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Sample records for undesirable premature reactions

  1. Teaches’ Reactions towards Undesirable Behaviors of Administrators: Whistle-blowing or Keeping Silent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiye TOKER GÖKÇE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to define teachers’ attitudes towards undesired behaviours at school. Therefore, in which possible undesired administrative behaviours teachers would blow a whistle was examined. Second, whether the teachers would prefer whistle-blowing or and the kind of blowing was questioned. Lastly, the reason of keeping silence was examined. This research was designed as qualitative model. The research group was 20 teachers that work at a secondary school in Darica district of Kocaeli. The results revealed that it was put forward that all teachers would react in the case of various undesired behaviours. However it was determined that teachers would mostly react in the case of serious undesired behaviours. Teachers mostly stated that they would prefer to whistle-blow internally, formally and by identifying themselves. Findings of the research are thought to contribute to the literature in terms of revealing teachers’ attitudes towards possible undesired behaviours at school.

  2. UNDESIRED REACTIONS AT THE UROGRAPHY IN THE CORRELATION OF THE IODIC AND THE NON-TODIC CONTRAST MEDIA

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    Rade R. Babić

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the undesired reactions at 6053 urographies (IVU in thecorrelation of the iodic and the non-iodic contrast media (ICM.Depending on the allergological status the ICM (iodic or non-iodic is chosenfor the sake of carrying out an urographic examination as well as the necessarypremedication measures.The undesired reactions to the TCM are registered in 4,87% (1:20 TVU,namely in 5,6% (1:17 TVU to the iodic and in 2,39% (1:41 IVU to the non-iodicICM.At the intravenous application of the iodic ICM at the IVU the undesiredreactions are registered for2,4 times more often than at the application of the non-iodicICM.

  3. Catalyst Influence on Undesired Side Reactions in the Polycondensation of Fully Bio-Based Polyester Itaconates

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    Ina Schoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based unsaturated polyester resins derived from itaconic acid can be an alternative to established resins of this type in the field of radical-curing resins. However, one of the challenges of these polyester itaconates is the somewhat more elaborate synthetic process, especially under polycondensation conditions used on an industrial scale. The α,β-unsaturated double bond of the itaconic acid is prone to side reactions that can lead to the gelation of the polyester resin under standard conditions. This is especially true when bio-based diols such as 1,3-propanediol or 1,4-butanediol are used to obtain resins that are 100% derived from renewable resources. It was observed in earlier studies that high amounts of these aliphatic diols in the polyester lead to low conversion and gelation of the resins. In this work, a catalytic study using different diols was performed in order to elucidate the reasons for this behavior. It was shown that the choice of catalyst has a crucial influence on the side reactions occurring during the polycondensation reactions. In addition, the side reactions taking place were identified and suppressed. These results will allow for the synthesis of polyester itaconates on a larger scale, setting the stage for their industrial application.

  4. Pain-Related Reactions among Premature Infants with Gestational Age Less than 26 Weeks: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakis, Kyriakos; Hünseler, Christoph; Thangavelu, Kruthika; Kribs, Angela; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    There is insufficient information regarding acute pain reactions among premature infants with a gestational age of less than 26 weeks and no appropriate scale for pain measurement in this age group. We hypothesized that these infants present specific reactions to a standardized pain stimulus within the first 3 days of life. Mixed-methods, prospective, open-label, single-arm, observational study. Routine capillary or peripheral blood takes were filmed. The model consisting of a baseline, a preparatory, an interventional and a return-to-baseline phase was filmed. After a pilot evaluation, experienced medical and nursing neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) staff analysed the videos. Twenty infants with gestational ages ranging from 22 weeks and 3 days to 26 weeks (mean 24 weeks) were recruited. Nineteen infants showed pain reactions, with a mean latency of 8.3 s (range 2-30). The majority presented eye movements, changes of the breath pattern and a slight increase in the mean SpO2 value. A high degree of interrater and intrarater reliability was found. Premature infants with a gestational age of up to 26 weeks can present a variety of discrete reactions as response to a pain stimulus within the first 72 h of life. Experienced NICU staff can perform a valid and reliable evaluation of these reactions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Filtering Undesirable Flows in Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Gao, X.; Du, H.; Han, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of fully mitigating the effects of denial of service by filtering the minimum necessary set of the undesirable flows. First, we model this problem and then we concentrate on a subproblem where every good flow has a bottleneck. We prove that unless P=NP, this subproblem is

  6. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  7. Undesirable effects after treatment with dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Barata, Ana Rita; Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2013-04-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is one of the most frequent techniques in cosmetic dermatology. Nowadays, there are a high number of available materials. Nonanimal hyaluronic acid (HA) is one of most useful fillers for lip augmentation and for treating nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and the dynamic wrinkles of the upper face. To evaluate the type and management of undesirable effects of nonanimal reticulated or stabilized HA observed in our cosmetic unit in the past 3 years. The consecutive patients using HA attending to our clinic in the past 3 years were divided into 3 categories, according to the time of presentation of the adverse reactions: immediate, early, and late-onset complications. All patients were treated. Twenty-three patients presented to our clinic complaining of complications after soft tissue augmentation with HA. Ten patients presented immediate-onset complications, 8 showed early-onset complications, and 5 cases complaint of late-onset complications. Treatment of the first group consisted of hyaluronidase injection, massage, and topical antibiotics. Early- and late-onset complications were treated with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. All patients improved, with the exception of a woman with recurrent granulomas. Generally, undesirable effects of HA (immediate, early, or late onset) are not frequent, and when present, they improve if treated properly. Physicians need to be aware of these possible adverse events in order to establish proper treatment and prevent scarring or other sequelae.

  8. Premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  9. Premature Menopause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal abnormalities are reported in. 10‑20% of cases involving X sex chromosomes.[3]. Genetic causes of premature menopause: • Examples of Chromosomal abnormalities. ‑ Turner's syndrome. ‑ Pure gonadal dysgenesis. ‑ Familial. ‑ Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. Metabolic. • 17 alpha‑hydroxylase deficiency.

  10. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... AW, Diamond FB. Disorders of mineral homeostasis in children and adolescents. In: Sperling MA ed. Pediatric Endocrinology . ...

  11. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  12. Apnea of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007227.htm Apnea of prematurity To use the sharing features on this page, ... that slows down or stops from any cause. Apnea of prematurity refers to short episodes of stopped breathing in ...

  13. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  14. BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE COMMON. HOW GROUPS REACT TO SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR

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    Komendant-Brodowska Agata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm, but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph. The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.

  15. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  16. A Case of Undesired Bleb Developed After Penetrating Injury

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    Cem Ozgonul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-year-old male patient was admitted to our policlinic with stinging, burning and itching in both eyes. Ophthalmological examination revealed avascular undesired bleb that releated with anterior chamber at 2-3 hour quadrant nasal limbus with the surrounding corneal and conjunctival epithelium was vascularized and the dimension was 3x3x3 mm. Towards these findings, we questioned the patient again and we found that, 40 years ago, a broken part of the shaving razor had injured his eye. After penetrating injury of the eye, because of the sutured wound leakage, undesired bleb formations can be seen. We suggest that kind of patient shold be followed up to prevent late complications of penetrating injury.

  17. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [de

  18. Undesirable Effects of Media on Children: Why Limitation is Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen

    2015-06-01

    Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance to developing countries.

  19. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  20. Undesirable substances in vegetable oils: anything to declare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of undesirable compounds in vegetable and animal oils and fats may have many different origins. Although the potential toxicity of most of these undesirable compounds is real, poisoning risks are rather limited due to the efficient elimination during oil-refining steps, careful conditioning, choice of efficient packaging and industrial quality control management. However the research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations such as the European commission regulation EC No. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for some contaminants in food as lead, some mycotoxins, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, benzo[a]pyrene. In the absence of regulation, the detection of contaminants must be addressed in partnership with authorities according to the toxicity of molecules. The controls are not confined to environmental contaminants. They also include compounds that can be formed during the production process of vegetable oils such as esters of 3-monochloropropanediol. This article focuses more particularly on heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, phthalates and 3-MCPD or glycidyl esters. Aspects such as methods for analysis, limits fixed by EC regulation and occurrence in vegetable oils are discussed.

  1. Premature hair graying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A

    2012-04-01

    Hair pigmentation and graying are important topics for the understanding of the physiology of aging; the differentiation of stem cells; and the mechanisms underlying disease processes such as progeroid syndromes, vitiligo, and hypothyroidism. Although hair graying, or canities, is a common process occurring in people as they age, an unknown percentage of individuals experience premature graying from familial inheritance or pathologic conditions. We review the physiology of hair pigmentation and the mechanism underlying physiologic graying, and we explore the etiology of pathologic causes of premature graying, pathologies associated with premature graying, and the limited available treatment options for hair graying.

  2. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. Apnea of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenwald, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity is one of the most common diagnoses in the NICU. Despite the frequency of apnea of prematurity, it is unknown whether recurrent apnea, bradycardia, and hypoxemia in preterm infants are harmful. Research into the development of respiratory control in immature animals and preterm infants has facilitated our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of apnea of prematurity. However, the lack of consistent definitions, monitoring practices, and consensus about clinical significance leads to significant variation in practice. The purpose of this clinical report is to review the evidence basis for the definition, epidemiology, and treatment of apnea of prematurity as well as discharge recommendations for preterm infants diagnosed with recurrent apneic events. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  5. Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union

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    Gerald Renner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.

  6. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  7. Preventing Undesirable Seismic Behaviour of Infill Walls in Design Process

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    Azadeh Noorifard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dividing walls are usually considered as non-structural elements, but experiences of past earthquakes show that some buildings designed and constructed by engineers have been damaged during earthquakes because of disregarding the negative effects of walls. Apart from the poor quality of construction and materials, inattention in design process is the main reason for undesirable seismic behaviour of walls.The main aim of this paper is to investigate the measures taken in different stages of architectural and structural design for improving the seismic behaviour of infilled concrete structures. As a general principle, with the further progress of project from basic architectural design to detailed structural design, there is a need to reduce designer authority and increase obligation, furthermore the cost of project increases too. The conclusion of this study implies that, in order to achieve the desirable seismic behaviour of walls, close collaboration between architects and structural engineers is required from the early stages of design. The results of this study are presented in a check list for designing reinforced concrete (RC moment resisting frame and RC shear wall.

  8. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

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    Beata Komorowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF, also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system.

  9. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  10. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the ‘species flexibility’ of premature beings profoundly shapes...

  11. [Developmental sequel of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwich, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Severe developmental impairment in children born as extremly prematures include cerebral palsy, subnormal cognitive function, deafness and blindness. The rate of severe disabilities range from 5 to 30%. This article reviews what is known about early brain injury and its developmental sequel.

  12. Myopia in premature babies with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Yassur, Y; Mashkowski, D; Sherf, I; Ben-Sira, I

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five premature infants weighing 600-2000 g were followed up during 1974-80 for the presence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and for the existence of myopia. 50% of the premature infants who had ROP were myopic, while only 16% myopic premature infants were found among those who did not have ROP. There was a positive correlation between the degree of myopia and the severity of cicatricial ROP. No difference existed in the frequency and degree of myopia between prematur...

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides Vargas, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity has been the leading cause of childhood blindness. Early and effective screening has helped to diagnose the visual target of an infant by the difference between growing up with a disability or not. A joint effort between ophthalmologists and neonatologists is proposed to control this disease, ensuring success. An appropriate, early, effective and timely treatment has been the laser and cryotherapy like good choices for the neonate to prevent disease progression. Evaluation of screening program, to determine the incidence, compare statistics variables have been measures as other medical pathologies should be encouraged as research topics. A decrease in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is expected, controlling the risk factors during the child's stay in intrahospital neonatal unit [es

  14. Premature graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  15. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  16. Retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disabilities in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beligere, Nagamani; Perumalswamy, Vijayalaksmi; Tandon, Manish; Mittal, Amit; Floora, Jayasheele; Vijayakumar, B; Miller, Marilyn T

    2015-10-01

    Prematurity is a major global health issue leading to high mortality and morbidity among the survivors. Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are the most common complications of prematurity. In fact, ROP is the second leading cause of childhood blindness in the world. Although there is much information regarding the occurrence of ROP and of NDD in premature infants, there have been few studies on ROP and its association with NDD. The objectives of this article are to review the current literature on the subject and to publish our own findings concerning the association between ROP and NDD in premature infants. The review suggests that although NDDs are related to degree of prematurity, NDD could also be the result of visual impairments resulting from ROP. Our own study shows a close association between NDD and zonal involvement of ROP: higher NDD if zone 1 is involved and less if zone 3 is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Premature ejaculation. 3. Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I

    2004-12-01

    Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.

