population; with the threshold doses at about 0.3 Gy for cerebral anomalies and 1 Gy for cerebellar abnormalities. Threshold level is similarly suggested in prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors. High radiosensitivity of UN cells is assumed to be a manifestation of the ability of the cell to commit suicide when injured. Repeated replication of DNA and extensive gene expression are required in future proliferation and differentiation. Once an abnormality in DNA was induced and fixed in the UN cell, it would be greatly amplified and prove a danger in producing malformations and tumors. These cells would thus commit suicide for the benefit of the individual to eliminate their acquired genetic abnormalities rather than make DNA repair. UN cells in the developing brain are highly radiosensitive and readily involved in apoptosis. Paradoxically, however, this may be to protect individuals against teratogenesis and tumorigenesis. (J.P.N.)

  17. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Chien-Chih [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Yang, An-Hang [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ching-Sheng [National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Chi, Chin-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Tseng, Ling-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Tsai, Yi-Fan [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Jennifer H. [Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Center for Stem Cell Research, Taipei (China); Lee, Chen-Hsen [NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Lee, Oscar K. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Stem Cell Research Center, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 131}I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133{sup +} cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and higher radioresistance. After {gamma}-irradiation of the cells, the CD133{sup +} population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133{sup -} cells. In vivo {sup 131}I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133{sup +} cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133{sup +} cells. (orig.)

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Strain BN-1 and Vaccine Strain BN-CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Takashi; Kokuho, Takehiro; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is associated with upper respiratory disease in cattle in many countries. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of the BPIV3 BN-1 strain, isolated from cattle in Japan, and the BN-CE vaccine strain, derived from the BN-1 strain by passages in chicken embryo fibroblasts.

  19. Pathogens, patterns of pneumonia, and epidemiologic risk factors associated with respiratory disease in recently weaned cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gerard M; More, Simon J; Sammin, Dónal; Casey, Mìcheàl J; McElroy, Máire C; O'Neill, Rónan G; Byrne, William J; Earley, Bernadette; Clegg, Tracy A; Ball, Hywel; Bell, Colin J; Cassidy, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the pathogens, morphologic patterns, and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 136 recently weaned cattle ("weanlings"), 6-12 mo of age, that were submitted for postmortem examination to regional veterinary laboratories in Ireland. A standardized sampling protocol included routine microbiologic investigations as well as polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Lungs with histologic lesions were categorized into 1 of 5 morphologic patterns of pneumonia. Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%) and interstitial pneumonia (48%) were the morphologic patterns recorded most frequently. The various morphologic patterns of pulmonary lesions suggest the involvement of variable combinations of initiating and compounding infectious agents that hindered any simple classification of the etiopathogenesis of the pneumonias. Dual infections were detected in 58% of lungs, with Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni most frequently recorded in concert. M. haemolytica (43%) was the most frequently detected respiratory pathogen; H. somni was also shown to be frequently implicated in pneumonia in this age group of cattle. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (16% each) were the viral agents detected most frequently. Potential respiratory pathogens (particularly Pasteurella multocida, BPIV-3, and H. somni) were frequently detected (64%) in lungs that had neither gross nor histologic pulmonary lesions, raising questions regarding their role in the pathogenesis of BRD. The breadth of respiratory pathogens detected in bovine lungs by various detection methods highlights the diagnostic value of parallel analyses in respiratory disease postmortem investigation.

  20. Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loss, G.; Depner, M.; Ulfman, L.H.; Neerven, van R.J.J.; Hose, A.J.; Genuneit, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. Objective: To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on

  1. Association of herd BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease in youngstock in Estonian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaperi, K; Bougeard, S; Aleksejev, A; Orro, T; Viltrop, A

    2012-10-01

    The associations between herd bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) seroprevalence, along with other infectious and farm management factors with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in dairy calves and heifers, were investigated. Serum samples from 103 dairy cattle herds were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis). A questionnaire was used to record herd management practices. A high occurrence of respiratory disease in unweaned calves was associated with low to moderate and high prevalence of BHV-1 among cows (OR=14.8, p=0.005 and OR=19.2, p=0.002, respectively) and positive BVDV status of a herd (OR=5.1, p=0.02). The presence of BVDV in a herd was related to a high incidence of respiratory disease in heifers 3-16 months old (OR=4.3, p=0.027). Based on the results of multiple correspondence analysis, holding youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, introducing new animals and the activities of on-farm employees may contribute to a higher incidence of BRD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of acute undifferentiated fever cases and their etiologies in rural Konkan area of Maharashtra state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil S. N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute undifferentiated fever (AUF is a common cause for which the patients seek health care in India. It is region specific and has similar clinical presentation, with varied etiologies. Due to this it posses challenge to the diagnosis, treatment and public health. Majority of patients present with nondescript symptoms. Scrub typhus, Malaria, Enteric Fever, Dengue, Leptospirosis, Chikungunya, Spotted fever, Rickettsiosis, Hantavirus, Q fever, Brucellosis, Influenza and other bacterial infections are some of the common etiologies of AUF. The prevalence of local AUF etiologies helps to prioritize differential diagnosis and guide the treatment. The study aimed to find out the predominant AUF etiologies in the rural Konkan area of Maharashtra state in India. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital on the samples received from District hospitals and Primary health centers from Sindhudurg District of Maharashtra state for the duration of October 2012 to January 2014. Patients with age 5years and with classical symptoms of febrile illness were included in the study. About 500 blood samples received were investigated for Malaria, Bacterial culture sensitivity, Leptospira culture, ELISA for scrub typhus, Brucella, Dengue and Leptospira and further evaluated for commonest region specific AUF etiology. Results: The study included 500 blood samples obtained from patients presenting with classical symptoms of AUF. Samples received from males showed highest number of positive cases amounting for 82.47% with majority of cases (83% cases in middle age group. The sero-positivity of samples accounted for 42.8%. Brucella was the most common cause of AUF (28.50% followed by Leptospira (27.10% and Scrub typhus (21.49%. Interestingly there were no positive cases of malaria and only 11.21% samples positive for Dengue which are considered as most common AUF etiologies and treated accordingly

  3. The educational needs of patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: Validation of the ENAT questionnaire and needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremander, A; Haglund, E; Bergman, S; Ndosi, M

    2018-02-07

    The aim of the present study was to validate the Swedish version of the educational needs assessment tool (SwENAT) in undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (USpA) and use it to study the educational needs of patients with USpA. This was a cross-sectional study, recruiting a random sample of patients with USpA from a hospital register in Sweden. Educational needs data were collected, together with disease activity and function indices (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index [BASDAI] and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]). Rasch analysis was utilized to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and unidimensionality of the SwENAT before studying differences in educational needs between patient subgroups (gender, age and disease severity). Complete responses were obtained from 77 patients (48 women), with a mean age (standard deviation [SD]) of 50 (12) years, a disease duration of 16 (11) years, a BASDAI score of 4.9 (1.9) and a BASFI score of 3.1 (2.3). The SwENAT satisfied the requirements of the Rasch model (χ 2 = 11.488; p = 0.119), including strict unidimensionality. Overall, the mean (SD) SwENAT score was 86 (32). Women reported higher needs than men in the domains of pain (mean [SD] 13.1 [6.8] versus 10.1 [6.0]; p = 0.05); movement (mean [SD] 13.0 [5.5] versus 9.9 [5.7]; p = 0.02) and self-help (mean [SD] 17.0 [5.8] versus 14.1 [5.0]; p = 0.03). Higher disease activity (BASDAI >4) was associated with higher educational needs (mean [SD] 92.6 [31.9] versus 73.7 [29.4]; p = 0.02). These data suggest that the SwENAT is valid in USpA. Women and patients with higher disease activity are more likely to have high levels of educational needs, so special attention and strategies to target patient education are warranted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in Bovine Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Mat?as; Victoria, Mat?as; Colina, Rodney; Musto, H?ctor; Cristina, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) belong to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. BCoV are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle, leading to important economic losses to the beef and dairy industry worldwide. To study the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is essential to understand host-pathogen interaction, evasion from host?s immune system and evolution. Methods We performed a comprehensive analysis of co...

  5. Expression of the chitinase family glycoprotein YKL-40 in undifferentiated, differentiated and trans-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hoover

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein YKL-40 (CHI3L1 is a secreted chitinase family protein that induces angiogenesis, cell survival, and cell proliferation, and plays roles in tissue remodeling and immune regulation. It is expressed primarily in cells of mesenchymal origin, is overexpressed in numerous aggressive carcinomas and sarcomas, but is rarely expressed in normal ectodermal tissues. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be induced to differentiate into various mesenchymal tissues and trans-differentiate into some non-mesenchymal cell types. Since YKL-40 has been used as a mesenchymal marker, we followed YKL-40 expression as undifferentiated MSCs were induced to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and neural phenotypes. Undifferentiated MSCs contain significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA but do not synthesize detectable levels of YKL-40 protein. MSCs induced to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteocytes soon began to express and secrete YKL-40 protein, as do ex vivo cultured chondrocytes and primary osteocytes. In contrast, MSCs induced to trans-differentiate into neurons did not synthesize YKL-40 protein, consistent with the general absence of YKL-40 protein in normal CNS parenchyma. However, these trans-differentiated neurons retained significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA, suggesting the mechanisms which prevented YKL-40 translation in undifferentiated MSCs remained in place, and that these trans-differentiated neurons differ in at least this way from neurons derived from neuronal stem cells. Utilization of a differentiation protocol containing β-mercaptoethanol resulted in cells that expressed significant amounts of intracellular YKL-40 protein that was not secreted, which is not seen in normal cells. Thus the synthesis of YKL-40 protein is a marker for MSC differentiation into mature mesenchymal phenotypes, and the presence of untranslated YKL-40 mRNA in non-mesenchymal cells derived from MSCs reflects differences between differentiated and

  6. Randomised primary health center based interventions to improve the diagnosis and treatment of undifferentiated fever and dengue in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Tran Q

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is a common reason for attending primary health facilities in Vietnam. Response of health care providers to patients with fever commonly consists of making a presumptive diagnosis and proposing corresponding treatment. In Vietnam, where malaria was brought under control, viral infections, notably dengue, are the main causes of undifferentiated fever but they are often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated with antibiotics. This study investigate if educating primary health center (PHC staff or introducing rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs improve diagnostic resolution and accuracy for acute undifferentiated fever (AUF and reduce prescription of antibiotics and costs for patients. Methods In a PHC randomized intervention study in southern Vietnam, the presumptive diagnoses for AUF patients were recorded and confirmed by serology on paired (acute and convalescence sera. After one year, PHCs were randomized to four intervention arms: training on infectious diseases (A, the provision of RDTs (B, the combination (AB and control (C. The intervention lasted from 2002 until 2006. Results The frequency of the non-etiologic diagnosis "undifferentiated fever" decreased in group AB, and - with some delay- also in group B. The diagnosis "dengue" increased in group AB, but only temporarily, although dengue was the most common cause of fever. A correct diagnosis for dengue initially increased in groups AB and B but only for AB this was sustained. Antibiotics prescriptions increased in group C. During intervention it initially declined in AB with a tendency to increase afterwards; in B it gradually declined. There was a substantial increase of patients' costs in B. Conclusions The introduction of RDTs for infectious diseases such as dengue, through free market principles, does improve the quality of the diagnosis and decreases the prescription of antibiotics at the PHC level. However, the effect is more sustainable in combination with

  7. Randomised primary health center based interventions to improve the diagnosis and treatment of undifferentiated fever and dengue in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Hoang L; Nga, Tran T T; Giao, Phan T; Hung, Le Q; Binh, Tran Q; Nam, Nguyen V; Nagelkerke, Nico; de Vries, Peter J

    2010-09-21

    Fever is a common reason for attending primary health facilities in Vietnam. Response of health care providers to patients with fever commonly consists of making a presumptive diagnosis and proposing corresponding treatment. In Vietnam, where malaria was brought under control, viral infections, notably dengue, are the main causes of undifferentiated fever but they are often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated with antibiotics.This study investigate if educating primary health center (PHC) staff or introducing rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) improve diagnostic resolution and accuracy for acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) and reduce prescription of antibiotics and costs for patients. In a PHC randomized intervention study in southern Vietnam, the presumptive diagnoses for AUF patients were recorded and confirmed by serology on paired (acute and convalescence) sera. After one year, PHCs were randomized to four intervention arms: training on infectious diseases (A), the provision of RDTs (B), the combination (AB) and control (C). The intervention lasted from 2002 until 2006. The frequency of the non-etiologic diagnosis "undifferentiated fever" decreased in group AB, and - with some delay- also in group B. The diagnosis "dengue" increased in group AB, but only temporarily, although dengue was the most common cause of fever. A correct diagnosis for dengue initially increased in groups AB and B but only for AB this was sustained. Antibiotics prescriptions increased in group C. During intervention it initially declined in AB with a tendency to increase afterwards; in B it gradually declined. There was a substantial increase of patients' costs in B. The introduction of RDTs for infectious diseases such as dengue, through free market principles, does improve the quality of the diagnosis and decreases the prescription of antibiotics at the PHC level. However, the effect is more sustainable in combination with training; without it RDTs lead to an excess of costs.

  8. In vitro infection of bovine monocytes with Mycoplasma bovis delays apoptosis and suppresses production of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha but not interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Scruten, Erin; Napper, Scott; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the major causative pathogens of bovine respiratory complex disease (BRD), which is characterized by enzootic pneumonia, mastitis, pleuritis, and polyarthritis. M. bovis enters and colonizes bovine respiratory epithelial cells through inhalation of aerosol from contaminated air. The nature of the interaction between M. bovis and the bovine innate immune system is not well understood. We hypothesized that M. bovis invades blood monocytes and regulates cellular function to support its persistence and systemic dissemination. We used bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays to identify cellular signaling pathways that could be relevant to M. bovis-monocyte interactions in vitro. We validated these pathways using functional, protein, and gene expression assays. Here, we show that infection of bovine blood monocytes with M. bovis delays spontaneous or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/staurosporine-driven apoptosis, activates the NF-κB p65 subunit, and inhibits caspase-9 activity. We also report that M. bovis-infected bovine monocytes do not produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and TNF-α, although the level of production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated. Our findings suggest that M. bovis takes over the cellular machinery of bovine monocytes to prolong bacterial survival and to possibly facilitate subsequent systemic distribution.

  9. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  10. The human respiratory gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  11. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral-flow dipstick assay for detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peili; Zhao, Guimin; Wang, Hongmei; He, Chengqiang; Huan, Yanjun; He, Hongbin

    2017-12-26

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), identified as the causative pathogen of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), is responsible for increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks and has a significant harmful effect on the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid detection assay is imperative for BEFV diagnosis. In this study, we described the development of lateral-flow dipstick isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) assays for detection of BEFV. RPA primers and LF probes were designed by targeting the specific G gene, and the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow dipstick with the naked eyes. The amplification reaction was performed at 38 °C for 20 min and LFD incubation time within 5 min. The detection limit of this assay was 8 copies per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other bovine infectious viruses such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, bovine vesicular stomatitis virus. In addition, the assay was performed with total 128 clinical specimens and the diagnostic results were compared with conventional RT-PCR, real-time quantative(q) PCR. The result showed that the coincidence rate of BEFV LFD-RPA and real-time qPCR was 96.09% (123/128), which was higher than conventional RT-PCR. The RPA combined with LFD assay probably provides a rapid and sensitive alternative for diagnosis of BEFV infections outbreak. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Undifferentiated bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients display higher elastic modulus than their non-asthmatic counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Michal; Wojcik, Katarzyna A; Hermanowicz, Pawel; Wnuk, Dawid; Burda, Kvetoslava; Sanak, Marek; Czyż, Jarosław; Michalik, Marta

    2015-01-01

    During asthma development, differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts towards the contractile phenotype is associated with bronchial wall remodeling and airway constriction. Pathological fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) can be triggered by local inflammation of bronchial walls. Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs) derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. In spite of intensive research efforts, these properties remain unknown. Importantly, the role of undifferentiated HBFs in the asthmatic process was systematically omitted. Specifically, biomechanical properties of undifferentiated HBFs have not been considered in either FMT or airway remodeling in vivo. Here, we combine atomic force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to compare mechanical properties and actin cytoskeleton architecture of HBFs derived from asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic donors. Our results demonstrate that asthmatic HBFs form thick and aligned 'ventral' stress fibers accompanied by enlarged focal adhesions. The differences in cytoskeleton architecture between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cells correlate with higher elastic modulus of asthmatic HBFs and their increased predilection to TGF-β-induced FMT. Due to the obvious links between cytoskeleton architecture and mechanical equilibrium, our observations indicate that HBFs derived from asthmatic bronchi can develop considerably higher static tension than non-asthmatic HBFs. This previously unexplored property of asthmatic HBFs may be potentially important for their myofibroblastic differentiation and bronchial wall remodeling during asthma development.