  18. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  19. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar, E-mail: sahubar@uum.edu.my; Ramli, Razamin, E-mail: razamin@uum.edu.my; Baten, M. D. Azizul, E-mail: baten-math@yahoo.com [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency.

  20. Distinct oxytocin effects on belief updating in response to desirable and undesirable feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Shiyi; Wang, Chenbo; Liu, Yi; Li, Wenxin; Yan, Xinyuan; Chen, Qiang; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Humans update their beliefs upon feedback and, accordingly, modify their behaviors to adapt to the complex, changing social environment. However, people tend to incorporate desirable (better than expected) feedback into their beliefs but to discount undesirable (worse than expected) feedback. Such optimistic updating has evolved as an advantageous mechanism for social adaptation. Here, we examine the role of oxytocin (OT)―an evolutionary ancient neuropeptide pivotal for social adaptation―in belief updating upon desirable and undesirable feedback in three studies (n = 320). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we show that intranasally administered OT (IN-OT) augments optimistic belief updating by facilitating updates of desirable feedback but impairing updates of undesirable feedback. The IN-OT–induced impairment in belief updating upon undesirable feedback is more salient in individuals with high, rather than with low, depression or anxiety traits. IN-OT selectively enhances learning rate (the strength of association between estimation error and subsequent update) of desirable feedback. IN-OT also increases participants’ confidence in their estimates after receiving desirable but not undesirable feedback, and the OT effect on confidence updating upon desirable feedback mediates the effect of IN-OT on optimistic belief updating. Our findings reveal distinct functional roles of OT in updating the first-order estimation and second-order confidence judgment in response to desirable and undesirable feedback, suggesting a molecular substrate for optimistic belief updating. PMID:27482087

  1. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers' efficiency.

  2. Distinct oxytocin effects on belief updating in response to desirable and undesirable feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Shiyi; Wang, Chenbo; Liu, Yi; Li, Wenxin; Yan, Xinyuan; Chen, Qiang; Han, Shihui

    2016-08-16

    Humans update their beliefs upon feedback and, accordingly, modify their behaviors to adapt to the complex, changing social environment. However, people tend to incorporate desirable (better than expected) feedback into their beliefs but to discount undesirable (worse than expected) feedback. Such optimistic updating has evolved as an advantageous mechanism for social adaptation. Here, we examine the role of oxytocin (OT)-an evolutionary ancient neuropeptide pivotal for social adaptation-in belief updating upon desirable and undesirable feedback in three studies (n = 320). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we show that intranasally administered OT (IN-OT) augments optimistic belief updating by facilitating updates of desirable feedback but impairing updates of undesirable feedback. The IN-OT-induced impairment in belief updating upon undesirable feedback is more salient in individuals with high, rather than with low, depression or anxiety traits. IN-OT selectively enhances learning rate (the strength of association between estimation error and subsequent update) of desirable feedback. IN-OT also increases participants' confidence in their estimates after receiving desirable but not undesirable feedback, and the OT effect on confidence updating upon desirable feedback mediates the effect of IN-OT on optimistic belief updating. Our findings reveal distinct functional roles of OT in updating the first-order estimation and second-order confidence judgment in response to desirable and undesirable feedback, suggesting a molecular substrate for optimistic belief updating.

  3. Ocular changes in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negareh Yazdani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article aimed to review the literatures on visual impairments and ocular changes in premature infants with low birth weight and gestational age.Methods: Five electronic databases including: PubMed, Web of Science, Science direct, Ovid, and Scopus were searched. Original articles published until 2015 describing preterm infants were reviewed. Repetitive and derivative articles were excluded.Results: Out of 100 unique, potentially relevant articles, 42 studies that addressed and met the inclusion criteria were evaluated.Conclusion: Prematurity affects ocular structures (from anterior to posterior segment and functions. Premature infants are at risk of myopization. Concerning the changes in premature infants, a significant increase is found in axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness; moreover, high incidence of retinal changes is reported as a result of prematurity. On the other hand, visual acuity, tear, electroretinogram, and visual evoked potential responses decrease with prematurity. The most common ophthalmic disorders in preterm infants are myopia and retinopathy of prematurity, which could affect life quality due to reduced visual acuity.

  4. The Differential Mortality of Undesired Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatø, Martin

    2018-02-01

    With high rates of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, investments in infant health are subject to tough prioritizations within the household, in which maternal preferences may play a part. How these preferences will affect infant mortality as African women have ever-lower fertility is still uncertain, as increased female empowerment and increased difficulty in achieving a desired gender composition within a smaller family pull in potentially different directions. I study how being born at a parity or of a gender undesired by the mother relates to infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and how such differential mortality varies between women at different stages of the demographic transition. Using data from 79 Demographic and Health Surveys, I find that a child being undesired according to the mother is associated with a differential mortality that is not due to constant maternal factors, family composition, or factors that are correlated with maternal preferences and vary continuously across siblings. As a share of overall infant mortality, the excess mortality of undesired children amounts to 3.3 % of male and 4 % of female infant mortality. Undesiredness can explain a larger share of infant mortality among mothers with lower fertility desires and a larger share of female than male infant mortality for children of women who desire 1-3 children. Undesired gender composition is more important for infant mortality than undesired childbearing and may also lead couples to increase family size beyond the maternal desire, in which case infants of the surplus gender are particularly vulnerable.

  5. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care for apnea of prematurity in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . Right after they're ... and caregivers also will be trained in infant CPR , even though it's unlikely they'll ever have ...

  6. Caring for Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding your baby. Breast milk is the best baby food. If your baby does not suck or latch ... solid food. Most doctors advise giving a premature baby solid food at 4 to 6 months after the baby’s ...

  7. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  8. Desirable and undesirable future thoughts call for different scene construction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, S; Neroni, M A; Gamboz, N; Della Sala, S; Brandimonte, M A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the ability of foreseeing (episodic future thinking), it is still unclear how healthy people construct possible future scenarios. We suggest that different future thoughts require different processes of scene construction. Thirty-five participants were asked to imagine desirable and less desirable future events. Imagining desirable events increased the ease of scene construction, the frequency of life scripts, the number of internal details, and the clarity of sensorial and spatial temporal information. The initial description of general personal knowledge lasted longer in undesirable than in desirable anticipations. Finally, participants were more prone to explicitly indicate autobiographical memory as the main source of their simulations of undesirable episodes, whereas they equally related the simulations of desirable events to autobiographical events or semantic knowledge. These findings show that desirable and undesirable scenarios call for different mechanisms of scene construction. The present study emphasizes that future thinking cannot be considered as a monolithic entity.

  9. Ranking of bank branches with undesirable and fuzzy data: A DEA-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Kordrostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks are one of the most important financial sectors in order to the economic development of each country. Certainly, efficiency scores and ranks of banks are significant and effective aspects towards future planning. Sometimes the performance of banks must be measured in the presence of undesirable and vague factors. For these reasons in the current paper a procedure based on data envelopment analysis (DEA is introduced for evaluating the efficiency and complete ranking of decision making units (DMUs where undesirable and fuzzy measures exist. To illustrate, in the presence of undesirable and fuzzy measures, DMUs are evaluated by using a fuzzy expected value approach and DMUs with similar efficiency scores are ranked by using constraints and the Maximal Balance Index based on the optimal shadow prices. Afterwards, the efficiency scores of 25 branches of an Iranian commercial bank are evaluated using the proposed method. Also, a complete ranking of bank branches is presented to discriminate branches.

  10. Risk management of undesirable substances in feed following updated risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed is the framework for the EU action on undesirable substances in feed. This framework Directive provides: ⁎that products intended for animal feed may enter for use in the Union from third countries, be put into circulation and/or used in the Union only if they are sound, genuine and of merchantable quality and therefore when correctly used do not represent any danger to human health, animal health or to the environment or could adversely affect livestock production. ⁎that in order to protect animal and public health and the environment, maximum levels for specific undesirable substances shall be established where necessary. ⁎for mandatory consultation of a scientific body (EFSA) for all provisions which may have an effect upon public health or animal health or on the environment. ⁎that products intended for animal feed containing levels of an undesirable substance that exceed the established maximum level may not be mixed for dilution purposes with the same, or other, products intended for animal feed and may not be used for the production of compound feed. Based on the provisions and principles laid down in this framework Directive, maximum levels for a whole range of undesirable substances have been established at EU level. During the discussions in view of the adoption of Directive 2002/32/EC, the European Commission made the commitment to review all existing provisions on undesirable substances on the basis of updated scientific risk assessments. Following requests of the European Commission, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed a series of 30 risk assessments undertaken over the last 5 years on undesirable substances in animal feed reviewing the possible risks for animal and human health due to the presence of these substances in animal feed. EU legislation

  11. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  12. Relationships between College Students' Credit Card Debt, Undesirable Academic Behaviors and Cognitions, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…

  13. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual

  14. Array diagnostics, spatial resolution, and filtering of undesired radiation with the 3D reconstruction algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Jørgensen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three important features of the 3D reconstruction algorithm of DIATOOL: the identification of array elements improper functioning and failure, the obtainable spatial resolution of the reconstructed fields and currents, and the filtering of undesired radiation and scattering...

  15. Consanguinity and apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamim, Hala; Khogali, Mustafa; Beydoun, Hind; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid

    2003-11-15

    Consanguinity, marriage between relatives, has been associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. Apnea of prematurity is defined as the cessation of breathing for longer than 20 seconds or that of any duration if accompanied by cyanosis and sinus bradycardia, for infants born before 37 weeks of gestation. The objective of the study was to examine the association between consanguinity and apnea of prematurity in Greater Beirut, an area having a relatively high prevalence rate of consanguineous marriages. The study was cross-sectional. Between September 1, 1998, and March 31, 2001, 21723 newborn infants were admitted to the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. The inclusion criteria were infants less than 37 weeks of gestation who were admitted to the intensive care unit, with no congenital malformations, sepsis, or neurologic disorders. Analysis was based on 597 infants of whom 66 had apnea of prematurity. With adjustment for weeks and type of gestation, pregnancy complications, and Apgar score, the odds ratio of apnea of prematurity for first-degree consanguineous parents as compared with other marriages was 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 6.4). In addition to the recognized etiologic factors for apnea of prematurity, this study suggests a role played by genetic factors.

  16. Children's disengagement from cancer care and treatment on the ward: an undesirable social tactic in the long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvschal-Nielsen, P; Clausen, N; Meinert, L

    2017-11-01

    This anthropological study explores children's non-social reactions during the active treatment period, the on-treatment, in a paediatric oncology ward in a Danish university hospital. It is argued that, although some children's non-social reactions is a tactical disengagement to manage the on-treatment situation, such non-social tactics might ultimately prove an undesirable strategy with negative long-term social consequences for social survivorship. Data were generated over 7 months of ethnographic fieldwork between May 2011 and January 2013, using qualitative methods such as participant observation and open-ended interviewing. Fifty children of both sexes between 4 and 15 years, their families and hospital staff participated in the study. These data formed the basis for the study. The findings show that children's response to care challenges, including exhaustion from care management, exposure from being in a public space, and the open-ended duration of treatment, configure in tactic forms that we term social disengagement. It is suggested that such tactical social disengagement might expand into long-term social patterns, and, as such, change from an alleviating tactic to a socially isolating and damaging tactic for survivors of cancer in childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Rice growing farmers efficiency measurement using a slack based interval DEA model with undesirable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2017-11-01

    In recent years eco-efficiency which considers the effect of production process on environment in determining the efficiency of firms have gained traction and a lot of attention. Rice farming is one of such production processes which typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable. In efficiency analysis, these undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in the model to obtain the actual estimation of firm's efficiency. There are numerous approaches that have been used in data envelopment analysis (DEA) literature to account for undesirable outputs of which directional distance function (DDF) approach is the most widely used as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, slack based DDF DEA approaches considers the output shortfalls and input excess in determining efficiency. In situations when data uncertainty is present, the deterministic DEA model is not suitable to be used as the effects of uncertain data will not be considered. In this case, it has been found that interval data approach is suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding the underlying data distribution and membership function. The proposed model uses an enhanced DEA model which is based on DDF approach and incorporates slack based measure to determine efficiency in the presence of undesirable factors and data uncertainty. Interval data approach was used to estimate the values of inputs, undesirable outputs and desirable outputs. Two separate slack based interval DEA models were constructed for optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The developed model was used to determine rice farmers efficiency from Kepala Batas, Kedah. The obtained results were later compared to the results obtained using a deterministic DDF DEA model. The study found that 15 out of 30 farmers are efficient in all cases. It

  18. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  19. PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.

  20. Complications of Prematurity - An Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Rawat, Munmun; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2017-01-01

    Infographics or information graphics are easy-to-understand visual representation of knowledge. An infographic outlining the course of an extremely preterm infant and various potential complications encountered during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was developed. This infographic can be used to discuss outcomes of prematurity during prenatal counseling and while the infant is in the NICU. PMID:29138522

  1. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  2. Development of Data Envelopment Analysis for the Performance Evaluation of Green Supply Chain with Undesirable Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alinezhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem is the use of DEA in multistep or multilevel processes such as supply chain, lack of attention to processes’ internal communications in a way that the recent studies on DEA in the context of serial processes have focused on closed systems that the outputs of one level become the inputs of the next level and none of the inputs enter the mediator process. The present study aimed to examine the general dimensions of an open multilevel process. Here, some of the data such as inputs and outputs are supposed to leave the system while other outputs turn into the inputs of the next level. The new inputs can enter the next level as well. We expand this mode for network structures. The overall performance of such a structure is considered as a weighted average of sectors’ performance or distinct steps. Therefore, this suggested model in this study, not only provides the possibility to evaluate the performance of the entire network, but creates the performance analysis for each of the sub-processes. On the other hand, considering the data with undesirable structure leads to more correct performance estimation. In the real world, all productive processes do not comprise desirable factors. Therefore, presenting a structure that is capable of taking into account the undesirable structure is of crucial importance. In this study, a new model in the DEA by network structure is offered that can analyze the performance considering undesirable factors.

  3. Assessment of undesirable dose to eye-melanoma patients after proton radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarczyk, L., E-mail: liliana.stolarczyk@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Olko, P.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Swakon, J.; Dulny, B.; Horwacik, T.; Obryk, B. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Waligorski, M.P.R. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Centre of Oncology, Krakow Division, ul. Garncarska 11, 31-115, Krakow (Poland)

    2010-12-15

    Radiotherapy with a proton beam of initial energy 55-80 MeV is presently the clinically recommended therapy for some cases of intraocular melanoma such as large melanomas or tumours adjacent to critical organs. Evaluation and optimization of radiation doses outside the treatment volume may contribute to reducing undesirable side-effects and decreasing the risk of occurrence of secondary cancers, particularly for paediatric patients. In this work the undesired doses to organs were assessed basing on Monte Carlo calculation of secondary radiation transport and on results of measurements of neutron and {gamma}-ray doses at the proton therapy facility of the Institute of Nuclear Physics at Krakow. Dosimetry was performed using a He-3-based FHT 762 neutron monitor (Wendi II), a FH40G proportional counter (for {gamma}-rays), and MTS-7 (LiF:Mg,Ti) thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs). Organ doses were calculated in the ADAM anthropomorphic phantom using the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code and partly verified, for {gamma}-ray doses, with TLD measurements in the RANDO Anderson anthropomorphic phantom. The effective dose due to undesired radiation, including exposure from scattered radiation during the entire process of proton radiotherapy and patient positioning using X-rays, does not exceed 1 mSv.

  4. Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Premature Male Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A premature male infant was born at 30 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 1,700 g in a rural hospital. He was diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and received continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 26 days. At 26 days after birth, the patient was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and management. A comprehensive eye examination revealed a stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involving zone 2 in both eyes. The patient was recommended to a provincial-level eye hospital for emergency laser therapy. Five months after birth, the feedback from the eye hospital showed that the patient had a high risk of blindness in both eyes. Our case report shows that delaying first screening examination increases the possibility of developing aggressive posterior ROP in infants with ROP. Doctors in rural hospitals should be aware of this possibility and trained for early screening and treatment in high-risk infants.

  5. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  6. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Althof, Stanley E.

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psych...

  7. [How do parents experience the premature birth of their child?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns-Neumann, Erdmut

    2006-06-01

    Advising and guidance of parents of premature children represent an important field of care activity in paediatrics. Nursing personnel are expected to react appropriately and competently to the needs and problematic situations of parents of prematurely born children. Only a restricted basis of sound knowledge is available for the fulfilment of this demanding task. The aim and purpose of the following literature analysis is to collect the knowledge currently available and to make it available to nursing, in theory and practice, in a concise form. In this way, the tasks of nursing personnel in this field can be formulated and future training content can be defined in more detail. Several data banks and the keyword catalogue of the University and Regional Library of Münster and the Central Library for Medicine in Cologne were consulted using the key term "premature birth" and various combinations of terms. A look at the research results makes it clear that the perspective of nursing researchers is particularly restricted to the immediately present and acute problem situations of children and parents during the period of the postnatal stay in hospital. There are only very few studies -that inquire into long-term effects in the parents' experiencing and overcoming of the premature birth. The following literature study shows that mothers in particular display intense emotional reactions as a result of a premature birth. These emotions are expressed in the form of fear concerning the disablement or death of the child as well as in feelings of physical inadequacy and incomplete self-realisation. In view of the life-long increased morbidity of prematurely born children and the hospital stays related to it, nursing personnel could benefit from developing specific insight into and understanding for the difficult life situation of parents of a prematurely born child. Regarding the present state of research, it is striking that the aspects of how the parents of premature

  8. Undesirable Behaviors Elementary School Classroom Teachers Encounter in the Classroom and Their Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Balcik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine how often elementary school teachers encounter undesirable behaviors in the classroom and what their thoughts regarding possible reasons of these behaviors are. The teachers’ opininon about the prevalence of these behaviors and their possible reasons were evaluated according to gender, marital status, level of class being taught, size of class being taught and it was tried to be determined if there were significant differences between variables. The measurement tool was applied to a total of 54 teachers at 5 schools in Gölcük district of the Kocaeli province. The data collection tool is composed of three sections. The first section is for establishing teachers’ personal information. In this study, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire was used. When preparing questions for the questionnaire, following the examination of resources available, the questionnaire prepared by Aksoy (1999 and used in the thesis study entitled “Classroom Management and Student Discipline in Elementary Schools of Ankara” and also used in the thesis study by Boyraz (2007 entitled “Discipline Problems that Candidate Teachers Servicing at Elementary Schools Encounter in the Classroom” was employed. Although the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was tested by Aksoy (1999 and Boyraz (2007, the reliability study for the questionnaire was retested and found to be 0,9. The questionnaire include 42 items. 19 of them are related to the reasons of undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom and 23 of them are related to undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom.

  9. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raamsdonk LWD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual status of enforcement and of the present occurrence of these botanical substances, a survey was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to 103 laboratories, including official control labs from all member states of the European Union. The results, indicating the frequency of occurrence as far as reported, are compared to the publications of the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF. A total of 44 questionnaires was returned (42.7% from 22 member states. Ten member states predominantly from north-western Europe appeared to have an active monitoring of botanical undesirable substances. The questionnaire results did not indicate that the other member states enforce this part of Directive 2002/32/EC. Reports on the frequency of occurrence include: a few to 25-50% of the samples contain traces of ergot (8 member states, a few to 24% contain at least some traces of thorn apple (6 member states, zero to 17% contain some castor oil plant seeds (3 member states, zero to a few samples contain Crotalaria seeds (3 member states, and zero to 6% contain traces of Sareptian mustard (4 member states. One member state conducted extra surveillance since several cases of animal intoxications have been reported. In some cases a coincidence with undesirable botanical substances was found.

  10. Environmental efficiency evaluation of china based on a kind of congestion and undesirable output coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Malin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production “congestion” phenomenon is widespread in reality although few models nowadays consider its influences. In this study, production congestion is introduced into an environmental efficiency evaluation model and a new data envelopment analysis model that considers both production congestion and undesirable output is established so as to measure environmental efficiency evaluation effectively. On this basis, we divide technological change into productive technological change and energy-savings emission reduction technological change to establish their influences on the congestion phenomenon. The results show that productive technological change cannot relieve the degree of congestion while green technology change that stimulates environmental efficiency improvement can greatly alleviate situations of congestion.

  11. Guidelines used in Japan to prevent the contamination of feed products with undesirable substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As Japan depends on imports for most ingredients used to manufacture feed products, close co-operation is indispensable between importers and manufacturers of feed and feed ingredients to effectively mitigate the risk associated with feed safety. Guidelines were issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF in March 2008 to prevent feed products from being contaminated with undesirable substances. These guidelines identify the responsibilities of feed ingredient importers, feed manufacturers and distributors, as well as the roles of the MAFF and the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre.

  12. Distinguishing Technical Inefficiency from Desirable and Undesirable Congestion with an Application to Regional Industries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Congestion is an important issue that requires the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. We first classify conventional congestion into congestion (newly defined and technical inefficiency, based on prior research and real applications. Modified definitions and mathematical expression of congestion, managerial inefficiency, and technical inefficiency are proposed to better illustrate the differences between them. Several modified models are provided to identify and recognize those types of inefficiencies and congestion. We then extend the model by considering the desirable and undesirable types of congestion simultaneously. The proposed approach is applied and verified by identifying resource congestion and environmental inefficiencies in China’s economic development.

  13. A mechanism to compensate undesired stiffness in joints of prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick; Van der Helm, Frans

    2014-04-01

    Cosmetic gloves that cover a prosthetic hand have a parasitic positive stiffness that counteracts the flexion of a finger joint. Reducing the required input torque to move a finger of a prosthetic hand by compensating the parasitic stiffness of the cosmetic glove. Experimental, test bench. The parasitic positive stiffness and the required input torques of a polyvinyl chloride glove and a silicone glove were measured when flexing a metacarpophalangeal finger joint for 90°. To compensate this positive stiffness, an adjustable compensation mechanism with a negative stiffness was designed and built. A MATLAB model was created to predict the optimal settings of the mechanism, based on the measured stiffness, in order to minimize the required input torque of the total system. The mechanism was tested in its optimal setting with an applied glove. The mechanism reduced the required input torque by 58% for the polyvinyl chloride glove and by 52% for the silicone glove. The total energy dissipation of the joint did not change significantly. This study shows that the undesired positive stiffness in the joint can be compensated with a relatively simple negative stiffness mechanism, which fits inside a finger of a standard cosmetic glove. Clinical relevance This study presents a mechanism that compensates the undesired stiffness of cosmetic gloves on prosthetic hands. As a result, it requires less input force, torque and energy to move the fingers. Application of this mechanism in body-powered hands will reduce the control effort of the user.

  14. Stomatognathic evaluation at five years of age in children born premature and at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Kíldane Maria Almeida; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D'Avila Nery; Bastos, Alliny de Souza; Salviano, Karoline Guedes Mesquita; Sales, Neuza Josina; Almeida, Maria Luiza Dória; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2015-03-29

    The high frequency of alterations of the stomatognathic system associated with premature birth may suggest that prematurity is an important risk factor in the development of this system. Prematurity has an incidence between 6-11% of births and is associated with factors such as genetic, maternal conditions (obstetric problems, nutritional status, infections) and antenatal care. In addition, undesirable situations, such as changes in enamel and the development of the skeletal structure, also appears to be associated with prematurity. This study aimed to look for changes in the stomatognathic system at five years of age associated with premature birth. We estimated the prevalence of developmental disorders of the stomatognathic system in the primary dentition of preschool children at five years of age. Changes in preterm infants (n = 32) compared with term born (n = 381) were evaluated . Clinical examinations and questionnaire with sociodemographic and health of mothers and children information. Gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, Apgar score and mechanical ventilation, were collected from the medical records to birth records. The explanatory variable was preterm (malocclusion and 21.8% enamel hypoplasia. Forty (9.6%) children were not breastfed at the breast, and 26 (65.0%) had some type of malocclusion, showing association between not breastfeeding with an abnormal development of the stomatognathic system. The group of preterm infants showed five times more changes in head circumference and three times more mechanical ventilation use at birth. Change in head circumference at birth and mechanical ventilation has a significant association between groups of preterm and term infants. Mechanical ventilation at birth directly contributed to an increased risk of developmental disorders of the stomatognathic system in preterm infants, especially dental hypoplasia. Non-breastfed children had a higher risk of developing malocclusion. Alterations in head

  15. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  16. Claustrophobia and premature termination of magnetic resonance imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence of MRI-related claustrophobia and prematurely terminated MRI (ptMRI) examinations due to claustrophobia in a large-scale cohort study. The hospital's computerized radiology information system (RIS) was retrospectively analyzed for all 1.5-Tesla MRI examinations and reports during the year 2004. Data collected included demographic information, body part examined, known claustrophobia, and whether the examination was prematurely terminated. All information available on the MRI examinations and the patient-based data (i.e., excluding any additional examinations per patient) were analyzed. A total of 5798 MRI reports of 4821 patients were evaluated. A total of 95 patients (1.97%) suffered from claustrophobia and 59 (1.22%) prematurely terminated the examination due to claustrophobia. The incidence of ptMRI was higher in women than men (no statistical significance). The majority of patients with ptMRI were between 20 and 80 years old. Patients undergoing head MRI showed the highest incidence of ptMRI and those undergoing extremity, breast, or pelvic MRI had the lowest. Prone compared to supine positioning results in the lowest ptMRI incidence (P < 0.05). Claustrophobic reactions cause a relatively low incidence of ptMRI and are influenced by sex, body part examined, and positioning within the MR scanner. Sedation and prone positioning might help overcome these reactions. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos; Maria Fernanda Pereira Gomes; Verusca Kelly Capellini; Valéria Cristina dos Santos Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5%) reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1%) ident...