  13. A case report of prostate cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Chiaki; Suzuki, Takuto; Kitagawa, Yoshiyasu; Hara, Taro; Yamaguchi, Taketo

    2017-08-07

    Occurrence of metastatic cancer to the stomach is rare, particularly in patients with prostate cancer. Gastric metastasis generally presents as a solitary and submucosal lesion with a central depression. We describe a case of gastric metastasis arising from prostate cancer, which is almost indistinguishable from the undifferentiated-type gastric cancer. A definitive diagnosis was not made until endoscopic resection. On performing both conventional and magnifying endoscopies, the lesion appeared to be slightly depressed and discolored area and it could not be distinguished from undifferentiated early gastric cancer. Biopsy from the lesion was negative for immunohistochemical staining of prostate-specific antigen, a sensitive and specific marker for prostate cancer. Thus, false initial diagnosis of an early primary gastric cancer was made and endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Pathological findings from the resected specimen aroused suspicion of a metastatic lesion. Consequently, immunostaining was performed. The lesion was positive for prostate-specific acid phosphatase and negative for prostate-specific antigen, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 20. Accordingly, the final diagnosis was a metastatic gastric lesion originating from prostate cancer. In this patient, the definitive diagnosis as a metastatic lesion was difficult due to its unusual endoscopic appearance and the negative stain for prostate-specific antigen. We postulate that both of these are consequences of hormonal therapy against prostate cancer.

  14. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which requires the most regu- lar and precise evaluation of physiological function for complete assessment of the patient. The very nature of respiratory physiology requires the availability of a range of technological devices. Physiological measurements that may be.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Becka, S.; Krejci, P.; Chrpova, M.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunological method for quantitative determination of bovine growth hormone in blood plasma or serum for routine use was worked out. The antibody is also suitable for radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone. The chloramin T and lactoperoxidase methods were used. Standard b-STH isolated by one of the authors was labelled with I-125(Na 125 I, carrier free, Amersham). The I-125-hormone was separated on Sephadex G-50 or G-100 and stored in 0.05M phosphate pH 7.5 with 1% of human serum albumine at 25 deg C. The method was checked on 2500 samples. Rabbit antiserum to b-STH was prepared in sufficient amount to serve also for other laboratories interested in the method. (author)

  16. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn.

  17. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety of inoculation of bovine parainfluenza virus 3 as potential vaccine vector in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xing; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens in cattle. One BPIV3, named NM09, was isolated from cattle suffering from severe respiratory diseases in 2009. BPIV3 is a potential recombinant vaccine vector. To investigate whether NM09 can infect pigs and determine BPIV3 defense in these animals, BPIV3 antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with the BPIV3 NM09 strain in a continuous passage. Clinical signs were observed each day after inoculation. Viral nucleic acid was detected in nasal and anal secretions. Results showed that virus-inoculated pigs displayed few observable clinical signs related to respiratory diseases. The antibody was identified, but the virus could not be detected in the second continuous passage in pigs. Thus, BPIV3 is a potential vaccine vector for genetic engineering.

  19. Multinational evidence-based recommendations on how to investigate and follow-up undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, P; Castrejon, I; Katchamart, W

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based recommendations on how to investigate and follow-up undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA). METHODS: 697 rheumatologists from 17 countries participated in the 3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative of 2008-9 consisting of three separate......, of which 250 were systematically reviewed. Ten multinational key recommendations about the investigation and follow-up of UPIA were formulated. One recommendation addressed differential diagnosis and investigations prior to establishing the operational diagnosis of UPIA, seven recommendations related......) and the final recommendation addressed monitoring of clinical disease activity in UPIA. CONCLUSIONS: Ten recommendations on how to investigate and follow-up UPIA in the clinical setting were developed. They are evidence-based and supported by a large panel of rheumatologists, thus enhancing their validity...

  20. In Vivo and In Vitro Dynamics of Undifferentiated Embryonic Cell Transcription Factor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Galonska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells retain the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers and germline. As a result, there is a major interest in characterizing regulators that establish and maintain pluripotency. The network of transcription factors continues to expand in complexity, and one factor, undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1, has recently moved more into the limelight. To facilitate the study of UTF1, we report the generation and characterization of two reporter lines that enable efficient tracking, mapping, and purification of endogenous UTF1. In particular, we include a built-in biotinylation system in our targeted locus that allows efficient and reliable pulldown. We also use this reporter to show the dynamic regulation of Utf1 in distinct stem cell conditions and demonstrate its utility for reprogramming studies. The multipurpose design of the reporter lines enables many directions of future study and should lead to a better understanding of UTF1’s diverse roles.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM RESULTS OF SURGICAL AND COMBINATION THERAPY FOR DIFFERENTIATED ADENOCARCINOMA AND UNDIFFERENTIATED GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Davtyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of long-term results of surgical and combined modality treatment for differentiated adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated gastric carcinoma (UGC has been presented. Treatment outcomes of patients with differentiated adenocarcinoma were shownto be significantly superior to those of patients with UGC (р=0,001. Intensive preoperative radiation therapy at a total dose of 20–27 Gy resulted in a significant improvement of treatment outcomes in patients with UGC, showing no any improvement of treatment outcomes in patients with differentiated adenocarcinoma. The benefits of combination treatment for patients with UGC were observed in cases with tumors not spreading through the serosa (рТ1–3 and with no evidence of regional lymph nodes involvement (N0.

  2. Long term culture of mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxia promotes a genetic program maintaining their undifferentiated and multipotent status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Carvalho Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the bone marrow, hematopietic and mesenchymal stem cells form a unique niche in which the oxygen tension is low. Hypoxia may have a role in maintaining stem cell fate, self renewal and multipotency. However, whereas most studies addressed the effect of transient in vitro exposure of MSC to hypoxia, permanent culture under hypoxia should reflect the better physiological conditions. Results Morphologic studies, differentiation and transcriptional profiling experiments were performed on MSC cultured in normoxia (21% O2 versus hypoxia (5% O2 for up to passage 2. Cells at passage 0 and at passage 2 were compared, and those at passage 0 in hypoxia generated fewer and smaller colonies than in normoxia. In parallel, MSC displayed (>4 fold inhibition of genes involved in DNA metabolism, cell cycle progression and chromosome cohesion whereas transcripts involved in adhesion and metabolism (CD93, ESAM, VWF, PLVAP, ANGPT2, LEP, TCF1 were stimulated. Compared to normoxic cells, hypoxic cells were morphologically undifferentiated and contained less mitochondrias. After this lag phase, cells at passage 2 in hypoxia outgrew the cells cultured in normoxia and displayed an enhanced expression of genes (4-60 fold involved in extracellular matrix assembly (SMOC2, neural and muscle development (NOG, GPR56, SNTG2, LAMA and epithelial development (DMKN. This group described herein for the first time was assigned by the Gene Ontology program to "plasticity". Conclusion The duration of hypoxemia is a critical parameter in the differentiation capacity of MSC. Even in growth promoting conditions, hypoxia enhanced a genetic program that maintained the cells undifferentiated and multipotent. This condition may better reflect the in vivo gene signature of MSC, with potential implications in regenerative medicine.

  3. Cytokine and immunoglobulin production by PWM-stimulated peripheral and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzouita Kamel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC patients show a characteristic pattern of antibody responses to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV which is regularly associated with this tumor. However, no EBV-specific cytotoxic activity is detectable by the standard chromium-release assay at both peripheral and intratumoral levels. The mechanisms underlying this discrepancy between the humoral and cellular immune responses in NPC are still unknown, but might be related to an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production. In this report, we investigated the ability of peripheral (PBL and tumor- infiltrating (TIL lymphocytes of undifferentiated NPC patients to produce in vitro three interleukins (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and three immunoglobulin isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA. Methods Lymphocytes from 17 patients and 17 controls were cultured in the presence of Pokeweed mitogen (PWM for 12 days and their culture supernatants were tested for interleukins and immunoglobulins by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Data were analysed using Student's t-test and probability values below 5% were considered significant. Results The data obtained indicated that TIL of NPC patients produced significantly more IL-2 (p = 0,0002, IL-10 (p = 0,020, IgM (p= 0,0003 and IgG (p Conclusion Taken together, our data reinforce the possibility of an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production in NPC patients. An increased ability to produce cytokines such as IL-10 may underlie the discrepancy between humoral and cellular immune responses characteristic of NPC.

  4. Etiology of respiratory disease in non-vaccinated, non-medicated calves in rearing herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, T; Pohjanvirta, T; Holopainen, R; Rikula, U; Pentikäinen, J; Huovilainen, A; Rusanen, H; Soveri, T; Sihvonen, L; Pelkonen, S

    2007-01-31

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of bacterial, mycoplasmal and viral pathogens in the lower respiratory tract of calves in all-in all-out calf-rearing units. According to clinical status, non-medicated calves with and without respiratory disease signs were selected of the 40 herds investigated to analyse the micro-organisms present in healthy and diseased calves. Tracheobronchial lavage (TBL) and paired serum samples were analysed for bacteria, mycoplasmas, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3), bovine corona virus (BCV) and bovine adenovirus (BAV). Pasteurella multocida was the most common bacterial pathogen. It was isolated from 34% of the TBL samples in 28 herds and was associated with clinical respiratory disease (p Ureaplasma diversum was associated with clinical respiratory disease (p < 0.05). TBL samples from healthy or suspect calves were more often negative in bacterial culture than samples from diseased calves (p < 0.05). No viral infections were detected in six herds, while 16-21 herds had RSV, BCV, BAV or PIV3. In the herds that had calves seroconverted to BCV, respiratory shedding of BCV was more frequently observed than faecal shedding. This study showed that the microbial combinations behind BRD were diverse between herds. M. bovis, an emerging pathogen in many countries, was not detected.

  5. Respiratory disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Niharika; Chen, Kenneth; Hardy, Erica; Powrie, Raumond

    2015-07-01

    Many physiological and anatomical changes of pregnancy affect the respiratory system. These changes often affect the presentation and management of the various respiratory illnesses in pregnancy. This article focuses on several important respiratory issues in pregnancy. The management of asthma, one of the most common chronic illnesses in pregnancy, remains largely unchanged compared to the nonpregnant state. Infectious respiratory illness, including pneumonia and tuberculosis, are similarly managed in pregnancy with antibiotics, although special attention may be needed for antibiotic choices with more pregnancy safety data. When mechanical ventilation is necessary, consideration should be given to the maternal hemodynamics of pregnancy and fetal oxygenation. Maintaining maternal oxygen saturation above 95% is recommended to sustain optimal fetal oxygenation. Cigarette smoking has known risks in pregnancy, and current practice guidelines recommend offering cognitive and pharmacologic interventions to pregnant women to assist in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Homology modelling and analysis of structure predictions of the bovine rhinitis B virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Rhinitis B Viruses (BRBV) are picornaviruses responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle and probably the least characterized member of the Aphthoviruses. BRBV is the closest relative known to Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) with around a 43 percent identical polyprotein sequenc...

  7. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: I. Proposed consequences for electron transfer in the enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albracht, S.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is the first complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has long been assumed that it contained only one FMN group. However, as demonstrated in 2003, the intact enzyme contains two FMN groups. The second FMN was proposed to be located in a

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  10. IL10 GGC haplotype is positively and HLA-DQA1*05-DQB1*02 is negatively associated with radiographic progression in undifferentiated arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; van der Weijden, M.A.C.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Prins, A.P.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Crusius, J.B.A.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many genetic markers, such as the shared-epitope (SE) alleles, are described in association with radiographic progression, but limited data are available on undifferentiated arthritis (UA). We investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and

  11. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R is a highly effective general therapeutic for undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft nude-mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Miyake, Kentaro; Miyake, Masuyo; Singh, Arun S; Eckardt, Mark A; Nelson, Scott D; Russell, Tara A; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Singh, Shree Ram; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-03-18

    Undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma (USTS) is a recalcitrant and heterogeneous subgroup of soft tissue sarcoma with high risk of metastasis and recurrence. Due to heterogeneity of USTS, there is no reliably effective first-line therapy. We have generated tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R), which previously showed strong efficacy on single patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models of Ewing's sarcoma and follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. In the present study, tumor resected from 4 patients with a biopsy-proven USTS (2 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma [UPS], 1 undifferentiated sarcoma not otherwise specified [NOS] and 1 undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma [USS]) were grown orthotopically in the biceps femoris muscle of mice to establish PDOX models. One USS model and one UPS model were doxorubicin (DOX) resistant. One UPS and the NOS model were partially sensitive to DOX. DOX is first-line therapy for these diseases. S. typhimurium A1-R arrested tumor growth all 4 models. In addition to arresting tumor growth in each case, S. typhimurium A1-R was significantly more efficacious than DOX in each case, thereby surpassing first-line therapy. These results suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R can be a general therapeutic for USTS and possibly sarcoma in general. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  13. Lipid peroxidation in bovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawra, R K; Sharma, O P; Makkar, H P

    1983-01-01

    Bovine whole semen, spermatozoa, and seminal plasma did not undergo lipid peroxidation when aerobically incubated. However, lipid peroxidation was induced in washed spermatozoa in the presence of iron or iron plus sodium ascorbate, whereas heating, sonication, or treatment with proteolytic enzymes did not have any effect. The time required for formation of optimum concentration of lipid peroxides in washed spermatozoa is very short as compared to other systems. Lipid peroxides are entirely contributed by the lipid fraction of spermatozoa. Formation of lipid peroxides is completely inhibited by the presence of seminal plasma in incubation mixture.

  14. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  15. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  16. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...

  18. Some viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle during the summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, dairy cattle with respiratory system problems that were brought to a private slaughterhouse in Burdur province were investigated for viral and bacterial infections present in the summer season. The blood samples were collected from 56 animals. The samples were tested for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3 and bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3 by ELISA. Bacteriological cultivation was carried out from lung samples taken after cutting the same animals. The seropositivity rates which were determined for 5 viruses in cattle (BoHV- 1, BVDV, BRSV, BPIV-3 and BAV-3 were 7.14%, 50%, 94.64%, 94.64% and 82.14% respectively. The presence of antibodies against the viruses was as follows; 5.36% of cattle had antibodies against only one virus, 14.29% against two, 30.36% against three, 44.64% against four and 5.36% against five viruses. A total of 36 bacterial agents were isolated from 30 out of 56 lung samples. From the lung samples, only one bacterium was isolated from 39.3% (22/56 samples, and more than one bacterium from 14.3% (8/56. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were detected as the most often isolated agents. Compared to bacteria, the rates of viral infections associated with Escherichia coli (BRSV+BPIV-3+BAV- 3+Escherichia coli; 8.92% and BRSV+BPIV-3+Escherichia coli; 5.35% were higher. As a consequence, it was thought that primary agents which were the viruses and bacteria may have attended as secondary factors in respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle.

  19. Neonatal calf infection with respiratory syncytial virus: drawing parallels to the disease in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Randy E; McGill, Jodi L; Palmer, Mitchell V; Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Nonnecke, Brian J

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8). This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  20. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Reinhardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8. This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  1. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...