  18. xidative Stress and Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Ümeyye Taka Aydın; Hatip Aydın; Osman Çekiç

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between ox...

  19. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain; Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe ''Carry over unerwuenschter Stoffe in Futtermitteln'' beim Bundesministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (BMELV) hat in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut fuer Tierernaehrung des Friedrich-Loeffler-Instituts (FLI) am 27. und 28. Oktober 2011 in Braunschweig einen Workshop zum Thema ''Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette'' durchgefuehrt. Ziel des Workshops war es, die aktuellen Erkenntnisse der Carry over Forschung und die Empfehlungen der Carry over - Arbeitsgruppe zu unerwuenschten Stoffen in Futtermitteln und Produktionsverfahren in

  20. Pathophysiology of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmren Akkoyun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, an ocular disease characterized by onset of vascular abnormalities in the developing retina, is the major cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature neonates. ROP is a complex multifactorial disease that occurs with microvascular degeneration followed by neovascularization which passing through different stages can progress to retinal detachment. Currently used ablative therapies like cryocoagulation and laser photocoagulation for proliferative ROP have limitations, and patients can still have long-term complications despite a successful treatment. Based on the knowledge regarding ROP pathophysiology, new treatment modalities are being developed. First results of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy using bevacizumab are promising. Furthermore, besides intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, systemic therapy with mediators like insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and/or ω3-fatty acids outlines the pharmacological approach to treatment of ROP. One of the most destructive manifestations of ROP is preretinal neovascularization. As we continue to decipher the underlying pathophysiological cellular mechanisms governing proliferative retinopathy, fostering normal retinal revascularization will open new therapeutic possibilities. All efforts should be focused on developing preventive strategies for ROP in order to avoid the need for nondestructive therapy modalities. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 63-7

  1. [Laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care units. Premature Eye Rescue Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maka, Erika; Imre, László; Somogyvári, Zsolt; Németh, János

    2015-02-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness around the world. The Department of Ophthalmology at the Semmelweis University and the Peter Cerny Neonatal Emergency and Ambulance Service started an innovative Premature Eye Rescue Program to reduce the non-essential transport of premature babies suffering from retinopathy of prematurity. During the first 5 years 186 eyes of 93 premature babies were treated at the bedside with stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity in the primary hospitals. In this first 5-years period the authors reduced the number of transports of premature babies for laser treatment; 93 children avoided the unnecessary transport, saving altogether a distance of 21,930 kilometers for children, as well as the ambulance service. The Premature Eye Rescue Program offers a good and effective alternative for treatment of retinopathy in the primary hospitals. The authors propose the national extension of this program.

  2. Operation condition for continuous anti-solvent crystallization of CBZ-SAC cocrystal considering deposition risk of undesired crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaru, Momoko; Nakasa, Miku; Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Crystallization operation of cocrystal production has deposition risk of undesired crystals. Simultaneously, continuous manufacturing processes are focused on. In this study, conditions for continuous cocrystallization considering risk reduction of undesired crystals deposition were investigated on the view point of thermodynamics and kinetics. The anti-solvent cocrystallization was carried out in four-component system of carbamazepine, saccharin, methanol and water. From the preliminary batch experiment, the relationships among undesired crystal deposition, solution composition decided by mixing ratio of solutions, and residence time for the crystals were considered, and then the conditions of continuous experiment were decided. Under these conditions, the continuous experiment was carried out. The XRD patterns of obtained crystals in the continuous experiment showed that desired cocrystals were obtained without undesired crystals. This experimental result was evaluated by using multi-component phase diagrams from the view point of the operation point's movement. From the evaluation, it was found that there is a certain operation condition which the operation point is fixed with time in the specific domain without the deposition risk of undesired single component crystals. It means the possibility of continuous production of cocrystals without deposition risk of undesired crystals was confirmed by using multi-component phase diagrams.

  3. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  4. The application of game theory and cognitive economy to analyze the problem of undesired location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, S.

    2008-01-01

    The analysts of the processes of public bodies decision - taking have long been discussing on the establishment of proper strategies to manage environmental conflicts - above all the so-called problems of undesired location of public works and facilities - efficiently (i.e. on a short-period basis so as to grant decision and agreement stability) and fairly (the parties' satisfaction is itself a further guarantee of decision and agreement stability). Each strategy, anyway, is still in progress, like a universe to create and explore. Therefore, in this paper, we will focus on the analysis of the problem and provide as well some theoretical proposals to arrange a new interpreting model of public bodies decision-taking processes based on the achievements of two new subject-matters: evolutionary game theory and cognitive economy. Both sciences share their investigation field with law and economic science. [it

  5. Undesirable sulphur and carbonyl flavor compounds in UHT milk: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbia, Alex; Buys, Elna M; De Kock, Henriette L

    2012-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature (UHT) processing leads to the formation of "cooked" and "flat" flavors in milk. These undesirable notes occur due to the volatile formation of a variety of sulphur containing compounds, methyl ketones and aliphatic aldehydes, derived from the constituents of the milk's matrix during thermal processing and storage. The "cooked" flavor of UHT milk is associated with the presence of a variety of sulphur containing compounds while the "stale" flavor is characterized by the dissipation of these sulphur volatiles and an increase of the formation and presence of both methyl ketones and aliphatic aldehydes over time. The extent to which the individual volatiles contribute to the overall flavor of UHT milk is not clear. The proposed formation of these volatiles, that is, the methods to control the intensity of "cooked" and "stale" flavors associated with UHT milk and extraction techniques for the isolation of these volatiles from milk, have been reviewed.

  6. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  7. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  8. Nuclear renaissance or premature try

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderch, M.

    2008-01-01

    After the economic failure of the 70's and not having been able to solve for decades its multiple problems, the nuclear industry was suffering a slow but inescapable agony. However, the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the likely arrival of the worldwide peak of oil production have infused new life to the nuclear option, and it has again become one of the main topics of discussion in the worldwide energy debate. But in this debate we tend to forget that the causes of the abrupt end of the first nuclear era have not disappeared, and that for this reason it may well be that we are lead to a repetition of the events that induced its first demise. The much talked nuclear renaissance is thus likely to end up as a premature miscarriage. (Author)

  9. The preterm cervix reveals a transcriptomic signature in the presence of premature prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makieva, Sofia; Dubicke, Aurelija; Rinaldi, Sara F; Fransson, Emma; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Norman, Jane E

    2017-06-01

    Premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes accounts for 30% of all premature births and is associated with detrimental long-term infant outcomes. Premature cervical remodeling, facilitated by matrix metalloproteinases, may trigger rupture at the zone of the fetal membranes overlying the cervix. The similarities and differences underlying cervical remodeling in premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes are unexplored. We aimed to perform the first transcriptomic assessment of the preterm human cervix to identify differences between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes and to compare the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes. Cervical biopsies were collected following preterm labor with intact membranes (n = 6) and premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes (n = 5). Biopsies were also collected from reference groups at term labor (n = 12) or term not labor (n = 5). The Illumina HT-12 version 4.0 BeadChips microarray was utilized, and a novel network graph approach determined the specificity of changes between premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes and preterm labor with intact membranes. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting confirmed the microarray findings. Immunofluorescence was used for localization studies and gelatin zymography to assess matrix metalloproteinase activity. PML-RARA-regulated adapter molecule 1, FYVE-RhoGEF and PH domain-containing protein 3 and carcinoembryonic antigen-ralated cell adhesion molecule 3 were significantly higher, whereas N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 was lower in the premature prelabor rupture of fetal membranes cervix when compared with the cervix in preterm labor with intact membranes, term labor, and term not labor. PRAM1 and CEACAM3 were localized

  10. [Apnea of prematurity: what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriette, G; Lescure, S; El Ayoubi, M; Lopez, E

    2010-02-01

    Prematurity apnea remains a major clinical problem that requires treatment choices which are sometimes difficult. Prematurity apnea occurs in most infants of gestational age at birth less than 33 weeks. It is a developmental disorder which usually reflects a "physiological" immaturity of respiratory control. However, neonatal diseases may be associated and play an additive role, resulting in an increased incidence of apnea. Careful screening should therefore be performed in order to make sure that no other factor than immaturity is involved in the occurrence of apnea. Short apnea (less than 10s, without hypoxemia and bradycardia), due to immaturity, are not clinically relevant. More prolonged apnea, that last for more than 15 or 20s, and / or apnea associated with bradycardia or oxygen desaturation, results in short-term disturbances of cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation, which may negatively impact on neurodevelopmental outcome. Evaluating the immediate severity of apnea and the risks that apnea may affect long-term outcome remains a challenge. The choice of treatments is based on a few evidences. Caffeine citrate, which reduces the incidence of apnea, has been used for decades. However, a thorough evaluation of risks and benefits of this medication has been performed only recently. Caffeine citrate was found to be safe and resulted in unexpected benefits. In treated infants, compared with controls, indeed, a decreased incidence of the following complications was recorded: bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of conceptional age, patent ductus arteriosus, cerebral palsy at 18 months of age. Nasal CPAP can be used in association with caffeine citrate, when the latter is not effective enough. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Şekeroğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in triplets. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive premature triplets who had been screened for ROP in a single maternity hospital were analyzed and presence and severity of ROP; birth weight, gender, gestational age of the infant; route of delivery and the mode of conception were recorded. Results: A total of 54 triplets (40 males, 14 females who were screened for ROP between March 2010 and February 2013 were recruited for the study. All triplets were delivered by Caesarean section and 36 (66.7% were born following an assisted conception. During follow-up, seven (13% of the infants developed ROP of any stage and two (3.7% required laser photocoagulation. The mean gestational age of triplets with ROP was 27.6±1.5 (27-31 weeks whereas it was 32.0±1.5 (30-34 weeks in those without ROP (p=0.002. The mean birth weights of triplets with and without ROP were 1290.0±295.2 (970-1600 g and 1667.5±222.2 (1130-1960 g, respectively (p<0.001. The presence of ROP was not associated with gender (p=0.358 or mode of conception (p=0.674. Conclusion: ROP in triplets seems to be mainly related to low gestational age and low birth weight. Further prospective randomized studies are necessary to demonstrate risk factors of ROP in triplets and to determine if and how gemelarity plays a role in the development of ROP.

  12. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  13. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prematurity. 29.1050 Section 29.1050 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1050 Prematurity. A condition of growth and development characteristic of the lower...

  14. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-05

    Dec 5, 2015 ... accompany PPROM include prematurity, umbilical cord prolapse and compression, neonatal sepsis, respiratory. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature rupture of membranes among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital. (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. TC Okeke ...

  15. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  16. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    Full Text Available Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1, based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of ami

  17. The presence of undesirable mould species on the surface of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from manufacture to the industrial way of meat production and processing, as well as contemporary concept of food quality and safety, have led to the application of starter cultures. Their application leads towards the streamlining of the production process in the desired direction, quality improvement and its harmonization, and thereby to its standardization. Application of moulds in the meat industry is based on positive effects of their proteolytic and lipolytic egzoenzymes which, as a consequence, leads to the creation of characteristic sensory properties ('flavor' of fermented products. Penicillium nalgiovense is a typical representative of moulds used in the production of fermented sausages-salamis from our region. Samples of 'zimska salama' (dry sausage, produced with Penicillium nalgiovense, were evaluated as hygienically unacceptable. Their sensory properties changed due to contamination of this mould during the ripening process. Micological analysis discovered the presence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, which is a frequent mould contaminant in the meat industry. At the same time, thin layer chromatography revealed no possibility of metabolic activity of this mould in the creation of mycotoxins. However, the presence of this mould on the surface of 'zimska salama' is considered as undesirable due to formation of 'off flavor' in products. Such product is considered as hygienically unacceptable and cannot be used for the human consumption.