  2. Detection of a group 2 coronavirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erles, Kerstin; Toomey, Crista; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2003-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease was carried out in a large rehoming kennel. Tissue samples taken from the respiratory tract of diseased dogs were tested for the presence of coronaviruses using RT-PCR with conserved primers for the polymerase gene. Sequence analysis of four positive samples showed the presence of a coronavirus with high similarity to both bovine and human coronavirus (strain OC43) in their polymerase and spike genes, whereas there was a low similarity to comparable genes in the enteric canine coronavirus. This canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) was detected by RT-PCR in 32/119 tracheal and 20/119 lung samples, with the highest prevalence being detected in dogs with mild clinical symptoms. Serological analysis showed that the presence of antibodies against CRCV on the day of entry into the kennel decreased the risk of developing respiratory disease

  3. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  4. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Cortez, Beatriz A; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M; Assumpção, Mayra Eo; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2011-10-27

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  5. Seroprevalence of respiratory viral pathogens of indigenous calves in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaby, R; Toye, P; Jennings, A; Thumbi, S M; Coetzer, J A W; Conradie Van Wyk, I C; Hanotte, O; Mbole-Kariuki, M N; Bronsvoort, B M de C; Kruuk, L E B; Woolhouse, M E J; Kiara, H

    2016-10-01

    Most studies of infectious diseases in East African cattle have concentrated on gastro-intestinal parasites and vector-borne diseases. As a result, relatively little is known about viral diseases, except for those that are clinically symptomatic or which affect international trade such as foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease. Here, we investigate the seroprevalence, distribution and relationship between the viruses involved in respiratory disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), bovine parainfluenza virus Type 3 (PIV3) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in East African Shorthorn Zebu calves. These viruses contribute to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) which is responsible for major economic losses in cattle from intensive farming systems as a result of pneumonia. We found that calves experience similar risks of infection for IBR, PIV3, and BVDV with a seroprevalence of 20.9%, 20.1% and 19.8% respectively. We confirm that positive associations exist between IBR, PIV3 and BVDV; being seropositive for any one of these three viruses means that an individual is more likely to be seropositive for the other two viruses than expected by chance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy L Klima

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1 and 6 (S6 isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2 found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design

  7. Haematological and blood biochemical alterations associated with respiratory disease in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Šoltésová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases of cattle, particularly in young animals, represent the most important health and economic problem of cattle rearing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes of selected blood indices in 25 calves aged 2–9 months suffering from etiologically undifferentiated chronic respiratory diseases. Blood samples were analysed for haematological indices and selected serum biochemistry variables. The results found in sick animals were compared with results from 25 healthy animals of the same age, housing and feeding system. Significant differences in means between the groups of clinically healthy and sick calves were found in 13 out of 24 evaluated indicators. In sick animals we found significantly higher mean concentrations of haemoglobin and total number of white blood cells (P P P P P P P P < 0.05. The presented results suggest the effect of respiratory diseases in calves on several changes of haematological and selected serum biochemical indicators. They indicate that respiratory diseases did not lead only to direct disturbance of gas exchange and acid-base balance, but they also indirectly affect some other variables of blood biochemistry.

  8. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  9. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  10. Specificity and Effector Functions of Human RSV-Specific IgG from Bovine Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is the second most important cause of death in the first year of life, and early RSV infections are associated with the development of asthma. Breastfeeding and serum IgG have been shown to protect against RSV infection. Yet, many infants depend on bovine milk-based nutrition, which at present lacks intact immunoglobulins.To investigate whether IgG purified from bovine milk (bIgG can modulate immune responses against human RSV.ELISAs were performed to analyse binding of bIgG to human respiratory pathogens. bIgG or hRSV was coated to plates to assess dose-dependent binding of bIgG to human Fcγ receptors (FcγR or bIgG-mediated binding of myeloid cells to hRSV respectively. S. Epidermidis and RSV were used to test bIgG-mediated binding and internalisation of pathogens by myeloid cells. Finally, the ability of bIgG to neutralise infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV was evaluated.bIgG recognised human RSV, influenza haemagglutinin and Haemophilus influenza. bIgG bound to FcγRII on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages, but not to FcγRI and FcγRIII, and could bind simultaneously to hRSV and human FcγRII on neutrophils. In addition, human neutrophils and dendritic cells internalised pathogens that were opsonised with bIgG. Finally, bIgG could prevent infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV.The data presented here show that bIgG binds to hRSV and other human respiratory pathogens and induces effector functions through binding to human FcγRII on phagocytes. Thus bovine IgG may contribute to immune protection against RSV.

  11. Consensus Guidelines for Practical Competencies in Anatomic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine for the Undifferentiated Graduating Medical Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Margret S; Shah, Darshana T; Cambor, Carolyn L; Conran, Richard M; Lin, Amy Y; Peerschke, Ellinor I B; Pessin, Melissa S; Harris, Ilene B

    2015-01-01

    The practice of pathology is not generally addressed in the undergraduate medical school curriculum. It is desirable to develop practical pathology competencies in the fields of anatomic pathology and laboratory medicine for every graduating medical student to facilitate (1) instruction in effective utilization of these services for optimal patient care, (2) recognition of the role of pathologists and laboratory scientists as consultants, and (3) exposure to the field of pathology as a possible career choice. A national committee was formed, including experts in anatomic pathology and/or laboratory medicine and in medical education. Suggested practical pathology competencies were developed in 9 subspecialty domains based on literature review and committee deliberations. The competencies were distributed in the form of a survey in late 2012 through the first half of 2013 to the medical education community for feedback, which was subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. An approval rate of ≥80% constituted consensus for adoption of a competency, with additional inclusions/modifications considered following committee review of comments. The survey included 79 proposed competencies. There were 265 respondents, the majority being pathologists. Seventy-two percent (57 of 79) of the competencies were approved by ≥80% of respondents. Numerous comments (N = 503) provided a robust resource for qualitative analysis. Following committee review, 71 competencies (including 27 modified and 3 new competencies) were considered to be essential for undifferentiated graduating medical students. Guidelines for practical pathology competencies have been developed, with the hope that they will be implemented in undergraduate medical school curricula.

  12. CD10 positive recurrent undifferentiated mammary sarcoma in a young female: a rare case report with brief review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachnar Varma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated mammary sarcoma is extremely rare and the diagnosis is made only after exclusion of metaplastic carcinomas and malignant phyllodes tumor. Mammary sarcomas mostly display specified entities like liposarcomas or angiosarcomas. A 18-year-old female presented in 2010 with a right breast lump for which lumpectomy was done and on histopathological examination benign phyllodes tumor was diagnosed. In 2011, there was a recurrence at site of excised margin and on fine needle aspiration (FNA the diagnosis of benign breast disease was made; a small biopsy was received for which diagnosis of myoepithelial lesion was given. Then, the whole mass was excised, but histopathological examination report could not be followed up. In 2013, she again presented with a mass arising from the previously excised margin; on FNA, it was diagnosed as malignant sarcomatous lesion. Microscopy showed spindle shaped cells in diffuse and fascicular pattern with plump ovoid nuclei; coarse chromatin and eosinophilic cytoplasm were seen. Few round to ovoid cells with eccentric nuclei and showing bi- or multi-nucleation were present. Large area of necrosis and hemorrhage was present, too. No breast glands were found. Later on, diagnosis was confirmed on immunohistochemical examination. The case was considered worth due to the young age of the patient and lack of differentiation of the lesion in any specific type of sarcoma and CD10 positivity.

  13. Retroperitoneal undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma having microsatellite instability associated with Muir-Torre syndrome: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nathan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Wang, Wei-Lien; Lazar, Alexander J

    2013-08-01

    Muir-Torre syndrome represents a rare autosomal dominant familial cancer predisposition disorder defined by the occurrence of cutaneous sebaceous tumors and an internal malignancy, most commonly gastrointestinal carcinoma. Most examples of hereditary non-polyposis cancer syndrome (Lynch syndrome), including the Muir-Torre syndrome, are associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) and germline mutations in mismatch repair genes-most commonly MLH1 or MSH2. We present a 58-year-old man with Muir-Torre syndrome and a large retroperitoneal mass (14.3 cm in greatest dimension) encompassing the left adrenal gland. Sections showed a cellular malignant tumor composed of spindle cells with a high mitotic index and lacking morphologic evidence of adipocytic differentiation. It was weakly reactive for smooth muscle actin (SMA) and negative for desmin, CD117, CD31, CD34, S100 protein and pan-cytokeratin. Further immunohistochemical analysis revealed intact expression of MLH1 but loss of MSH2 in tumor nuclei. Compared to non-neoplastic tissue, the tumor showed MSI in five of seven dinucleotide markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) failed to reveal 12q15 amplification, effectively excluding dedifferentiated liposarcoma as a diagnostic consideration. This is a rare case of a patient with Muir-Torre syndrome who developed a related high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma as the associated internal malignancy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Application of the boron neutron capture therapy to undifferentiated thyroid cancer using two boron compounds (BPA and BOPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaggi, Mabel; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Longhino, Juan M.; Blaumann, Hernan R.; Calzetta Larrieu, Osvaldo A.; Kahl, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    We have shown the selective uptake of boronophenylalanine (BPA) by undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) human cell line ARO, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a 50% histologic cure of mice bearing the tumor was observed when the complete boron neutron capture therapy was applied. More recently we have analyzed the biodistribution of BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-(ba-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) and showed that when BOPP was injected 5 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the ip injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (38-45ppm with both compounds Vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). Five days post the ip BOPP injection and 1 hr after BPA, the ratios were: tumor/blood 3,75; tumor /distal skin 2. Other important ratios were tumor/thyroid 6,65 and tumor/lung 3,8. The present studies were performed in mice transplanted with ARO cells and injected with BOPP and BPA. Only in mice treated with the neutron beam and injected with the boronated compounds we observed a 100% control of tumor growth. Two groups of mice received different total absorbed doses: 3.00 and 6.01 Gy, but no further improvement in the outcome was found compared to the previous results using BPA alone (4.3 Gy). (author)

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of estrogens and progesterone receptors in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma-undifferentiated and adenocarcinoma types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakji, Bassel; Nassani, Mohammad Z; Sloan, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Cancer of the salivary gland is one of the common cancers in the head and the neck regions. This type of cancer develops in the minor and the major salivary glands, and it sometimes metastasizes to other organs, particularly the lung. Morphologic mimicry and similarity in the expression of steroid hormone receptors between salivary gland tumours and breast tumours are well-known phenomena and are occasionally debated in the field of surgical pathology. The expression of sex hormone receptors in some tumours suggests a role for these receptors in tumor pathogenesis and therapy. Previous studies of the expression of estrogens and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumours have reported conflicting results. Our study aimed to characterize alteration in the immunohistochemical expression of oestrogens receptor and progesterone receptor in the tumour cells of carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma. 27 cases of carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma (undifferentiated and adenocarcinoma types) were examined. The results showed that 27 (100 %) of 27 cases had negative nuclear staining for either oestrogens or progesterone receptors. Our data suggest that carcinomas arising in pleomorphic adenoma were not dependent on endocrine function.

  16. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever as causes of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, Iva; Younan, Rasha; Taseva, Evgenia; Gladnishka, Teodora; Trifonova, Iva; Ivanova, Vladislava; Spik, Kristin; Schmaljohn, Connie; Mohareb, Emad

    2013-03-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested.

  17. Atlantoaxial subluxation as an early manifestation in an adolescent with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jea Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atlantoaxial instability has been described as a manifestation of ankylosing spondylitis (juvenile and adult onset, reactive arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis; however, it has rarely been reported as an early manifestation of these disorders. We present this case report to increase awareness of the condition in the hope that earlier recognition of this disease may prevent further serious injury. Case presentation We report the case of a 17-year-old Hispanic adolescent woman who was initially diagnosed with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis due to peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, a positive human leukocyte antigen B27 result, and inflammatory spinal pain lasting two months. Our patient experienced persistent and worsening occipitocervical pain and signs of myelopathy three months after diagnosis; consequently, we found atlantoaxial instability along with cervical spine bone erosion and pannus formation. She was treated surgically with a C1-2 posterior instrumented fusion and at six weeks post-operatively was started on tumor necrosis factor α blockade. Her occipitocervical symptoms subsided following surgery and initiation of immunomodulation. Conclusions Our report serves to emphasize to pediatric and adult general practitioners, pediatricians, internists, family physicians, pediatric and adult rheumatologists and spine surgeons that atlantoaxial subluxation may be an early manifestation of spondyloarthritis, and that the condition is treatable by surgical intervention and immunomodulation.

  18. Expansion on stromal cells preserves the undifferentiated state of human hematopoietic stem cells despite compromised reconstitution ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Mattias; Sierra, Maria I; Sasidharan, Rajkumar; Prashad, Sacha L; Romero, Melissa; Saarikoski, Pamela; Van Handel, Ben; Huang, Andy; Li, Xinmin; Mikkola, Hanna K A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) limits the number of patients with life-threatening blood disorders that can be treated by HSC transplantation. So far, insufficient understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing human HSC has precluded the development of effective protocols for culturing HSC for therapeutic use and molecular studies. We defined a culture system using OP9M2 mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) stroma that protects human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) from differentiation and apoptosis. In addition, it facilitates a dramatic expansion of multipotent progenitors that retain the immunophenotype (CD34+CD38-CD90+) characteristic of human HSPC and proliferative potential over several weeks in culture. In contrast, transplantable HSC could be maintained, but not significantly expanded, during 2-week culture. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome of the ex vivo expanded CD34+CD38-CD90+ cells documented remarkable stability of most transcriptional regulators known to govern the undifferentiated HSC state. Nevertheless, it revealed dynamic fluctuations in transcriptional programs that associate with HSC behavior and may compromise HSC function, such as dysregulation of PBX1 regulated genetic networks. This culture system serves now as a platform for modeling human multilineage hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell hierarchy and studying the complex regulation of HSC identity and function required for successful ex vivo expansion of transplantable HSC.

  19. Expansion on stromal cells preserves the undifferentiated state of human hematopoietic stem cells despite compromised reconstitution ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Magnusson

    Full Text Available Lack of HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells (HSC limits the number of patients with life-threatening blood disorders that can be treated by HSC transplantation. So far, insufficient understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing human HSC has precluded the development of effective protocols for culturing HSC for therapeutic use and molecular studies. We defined a culture system using OP9M2 mesenchymal stem cell (MSC stroma that protects human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC from differentiation and apoptosis. In addition, it facilitates a dramatic expansion of multipotent progenitors that retain the immunophenotype (CD34+CD38-CD90+ characteristic of human HSPC and proliferative potential over several weeks in culture. In contrast, transplantable HSC could be maintained, but not significantly expanded, during 2-week culture. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome of the ex vivo expanded CD34+CD38-CD90+ cells documented remarkable stability of most transcriptional regulators known to govern the undifferentiated HSC state. Nevertheless, it revealed dynamic fluctuations in transcriptional programs that associate with HSC behavior and may compromise HSC function, such as dysregulation of PBX1 regulated genetic networks. This culture system serves now as a platform for modeling human multilineage hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell hierarchy and studying the complex regulation of HSC identity and function required for successful ex vivo expansion of transplantable HSC.