  18. Study on Operator Actions during the Occurrences of Undesirable Events in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, P.P.; Nurul Husna Zainal Abidin; Lanyau, T.A.; Zaredah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent Fukushima accident, the potential risks at one and only nuclear research reactor in the country, which is the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP), has increasingly gain concerns and an attempt on the development of Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for this reactor has been commenced. The preliminary scope of the PSA is to analyse the risk of core degradation during normal daily operation due to the random component failure and human error. SPAR-H and THERP method is used for quantifying human error probability (HEP). However, the scopes of this study only cover the qualitative parts that use interview/questionnaire method. The objectives of the questionnaire are to identify the main action for RTP operators when any undesired incident occurs during full power operation that might be caused by random component failures. From the questionnaires that have been conducted, the respondents consisted of 4 licensed operators and 9 trainee operators. All licensed operators have experience of operating reactor for more than 15 years while the trainee operator have been operate the reactor with experience of less than 10 years. Generally, in the event of an abnormal condition involving the reactor, an operator whether a licensed operator or the trainee does not have to ask permission in advance from the top individuals to carry out scram. This is to prevent the situation becoming increasingly severe if the reactor is still operating. With complete training and knowledge derived from the management, an operator can act efficiently in any emergency case. (author)

  19. On the undesired frequency chirping in photonic time-stretch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxiao; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2017-12-01

    The technique of photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in the past decade due to its potential in the acquisition of ultra-high speed signals. The frequency-related RF power fading in the PTS systems with double sideband (DSB) modulation has been well-known, which limits the maximum modulation frequency. Some solutions have been proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, we report another effect, i.e., undesired frequency chirping, which also relates to the performance degradation of PTS systems with DSB modulation, for the first time to our knowledge. Distinct from the nonlinearities caused by nonlinear modulation and square-law photodetection, which is common in radio frequency analog optical links, this frequency chirping originates from the addition of two beating signals with a relative delay after photodetection. A theoretical model for exactly describing the frequency chirping is presented, and is then verified by simulations. Discussion on the method to avoid the frequency chirping is also presented.

  20. Regime Shifts and Ecosystem Service Generation in Swedish Coastal Soft Bottom Habitats: When Resilience is Undesirable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Troell

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems can undergo regime shifts where they suddenly change from one state into another.  This can have important implications for formulation of management strategies, if system characteristics develop that are undesirable from a human perspective, and that have a high resistance to restoration efforts. This paper identifies some of the ecological and economic consequences of increased abundance of filamentous algae on shallow soft bottoms along the Swedish west coast. It is suggested that a successive increase in the sediment nutrient pool has undermined the resilience of these shallow systems. After the regime shift has occurred, self-generation properties evolve keeping the system locked in a high-density algae state. The structural and functional characteristics of the new system state differ significantly from the original one, resulting in less valuable ecosystem goods and services generated for society. In Sweden, loss of value results from the reduced capacity for mitigating further coastal eutrophication, reduced habitat quality for commercial fishery species, and the loss of aesthetic and recreational values.

  1. Tracking Progress in Improving Diagnosis: A Framework for Defining Undesirable Diagnostic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Andrew P J; Graber, Mark L; Singh, Hardeep

    2018-01-29

    Diagnostic error is a prevalent, harmful, and costly phenomenon. Multiple national health care and governmental organizations have recently identified the need to improve diagnostic safety as a high priority. A major barrier, however, is the lack of standardized, reliable methods for measuring diagnostic safety. Given the absence of reliable and valid measures for diagnostic errors, we need methods to help establish some type of baseline diagnostic performance across health systems, as well as to enable researchers and health systems to determine the impact of interventions for improving the diagnostic process. Multiple approaches have been suggested but none widely adopted. We propose a new framework for identifying "undesirable diagnostic events" (UDEs) that health systems, professional organizations, and researchers could further define and develop to enable standardized measurement and reporting related to diagnostic safety. We propose an outline for UDEs that identifies both conditions prone to diagnostic error and the contexts of care in which these errors are likely to occur. Refinement and adoption of this framework across health systems can facilitate standardized measurement and reporting of diagnostic safety.

  2. Role of Fault Attributions and Other Factors in Adults' Attitudes Toward Hypothetical Children With an Undesirable Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadian, Taylor W; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Jones, Tucker L; Barnett, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 184 adults read descriptions of six hypothetical children with various undesirable characteristics (i.e., being extremely overweight, extremely aggressive, extremely shy, a poor student, a poor athlete, displaying symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Following each description, the participants were asked to rate how much they disagree or agree that the child, the child's parents, and the child's biological condition (i.e., "something wrong inside the child's body or brain") are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the undesirable characteristic. In addition, the participants were asked to rate their attitude toward each child using a 100-point "feeling thermometer." Analyses of the participants' various fault attribution ratings revealed that they tended to agree more strongly that a child's parents and his/her biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic than is the child him/herself. Despite the participants' reluctance to blame a hypothetical child for his/her undesirable characteristic, regression analyses revealed that, in general, the more they blamed the child for the onset of his/her undesirable characteristic, the more negative their attitude was toward the child. However, the participants' ratings of the extent to which the child's parents or biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic were not found to be associated with their attitude toward any of the children. Similarities and differences between the present findings and those reported in prior studies involving younger individuals are addressed.

  3. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  4. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. DYSFUNCTION OF MONOCYTES AND DENDRITIC CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEK, A; VAN KASTEREN, Y; DE HAAN-MEULMAN, M; SCHOEMAKER, J; DREXHAGE, HA

    1993-01-01

    PROBLEM: Due to the presence of ovarian antibodies it has been suggested that premature ovarian failure (POF) belongs to the autoimmune endocrinopathies. Monocytes and the monocyte-derived dendritic cells play a prominent role in the initial stages of endocrine autoimmune reactions: the accumulation

  6. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  7. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  8. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  9. Treatment of apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; Schumacher, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, knowledge regarding the neurodevelopment and functional aspects of the respiratory centers during postnatal maturation has increased substantially. However, an increase in such knowledge has not provided a basis for change in practice. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity (AOP) is one of exclusion. All causes of secondary apnea must be ruled out before initiating treatment for AOP. Treatment will depend on the etiology as well as effectiveness and tolerability of the treatment by the patient. The primary goal of any treatment of AOP is to prevent the frequency of apnea lasting >20 seconds, and/or those that are shorter, but associated with cyanosis and bradycardia. The clinical management of AOP is not much different today than it was two decades ago, with pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options remaining the mainstay of therapy. Methylxanthines are still the most widely used pharmacologic agents. Due to the wider therapeutic index of caffeine and ease of once daily administration, it should be the preferred agent. Doxapram, or nonpharmacologic treatment measures such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure, may be considered in infants who are unresponsive to methylxanthine treatment alone. Treatment should be continued until there is complete resolution of apnea, and for some time thereafter. The choice of method for weaning treatment remains one of individual physician preference. Discharge from hospital after apnea requires close monitoring and some infants will require home apnea monitors. The decision to provide a home apnea monitor should be individualized for each patient, depending on the effectiveness of treatment and clinical response.

  10. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  11. IMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE LOSS OF PRIMARY MOLARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PETCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathology of premature loss of temporary molars is a complex issue with profound impact on dental and facial harmony, urging clinician`s interest for an optimal therapeutic approach. Identification of the predisposing factors, in full agreement with the anatomical particularities of the temporary teeth, corroborated with the incidence of premature loss of molars is a main condition for an optimal therapeutic management of these patients.

  12. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Picone, Simonetta; Aufieri,Roberto; Paolillo,Piermichele

    2014-01-01

    Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term ne...

  13. Apnea of prematurity: from cause to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jing; Gonzalez, Fernando; Mu, Dezhi

    2011-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants, likely secondary to a “physiologic” immaturity of respiratory control that may be exacerbated by neonatal disease. These include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states, while the roles of gastroesophageal reflux and anemia remain controversial. Standard clinical management of the obstructive subtype of AOP includes prone positioning and continuous positive or nasal intermittent...

  14. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  15. Anaphylaxis after administration of amikacin containing sodium metabisulfite in a premature newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendigelen, Pinar; BaktirClinic Of Anesthesiology And Reanimation Afşin State Hospital Afşin Kahramanmaraş Tureky, Mehmet; Sucu, Asena; Kaya, Guner

    2016-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and can cause death. Premature newborns, whose immunological system is immature, are less likely to develop anaphylaxis. Administration of amikacin, containing sodium metabisulfite, to a 3-day-old premature newborn, induced a near fatal anaphylaxis. After suspicion of sepsis, the baby was started on amikacin. Clinical improvement was observed after initiation of treatment. On the third day of treatment with amikacin, the newborn suddenly developed tachypnea, tachycardia, angioedema and cyanosis. Anaphylaxis was diagnosed and treated. Latent reaction occurred after one hour of clinical improvement. The baby was intubated immediately. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency; therefore the clinicians should have a rapid and careful assessment about this potentially fatal reaction. Even after successful treatment of anaphylaxis, the patient should be under observation for 72 hours because of the possibility of a biphasic reaction. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. Techniques Use by Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Teachers for Controlling Undesirable Classroom Behaviours in Anambra State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinelo, Okigbo Ebele; Nwanneka, Okoli Josephine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the techniques used by secondary school Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) teachers in controlling undesirable behaviours in their classrooms. It adopted descriptive survey design in which 178 Anambra State teachers teaching STM subjects in senior secondary were involved in the research. Two sections of questionnaire…

  17. The Emperor’s New Clothing: National Responses to “Undesirable and Unreturnable” Aliens under Asylum and Immigration Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantor, David James; van Wijk, J.; Singer, Sarah; Bolhuis, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    The “scandal” of foreign criminals whom our governments cannot send back to their own countries has become something of a tabloid obsession. Yet, while suspected or convicted of serious crimes or considered to pose a danger to society, such “undesirable and unreturnable” aliens equally often

  18. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  19. Premature ovarian failure in twins: case report | Wanyoike-Gichuhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature ovarian failure (POF)is a serious life-changing condition that affects young women, remains an enigma and the researchers' challenge. POF, premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), premature menopause, premature dysfunction (POD), or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is one of the most perplexing disorders ...

  20. Phosphate binders affect vitamin K concentration by undesired binding, an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neradova, A; Schumacher, S P; Hubeek, I; Lux, P; Schurgers, L J; Vervloet, M G

    2017-05-02

    Vascular calcification is a major contributing factor to mortality in end stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite the efficacy of phosphate binders to improve hyperphosphatemia, data on vascular calcification are less clear. There seems to be a difference in attenuation or delay in progression between different binders. In this in vitro experiment we tested whether phosphate binders could limit bioavailability of vitamin K2 by undesired binding. Vitamin K-deficiency limits activation of the vascular tissue mineralization inhibitor matrix γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) protein (MGP) thereby exacerbating vascular calcification. In this experiment vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7; MK-7) binding was assessed by adding 1 mg of vitamin K2 to a medium with pH 6 containing 67 mg phosphate binder with either 7 mg of phosphate or no phosphate. Five different phosphate binders were tested. After five and a half hours vitamin K was analyzed by HPLC. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Sucroferric-oxyhydroxide and sevelamer carbonate did not significantly bind vitamin K2, both in solution only containing vitamin K2 or in combination with phosphate. Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate binds vitamin K2 strongly both in absence (p = 0.001) and presence of phosphate (p = 0.003). Lanthanum carbonate significantly binds vitamin K2 in solution containing only vitamin K2 (p = 0.005) whereas no significant binding of vitamin K2 was observed in the solution containing vitamin K2 and phosphate (p = 0.462). Calcium carbonate binds vitamin K2 significantly in a solution with vitamin K2 and phosphate (p = 0.009) whereas without phosphate no significant binding of vitamin K2 was observed (p = 0.123). Sucroferric-oxyhydroxide and sevelamer carbonate were the only binders of the five binders studied that did not bind vitamin K2 in vitro. The presence or absence of phosphate significantly interferes with vitamin K2 binding so phosphate binders could potentially limit

  1. Safety Analysis for Pentavaccine Used in Premature Infants: Family Vaccination Centre’s Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. А. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined vaccines containing non-cellular pertussis component and having low reactogenicity, increase vaccination coverage against controllable infections. However, the safety of vaccination in children dealing with health issues, as well as those having a history of premature infancy, requires additional research. The article presents reactogenicity analysis for the DTP-IPV/HIB pentavaccine during primary vaccination and revaccination of premature infants (n = 85, as well as vaccination of mature newborns (n = 1433 inoculated in accordance with the national Vaccination Calendar behind the schedule. The occurrence of post-vaccinal reactions in the premature infant group was the same as in the mature infant group and amounted to 41.2% and 45.0%; the occurrence of common reactions was 18.8% and 22.4%; local effects measured 25.8% and 27.9% respectively. Post-vaccinal reactions were either weak or moderate, not requiring treatment, and they would completely disappear by the end of the third post-vaccinal day. Simultaneous injection of pentavaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with a history of premature infancy, showed no influence during the post-vaccinal period. The reactogenicity of pentavaccine increased along with the vaccination ratio during the primary series of vaccinations. 