  20. Respiratory effects of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Despreaux, Thomas; Perros, Frédéric; Lau, Edmund; Andujar, Pascal; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Descatha, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated solvent that has been used widely around the world in the twentieth century for metal degreasing and dry cleaning. Although TCE displays general toxicity and is classified as a human carcinogen, the association between TCE exposure and respiratory disorders are conflicting. In this review we aimed to systematically evaluate the current evidence for the respiratory effects of TCE exposure and the implications for the practicing clinician. There is limited evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with TCE exposure based on animal and human data. However, the effect of other chlorinated solvents and mixed solvent exposure should be further investigated. Limited data are available to support an association between TCE exposure and respiratory tract disorders such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or rhinitis. The most consistent data is the association of TCE with autoimmune and vascular diseases such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Although recent data are reassuring regarding the absence of an increased lung cancer risk with TCE exposure, clinicians should be aware of other potential respiratory effects of TCE. In particular, occupational exposure to TCE has been linked to less common conditions such as systemic sclerosis and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  2. Respiratory transfusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Marić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory transfusion-related reactions are not very frequent, partly also because recognition and reporting transfusion reactions is still underemphasized. Tis article describes the most important respiratory transfusion reactions, their pathophysiology, clinical picture and treatment strategies. Respiratory transfusion related reactions can be primary or secondary. The most important primary transfusion-related reactions are TRALI - transfusion-related acute lung injury, TACO – transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and TAD - transfusion-associated dyspnea. TRALI is immuneassociated injury of alveolar basal membrane, which becomes highly permeable and causes noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment of TRALI is mainly supportive with oxygen, fluids (in case of hypotension and in cases of severe acute respiratory failure also mechanic ventilation. TACO is caused by volume overload in predisposed individuals, such as patients with heart failure, the elderly, infants, patients with anemia and patients with positive fluid balance. Clinical picture is that of a typical pulmonary cardiogenic edema, and the therapy is classical: oxygen and diuretics, and in severe cases also non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. TAD is usually a mild reaction of unknown cause and cannot be classified as TACO or TRALI, nor can it be ascribed to patient’s preexisting diseases. Although the transfusion-related reactions are not very common, knowledge about them can prevent serious consequences. On the one hand preventive measures should be sought, and on the other early recognition is beneficial, so that proper treatment can take place.

  3. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  4. Seroepidemiological study of parainfluenza 3 virus in bovines with reproductive failure, from monteria-colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Betancur Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The virus of the bovine Para influenza 3 is known to be a part of the bovine respiratory complex, along with another infectious agent as the bovine sincitialrespiratory virus, which has not as yet been diagnosed at the geographical area of this study. This work was carried out at Monteria, Colombia, in bovines from 28 farms, with the aim of finding the serological prevalence of the PI-3 virus. Blood samples were collected from 137 females, with a history of reproductive failure, and from 26 bulls from the same farms. The serological test used was the ELISA test. A descriptive analysis was carried out, recording data from positives and from negatives sera. A Chi-square test was used to test for association between the variables: sex, age, reproductive condition and type of production system, with serological reactivity to the PI-3virus. Concerning the results of the study, the point prevalence for the PI-3 virus found was 13, 5%, and under statistical bases, statistical significance was found between age groups and association was not found for the others variables taken in account for the study. According to the results, it was concluded that the PI-3 virus is present in bovines of Monteria, and that a part of the reproductive failure in females of the region, mostly the return to estrus and abortions, is due to the effect of that pathological entity. Finally, the authors recommend more extensive studies on PI-3 Infection, at the different cattle raising areas of Colombia, a country of 24 million heads.

  5. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  6. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is ...

  7. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  8. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  9. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their fever and other symptoms are gone. Hand hygiene is the most important part of SARS prevention. ... Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  10. Evaluation of the effect of follicular stimulating hormone on the in vitro bovine spermatogonial stem cells self-renewal: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Jabarpour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs are undifferentiated cells which are highly reproducible and expandable. Several studies have been conducted to reproduce these cells in culture. They used growth factors, hormones and different feeder cells to improve survival and proliferation of SSCs. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH on gene expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: Sertoli cells and SSCs were isolated from 3-5 month-old calves. Bovine testicular cells were cultured for 15 days with or without FSH. Identification of these cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry analysis. Colony formation of SSCs was evaluated using an inverted microscope. The gene expression of FGF2 and GDNF and the gene markers bcl6b, thy-1, and C-kit were evaluated using the quantitative RT-PCR technique. Results: The results indicated that FSH increased colonization of SSCs. the expression of GDNF, FGF2, and markers of undifferentiated spermatogonia was increased following culture in control and FSH groups (p<0.05, this increase was more in FSH group. Conversely, the expression of C-kit was decreased in both groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that FSH can increase the self-renewal of SSCs in vitro via upregulation of GDNF and FGF2 expression in Sertoli cells.

  11. Treatment of chest burn contracture causing respiratory compromise with island release and grafting using cross-link collagen and Integra™ bilayer dressing

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Doctor; Erin Woller; Sharmila Dissanaike

    2014-01-01

    Post-burn skin contractures of the anterior and lateral abdomen and chest may result in respiratory compromise due to limitation of rib excursion. This case report describes a young man with respiratory compromise limiting his daily activity and function, as a result of a 90% burn sustained 6 years previously. Release of his chest and upper abdomen was achieved using “island” scar releases and a cross-linked bovine tendon collagen and glycosaminoglycan and a semi-permeable polysiloxane bilaye...

  12. Allergic Respiratory Inflammation and Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Respiratory inflammation of the adaptive and innate immune system is the focus of this review, and chronic inflammation is not limited to the respiratory tissue. The inflammatory response, which consists of phagocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes, spreads along the respiratory tract, leading to tissue damage. Mast cells and eosinophils are commonly recognized for their detrimental role in allergic reactions o...

  13. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly sensitive in vitro methods for detection of residual undifferentiated cells in retinal pigment epithelial cells derived from human iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kuroda

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs possess the capabilities of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types, and they are free of the ethical problems associated with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. These characteristics make hiPSCs a promising choice for future regenerative medicine research. There are significant obstacles, however, preventing the clinical use of hiPSCs. One of the most obvious safety issues is the presence of residual undifferentiated cells that have tumorigenic potential. To locate residual undifferentiated cells, in vivo teratoma formation assays have been performed with immunodeficient animals, which is both costly and time-consuming. Here, we examined three in vitro assay methods to detect undifferentiated cells (designated an in vitro tumorigenicity assay: soft agar colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR. Although the soft agar colony formation assay was unable to detect hiPSCs even in the presence of a ROCK inhibitor that permits survival of dissociated hiPSCs/hESCs, the flow cytometry assay using anti-TRA-1-60 antibody detected 0.1% undifferentiated hiPSCs that were spiked in primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Moreover, qRT-PCR with a specific probe and primers was found to detect a trace amount of Lin28 mRNA, which is equivalent to that present in a mixture of a single hiPSC and 5.0×10⁴ RPE cells. Our findings provide highly sensitive and quantitative in vitro assays essential for facilitating safety profiling of hiPSC-derived products for future regenerative medicine research.

  15. The CIPRUS study, a nurse-led psychological treatment for patients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder in primary care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikova, Kate; Leone, Stephanie S.; Zonneveld, Lyonne N. L.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Bosmans, Judith E.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; van der Horst, Henri?tte E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Up to a third of patients presenting medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care may have a somatoform disorder, of which undifferentiated somatoform disorder (USD) is the most common type. Psychological interventions can reduce symptoms associated with USD and improve functioning. Previous research has either been conducted in secondary care or interventions have been provided by general practitioners (GPs) or psychologists in primary care. As efficiency and cost-effec...

  16. Hyaline globule-like structures in undifferentiated sarcoma cells of malignant müllerian mixed tumor of the fallopian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Naoto; Inui, Yasunobu; Ohara, Masahiko; Hirouchi, Takashi; Mizuno, Keiko; Kubo, Ayumi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Enzan, Hideaki; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2007-03-01

    Malignant müllerian mixed tumors (MMMTs) of the fallopian tube are very rare neoplasms, and we present such a case with unusual findings here. A 57-year-old Japanese woman, after she received a medical checkup, underwent salpingo-oophorectomy on the suspicion of ovarian cancer. At the time of operation, the main tumor was present predominantly in the fallopian tube. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of carcinoma and sarcoma components. The carcinoma showed moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The sarcoma consisted of predominantly undifferentiated sarcoma and focally rhabdomyosarcomatous cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the differentiation toward rhabdomyosarcoma was confirmed. Interestingly, the cytoplasm of undifferentiated sarcoma cells contained hyaline globule-like structures. These structures showed a positive reaction for PAS, and these structures were not digested by the diastase pretreatment. Ultrastructurally, hyaline globule-like structures corresponded to lysosomes. Finally, pathologists should keep in mind that undifferentiated sarcoma cells in MMMT of the fallopian tube may contain hyaline globule-like structures in the cytoplasm.

  17. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement......% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above mentioned areas were only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, we refrain...

  18. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  19. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  20. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  1. Canine respiratory viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Buonavoglia , Canio; Martella , Vito

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple in...

  2. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaperi, Kerli; Bougeard, Stephanie; Aleksejev, Annely; Orro, Toomas; Viltrop, Arvo

    2012-01-30

    The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows. BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

  3. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaperi Kerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

  4. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  5. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  6. Efficient recovery of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cell cryopreserved with hydroxyethyl starch, dimethyl sulphoxide and serum replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Maristela Delgado; De Santis, Gil Cunha; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Magalhães, Danielle Aparecida Rosa; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Costa, Everton de Brito Oliveira; Palma, Patrícia Vianna Bonini; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2015-08-01

    The therapeutic use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is dependent on an efficient cryopreservation protocol for long-term storage. The aim of this study was to determine whether the combination of three cryoprotecting reagents using two freezing systems might improve hESC recovery rates with maintenance of hESC pluripotency properties for potential cell therapy application. Recovery rates of hESC colonies which were frozen in three cryoprotective solutions: Me2SO/HES/SR medium, Defined-medium® and Me2SO/SFB in medium solution were evaluated in ultra-slow programmable freezing system (USPF) and a slow-rate freezing system (SRF). The hESC pluripotency properties after freezing-thawing were evaluated. We estimated the distribution frequency of survival colonies and observed that independent of the freezing system used (USPF or SRF) the best results were obtained with Me2SO/HES/SR as cryopreservation medium. We showed a significant hESC recovery colonies rate after thawing in Me2SO/HES/SR medium were 3.88 and 2.9 in USPF and SRF, respectively. The recovery colonies rate with Defined-medium® were 1.05 and 1.07 however in classical Me2SO medium were 0.5 and 0.86 in USPF and SRF, respectively. We showed significant difference between Me2SO/HES/SR medium×Defined-medium® and between Me2SO/HES/SR medium×Me2SO medium, for two cryopreservation systems (Psystem which resulted in hESC colonies that remain undifferentiated, maintain their in vitro and in vivo pluripotency properties and genetic stability. This approach may be suitable for cell therapy studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue engineering approaches to develop decellularized tendon matrices functionalized with progenitor cells cultured under undifferentiated and tenogenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele D’Arrigo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures and retractions with an extensive tissue loss represent a major clinical problem and a great challenge in surgical reconstruction. Traditional approaches consist in autologous or allogeneic grafts, which still have some drawbacks. Hence, tissue engineering strategies aimed at developing functionalized tendon grafts. In this context, the use of xenogeneic tissues represents a promising perspective to obtain decellularized tendon grafts. This study is focused on the identification of suitable culture conditions for the generation of reseeded and functional decellularized constructs to be used as tendon grafts. Equine superficial digital flexor tendons were decellularized, reseeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow and statically cultured in two different culture media to maintain undifferentiated cells (U-MSCs or to induce a terminal tenogenic differentiation (T-MSCs for 24 hours, 7 and 14 days. Cell viability, proliferation, morphology as well as matrix deposition and type I and III collagen production were assessed by means of histological, immunohistochemical and semi-quantitative analyses. Results showed that cell viability was not affected by any culture conditions and active proliferation was maintained 14 days after reseeding. However, seeded MSCs were not able to penetrate within the dense matrix of the decellularized tendons. Nevertheless, U-MSCs synthesized a greater amount of extracellular matrix rich in type I collagen compared to T-MSCs. In spite of the inability to deeply colonize the decellularized matrix in vitro, reseeding tendon matrices with U-MSCs could represent a suitable method for the functionalization of biological constructs, considering also any potential chemoattractant capability of the newly deposed extracellular matrix to recruit resident cells. This bioengineering approach can be exploited to produce functionalized tendon constructs for the substitution of large tendon defects.

  8. Sarcoma indiferenciado primário no sistema nervoso central Primary undifferentiated sarcoma of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Marcio Machota Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O sarcoma de sistema nervoso central (SNC é uma neoplasia rara, com incidência de 0,1% a 4,3% dos tumores intracranianos. São tumores agressivos com prognóstico reservado e a maioria é tratada com ressecção radical. RELATO: Homem, 29 anos, com episódios de crises convulsivas e diagnóstico de hemorragia intraparenquimatosa. Durante a cirurgia, foi identificada lesão bem delimitada. A histologia demonstrou neoplasia fusocelular com atipias e numerosas mitoses. Os únicos marcadores imuno-histoquímicos positivos foram vimentina e S-100. O diagnóstico foi de sarcoma indiferenciado de alto grau. CONCLUSÃO: No diagnóstico diferencial de sarcomas de SNC, devem-se excluir lesões metastáticas e gliossarcoma.INTRODUCTION: The central nervous system (CNS sarcoma is a rare neoplasm with an incidence of 0.1% to 4.3% in intracranial tumors. They are aggressive with poor prognosis, and mostly treated with radical resection. REPORT: 29 year-old male patient with episodes of seizures and diagnosed with intraparenchymal hemorrhage. During the surgery a well-defined lesion was identified. Histology showed a spindle cell neoplasm with atypia and numerous mitoses. The immunohistochemical markers were positive only for vimentin and S-100. The diagnosis was high-grade undifferentiated sarcoma. CONCLUSION: Metastatic lesions and gliosarcoma should be excluded in the differential diagnosis of CNS sarcomas.

  9. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  10. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  11. Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, R; Berg, S; Argaw, K; Gadisa, E; Habtamu, M; Schelling, E; Young, D; Aseffa, A; Zinsstag, J

    2010-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. However, the status of the disease in wildlife populations that often share habitat with livestock is unknown. We screened for BTB in wildlife in five regions in Ethiopia. Blood and tissue samples from 133 mammals of 28 species were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used a rapid serology test (RT) based on lateral flow technology, and performed culture of lymph node specimens inoculated onto Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 media. Acid-fast colonies were further analyzed by molecular typing. Sera from 20 of 87 animals (23%) were positive for BTB by RT; acid-fast bacilli were cultured from 29 of 89 animals (32.5%). None of the positive cultures yielded mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but many environmental mycobacteria were isolated. Among these, Mycobacterium terrae was the most common. We demonstrated a high prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in wildlife, the role of which is unknown. Flagship rare endemic species such as the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) may be at risk for BTB. We also assessed the utility of RT for field purposes.

  12. Prediction of respiratory disease and diarrhea in veal calves based on immunoglobulin levels and the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Alliët, Jeroen; Boone, Randy; Roelandt, Sophie; Valgaeren, Bonnie; Deprez, Piet

    2015-06-15

    Failure of passive transfer is a common problem in calves destined for veal production. At present it is unknown whether the risk for respiratory disease (BRD) or neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) in the veal herd is associated with total immunoglobulin (Ig) and/or on the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival. Therefore, the first objective of this prospective longitudinal cohort study was to determine associations between serum protein fractions as determined by routine electrophoresis (total protein, albumin, alpha-1 and -2 globulins, beta-globulins and Ig's) at arrival and BRD and NCD in the first 3 weeks of the production cycle. The second objective was to determine whether the serostatus (seropositive/seronegative) of seven respiratory pathogens (bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenzavirus-3, bovine coronavirus (BCV), bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis) of these arrival serum samples could be associated with the risk of having BRD. The third objective was to determine which of the electrophoresis proteins and respiratory serostatuses were associated with average daily gain (ADG) in the study period. The study population consisted of 150 rosé veal calves housed in a single air-space. The study period ended at day 18 post arrival, when BRD incidence was judged to be too high to further postpone a group treatment. A Cox regression model was used to determine the effect of the studied protein fractions and antibodies on the time to BRD and NCD occurrence. The effect of the studied predictors on ADG was determined by linear regression. Calves with Ig levels under 7.5g/L had an increased BRD hazard (hazard ratio (HR)=1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.0)). NCD was only positively associated with the alpha-2 globulin concentration. Calves with a negative serostatus for BCV (HR=1.7 (95% CI=1.0-2.8)) or BRSV (HR=2.0 (95% CI=1.0-3.9)) had an increased BRD hazard. Average

  13. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  14. In vitro neutralization against HoBi-like viruses by antiobodies in serum of cattle immunized with inactivated or modified live vaccines of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...