  2. Premature progesterone rise in ART-cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, B; Melado, L; Fatemi, H M

    2018-01-06

    Premature rise of progesterone during the late follicular phase in stimulated IVF cycles is a frequent event and its effect on the endometrial receptivity and on the ART (Assisted Reproductive Technique) - outcome has become a matter of intense debate and research. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates that premature progesterone rise does have a negative impact on the outcome of the ART-success. Until now, the exact cause of progesterone elevation is not fully clear, however lately published studies points to the fact, that premature progesterone elevation might be caused by enhanced FSH stimulation. The impact of elevated peripheral progesterone levels seems to be mainly on the endometrium and the window of implantation, leading to an asynchrony between the endometrium and the developing embryo. Hence, new data show additional an influence on the embryo quality. This review aims to summarize the up-to-date knowledge on the causes of premature progesterone rise during hormonal stimulation, on its influence on endometrial receptivity and embryo quality, on the impact on pregnancy and live birth rates as well as on the possible strategies to prevent this event or to deal with premature progesterone elevation in case it could not be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  4. Order and control in the environment: Exploring the effects on undesired behaviour and the importance of locus of control

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, A.M.; Giebels, Ellen; van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Austrup, Sebastian; Junger, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed at gaining more insight into the combined influence of environmental factors and personal vulnerability to environmental cues on cheating behaviour in a task-related indoor setting. We propose that a disorderly environment increases cheating as it implicitly signals that undesirable behaviours are common. Camera presence is expected to buffer these effects. We included locus of control (LOC) as a personality variable, as we expected individuals with an external LOC to...

  5. Profile of Indian patients with premature canities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepashree Daulatabad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature canities is a common yet incompletely understood dermatological entity with scarce demographic and clinical data. Aim: Evaluation of the demographic and clinical profile of cases with premature canities and to look for systemic associations. Methods: Fifty two self-reported cases of premature canities (onset before 20 years of age and an equal number of healthy controls were recruited from the outpatient department of the Department of Dermatology, Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital Delhi, India from November 2011 to March 2013. A detailed history including onset, duration and pattern of involvement, a family history with pedigree charting and scalp examination were recorded on a predesigned proforma. A history of atopy was looked for in all study subjects and they were screened for thyroid disorder and diabetes. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was comparable. The mean age of onset of graying was 11.6 ± 3.6 years. The mean duration at the time of presentation was 39.8 ± 37.2 months. The frontal region was the earliest affected area in 25 (48.1% cases. Positive family history of premature canities was reported in 39 (75% cases with an equal prevalence on paternal and maternal sides. More than half of the cases, 29 (55.8% reported having a first degree relative affected by premature canities, 13 (25% had a second degree and 20 (38.5% had a third degree relative affected. Atopy was found to be strongly associated with premature canities with an odds ratio of 3.8. No association with thyroid abnormality or diabetes mellitus was seen. Limitation: The study suffered from the limitation of a small sample size. Conclusion: It was observed that the process of graying mostly starts in the frontal region. It was also found to be associated with a strong family history and atopic predisposition. Larger studies are recommended to arrive at a definite conclusion.

  6. Radiation-induced premature menopause: a misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Berit L.; Giudice, Linda; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To disprove the common view that women who have undergone irradiation to fields excluding the pelvis are at risk for radiation-induced premature menopause, we reviewed menstrual function and fertility among women treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. Methods and Materials: Treatment and follow-up records of all women less than age 50 at the time of diagnosis of Stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease, treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation alone and enrolled in radiotherapy trials from 1967 to 1985, were reviewed. In addition, patients were surveyed regarding their menstrual status and fertility history. Results: Thirty-six women, aged 10 to 40 years, with normal menstrual function at the time of Hodgkin's diagnosis, were identified. Mean follow-up was 14 years, with a range of 1.25-22.75 years. The average radiation dose to mantle and paraaortic fields was 40-44 Gy; the calculated scatter radiation dose to the pelvis at the ovaries was 3.2 Gy. There were 38 pregnancies in 18 women; all offspring are normal. One of 36 women (2.7%) experienced premature menopause. The reported rate of premature menopause in women who have not undergone irradiation is 1-3%; not significantly different than the rate in our study. There is a syndrome whereby antibodies to several endocrine organs occur (including the ovary), which is associated with premature ovarian failure. This syndrome may be associated with prior radiation to the thyroid, such as that given by mantle-irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. We report such a case. Conclusion: There is little risk of premature menopause in women treated with radiation fields that exclude the pelvis. Women with presumed radiation-induced premature menopause warrant an evaluation to exclude other causes of ovarian failure, such as autoimmune disorders

  7. Hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization in zebrafish embryos: a potential model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Kao, Alex; Hsi, Brian; Lee, Shwu-Huey; Chen, Yau-Hung; Wang, I-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity, formerly known as a retrolental fibroplasia, is a leading cause of infantile blindness worldwide. Retinopathy of prematurity is caused by the failure of central retinal vessels to reach the retinal periphery, creating a nonperfused peripheral retina, resulting in retinal hypoxia, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, vitreoretinal fibrosis, and loss of vision. We established a potential retinopathy of prematurity model by using a green fluorescent vascular endothelium zebrafish transgenic line treated with cobalt chloride (a hypoxia-inducing agent), followed by GS4012 (a vascular endothelial growth factor inducer) at 24 hours postfertilization, and observed that the number of vascular branches and sprouts significantly increased in the central retinal vascular trunks 2-4 days after treatment. We created an angiography method by using tetramethylrhodamine dextran, which exhibited severe vascular leakage through the vessel wall into the surrounding retinal tissues. The quantification of mRNA extracted from the heads of the larvae by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed a twofold increase in vegfaa and vegfr2 expression compared with the control group, indicating increased vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in the hypoxic condition. In addition, we demonstrated that the hypoxic insult could be effectively rescued by several antivascular endothelial growth factor agents such as SU5416, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab. In conclusion, we provide a simple, highly reproducible, and clinically relevant retinopathy of prematurity model based on zebrafish embryos; this model may serve as a useful platform for clarifying the mechanisms of human retinopathy of prematurity and its progression.

  8. Role of intracellular infections in premature childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurabishvili, S; Mamamtavrishvili, I; Apridonidze, K; Shanidze, L

    2005-09-01

    Vaginal Smear taken by sterile Folkman spoon from 15 women with premature birth was studied. The study was performed by the direct immune fluorescence method with the luminescence microscope. We aimed to study the effect of intracellular infections: ureaplasma urealitikum, mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus of I and II type and cytomegalovirus. Intracellular infections were detected in at about 82% of cases, which included mono infections with cytomegalovirus and in 9 cases in the form of bi-component associations. The obtained results may be interesting from the etiologic point of view of premature births in Georgian population.

  9. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 47-52

  10. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  11. [Adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suástegui-Rodríguez, Irvin; Campos-Jiménez, Karin Ivette; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs are any undesirable change in the structure or function of the skin. These are among the adverse side effects to common drugs. The most commonly implicated drugs are antibiotics and anticonvulsants. Cutaneous clinical manifestations are diverse ranging from mild or moderate reactions, such as urticaria and maculopapular rash, to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), which are known due to their high morbidity and mortality (among these: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The clinical pattern, etiology, prognosis and treatment differ among these skin reactions, which is why it is necessary a clear diagnosis based on a comprehensive clinical examination, skin biopsy, and specific laboratory tests. The therapeutic options depend on the clinical diagnosis. For all reactions, a symptomatic and adequate supportive therapy is necessary; in some cases, a systemic immunomodulatory therapy can be useful.

  12. Follow-up study on premature infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, R; O'Keefe, M

    1993-01-01

    The ocular complications in population of 131 premature infants, with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are reported. An increased incidence of strabismus (20% with ROP and 25% without ROP) and myopia (27.5% with ROP and 8.8% without ROP) was shown. Significant visual loss occurred in 10.7% overall, increasing to 35% with stage 3 disease and 100% with stage 4. With the increased survival rate of premature infants, the relevance to future management of this expanding group of young ...

  13. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  14. Psychological and Educational Sequelae of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Psychological and educational correlates of prematurity in children during four periods, the last at 7 years of age, were assessed as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 241 infants classified by birth weight, gestational age, and sex to determine later functioning in school. (Author/MC)

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity screening criteria and workload ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Screening guidelines for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) used in high-income countries are not appropriate for middleincome countries, and screening requirements may vary even between units within one city. Objective. To determine optimal ROP screening criteria, and its workload implications, ...

  16. Organizational behavior of the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, M V

    1979-01-01

    The ability of the premature infant to organize behavior was described in relation to auditory, kinesthetic, and vestibular stimulation. Twenty infants from 31--36 weeks gestation were shown to have heart rate responses to auditory stimuli. The 31 week infant showed deceleration, while 32--36 week infants showed comparable patterns of acceleration followed by deceleration.

  17. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  18. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  19. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Davis, Peter; Doyle, Lex W; Barrington, Keith J; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win; Pfister, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    Methylxanthines reduce the frequency of apnea of prematurity and the need for mechanical ventilation during the first seven days of therapy. It is uncertain whether methylxanthines have other short- and long-term benefits or risks in infants with very low birth weight.

  20. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  1. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  2. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  3. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  4. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Unilateral submandibular suppurative sialadenitis in a premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T. R.; Grooters, E.; Frijns, J. H. M.; Walther, F. J.

    2003-01-01

    Isolated submandibular suppurative sialadenitis is extremely rare in newborn infants and is associated with prematurity and prolonged gavage feeding. This report describes a premature infant who developed a life-threatening airway obstruction due to suppurative submandibular sialadenitis. The

  6. Apnea and bradycardia in two premature infants during routine outpatient retinopathy of prematurity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael G; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2009-10-01

    Two unrelated premature infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were discharged home from a neonatal intensive care unit. Appropriately timed ROP examinations were performed in an outpatient setting in a free-standing pediatric ophthalmologist's private office remote from any hospital. The infants developed severe apnea and bradycardia at the end of the ROP examinations. As a result, a new protocol for outpatient ROP screening was developed.

  7. In vivo imaging of cell proliferation for a dynamic, whole body, analysis of undesired drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Nicoletta; Manni, Isabella; Vantaggiato, Cristina; Delledonne, Giacomo Andrea; Gentileschi, Maria Pia; Maggi, Adriana; Piaggio, Giulia; Ciana, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Noninvasive in vivo imaging offers a novel approach to preclinical studies opening the possibility of investigating biological events in the spatiotemporal dimension (eg, in any district of the body in time). Toxicological analysis may benefit from this novel approach through precise identification of the time and the target organs of toxicity manifestations, and assessment of the reversibility of toxic insults. The current limitation for routine application of this technology is the lack of appropriate surrogate markers for imaging toxicological events. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo imaging of a proliferation marker is capable of measuring the reduction of cell proliferation due to genotoxic/apoptotic agents, γ rays or antineoplastic drugs, or the increased proliferation associated with the inflammatory and regenerative reactions occurring after a toxic insult. A number of tools are currently available for imaging proliferation in preclinical and clinical settings, however our data provide a novel way to translate the evidence of toxic effects obtained in preclinical animal studies, by the direct, noninvasive measure of dividing cells in humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dedolomitization and Alkali Reactions in Ohio-sourced Dolstone Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Concrete samples produced using NW-Ohio sourced aggregates were evaluated for susceptibility to degradation and premature failure due to cracks formed by the volume expansion during hydration of silica gels produced by alkali-silica reactions between...

  9. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome: a well-defined congenital ichthyosis subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Westermark, Per; Brandrup, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of premature birth, thick caseous desquamating epidermis, and neonatal asphyxia. We describe two siblings with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. The index patient was born at gestational week 34. Immediately after....... The parents recalled that his elder sister had similar but milder skin changes and respiratory distress syndrome at birth. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome was suggested and the diagnosis supported by electron microscopy of a skin biopsy specimen showing pathognomonic trilamellar membrane aggregations...

  10. Using the incidence and impact of behavioural conditions in guide dogs to investigate patterns in undesirable behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Harvey, Naomi D.; England, Gary C.W.; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog is one of our most popular companions and longest relationships, occupying different roles, from pet to working guide dog for the blind. As dogs age different behavioural issues occur and in some cases dogs may be relinquished or removed from their working service. Here we analyse a dataset on working guide dogs that were removed from their service between 1994 and 2013. We use the withdrawal reasons as a proxy for the manifestation of undesirable behaviour. More than 7,500 d...

  11. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in premature rupture of membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Maissa Marçola Scandiuzzi; Thiago Cerizza Pinheiro; André Afonso Nimtz Rodrigues; Fernando Antonio Maria Claret Alcadipani

    2014-01-01

    Introducion: pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes (PROM) are associated with bad outcomes and controvertial management. Although underlain mechanism is unknown, strong evidences point infection as the main cause underneath preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labour. Objective: to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Method: retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnanci...