  15. Identification of candidate protein markers of Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 infection using an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Darren W; Welsh, Michael D; Doherty, Simon; Mooney, Mark H

    2017-05-01

    Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPI3V) infections are often asymptomatic, causing respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression, predisposing animals to severe bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) mortality. As with many pathogens, routine BPI3V serology does not indicate the presence of damaged respiratory tissue or active infection. In vitro proteomic marker screening using disease relevant cell models could help identify markers of infection and tissue damage that are also detectable during in vivo infections. This study utilised a proteomic approach to investigate in vitro cellular responses during BPI3V infection to enhance the current understanding of intracellular host-virus interactions and identify putative markers of in vivo infection. Through 2D gel electrophoresis proteomic analysis, BPI3V Phosphoprotein P and host T-complex Protein 1 subunit theta were found to be accumulated at the latter stages of infection within bovine fibroblasts. These proteins were subsequently detected using targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry in the plasma of animals challenged with BPI3V, with differential protein level profiles observed dependant on animal vaccination status. Potential mechanisms by which BPI3V overcomes host cellular immune response mechanisms allowing for replication and production of viral proteins were also revealed. Assessment of circulating protein marker levels identified through an in vitro approach as described may enable more effective diagnosis of active viral infection and diseased or damaged respiratory tissue in animals and allow for more effective utilisation of preventative therapeutic interventions prior to bacterial disease onset and significantly aid the management and control of BRD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unraveling the genetic background of bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genomic regions, and preferably individual genes, responsible for genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition enhances the understanding of biological pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis and is expected to increase opportunities for changing bovine milk fat

  17. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed in the bovine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Balázs; Kis, Zsuzsanna; Kaján, Gyozo; Frenyó, László V; Hammarström, Lennart; Kacskovics, Imre

    2004-03-01

    In neonatal calves, maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) is transferred into respiratory secretion which contributes to protection against pathogens. The early predominance of IgG1 in respiratory tract secretions is progressively reduced in favor of IgA by age but in the lower, bronchoalveolar system secreted IgG remains the dominant secreted Ig even in adulthood. The trans-epithelial transport of secretory IgA into mucosal secretions is carried out by the polymeric Ig receptor. However, the mechanism by which IgG crosses epithelial cells to provide defense on mucosal surfaces is still unknown. In order to investigate the possibility that the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn is involved in this transport we have first analyzed the localization of this receptor in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Consistent with the in situ hybridization data, immunohistochemistry showed undetectable expression in the tracheal epithelial cells, relatively weak expression in epithelial cells of the bronchi, apparent staining those lining the bronchioli and randomly scattered signal over the alveolar tissue. The bovine FcRn may thus play a role in IgG transport across mucosal epithelial barriers as a trafficking receptor and ensure IgG predominance in the lower respiratory tract.

  18. In Vivo Characterisation of Five Strains of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus 1 (Subgenotype 1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Ambrose

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1 is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 has a world-wide distribution, the subgenotypes have a more restricted geographical distribution. As an example, BVDV-1 subgenotypes 1a and 1b are frequently detected in North America and Europe, while the subgenotype 1c is rarely detected. In contrast, BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c is by far the most commonly reported in Australia. Despite this, uneven distribution of the biological importance of the subgenotypes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterise the in vivo properties of five strains of BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c in cattle infection studies. No overt respiratory signs were reported in any of the infected cattle regardless of strain. Consistent with other subgenotypes, transient pyrexia and leukopenia were commonly identified, while thrombocytopenia was not. The quantity of virus detected in the nasal secretions of transiently infected animals suggested the likelihood of horizontal transmission was very low. Further studies are required to fully understand the variability and importance of the BVDV-1 subgenotype 1c.

  19. Bovine and human-derived passive immunization could help slow a future avian influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of human transmitted avian influenza could have casualties on a scale seen in the great Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918. This paper proposes that should such occur before effective vaccines and antiviral drugs are available, the outbreak could be significantly slowed by consumption of raw milk produced by herds of pathogen-free lactating cows intranasally inoculated with heat-sterilized sputa pooled from avian influenza patients, supplemented by parenteral serum immune globulin from the same cows. Efficiency of bovine antibody production could be enhanced using cholera toxin subunit b, and milk production could be rapidly accelerated using recombinant bovine somatotropin hormone. In this way, it would be possible to quickly create and distribute large quantities of milk-based and serum-based passive immune globulin active against the strains of avian influenza present in a particular geographic area and gain time for production of human convalescent plasma and other public health measures. This novel approach might also have utility for other serious respiratory infectious diseases, including non-avian influenza, SARS, hantavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and pneumonia-causing Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Characterization of novel bovine gastrointestinal tract Treponema isolates and comparison with bovine digital dermatitis treponemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas J; Brown, Jennifer M; Murray, Richard D; Getty, Brian; Birtles, Richard J; Hart, C Anthony; Carter, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize treponemes present in the bovine gastrointestinal (GI) tract and compare them with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) treponemes. Seven spirochete isolates were obtained from the bovine GI tract, which, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, clustered within the genus Treponema as four novel phylotypes. One phylotype was isolated from several different GI tract regions, including the omasum, colon, rumen, and rectum. These four phylotypes could be divided into two phylotype pairs that clustered closest with each other and then with different, previously reported rumen treponemes. The treponemes displayed great genotypic and phenotypic diversity between phylotypes and differed considerably from named treponeme species and those recently reported by metagenomic studies of the bovine GI tract. Phylogenetic inference, based on comparisons of 16S rRNA sequences from only bovine treponemes, suggested a marked divergence between two important groups. The dendrogram formed two major clusters, with one cluster containing GI tract treponemes and the other containing BDD treponemes. This division among the bovine treponemes is likely the result of adaptation to different niches. To further differentiate the bovine GI and BDD strains, we designed a degenerate PCR for a gene encoding a putative virulence factor, tlyC, which gave a positive reaction only for treponemes from the BDD cluster.

  1. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Donnelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n=5 or CPAP (Group 2, n=5 as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations.

  2. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...... the efficacy and safety of augmentation therapy, the only specific treatment available for the pulmonary disease associated with AATD.As AATD is a rare disease, it is crucial to organise national and international registries and collect information prospectively about the natural history of the disease...

  3. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timenetsky Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. Findings U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. Conclusions The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  4. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  5. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosome-.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine... a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC 1.11.1.6...

  7. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  8. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  10. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY... bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The meetings are being organized by... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  11. Subcellular Distribution of S-Nitrosylated H-Ras in Differentiated and Undifferentiated PC12 Cells during Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbakadze, Tamar; Goloshvili, Galina; Narmania, Nana; Zhuravliova, Elene; Mikeladze, David

    2017-10-01

    Hypoxia or exposure to excessive reactive oxygen or nitrogen species could induce S-nitrosylation of various target proteins, including GTPases of the Ras-superfamily. Under hypoxic conditions, the Ras-protein is translocated to the cytosol and interacts with the Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria. The mobility/translocation of Ras depend on the cells oxidative status. However, the importance of relocated Snitrosylated- H-Ras (NO-H-Ras) in proliferation/differentiation processes is not completely understood. We have determined the content of soluble- and membrane-bound-NO-HRas in differentiated (D) and undifferentiated (ND) rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. In our experimental study, we analyzed NO-H-Ras levels under hypoxic/normoxic conditions in membrane and soluble fractions of ND and D PC12 cells with/without nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment. Cells were analyzed by the S-nitrosylated kit, immunoprecipitation, and Western blot. We assessed the action of NO-H-Ras on oxidative metabolism of isolated mitochondria by determining mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide generation via the scopoletin oxidation method and ATPproduction as estimated by the luminometric method. Hypoxia did not influence nitrosylation of soluble H-Ras in ND PC12 cells. Under hypoxic conditions, the nitrosylation of soluble-H-Ras greatly decreased in D PC12 cells. SNP didn't change the levels of nitrosylation of soluble-H-Ras, in either hypoxic or normoxic conditions. On the other hand, hypoxia, per se, did not affect the nitrosylation of membrane-bound-H-Ras in D and ND PC12 cells. SNP-dependent nitrosylation of membrane-bound-H-Ras greatly increased in D PC12 cells. Both unmodified normal and mutated H-Ras enhanced the mitochondrial synthesis of ATP, whereas the stimulatory effects on ATP synthesis were eliminated after S-nitrosylation of H-Ras. According to the results, it may be proposed that hypoxia can decrease S

  12. Awareness of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour among persons with acute undifferentiated fever in the endemic regions of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Phyo Aung; Maung, Thae Maung; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar has a high burden of malaria with two-third of the population at risk of malaria. One of the basic elements of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative to fight against malaria is early diagnosis and treatment within 24 h of fever. Public awareness about malaria is a key factor in malaria prevention and control and in improving treatment-seeking behaviour. A large community-based survey was carried out in 27 townships of malaria endemic regions in Myanmar in 2015 which reported on the knowledge, behaviour and practices around malaria in the general population. We used the data already collected in this survey to assess (i) general public awareness of malaria and (ii) treatment-seeking behaviour and associated factors among persons with acute undifferentiated fever. A total of 6597 respondents from 6625 households were interviewed (response rate of 99.5%). About 85% of the respondents were aware that mosquito bite was the mode of transmission of malaria and 90% mentioned that malaria was preventable. However, only 16% of the respondents knew about anti-malaria drug resistance. There were certain misconceptions about the transmission of malaria such as dirty water, same blood group, sharing shelter, sleeping/eating together and poor hygiene. Health facility staff were the most common source of information about malaria (80%). Nearly one-fourth (23%) of the respondents with fever resorted to self-medication. Around 28% of the respondents with fever underwent blood testing, less than half of whom (44%) were tested within 24 h. Elderly age group, females, those with poor knowledge about malaria and those residing in non-Regional Artemisinin Resistance Initiative townships were associated with poor treatment-seeking behaviour in case of fever. Although there is fair knowledge on mosquito bite as a mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, there are some misconceptions about transmission of malaria. Those having poor knowledge about malaria have poor treatment

  13. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in patients presenting to a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: clinical spectrum and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI may have similar clinical presentation, and the etiology is varied and region specific. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India. All adult patients presenting with AUFI of 3-14 days duration were evaluated for etiology, and the differences in presentation and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 1258 patients. A microbiological cause was identified in 82.5% of our patients. Scrub typhus was the most common cause of AUFI (35.9% followed by dengue (30.6%, malaria (10.4%, enteric fever (3.7%, and leptospirosis (0.6%. Both scrub typhus and dengue fever peaked during the monsoon season and the cooler months, whereas no seasonality was observed with enteric fever and malaria. The mean time to presentation was longer in enteric fever (9.9 [4.7] days and scrub typhus (8.2 [3.2] days. Bleeding manifestations were seen in 7.7% of patients, mostly associated with dengue (14%, scrub typhus (4.2%, and malaria (4.6%. The requirement of supplemental oxygen, invasive ventilation, and inotropes was higher in scrub typhus, leptospirosis, and malaria. The overall mortality rate was 3.3% and was highest with scrub typhus (4.6% followed by dengue fever (2.3%. Significant clinical predictors of scrub typhus were breathlessness (odds ratio [OR]: 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.38-7.3, total whole blood cell count >10,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.64-3.24, serum albumin <3.5 g % (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.68-3.2. Overt bleeding manifestations (OR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.84-4.84, and a platelet count of <150,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.47-2.98 were independent predictors of dengue fever. Conclusion: The similarity in clinical presentation and diversity of etiological agents demonstrates the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of AUFI in South India. The etiological profile will be of use in the development of

  14. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  15. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo...... in order to confirm their sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, new methods that can be routinely used should be developed. Preferably, these measures would be validated and in place prior to implementation of the new meat safety assurance system, in a move towards effective, risk-based control...

  16. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  18. Respiratory sounds compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Azadeh; Moussavi, Zahra

    2008-04-01

    Recently, with the advances in digital signal processing, compression of biomedical signals has received great attention for telemedicine applications. In this paper, an adaptive transform coding-based method for compression of respiratory and swallowing sounds is proposed. Using special characteristics of respiratory sounds, the recorded signals are divided into stationary and nonstationary portions, and two different bit allocation methods (BAMs) are designed for each portion. The method was applied to the data of 12 subjects and its performance in terms of overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values was calculated at different bit rates. The performance of different quantizers was also considered and the sensitivity of the quantizers to initial conditions has been alleviated. In addition, the fuzzy clustering method was examined for classifying the signal into different numbers of clusters and investigating the performance of the adaptive BAM with increasing the number of classes. Furthermore, the effects of assigning different numbers of bits for encoding stationary and nonstationary portions of the signal were studied. The adaptive BAM with variable number of bits was found to improve the SNR values of the fixed BAM by 5 dB. Last, the possibility of removing the training part for finding the parameters of adaptive BAMs for each individual was investigated. The results indicate that it is possible to use a predefined set of BAMs for all subjects and remove the training part completely. Moreover, the method is fast enough to be implemented for real-time application.

  19. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  20. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  1. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  3. Abattoir surveillance demonstrates contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is widespread in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Elly Yesse; Kimera, Sharazuli Iddi; Kusiluka, Lughano Jeremy Moses; Wambura, Philemon

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the presence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the slaughter facilities in 10 regions of Tanzania that reported pathological lesions suggestive of CBPP during meat inspection. The aim was to ascertain if slaughter facilities can be used to monitor the occurrence and spread of CBPP in the country. The study involved a questionnaire survey, clinical examination of animals for CBPP symptoms prior to slaughter and postmortem examination of the respiratory system in slaughtered cattle. A total of 12 slaughterhouses and 31 animal markets were involved in the study. A total of 2736 cattle were slaughtered comprising 1978 and 758 in slaughterhouses and animal markets, respectively. Of the total slaughtered stock, 351 of 2736 (12.8 %) had lesions suggestive of CBPP and of these, 236 (8.6 %) were from slaughterhouses and 115 (4.2 %) from animal markets. Acute CBPP cases were observed in 192 of the 236 (81.4 %) and 71 of the 115 (61.7 %) of the animals inspected in the slaughterhouses and markets, respectively. Chronic cases were encountered in 24 (10.2 %) of the animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouses and 19 (16.5 %) at animal markets. This work has confirmed that targeted monitoring for CBPP lesions through meat inspection can be a useful tool for CBPP surveillance in endemic countries like Tanzania.

  4. The effect of caffeine on p53-dependent radioresponses in undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cells after X-ray and UV-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taga, Masataka; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Shimura, Tsutomu; Uematsu, Norio; Kato, Tomohisa; Niwa, Ohtsura; Nishimune, Yoshitake; Aizawa, Shinichi; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2000-01-01

    The effect of caffeine was studied on the radioresponses of undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cells (EC cells) with or without the functional p53. The radioresponses studied included radiosensitivity, the activation of p53, apoptosis with characteristic DNA ladder formation and cell cycle progression. An undifferentiated mouse EC cell line, ECA2, and a newly established p53-deficient EC cell line, p53δ, were used in the present study. The status of the p53 gene did not significantly affect the colony survivals of undifferentiated EC cells to X-rays and UV. Although a post-irradiation treatment with caffeine sensitized both lines to X-rays marginally, the sensitization was prominent for UV regardless of the p53 status of the cells. The activation of a p53 responsible lacZ reporter construct was observed in stably transfected ECA2 cells after X-ray and UV irradiations. Caffeine suppressed the X-ray induced activation of the lacZ reporter, while it drastically enhanced the activation after UV irradiation. X-rays and UV readily triggered the apoptosis of ECA2 cells with the characteristic DNA ladder. Although UV-induced DNA ladder formation was enhanced by caffeine, that induced by X-rays was unaffected. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on the p53-dependent radioresponses were found to be agent specific: suppression for the X-ray induced and augmentation for the UV induced. In contrast to p53-proficient ECA2 cells, smear-like DNA degradation was observed for irradiated p53δ cells, suggesting the presence of a mode of cell death without DNA ladder formation. UV induction of the smear-like DNA degradation was enhanced in the presence of caffeine. Regardless of the state of the p53 gene, G1/S arrest was not observed in X-ray and UV irradiated EC cells. X-rays induced G2/M arrest in both lines, which was abrogated by caffeine, while G2/M arrest after UV was unaffected by a caffeine treatment. These results indicate that the radioresponses of undifferentiated

  5. Enhanced expression of extracellular calcium sensing receptor in monocyte-differentiated versus undifferentiated HL-60 cells: potential role in regulation of a nonselective cation channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Ye, C; Chattopadhyay, N; Sanders, J L; Vassilev, P M; Brown, E M

    2000-05-01

    Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) have been used widely as a model for studying the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. After treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], HL-60 cells differentiate into cells with the phenotype of monocytes/macrophages. We previously showed that peripheral blood monocytes and the murine J774 monocytic cell line express the CaR, and myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow and myeloid cells in peripheral blood other than monocytes express lower levels of the CaR. Therefore, we investigated whether undifferentiated HL-60 cells express a functional G protein-coupled, extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(o))-sensing receptor (CaR) and if the expression of the CaR increases as these cells differentiate along the monocytic lineage. The use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with CaR-specific primers, followed by sequencing of the amplified products, identified an authentic CaR transcript in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis using a CaR-specific antiserum detected low levels of CaR protein expression in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. The levels of CaR protein increased considerably following treatment of the cells with PMA (50 nM) or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (100 nM) for 5 days. Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe identified CaR transcripts in undifferentiated HL-60 cells, but CaR mRNA levels did not change appreciably after treatment with either agent, suggesting that upregulation of CaR protein occurs at a translational level. PMA-treated HL-60 cells expressed a nonselective cation channel (NCC), and the calcimimetic CaR activator, NPS R-467, but not its less active stereoisomer, NPS S-467, as well as the polycationic CaR agonist, neomycin, activated this NCC, demonstrating that the CaR expressed in these cells is functionally active. Therefore, HL-60 cells exhibit an increase in Ca

  6. Implementing change in respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2010-06-01

    Though people are generally averse to change, change and innovation are critically important in respiratory care to maintain scientific and clinical progress. This paper reviews the issue of change in respiratory care. I summarize several available models of organizational and personal change (ie, those of Kotter and of Silversin and Kornacki, and the Intentional Change Theory of Boyatzis), review the characteristics of change-avid respiratory therapy departments, offer an example of a change effort in respiratory care (implementation of respiratory care protocols) and then analyze this change effort as it took place at one institution, the Cleveland Clinic, using these models. Finally, I present the results of an analysis of change-avid respiratory therapy departments and offer some suggestions regarding change management for the profession and for individual respiratory care clinicians. Common features of theories of organizational change include developing a sense of urgency, overcoming resistance, developing a guiding coalition, and involving key stakeholders early. With the understanding that change efforts may seem unduly "clean" and orderly in retrospect, the models help explain the sustainable success of efforts to implement the Respiratory Therapy Consult Service at the Cleveland Clinic. By implication, these models offer value in planning change efforts prospectively. Further analysis of features of change-avid respiratory therapy departments indicates 11 highly desired features, of which four that especially characterize change-avid departments include: having an up-to-date leadership team; employee involvement in change; celebrating wins; and an overall sense of progressiveness in the department. This analysis suggests that understanding and embracing change is important. To anchor change in our profession, greater attention should be given to developing a pipeline of respiratory care clinicians who, by virtue of their advanced training, have the skills

  7. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  8. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  9. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  10. Mad Cow Disease-Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mad Cow Disease - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. Ashutosh ... HP Agricultural University, Palampur 176 662, India. DES (Vety. Sei.) KVK (P A U) Old Gurunanak College Building Hardochhani Road Gurdaspur Punjab 143 521 India.

  11. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  12. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  13. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  14. mediated RNA interference in bovine fibroblast cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a key element in the mechanisms used to regulate both aspects of keeping the balance between energy uptake and energy expenditure. MC4R was knocked down by lentivirus-mediated shRNA expressing plasmids, which were controlled by the U6 promoter in bovine.

  15. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
    Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  17. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative

  18. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  19. Radiographic anatomy of juvenile bovine limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, S E; Biedrzycki, A H; Livesey, M J; Drees, R

    2016-11-26

    Juvenile bovine patients who present with clinical signs of lameness are commonly evaluated using radiographic techniques both within a hospital setting and in a farm environment. The radiographic development of the juvenile bovine skeleton is currently poorly documented. In this study, the limbs of four heifer calves were sequentially radiographed to assess development of the juvenile bovine appendicular skeleton in the first 12 months of life. Images were acquired at three weeks, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age. The normal radiographic anatomy of the fore limbs and hindlimbs and the changes over the first 12 months are described. The majority of physes remain open throughout this period, with the exception of the proximal physes of the proximal and middle phalanges, the proximal radial physis, and the proximal humeral physis which close radiographically between 9 months and 12 months of age, and fusion of the fourth and central tarsal bones occurs between 9 months and 12 months of age. The results of this study may aid in differentiating normal and abnormal anatomy in the juvenile bovine limb. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  1. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total dissection method was used as a gold standard to indicate the absence or prйsence of bovine cysticercosis infection in cattle. The level of agreement between the two methods was, on average, lower in naturally infected animals than in expйrimental calves. This was because in natural infections, there were more li ...

  2. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  3. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  4. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  5. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...... search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111...

  6. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  7. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  8. Aquaporins in Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanlin; Wang, Linlin; Wang, Jian; Bai, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are water channel proteins supposed to facilitating fluid transport in alveolar space, airway humidification, pleural fluid absorption, and submucosal gland secretion . In this chapter, we mainly focus on the expression of 4 AQPs in the lungs which include AQP1, AQP2 , AQP4 and AQP5 in normal and disease status, and the experience of AQPs function from various model and transgenic mice were summarized in detail to improve our understanding of the role of AQPs in fluid balance of respiratory system. It has been suggested that AQPs play important roles in various physiology and pathophysiology conditions of different lung diseases. There still remains unclear the exact role of AQPs in lung diseases, and thus continuous efforts on elucidating the roles of AQPs in lung physiological and pathophysilogical processes are warranted.

  9. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Offit, P A; Clark, H F; Taylor, A H; Hess, R G; Bachmann, P A; Plotkin, S A

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum albumin by radioimmunoprecipitation with the NCDV strain of bovine rotavirus as the detecting antigen. Fetal bovine sera neutralized bovine rotavirus in a plaque reduction neutralization test to titers of 1:20 or greater. Immunoglobulins purified from fetal bovine serum by protein A-agarose affinity chromatography precipitated rotavirus antigens but did not neutralize bovine rotavirus. Rot...

  10. The role of Inositol Phosphoglycan as a possible mediator of the radiation effects on undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Crivello, M.; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Pozzi, Emiliano; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Krawiec, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In our laboratory we demonstrated that the Inositol Phosphoglycan (IPG) inhibits thyroperoxidase (TPO) activity and other oxidoreductases in normal bovine thyroid gland cultures, thus increasing the H 2 O 2 levels. On the other hand, when a cell is irradiated, damage is caused either by an increase of free radicals (H 2 O 2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or by the direct ionization of molecules, depending on the radiation quality. With the purpose to establish if the IPG participates in damage mechanisms by radiation, UTC cells of the tumoral line (ARO) in proliferation, were exposed to high and low LET radiation: gamma, neutrons, He and 7 Li nucleus (the lasts ones produced through Boron Neutron Capture Reaction). In each group, the total physical absorbed doses were 3 and 8 Gy (Ra-3 reactor neutrons flux = 7.5 109 n/cm 2 s). The results show a significant increase in the IPG activity in cells irradiated with gamma and neutrons in comparison with control cultures (p 2 O 2 levels (p [es

  11. Alum Activates the Bovine NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Harte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a move away from vaccines composed of whole or inactivated antigens toward subunit-based vaccines, which although safe, provide less immunological protection. As a result, the use of adjuvants to enhance and direct adaptive immune responses has become the focus of much targeted bovine vaccine research. However, the mechanisms by which adjuvants work to enhance immunological protection in many cases remains unclear, although this knowledge is critical to the rational design of effective next generation vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which alum, a commonly used adjuvant in bovine vaccines, enhances IL-1β secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Unlike the case with human PBMCs, alum promoted IL-1β secretion in a subset of bovine PBMCs without priming with a toll-like receptor agonist. This suggests that PBMCs from some cattle are primed to produce this potent inflammatory cytokine and western blotting confirmed the presence of preexisting pro-IL-1β in PBMCs from a subset of 8-month-old cattle. To address the mechanism underlying alum-induced IL-1β secretion, specific inhibitors identified that alum mediates lysosomal disruption which subsequently activates the assembly of an NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and potentially caspase-8 containing complex. These components form an inflammasome, which mediates alum-induced IL-1β secretion in bovine PBMCs. Given the demonstrated role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in regulating adaptive immunity in murine systems, these results will inform further targeted research into the potential of inflammasome activation for rational vaccine design in cattle.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Indonesian Cattle (IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI VIRUS BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA DARI SAPI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharam Saepulloh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RTPCRresults showed that the 69 (11.74% samples were positive to BVDV. Further molecularcharacterization was conducted only with 17 PCR positive samples. The results indicated the 17 IndonesianBVD virus isolates were belonging to the genotype-1 of BVDV (BVDV-1 based on sequence analysis anda phylogenetic relationship between Indonesian BVDV isolates and BVDV in the world. This finding is thefirst report of BVD-1 circulated in Indonesian cattle.

  13. Learn about Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus ( ... file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RSV Symptoms, Causes & ...

  14. Investigation of K14/K5 as a stem cell marker in the limbal region of the bovine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Mi, Shengli; Wright, Bernice; Connon, Che John

    2010-10-06

    Identification of stem cells from a corneal epithelial cell population by specific molecular markers has been investigated previously. Expressions of P63, ABCG2 and K14/K5 have all been linked to mammalian corneal epithelial stem cells. Here we report on the limitations of K14/K5 as a limbal stem cell marker. K14/K5 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and Real time PCR and compared between bovine epithelial cells in the limbus and central cornea. A functional study was also included to investigate changes in K5/14 expression within cultured limbal epithelial cells undergoing forced differentiation. K14 expression (or its partner K5) was detected in quiescent epithelial cells from both the limbal area and central cornea. K14 was localized predominantly to basal epithelial cells in the limbus and suprabasal epithelial cells in the central cornea. Western blotting revealed K14 expression in both limbus and central cornea (higher levels in the limbus). Similarly, quantitative real time PCR found K5, partner to K14, to be expressed in both the central cornea and limbus. Following forced differentiation in culture the limbal epithelial cells revealed an increase in K5/14 gene/protein expression levels in concert with a predictable rise in a known differentiation marker. K14 and its partner K5 are limited not only to the limbus but also to the central bovine cornea epithelial cells suggesting K14/K5 is not limbal specific in situ. Furthermore K14/K5 expression levels were not lowered (in fact they increased) within a limbal epithelial cell culture undergoing forced differentiation suggesting K14/K5 is an unreliable maker for undifferentiated cells ex vivo.

  15. Investigation of K14/K5 as a stem cell marker in the limbal region of the bovine cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of stem cells from a corneal epithelial cell population by specific molecular markers has been investigated previously. Expressions of P63, ABCG2 and K14/K5 have all been linked to mammalian corneal epithelial stem cells. Here we report on the limitations of K14/K5 as a limbal stem cell marker. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: K14/K5 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and Real time PCR and compared between bovine epithelial cells in the limbus and central cornea. A functional study was also included to investigate changes in K5/14 expression within cultured limbal epithelial cells undergoing forced differentiation. K14 expression (or its partner K5 was detected in quiescent epithelial cells from both the limbal area and central cornea. K14 was localized predominantly to basal epithelial cells in the limbus and suprabasal epithelial cells in the central cornea. Western blotting revealed K14 expression in both limbus and central cornea (higher levels in the limbus. Similarly, quantitative real time PCR found K5, partner to K14, to be expressed in both the central cornea and limbus. Following forced differentiation in culture the limbal epithelial cells revealed an increase in K5/14 gene/protein expression levels in concert with a predictable rise in a known differentiation marker. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: K14 and its partner K5 are limited not only to the limbus but also to the central bovine cornea epithelial cells suggesting K14/K5 is not limbal specific in situ. Furthermore K14/K5 expression levels were not lowered (in fact they increased within a limbal epithelial cell culture undergoing forced differentiation suggesting K14/K5 is an unreliable maker for undifferentiated cells ex vivo.

  16. A canine chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting PD-L1 and its clinical efficacy in canine oral malignant melanoma or undifferentiated sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Deguchi, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Chie; Kato, Yukinari; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uemura, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-21

    Immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoint molecules, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), using therapeutic antibodies has been widely used for some human malignancies in the last 5 years. A costimulatory receptor, PD-1, is expressed on T cells and suppresses effector functions when it binds to its ligand, PD-L1. Aberrant PD-L1 expression is reported in various human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism. Antibodies blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 axis induce antitumour responses in patients with malignant melanoma and other cancers. In dogs, no such clinical studies have been performed to date because of the lack of therapeutic antibodies that can be used in dogs. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of c4G12, a canine-chimerised anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, were evaluated in vitro, demonstrating significantly enhanced cytokine production and proliferation of dog peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A pilot clinical study was performed on seven dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and two with undifferentiated sarcoma. Objective antitumour responses were observed in one dog with OMM (14.3%, 1/7) and one with undifferentiated sarcoma (50.0%, 1/2) when c4G12 was given at 2 or 5 mg/kg, every 2 weeks. c4G12 could be a safe and effective treatment option for canine cancers.

  17. Linking disease epidemiology and livestock productivity: The case of bovine respiratory disease in France

    OpenAIRE

    Delabouglise, A; James, A; Valarcher, J-F; Haggluend, S; Raboisson, D; Rushton, J

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing over the impact of livestock farming on environment and public health. The livestock industry is faced with the double constraint of limiting its use of natural resources and antimicrobials while ensuring its economic sustainability. In this context, reliable methods are needed to evaluate the effect of the prevention of endemic animal diseases on the productivity of livestock production systems. In this study, an epidemiological and productivity model was used to link ch...

  18. Bovine trophectoderm cells induced from bovine fibroblasts with induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Neil C; Sparks, Wendy O; Phillips, Caitlin E; Ealy, Alan D; Powell, Anne M; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M; Donovan, David M; Blomberg, Le Ann

    2017-06-01

    Thirteen independent induced bovine trophectroderm (iBT) cell lines were established by reprogramming bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts after viral-vector transduction with either six or eight factors, including POU5F1 (OCT4), KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, LIN28, SV40 large T antigen, and hTERT. Light- and electron-microscopy analysis showed that the iBT cells had epithelial cell morphology typical of bovine trophectoderm cells. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays indicated that all of the cell lines expressed interferon-tau (IFNT) at passages 1 or 2. At later passages (≥ passage 8), however, immunoblot and antiviral activity assays revealed that more than half of the iBT cell lines had stopped expressing IFNT. Messenger RNAs specific to trophectoderm differentiation and function were found in the iBT cell lines, and 2-dimensional-gel analysis for cellular proteins showed an expression pattern similar to that of trophectoderm cell lines derived from bovine blastocysts. Integration of some of the human reprogramming factors, including POU5F1, KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, and LIN28, were detected by PCR, but their transcription was mostly absent in the iBT cell lines. Gene expression assessment of endogenous bovine reprogramming factor orthologs revealed endogenous bLIN28 and bMYC transcripts in all; bSOX2 and bNANOG in none; and bKLF4 and bPOU5F1 in less than half of the iBT cell lines. These results demonstrate that bovine trophectoderm can be induced via reprogramming factor expression from bovine liver-derived fibroblasts, although other fibroblast populations-e.g., derived from fetal thigh tissue-may produce similar results, albeit at lower frequencies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (pVIH (pVIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Acute respiratory dyspnea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimir, G; Hanssens, L; Mulier, S

    2009-09-01

    Acute respiratory dyspnea is very frequent in children and must be quickly treated to obtain the best prognosis. The diagnosis depends from the natural history of the disease and from the quality of clinical assessment. The use of an algorithm according to the presence of stridor or bronchospasm is very contributive to the diagnosis. The paper reviews the pathophysiology of dyspnea in children and the more common diseases that are causing respiratory distress. Finally, treatment of respiratory failure and management of specific diseases are defined.