  12. Relationship of Therapist Attitudes at Intake to Client Premature Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    Most research on premature termination from therapy has focused on client attitudes. This study examined therapists' attitudes toward their own behavior and toward their clients at intake in relation to premature termination. Premature termination was studied after different numbers of sessions to determine the relationship of therapist attitudes…

  13. Factors associated with mortality among premature babies admitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prematurity, birth asphyxia and infections are the leading causes of neonatal mortality globally. This study was conducted to determine the mortality and associated factors among premature neonates at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza-Tanzania. Methods: One hundred and three premature neonates ...

  14. Premature graying of hair: An independent risk marker for coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with 3.24 times the risk of CAD on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with an increased risk of CAD in young smokers. Premature graying of hair can be used as preliminary evidence by ...

  15. Vitamin B-6 metabolism in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, D J; Reynolds, R D; Andon, M B; Robbins, S T; Fletcher, A B

    1991-01-01

    The response of premature infants to intravenous pyridoxine or pyridoxal was studied by measuring serum and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). In the first study serum PLP was measured in 28 infants periodically through day 28. Infants less than 30 wk gestational age (GA) had no serum PLP response to the administration of pyridoxine. Infants greater than or equal to 30 wk GA had significantly greater concentrations of PLP by day 3. In the second study there was a negligible response of serum PLP in nine infants less than or equal to 28 wk GA to supplementation of pyridoxine or pyridoxal. However, erythrocyte PLP and whole-blood total vitamin B-6 concentrations increased in both groups, indicating the presence of a substantial amount of the vitamin in the circulation of the infants. Whereas the functional significance of these observations is not known, it appears that in premature infants, serum PLP may not be an appropriate indicator of vitamin B-6 status.

  16. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... subgroups were studied based on a cut-off point of ≥720 PACs/day termed frequent PACs (n = 66) and not frequent PACs with ... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  17. Apnea of prematurity: from cause to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Gonzalez, Fernando; Mu, Dezhi

    2011-09-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants, likely secondary to a "physiologic" immaturity of respiratory control that may be exacerbated by neonatal disease. These include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states, while the roles of gastroesophageal reflux and anemia remain controversial. Standard clinical management of the obstructive subtype of AOP includes prone positioning and continuous positive or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation to prevent pharyngeal collapse and alveolar atelectasis, while methylxanthine therapy is a mainstay of treatment of central apnea by stimulating the central nervous system and respiratory muscle function. Other therapies, including kangaroo care, red blood cell transfusions, and CO(2) inhalation, require further study. The physiology and pathophysiology behind AOP are discussed, including the laryngeal chemoreflex and sensitivity to inhibitory neurotransmitters, as are the mechanisms by which different therapies may work and the potential long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of AOP and its treatment.

  18. Is premature ejaculation an impulse control disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Özdemir

    2012-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation that occurs before the participant wishes to ejaculate and is associated with marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are grouped as a heterogeneous cluster of disorders linked by a "failure to resist" impulses to engage in harmful, disturbing or distressing behaviours. I hypothesise that premature ejaculation is an impulse control disorder. ICDs share features with PE aspects of impaired control, rapid responses to stimuli and hypersensitivity. These disorders often occur with subjective and social distress for patients. In addition to these features, the neurotransmitter systems have been similarly implicated in ICDs and PE. The same treatment options further support a relationship between ICDs and PE. The behaviours likely exist on a spectrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A dosimetric system for the evaluation of undesired neutron dose in radiotherapy treatments with protons: experimental method and MC simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanini, A. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Fasolo, F.; Ongaro, C.; Durisi, E. [Torino Univ., Torino (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale; Nastasi, U. [Ospedale S. Giovanni, Torino (Italy); Scielzo, G.; Fabris, M. [IRCC, Candiolo (Italy); Burn, K.W. [ENEA ERGSPIEC, Bologna (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Linear accelerator is nowadays the most used radiotherapy device to treat tumour disease. In a number of cases secondary malignancies, due to the undesired dose delivered to the patient, could arise. The optimization of radiotherapy treatment can be obtained only through an accurate evaluation of the undesired dose. A method is presented to evaluate the photoneutron dose produced by GDR during cancer radiotherapy with energetic proton beams. It consists of a computer simulation code based on MCNP4B, in which the new routine GAMMAN was implemented, for the accurate study of photoneutron production in high Z and low Z elements. An experimental technique, based on a bubble passive spectrometer, allows direct measurements of photoneutron spectra at the patient plane, also inside the treatment zone. For the evaluation of neutron contribution to the dose at clinical organs, a new anthropomorphic phantom has been designed and realized, following ICRP60 recommendations. The results are presented for medical accelerators, equipped both with traditional collimator system and with multi leaf collimators.

  20. Conceptualizing pathways linking women's empowerment and prematurity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Altman, Molly; Musana, Joseph; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-11-08

    Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings. We propose a conceptual model that shows pathways by which women's empowerment can affect prematurity and review and summarize the literature supporting the relationships we posit. We also suggest future directions for research on women's empowerment and prematurity. The key words we used for empowerment in the search were "empowerment," "women's status," "autonomy," and "decision-making," and for prematurity we used "preterm," "premature," and "prematurity." We did not use date, language, and regional restrictions. The search was done in PubMed, Population Information Online (POPLINE), and Web of Science. We selected intervening factors-factors that could potentially mediate the relationship between empowerment and prematurity-based on reviews of the risk factors and interventions to address prematurity and the determinants of those factors. There is limited evidence supporting a direct link between women's empowerment and prematurity. However, there is evidence linking several dimensions of empowerment to factors known to be associated with prematurity and outcomes for premature babies. Our review of the literature shows that women's empowerment may reduce prematurity by (1) preventing early marriage and promoting family planning, which will delay age at first pregnancy and increase interpregnancy intervals; (2) improving women's nutritional status; (3) reducing domestic violence and other stressors to improve psychological health; and (4) improving

  1. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Eskicioğlu; Esra Bahar Gur

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM). Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1) were evaluated in terms of effec...

  2. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA); Emil ANTON; Sorana Caterina ANTON

    2016-01-01

    The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amn...

  3. Premature hair graying and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr-Walker, B J; Evans, M C; Ames, R W; Clearwater, J M; Reid, I R

    1997-11-01

    In a recent case-control study, premature hair graying was found to be associated with osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk factor for osteoporosis. We report a reexamination of this possibility in 293 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects experiencing onset of hair graying in their 20s tended to have lower bone mineral density throughout the skeleton (adjusted for age and weight) than those with onset of graying later in life. The same was true for those in whom the majority of their hair was gray by the age of 40 yr (n = 16), in whom bone density was reduced by 7% in the femoral neck, 8% in the femoral trochanter, and 4% in the total body (P gray. Bone density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle showed similar trends that were not significant. However, premature hair graying explained only 0.6-1.3% of the variance in bone mineral density within the population. We conclude that premature hair graying is associated with low bone density, but that its infrequency in the normal postmenopausal population leads to its accounting for only a tiny fraction of the variance of bone density.

  4. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Raffael; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2016-01-01

    More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess) as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1) and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. PMID:28539804

  5. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Davis, Peter; Doyle, Lex W; Barrington, Keith J; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win

    2006-05-18

    Methylxanthines reduce the frequency of apnea of prematurity and the need for mechanical ventilation during the first seven days of therapy. It is uncertain whether methylxanthines have other short- and long-term benefits or risks in infants with very low birth weight. We randomly assigned 2006 infants with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g during the first 10 days of life to receive either caffeine or placebo, until drug therapy for apnea of prematurity was no longer needed. We evaluated the short-term outcomes before the first discharge home. Of 963 infants who were assigned to caffeine and who remained alive at a postmenstrual age of 36 weeks, 350 (36 percent) received supplemental oxygen, as did 447 of the 954 infants (47 percent) assigned to placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.76; Papnea of prematurity reduces the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants with very low birth weight. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00182312.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  6. Prematurity Affects Age of Presentation of Pyloric Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Caitlyn M; Vinocur, Charles; Berman, Loren

    2017-02-01

    Term infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) typically present between 4 and 6 weeks. There is limited consensus, however, regarding age of presentation of premature infants. We aim to determine if there is an association between the degree of prematurity and chronological age of presentation of HPS. A total of 2988 infants who had undergone a pyloromyotomy for HPS were identified from the 2012 and 2013 NSQIP-P Participant Use Files. Two hundred seventeen infants (7.3%) were born prematurely. A greater degree of prematurity was associated with an older chronological age of presentation ( P Prematurity was significantly associated with an increase in overall postoperative morbidity, reintubation, readmission, and postoperative length of stay. When clinicians evaluate an infant with nonbilious emesis with a history of prematurity, they should consider pyloric stenosis if the calculated postconceptional age is between 44 and 50 weeks. When counseling families of premature infants, surgeons should discuss the increased incidence of postpyloromyotomy morbidity.

  7. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  8. Negative symbolic aspects in destination branding: exploring the role of the 'undesired self' on web-based vacation information search intentions among potential first-time visitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bosnjak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tourist destination choices depend, among other factors, on the match between the destination’s personality image and consumers’ self-concept, in line with self-image congruence theory. Motives also mediate this relationship, yet tourism research largely neglects the influence of avoidance motives. This study applies the product-based construct of undesired congruity, or consumers’ tendency to avoid undesired stereotypical images, to the context of web-based vacation destination information s...

  9. Nanofluids and chemical highly retentive hydrogels for controlled and selective removal of overpaintings and undesired graffiti from street art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Michele; Baglioni, Piero

    2017-06-01

    One of the main problems connected to the conservation of street art is the selective removal of overlying undesired graffiti, i.e., drawings and tags. Unfortunately, selective and controlled removal of graffiti and overpaintings from street art is almost unachievable using traditional methodologies. Recently, the use of nanofluids confined in highly retentive pHEMA/PVP semi-interpenetrated polymer networks was proposed. Here, we report on the selective removal of acrylic overpaintings from a layer of acrylic paint on mortar mockups in laboratory tests. The results of the cleaning tests were characterized by visual and photographic observation, optical microscopy, and FT-IR microreflectance investigation. It was shown that this methodology represents a major advancement with respect to the use of nonconfined neat solvents.

  10. Rapid detection of undesired cosmetic ingredients by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; An, Dongli; Chen, Tengteng; Lin, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, cosmetic industry profits soared due to the widespread use of cosmetics, which resulted in illicit manufacturers and products of poor quality. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of the composition of cosmetics has become crucial. At present, numerous methods, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were available for the analysis of cosmetic ingredients. However, these methods present several limitations, such as failure to perform comprehensive and rapid analysis of the samples. Compared with other techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry offered the advantages of wide detection range, fast speed and high accuracy. In this article, we briefly summarized how to select a suitable matrix and adjust the appropriate laser energy. We also discussed the rapid identification of undesired ingredients, focusing on antibiotics and hormones in cosmetics.

  11. Diamagnetic composite material structure for reducing undesired electromagnetic interference and eddy currents in dielectric wall accelerators and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Poole, Brian R.; Hawkins, Steven A.

    2015-06-30

    The devices, systems and techniques disclosed here can be used to reduce undesired effects by magnetic field induced eddy currents based on a diamagnetic composite material structure including diamagnetic composite sheets that are separated from one another to provide a high impedance composite material structure. In some implementations, each diamagnetic composite sheet includes patterned conductor layers are separated by a dielectric material and each patterned conductor layer includes voids and conductor areas. The voids in the patterned conductor layers of each diamagnetic composite sheet are arranged to be displaced in position from one patterned conductor layer to an adjacent patterned conductor layer while conductor areas of the patterned conductor layers collectively form a contiguous conductor structure in each diamagnetic composite sheet to prevent penetration by a magnetic field.

  12. Assessment of hormonal activity in patients with premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfi Canat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014 was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies.