  2. Assessing Respiratory System Mechanical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Serrato, Diana M; Adasme, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    The main goals of assessing respiratory system mechanical function are to evaluate the lung function through a variety of methods and to detect early signs of abnormalities that could affect the patient's outcomes. In ventilated patients, it has become increasingly important to recognize whether respiratory function has improved or deteriorated, whether the ventilator settings match the patient's demand, and whether the selection of ventilator parameters follows a lung-protective strategy. Ventilator graphics, esophageal pressure, intra-abdominal pressure, and electric impedance tomography are some of the best-known monitoring tools to obtain measurements and adequately evaluate the respiratory system mechanical function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Mary [Brentwood, CA; Slezak, Thomas [Livermore, CA; Birch, James M [Albany, CA

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  4. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, B G; Whisnant, J; Kashima, H; Levy, H; Biggers, W P

    1985-10-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a disease caused by a virus in the Papovaviridae family. It tends to recur in the laryngotracheal tree, and treatment is surgical removal with a CO2 laser and suspension microlaryngoscopy. Some patients may require these procedures every few weeks, and a systemic agent to control disease would be ideal for them. Care must be taken in the selection of an agent, as these lesions, similar to other papova virus-induced lesions, are most susceptible to malignant degeneration in the presence of a carcinogen. Eight patients were given 10 courses of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I,C)-LC] in an attempt to control their disease. The three who were tested were able to produce good titers of interferon. The rate of disease progression was probably slowed in four patients, as reflected by a decrease in the requirement for surgery; however, the medication appeared to be relatively toxic in effective doses. Four of 10 courses were held for hepatotoxicity, and mild hepatotoxicity occurred in four more. One course was held for thrombocytopenia associated with bleeding at the tracheostomy site. We conclude that in its presently available form, poly(I,C)-LC is too toxic to be administered long term for control of this disease.

  5. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlić, Z; Rudez, I; Biocina, B; Husedzinović, I

    1997-01-01

    In this article the authors present a case of successful treatment of a 54-year old male patient with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and triple-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent surgical myocardial revascularization and was reoperated on the same day because of excessive bleeding. The patient was given cca 5000 mL of whole blood and cca 3000 mL of blood derivatives. The first postoperative chest X-ray showed radiological signs of ARDS. The therapy was based upon authors' experience and was consisted of controlled mechanical ventilation (respiratory volume 12-15 mL/kg, 10-14 cycles/min, I/E ratio 1:2, FIO2 0.6, PEEP 2-5 cm H2O), daily bronchoscopies with bronchoaspiration, aggressive diuresis, negative fluid balance, specific antibiotic therapy, and last but not least, of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) 0.5-20 micrograms/kg/min combined with dopamine inotropic support (2-5 micrograms/kg/h). Simple but careful clinical observation still remains a milestone for all therapeutic measures taken in ARDS patients.

  6. Respiratory Patients Breathing Life into the Canterbury Integrated Respiratory Service

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherall, Louise

    2017-01-01

    A group of past pulmonary rehabilitation participants have joined together to form the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Consumer Group. They have been actively engaged in Canterbury’s respiratory service design and innovation since 2013.Telling their Story: Members of the Consumer Group meet monthly to give their opinion on how pulmonary rehabilitation and the wider respiratory service support patients to look after their own health.They discuss their own positive and negative experiences to a wide r...

  7. Bovine viral diarrhoea, bovine herpesvirus and parainfluenza-3 virus infection in three cattle herds in Egypt in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, N M; Shehab, G G; Abd el-Rahim, I H A

    2003-12-01

    This study reported field outbreaks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection, either alone or mixed with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V) in Egypt during 2000. In Lower Egypt, young calves in three cattle herds in El-Minufiya Province, El-Fayoum Province and in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province, showed symptoms of enteritis, either alone or accompanied by respiratory manifestations. The affected herds were visited and the diseased animals were clinically examined. Many epidemiological aspects, such as morbidities, mortalities and case fatalities, as well as the abortive rate, were calculated. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-blood samples, sterile nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained for virological and serological diagnosis. The laboratory investigations revealed that the main cause of calf mortalities in the three herds was infection with BVDV, either alone, as on the El-Minufiya farm, or mixed with PI-3V, as on the El-Fayoum farm, or mixed with both BHV-1 and PI-3V, as in the herd in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province. A total of nine dead calves from the three herds were submitted for thorough post-mortem examination. Tissue samples from recently dead calves were obtained for immunohistochemical and histopathological studies. The most prominent histopathological findings were massive degeneration, necrosis and erosions of the lining epithelium of the alimentary tract. Most of the lymphoreticular organs were depleted of lymphocytes. In pneumonic cases, bronchopneumonia and atypical interstitial pneumonia were evident. The present study suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of BVDV had predisposed the animals to secondary infection with BHV-1 and PI-3V. This study concluded that concurrent infection with BVDV, BHV-1 and PI-3V should be considered as one of the infectious causes of pneumoenteritis and, subsequently, the high morbidities and mortalities among young calves in Egypt

  8. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidani, Mohsen; Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Seyed Alireza

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h), upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV), rhinovirus (RV), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs ( P > 0.05). Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  9. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  10. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P freezing point. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Papillomatosis of the bovine teat (mammary papilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R O; Olson, C; Easterday, B C

    1982-12-01

    A 4th of 667 cattle examined at a Wisconsin abattoir had teat papillomas. Excised teat papillomas were sorted by gross morphologic characteristics into 3 groups: (i) atypical filiform, (ii) atypical flat, and (iii) typical fibropapilloma. Bovine papilloma virus capsid antigen was detected in thin-section slides of the 3 groups of teat papillomas by peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay. The bovine papilloma virus involved with the atypical papillomas could not be characterized by molecular hybridization, because enough pure virus could not be harvested. Homogenates of the 3 groups of teat papillomas were inoculated on 2 ponies and 4 calves. Typical fibropapillomas were produced on the 4 calves, and fibromas, on the 2 ponies. Atypical papillomas were produced only in 2 heifers.

  12. Respiratory pathogens in Québec dairy calves and their relationship with clinical status, lung consolidation, and average daily gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoz, D; Buczinski, S; Bélanger, A M; Forté, G; Labrecque, O; Tremblay, D; Wellemans, V; Dubuc, J

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is 1 of the 2 most important causes of morbidity and mortality in dairy calves. Surprisingly, field data are scant concerning the prevalence of respiratory pathogens involved in BRD in preweaned dairy calves, especially in small herds. To identify the main respiratory pathogens isolated from calves in Québec dairy herds with a high incidence of BRD, and to determine if there is an association between the presence of these pathogens and clinical signs of pneumonia, lung consolidation, or average daily gain. Cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of 95 preweaned dairy calves from 11 dairy herds. At enrollment, calves were weighed, clinically examined, swabbed (nasal and nasopharyngeal), and lung ultrasonography was performed. One month later, all calves were reweighed. Twenty-two calves had clinical BRD and 49 had ultrasonographic evidence of lung consolidation. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Histophilus somni were isolated in 54, 17, and 12 calves, respectively. Mycoplasma bovis was identified by PCR testing or culture in 19 calves, and 78 calves were found to be positive for Mycoplasma spp. Bovine coronavirus was detected in 38 calves and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 1. Only the presence of M. bovis was associated with higher odds of clinical signs, lung consolidation, and lower average daily gain. Results suggested that nasopharyngeal carriage of M. bovis was detrimental to health and growth of dairy calves in small herds with a high incidence of BRD. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  14. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids

    OpenAIRE

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Oliveira, Rosângela C.; Cortez, Beatriz de Araujo; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Santelli, Glaucia Maria Machado; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz D'Avila; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. Findings U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min...

  15. Development of antiserum against bovine prolactin for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razdan, M.N.; Kaker, M.L.; Galhotra, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Antiserum against bovine prolactin was raised in male rabbits and tested against crossreacting contaminants by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. One sharp precipitin band against prolactin was observed. The antiserum showed a small faint band against bovine growth hormone. No crossreaction was observed against bovine follicle stimulating hormone, bovine luteinizing hormone, bovine thyroid stimulating hormone and normal calf serum. The crossreaction with bovine growth hormone vanished after treating the antiserum with normal calf serum. Antibody titre of the absorbed anti-prolactin serum determined by radioimmunoassay was high, which could bind 31.30% at 1:10,000 final dilution. Maximum binding was not inhibited by the addition of higher amounts of contaminants, suggesting that the absorbed antiserum was immunologically monospecific and could be used for radioimmunoassay work. (author)

  16. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, M G; Perera, R A; Wang, P; Alhammadi, M A; Siu, L Y; Li, M; Poon, L L; Saif, L; Alnaeem, A; Peiris, M

    2013-12-12

    In Saudi Arabia, including regions of Riyadh and Al Ahsa, pseudoparticle neutralisation (ppNT) and microneutralisation (MNT) tests detected no antibodies to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in sheep (n= 100), goats (n= 45), cattle (n= 50) and chickens (n= 240). Dromedary camels however, had a high prevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infected sera from cattle had no cross-reactivity in MERS-CoV ppNT or MNT, while many dromedary camels’ sera reacted to both BCoV and MERS-CoV. Some nevertheless displayed specific serologic reaction profiles to MERS-CoV.

  18. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  19. The associations of viral and mycoplasmal antibody titers with respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S W; Nagy, E; Armstrong, D; Rosendal, S

    1999-08-01

    Blood samples from 32 groups of calves (n = 700) were taken on arrival and after 28-35 days at the feedlot. Eleven groups were housed in feedlots in Ontario, and 21 groups in feedlots in Alberta. Serum antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), Mycoplasma dispar and M. bovis, plus data on bovine corona virus (BCV) from a previous study were investigated for their association with the risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and with 28-day weight change, both before and after controlling for titers to Pasteurella haemolytica and Haemophilus somnus. Exposure to IBRV and M. bovis was infrequent, and although exposure to PIV-3 was more common, none of these agents had important associations with BRD. Higher titers to BVDV, BRSV, and BCV on arrival were associated with reduced risks of BRD and increased weight gains. However, there was some variation in these relationships and higher arrival titers to BVDV and BRSV in a subset of the calves were associated with increased risks of BRD. Titer increases to BVDV were associated with a higher risk of BRD and lower weight gains. Titer increases to BRSV were not usually associated with the occurrence of BRD, but titer increases to BRSV in a subset of calves that were vaccinated against BRSV, on arrival, were associated with an elevated risk of BRD. Of all the agents studied, BVDV had the most consistent associations with elevated risk of BRD and lower weight gains. Higher BRSV arrival titers were related to lower risk of BRD and higher weight gains; in some instances titer increases to BRSV were associated with higher BRD risk. Higher titers to BCV on arrival were related to reduced risks of BRD. Practical ways of adequately preventing the negative effects of these agents are still needed.

  20. [Treatment of acute respiratory tract diseases in cattle with Bisolvon in combination with either enrofloxacin, cefquinome, ceftiofur or florfenicol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Philipp, H; Hamel, U; Quirke, J F

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the present clinical studies was to determine the clinical efficacy of a combined parenteral and oral treatment with Bisolvon in combination with antibiotics in bovines suffering from acute respiratory disease. To this end four trials were conducted in respiratory diseased bovines; a total of 619 animals were evaluated. The animals were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups within each study and were treated either with enrofloxacin, cefquinome, ceftiofur or florfenicol. The Bisolvon group was additionally treated with Bisolvon over 5 consecutive days. Daily clinical examinations were carried out over a period of 6 days. The clinical respiratory score, the primary parameter, representing a summation of the scoring points for the parameters respiratory rate, nasal discharge, spontaneous coughing, lung sounds and grade of dyspnoea and the clinical index score, which additionally included the general parameters fever, demeanour and feed intake, were significantly lower in the Bisolvon groups compared to the controls at all examinations after initiation of therapy in all trials with the exception of day 2 in one study. Lower values correspond to a less severe clinical condition. This consistent result as well as the evaluation of the single parameters are indicative of an acceleration of the recovery of the animals additionally treated with Bisolvon.

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  2. Genetic detection and characterization of atypical bovine pestiviruses in foetal bovine sera claimed to be of Australian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Larska, M; Giammarioli, M; De Mia, G M; Cardeti, G; Zhou, W; Alenius, S; Belák, S; Liu, L

    2013-06-01

    Two European laboratories independently detected atypical bovine pestiviral nucleic acids in three commercial batches of foetal bovine serum (FBS) that was claimed by the producers to be of Australian origin. Additional batches of FBS were obtained directly from Australia to exclude possible contamination of the Australian FBS with that of South American origin during manufacturing/packaging in European countries. RT-PCR amplification of partial 5'untranslated region and the complete N(pro) gene yielded a specific band with expected size, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Bayesian analysis of sequence data demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relation of the newly detected atypical bovine pestiviruses to those of South American origin, which were related to the recognized bovine pestivirus species, bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Taken together, the results indicated the presence of atypical bovine pestiviruses in the Australian FBS, and most likely in Australian Continent. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W R; Plötz, Frans B; Markhors, Dick G

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus conventional gas on respiratory system resistance, air-trapping and CO2 removal. Mechanically ventilated, sedated and paralyzed infants with proven RSV were enrolled within 24 hours after paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)admission. At T = 0, respiratory system mechanics including respiratory system compliance and resistance, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured with the AVEA ventilator. The measurements were repeated at each interval (after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox, after 30 minutes of ventilation with nitrox and again after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox). Indices of gas exchange (ventilation and oxygenation index) were calculated at each interval. Air-trapping (defined by relative change in end-expiratory lung volume) was determined by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at each interval. Thirteen infants were enrolled. In nine, EIT measurements were performed. Mechanical ventilation with heliox significantly decreased respiratory system resistance. This was not accompanied by an improved CO2 elimination, decreased peak expiratory flow rate or decreased end-expiratory lung volume. Importantly, oxygenation remained unaltered throughout the experimental protocol. Respiratory system resistance is significantly decreased by mechanical ventilation with heliox (ISCRTN98152468).

  4. TrkAIII Promotes Microtubule Nucleation and Assembly at the Centrosome in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells, Contributing to an Undifferentiated Anaplastic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Antonietta R.; Di Ianni, Natalia; Cappabianca, Lucia; Ruggeri, Pierdomenico; Ragone, Marzia; Ianni, Giulia; Gulino, Alberto; Mackay, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The alternative TrkAIII splice variant is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs) and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, employing stable transfected cell lines and assays of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, microtubule regrowth, tubulin kinase, and tubulin polymerisation, we report that TrkAIII binds α-tubulin and promotes MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosome. This effect depends upon spontaneous TrkAIII activity, TrkAIII localisation to the centrosome and pericentrosomal area, and the capacity of TrkAIII to bind, phosphorylate, and polymerise tubulin. We propose that this novel role for TrkAIII contributes to MT involvement in the promotion and maintenance of an undifferentiated anaplastic NB cell morphology by restricting and augmenting MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosomal MTOC. PMID:23841091

  5. TrkAIII Promotes Microtubule Nucleation and Assembly at the Centrosome in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells, Contributing to an Undifferentiated Anaplastic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta R. Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative TrkAIII splice variant is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, employing stable transfected cell lines and assays of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, microtubule regrowth, tubulin kinase, and tubulin polymerisation, we report that TrkAIII binds α-tubulin and promotes MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosome. This effect depends upon spontaneous TrkAIII activity, TrkAIII localisation to the centrosome and pericentrosomal area, and the capacity of TrkAIII to bind, phosphorylate, and polymerise tubulin. We propose that this novel role for TrkAIII contributes to MT involvement in the promotion and maintenance of an undifferentiated anaplastic NB cell morphology by restricting and augmenting MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosomal MTOC.

  6. Impact of copper oxide nanomaterials on differentiated and undifferentiated Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; assessment of cytotoxicity, barrier integrity, cytokine production and nanomaterial penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Victor C; Brown, David M; Viale, Luca; Kanase, Nilesh; Stone, Vicki; Johnston, Helinor J

    2017-08-23

    Copper oxide nanomaterials (CuO NMs) are exploited in a diverse array of products including antimicrobials, inks, cosmetics, textiles and food contact materials. There is therefore a need to assess the toxicity of CuO NMs to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract since exposure could occur via direct oral ingestion, mucocillary clearance (following inhalation) or hand to mouth contact. Undifferentiated Caco-2 intestinal cells were exposed to CuO NMs (10 nm) at concentrations ranging from 0.37 to 78.13 μg/cm 2 Cu (equivalent to 1.95 to 250 μg/ml) and cell viability assessed 24 h post exposure using the alamar blue assay. The benchmark dose (BMD 20), determined using PROAST software, was identified as 4.44 μg/cm 2 for CuO NMs, and 4.25 μg/cm 2 for copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ), which informed the selection of concentrations for further studies. The differentiation status of cells and the impact of CuO NMs and CuSO 4 on the integrity of the differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayer were assessed by measurement of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), staining for Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and imaging of cell morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impact of CuO NMs and CuSO 4 on the viability of differentiated cells was performed via assessment of cell number (DAPI staining), and visualisation of cell morphology (light microscopy). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production by undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells following exposure to CuO NMs and CuSO 4 was determined using an ELISA. The copper concentration in the cell lysate, apical and basolateral compartments were measured with Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and used to calculate the apparent permeability coefficient (P app ); a measure of barrier permeability to CuO NMs. For all experiments, CuSO 4 was used as an ionic control. CuO NMs and CuSO 4 caused a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability in undifferentiated cells. CuO NMs and CuSO 4

  7. The effect of comedication with conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs on TNF inhibitor drug survival in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Elisabeth; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of comedication with conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) on retention to tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). METHODS: Data...... on patients with a clinical diagnosis of AS or uSpA starting treatment with adalimumab, etanercept or infliximab as their first TNFi during 2003-2010 were retrieved from the Swedish national biologics register and linked to national population based registers. Five-year drug survival was analysed by Cox...... regression with age, sex, baseline csDMARD comedication, TNFi type, prescription year and covariates representing frailty and socioeconomic status. AS and uSpA were analysed separately. Sensitivity analyses included models with csDMARD as a time-dependent covariate and adjustments for additional potential...

  8. The state of «the pituitary gland - thyroid gland system» in the young men with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Yurchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of «the pituitary gland-thyroid gland system» in the patients with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue (UDCT 83 young men of the call up age (18.2±0.4 y.o. were examined. The control group consisted of 26 practically healthy young men of the same age (18.5±0.2 y.o.. Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT was diagnosed in 32.5 % of the men with UDCT. The rate of the internal (visceral phenotypical signs of UDCT in this group was significantly higher than in the men with UDCT but without thyroid problems.

  9. Repair of Torn Avascular Meniscal Cartilage Using Undifferentiated Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From In Vitro Optimization to a First‐in‐Human Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Michael R.; Howells, Nicholas R.; Parry, Michael C.; Austin, Eric; Kafienah, Wael; Brady, Kyla; Goodship, Allen E.; Eldridge, Jonathan D.; Blom, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meniscal cartilage tears are common and predispose to osteoarthritis (OA). Most occur in the avascular portion of the meniscus where current repair techniques usually fail. We described previously the use of undifferentiated autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded onto a collagen scaffold (MSC/collagen‐scaffold) to integrate meniscal tissues in vitro. Our objective was to translate this method into a cell therapy for patients with torn meniscus, with the long‐term goal of delaying or preventing the onset of OA. After in vitro optimization, we tested an ovine‐MSC/collagen‐scaffold in a sheep meniscal cartilage tear model with promising results after 13 weeks, although repair was not sustained over 6 months. We then conducted a single center, prospective, open‐label first‐in‐human safety study of patients with an avascular meniscal tear. Autologous MSCs were isolated from an iliac crest bone marrow biopsy, expanded and seeded into the collagen scaffold. The resulting human‐MSC/collagen‐scaffold implant was placed into the meniscal tear prior to repair with vertical mattress sutures and the patients were followed for 2 years. Five patients were treated and there was significant clinical improvement on repeated measures analysis. Three were asymptomatic at 24 months with no magnetic resonance imaging evidence of recurrent tear and clinical improvement in knee function scores. Two required subsequent meniscectomy due to retear or nonhealing of the meniscal tear at approximately 15 months after implantation. No other adverse events occurred. We conclude that undifferentiated MSCs could provide a safe way to augment avascular meniscal repair in some patients. Registration: EU Clinical Trials Register, 2010‐024162‐22. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1237–1248 PMID:28186682

  10. Implantation of undifferentiated and pre-differentiated human neural stem cells in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Akabawy Gehan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for several neurodegenetative disease, including Huntington Disease (HD. To evaluate the putative efficacy of cell therapy in HD, most studies have used excitotoxic animal models with only a few studies having been conducted in genetic animal models. Genetically modified animals should provide a more accurate representation of human HD, as they emulate the genetic basis of its etiology. Results In this study, we aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of a human striatal neural stem cell line (STROC05 implanted in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. As DARPP-32 GABAergic output neurons are predominately lost in HD, STROC05 cells were also pre-differentiated using purmorphamine, a hedgehog agonist, to yield a greater number of DARPP-32 cells. A bilateral injection of 4.5x105 cells of either undifferentiated or pre-differentiated DARPP-32 cells, however, did not affect outcome compared to a vehicle control injection. Both survival and neuronal differentiation remained poor with a mean of only 161 and 81 cells surviving in the undifferentiated and differentiated conditions respectively. Only a few cells expressed the neuronal marker Fox3. Conclusions Although the rapid brain atrophy and short life-span of the R6/2 model constitute adverse conditions to detect potentially delayed treatment effects, significant technical hurdles, such as poor cell survival and differentiation, were also sub-optimal. Further consideration of these aspects is therefore needed in more enduring transgenic HD models to provide a definite assessment of this cell line’s therapeutic relevance. However, a combination of treatments is likely needed to affect outcome in transgenic models of HD.

  11. Heterogeneity of the cytokinome in undifferentiated arthritis progressing to rheumatoid arthritis and its change in the course of therapy. Move toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzustewicz, Edyta; Bzoma, Izabella; Daca, Agnieszka; Szarecka, Maria; Bykowska, Malgorzata Sochocka; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    To conduct a comprehensive analysis of cytokine concentrations in sera and mononuclear cell supernatants in order to examine inter- and intra-individual cytokine variations in undifferentiated arthritis progressing to rheumatoid arthritis and healthy control groups. Patients with UA (undifferentiated arthritis) developing RA (rheumatoid arthritis) (UA→RA) (n=16) and healthy controls (n=16) were enrolled into the study. UA→RA patients were followed up for six months since the final RA diagnosis. Cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-2 in sera and mononuclear cell supernatants in 72h and 120h culture variants with- and without anti-CD3 stimulations were assayed using flow cytometric bead array. The cytokine profile of UA→RA differs from the healthy individual cytokine profile. It is possible to observe specific cytokine pattern characterizing each patient, which alters during course of disease. Specifically, we can distinguish three UA→RA cohorts: the group of patients susceptible to the therapy, characterized by the drop of cytokine levels between 1st and 3rd visit with visible decrease of cytokines in 2nd visit and then secondary slighter increase in 3rd visit; the group of patients refractory or clinically worsening on the therapy, characterized by the highest cytokine levels at 2nd visit with secondary decrease in 3rd visit; and the group of patients with variable responses to the therapy without any specific common cytokine pattern. The cytokine patterns in supernatants of PBMC stimulated anti-CD3 for 72h and 120h are very similar. The personal profile including multiplexed cytokine patterns in serum and supernatant may be potentially used for optimization of therapy introduction and monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombinant bovine uteroglobin at 1.6 Å resolution: a preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken, Victoria von der; Delbrück, Heinrich; Herrler, Andreas; Beier, Henning M.; Fischer, Rainer; Hoffmann, Kurt M. V.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization of recombinant bovine uteroglobin. Uteroglobin (UG) is a conserved protein which is induced by progesterone and secreted by the epithelia of various mammalian reproductive and respiratory organs. Recombinant bovine uteroglobin (recbUG), consisting of 80 amino acids with a C-terminal His 6 tag, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The protein was crystallized in two geometric forms, rhomboid and cuneate (wedge-shaped), by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. The rhomboid crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.6 Å using synchrotron radiation. These crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.42, b = 82.82, c = 45.26 Å, and contain four monomers per asymmetric unit. The cuneate crystals diffracted to 2.35 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator. These crystals belong to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 43.39, b = 93.94, c = 77.30 Å, and contain two molecules per asymmetric unit

  13. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidana, Silvina S; Lomonaco, Patricia M; Combessies, Gustavo; Craig, María I; Diodati, Julian; Rodriguez, Daniela; Parreño, Viviana; Zabal, Osvaldo; Konrad, José L; Crudelli, Gustavo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, Sonia A

    2012-06-20

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo.According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.

  14. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Argentina

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    Maidana Silvina S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3. Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a and C (BPIV3c. Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.

  15. Surveillance, isolation and complete genome sequence of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 in Egyptian cattle

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    Nader M. Sobhy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3 can infect a wide variety of mammals including humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. In the present study, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3 was isolated from nasal swabs of Egyptian cattle presenting with clinical signs of mild pneumonia. The virus was isolated in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The complete genome of Egyptian BPIV-3 strain was sequenced by using next generation (Illumina sequencing. The new isolate classified with genotype A of BPIV-3 and was closely related to the Chinese NM09 strain (JQ063064. Subsequently in 2015–16, a molecular surveillance study was undertaken by collecting and testing samples from cattle and buffaloes with respiratory tract infections. The survey revealed a higher rate of BPIV-3 infection in cattle than in buffaloes. The infection was inversely proportional to the age of the animals and to warm weather. This report should form a basis for further molecular studies on animal viruses in Egypt.

  16. Antibodies against Bovine herpesvirus 1 in dairy herds in the state of Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Marcus Rebouças Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 causes major losses in worldwide livestock, affecting the respiratory and reproductive tracts of bovine. In the past decades, the number of cases in Brazil has been gradually increasing. Therefore, it is important to assess the distribution of infection in different regions of the country. In the state of Espírito Santo (ES the BoHV 1 infection rate in dairy cattle herds is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to detect neutralizing antibodies against BoHV-1 in serum samples from 1,161 non-vaccinated cows from 59 dairy cattle herds in 23 municipalities of the Metropolitan, North, Northwest and South macro-regions. The identification of seropositive cows was evaluated by the virus neutralization test. The results showed that of all serum samples evaluated 775 (66.75% had neutralizing antibodies against BoHV-1. Moreover, all herds were found positive; however, the percentage of positive cows varied among regions; 49.06%, 62.15%, 67.21% and 80.04% for the Metropolitan, South, North and Northwest macro-regions, respectively. In this study, the results clearly indicate the dissemination of the viral agent in dairy cattle in the ES state, requiring the monitoring and control of diseases related to BoHV-1 infection.

  17. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

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    Ackermann Mathias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1 and type 5 (BoHV5 are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs. First, recombinant viruses carrying the genetic elements for propagation in bacteria were generated. Second, DNA from these recombinant viruses were transferred into prokaryotic cells. Third, DNA from these bacteria were transferred into eukaryotic cells. Progeny viruses from BAC transfections showed similar kinetics as their corresponding wild types. Conclusion The two viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 cloned as BACs are accessible to the tools of bacterial genetics. The ability to easily manipulate the viral genomes on a molecular level in future experiments will lead to a better understanding of the difference in pathogenesis induced by these two closely related bovine herpesviruses.

  18. Stability of bovine coronavirus on lettuce surfaces under household refrigeration conditions.

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    Mullis, Lisa; Saif, Linda J; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Xuming; Azevedo, Marli S P

    2012-05-01

    Fecal suspensions with an aerosol route of transmission were responsible for a cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases in 2003 in Hong Kong. Based on that event, the World Health Organization recommended that research be implemented to define modes of transmission of SARS coronavirus through sewage, feces, food and water. Environmental studies have shown that animal coronaviruses remain infectious in water and sewage for up to a year depending on the temperature and humidity. In this study, we examined coronavirus stability on lettuce surfaces. A cell culture adapted bovine coronavirus, diluted in growth media or in bovine fecal suspensions to simulate fecal contamination was used to spike romaine lettuce. qRT-PCR detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 6.6 × 10⁴ to 1.7 × 10⁶ throughout the experimental period of 30 days. Whereas infectious viruses were detected for at least 14 days, the amount of infectious virus varied, depending upon the diluent used for spiking the lettuce. UV and confocal microscopic observation indicated attachment of residual labeled virions to the lettuce surface after the elution procedure, suggesting that rates of inactivation or detection of the virus may be underestimated. Thus, it is possible that contaminated vegetables may be potential vehicles for coronavirus zoonotic transmission to humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Prevention of abortion in cattle following vaccination against bovine herpesvirus 1: A meta-analysis.

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    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Cofield, L Grady; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 is ubiquitous in cattle populations and is the cause of several clinical syndromes including respiratory disease, genital disease, and late-term abortions. Control of the virus in many parts of the world is achieved primarily through vaccination with either inactivated or modified-live viral vaccines. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the cumulative efficacy of BoHV-1 vaccination to prevent abortion in pregnant cattle. Germane articles for inclusion in the analysis were identified through four online scientific databases and the examination of three review and ten primary study article reference lists. A total of 15 studies in 10 manuscripts involving over 7500 animals were included in the meta-analysis. Risk ratio effect sizes were used in random effects, weighted meta-analyses to assess the impact of vaccination. Subgroup analyses were performed based on type of vaccine, MLV or inactivated, and the type of disease challenge, experimentally induced compared to field studies. A 60% decrease in abortion risk in vaccinated cattle was demonstrated. The greatest decrease in abortion risk was seen in studies with intentional viral challenge although vaccination also decreased abortion risk in field studies. Both inactivated and modified-live viral vaccines decreased abortion risk. This meta-analysis provides quantitative support for the benefit of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccination in the prevention of abortion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a combination of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle.

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    Katoh, T; Sakai, J; Ogata, Y; Urushiyama, Y

    1996-08-01

    Clinical effect of the administration of thiamphenicol (TP) and tylosin (TS) on bovine respiratory disease was investigated. Group I (n = 64) were administered TP (10 mg/kg) and TS (4 mg/kg), group II (n = 26) were given TP (5 mg/kg) and TS (2 mg/kg). For the control, TP group (n = 25) were given 20 mg/kg of TP and ampicillin group (n = 23) were given 10 mg/kg of ampicillin. As a result, improvement of clinical findings was more rapid and the cure rate was significantly higher in group I compared to those in the other 3 groups. These results showed that a combination therapy with minimal basic doses of TP and TS is very effective for some respiratory diseases in cattle.