  13. A new way of thinking about complications of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tiffany A; Berger, Ann M; Wilson, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of preterm infants are impacted by their ability to maintain physiologic homeostasis using metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic mechanisms independent of the mother's placenta. Exploring McEwen's allostatic load model in preterm infants provides a new way to understand the altered physiologic processes associated with frequently occurring complications of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. The purpose of this article is to present a new model to enhance understanding of the altered physiologic processes associated with complications of prematurity. The model of allostatic load and complications of prematurity was derived to explore the relationship between general stress of prematurity and complications of prematurity. The proposed model uses the concepts of general stress of prematurity, allostasis, physiologic response patterns (adaptive-maladaptive), allostatic load, and complications of prematurity. These concepts are defined and theoretical relationships in the proposed model are interpreted using the four maladaptive response patterns of repeated hits, lack of adaptation, prolonged response, and inadequate response. Empirical evidence for cortisol, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses are used to support the theoretical relationships. The proposed model provides a new way of thinking about physiologic dysregulation in preterm infants. The ability to describe and understand complex physiologic mechanisms involved in complications of prematurity is essential for research. Advancing the knowledge of complications of prematurity will advance clinical practice and research and lead to testing of interventions to reduce negative outcomes in preterm infants.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liegl R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1 and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. Keywords: ROP, IGF-1, insulin growth factor 1

  15. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia in a premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Al-Dossary, Fahad; Demmler, Gail J

    2002-01-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is a normal component of the human vaginal flora and commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis. Invasive infection in obstetrical patients due to G. vaginalis has also been reported. In the pediatric age range, infection due to G. vaginalis is extremely rare and limited to neonates. We describe a 23-week premature infant with G. vaginalis bacteremia and review the characteristics of neonatal G. vaginalis infection reported in the literature. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of G. vaginalis isolates has shown that penicillin, ampicillin, erthromycin, clindamycin, and vancomycin are effective in vitro.

  16. Premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononetz, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications

  17. undesirability , wit h relevance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banzi

    disciplined environment; they were housed, fed, clothed and gainfully employed. The dissolution of the English monasteries in the late 15th century resulted in the vagrancy problem. This early example of kleptocracy had major social repercussions and led to parliament passing the Poor Laws (vide infra). The feudal system.

  18. VACCINATION OF PREMATURE INFANTS AND CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN IRKUTSK USING CONJUGATED PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Il'ina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: analyzing the results of pneumococcal infection vaccination conducted to reduce infantile morbidity and mortality in 2011-2012 at the expenses of the Irkutsk municipal budget. Patients and methods. Vaccination using the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was conducted for more than 700 risk group children: premature infants, children with congenital heart diseases or bronchopulmonary dysplasia from 2 months to 2 years of age. 193 vaccinated children had been observed for 1.5 years. 30% of premature infants and 46% of children with congenital heart diseases were vaccinated using the PCV7/PCV13 vaccine at the age of 2-6 months, 52 and 40% - at the age of 7-11 months, accordingly. The PCV7/PCV13 vaccine was administered together with other vaccines of the national preventive vaccination calendar in 65% of cases. Results. Rate of general post-vaccinal reactions (body temperature increase from 37.6 to 38.0oC – 4%; no local reactions were registered. No other unfavorable phenomena were noted in the post-vaccinal period. No cases of pneumonia, meningitis, acute otitis media and bronchoobstructive syndrome were registered within the observation period. Conclusions: pneumococcal infection vaccination of premature infants with congenital heart diseases and bronchopulmonary dysplasia conducted in Irkutsk proved high efficacy and safety of the used vaccine – PCV7/PCV13. 

  19. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE REDUCTION OF PREMATURITY THROUGH PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES IN 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOLOTA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from literature, especially from the US, has provided data on prediction, prevention and treatment of premature membrane rupture (RPM. RPM is a significant cause of premature birth and can cause complications of a term task. Considerable research on RPM has led to a better understanding of the mechanism of spontaneous breakage of membranes, risk factors, and good results for newborns resulting from such obstetrical events. Spontaneous rupture of the membranes increases the risk of intrauterine infection and umbilical cord compression as well as the risk of premature detachment of placenta. Newborn babies resulting from RPM have an increased risk of morbidity compared to gestational age, and the risk of infection is increased compared with other premature babies due to ancillary causes. If RPM occurs in the second trimester, there is an additional risk of pulmonary hypoplasia and hip dysplasia. Pre-term conservative treatment prolongs latency to birth. Antibiotics reduce the risk of infection while corticosteroid treatment (dexamethasone reduces respiratory complications and interventricular haemorrhage without increasing the risk of infection. Birth is necessary or unavoidable in many cases by RPMs and because conservative treatment often results in no results; That is why studies are needed to identify all risk factors and the need to treat pregnant women at risk of RPM; 17-hydroxy-progesterone is a specific treatment for preventing recurrent membrane rupture. (http://www.ginecologultau.ro/ruptura-prematura-a-membranelor, 2013.

  20. [Analysis on the result of retinopathy of prematurity screening in 1225 premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ji; Feng, Jia; Gu, Mei-hong; Shi, Cai-ping; Zheng, Xiao-yu; Zhu, Hui-hui; Xie, Hua-ying

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the factors involved in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to provide the preliminary data for the evaluation of current criteria for ROP screening. Premature infants with birth body weight (BBW) ≤ 2000 g or gestational age (GA) ≤ 34 weeks in the two hospitals in Zhejiang between March 2005 and November 2008 were recruited and examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy. The records were analyzed. One thousand two hundred and twenty-five premature infants were included. Of them, 713 were male and 512 female. There were 179 twins and 21 triplets in the premature infants. The incidence of ROP was 10.8% (132 in 1225 patients). There were 12 cases (0.98%) to the point of pre threshold ROP. 4 cases (0.3%) developed threshold ROP. Only one case developed pre threshold ROP of low risk among 65 cases without history of oxygen treatment (1.5%). The percentage has significant difference compared to that of cases with history of oxygen (χ(2) = 5.115, P BBW(F = 26.39, P 0.05) or twins and triplets (χ(2) = 3.449, P > 0.05). The incidence of ROP among premature infants with BBW ≤ 1000 g was more than three times of that with BBW > 1000 g, and the incidence of ROP among premature infants with GA ≤ 28 weeks was about 2.5 times of that with GA > 28 weeks. Logistic regression analysis indicated that less BBW or shorter GA or undulation of blood oxygen concentration was a significant risk factor involved in the development of ROP (r = 0.57, P BBW, shorter GA and undulation of blood oxygen concentration are the important risk factors for the development of ROP. Premature infants with BBW ≤ 1000 g or GA ≤ 28 weeks, who had oxygen history, should be given very special attention in the ROP screening. The current criteria for ROP screening should be narrowed. In general, the ROP screening has lowered the incidence of blindness among children by investigating and treating ROP timely.

  1. PERINATAL AND MATERNAL OUTCOME IN PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    OpenAIRE

    Mercy Rodrigo; Abiramavalli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objectives of this study are 1) To find out the incidence of premature rupture of membranes, 2) To evaluate the aetiology of premature rupture of membranes, 3) To assess foetal and maternal outcome in premature rupture of membranes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective case control study was conducted in Govt. RSRM Lying In Hospital, Chennai, over a period of 6 months and 100 cases of spontaneous rupture of membranes attending the Department of Obstetrics an...

  2. 'Rush' type retinopathy of prematurity: report of three cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Kremer, I; Gilad, E; Cohen, S; Ben-Sira, I

    1987-01-01

    Three premature infants observed to develop severe stage III retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3 to 5 weeks of age received immediate treatment by cryoablation and photocoagulation, with good results. The critical importance of the ophthalmic examination of premature babies from the age of 2 weeks, so as not to overlook such cases of 'rush' type ROP is stressed and the difficulty involved in treating such small neonates is discussed.

  3. Premature centromere division and other centromeric misbehavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, P.H. [Christchurch School of Medicine (New Zealand)

    1993-12-31

    Premature centromere division was initially described for the X chromosome. In an otherwise typical metaphase cell, one chromosome showed no primary constriction and appeared to have no centromere. G-banding analysis indicated that this apparent acentric fragment was an entire X chromosome. Because its centromere was divided when the centromeres of all other chromosomes of the metaphase cell were entire, the condition was described as premature centromere division (PCD). The importance of PCD lies in its being a mechanism on non-disjunction, as was indicated by the strong association of X chromosome aneuploidy with PCD,X. We can infer that the affected chromosome failed to take part in the normal distribution of chromosomes at mitoses. The centromere, it its widest sense, is generally believed to have a role in the correct orientation of chromosomes at the metaphase plate and the distribution of chromatids to the spindle poles. The failure of these functions implies a major centromeric dysfunction. What do we know of this complex region of the chromosome that might help us understand its dysfunction?

  4. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  5. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  6. The Neural Retina in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Akula, James D.; Fulton, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP. PMID:27671171

  7. The neural retina in retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ronald M; Moskowitz, Anne; Akula, James D; Fulton, Anne B

    2017-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A primer on Apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Laura A

    2005-06-01

    Apnea, the cessation of respiratory airflow, can begin in many preterm infants in the first week of life and can last until the day of discharge or beyond. This article provides an overview of the complex anatomic, physiological, and developmental mechanisms related to immaturity of both the central nervous system and musculature of the pulmonary system, that contribute to apnea of prematurity. Apnea of prematurity is a diagnosis of exclusion; an array of other conditions and stimuli can also cause apnea, including infections, pulmonary disease, and intracranial pathology. The standard clinical management of apnea, including cutaneous stimulation, methylxanthine therapy, and continuous positive airway pressure or ventilatory support, are discussed as well as newer investigational therapies, such as olfactory stimulation. Emerging evidence on the long-term neurodevelopmental impact of apnea is reviewed. Nursing measures to prevent and manage apnea are reviewed with an emphasis on parent education and preparation for discharge. Apnea resolves in most preterm infants as they approach term corrected gestational age; however, if it does not, options include continued hospitalization or, for infants with stable apnea, discharge with a home apnea monitor.

  9. [Apnea of prematurity - characteristic and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryniak, Aleksandra; Szczęśniak, Angelika; Śleboda, Daria; Dołęgowska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) can affect even 85-100% of premature newborns and is related to lack of full maturity of organs. AOP is manifesting by 15-20 seconds cessations of breathing accompanied by bradycardia and oxygen desaturation, what can lead to hypoxia or death. Therefore it is very important to implement the effective and safe treatment immediately after birth. Widely used caffeine citrate, which stimulates the respiratory system, improving the working of the respiratory muscles. However the metabolism of caffeine citrate is difficult in preterm infants due to the immaturity of the hepatic enzyme system, what can lead to the occurrence of side effects and toxicity. To avoid the toxic effects of caffeine, and at the same time the lack of efficacy associated with administration of too low doses, this therapy should be monitored by measuring the concentration of caffeine in the plasma of treated infants. This would provide the maintenance of therapeutic levels of caffeine and optimization of the treatment.

  10. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  11. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of astigmatism was significantly different between ROP (37.29%, 22/59) and controls (17.86%, 15/84). The corneal refractive power in ROP and non-ROP was more potent compared with controls (PPremature babies with or without ROP are susceptible to myopia and astigmatism. ROP, prematurity and low birth-weight synergistically influence the development of refractive status and optical components, of which the prematurity and low birth-weight are more important.

  12. Orally-Induced Intestinal CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg Controlled Undesired Responses towards Oral Antigens and Effectively Dampened Food Allergic Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Lorena Smaldini

    Full Text Available The induction of peripheral tolerance may constitute a disease-modifying treatment for allergic patients. We studied how oral immunotherapy (OIT with milk proteins controlled allergy in sensitized mice (cholera toxin plus milk proteins upon exposure to the allergen. Symptoms were alleviated, skin test was negativized, serum specific IgE and IgG1 were abrogated, a substantial reduction in the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 by antigen-stimulated spleen cells was observed, while IL-13 gene expression in jejunum was down-regulated, and IL-10 and TGF-β were increased. In addition, we observed an induction of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells and IL-10- and TGF-β-producing regulatory T cells in the lamina propria. Finally, transfer experiments confirmed the central role of these cells in tolerance induction. We demonstrated that the oral administration of milk proteins pre- or post-sensitization controlled the Th2-immune response through the elicitation of mucosal IL-10- and TGF-β-producing Tregs that inhibited hypersensitivity symptoms and the allergic response.

  13. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  14. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  16. Using the incidence and impact of behavioural conditions in guide dogs to investigate patterns in undesirable behaviour in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Harvey, Naomi D; England, Gary C W; Asher, Lucy

    2016-04-14

    The domestic dog is one of our most popular companions and longest relationships, occupying different roles, from pet to working guide dog for the blind. As dogs age different behavioural issues occur and in some cases dogs may be relinquished or removed from their working service. Here we analyse a dataset on working guide dogs that were removed from their service between 1994 and 2013. We use the withdrawal reasons as a proxy for the manifestation of undesirable behaviour. More than 7,500 dogs were in the dataset used, 83% of which were retired (due to old age) and 17% were withdrawn for behavioural issues. We found that the main reasons for behaviour withdrawal were environmental anxiety, training, and fear/aggression. Breed and sex had an effect on the odds of dogs being withdrawn under the different reasons. The age at withdrawal for the different withdrawal reasons suggested that dogs were more likely to develop fear/aggression related issues early on, whilst issues related to training could develop at almost any age. We found no evidence for heterosis effecting behaviour. We believe that this work is relevant to the pet dog population and had implications for understanding ageing and genetic influences on behaviour.

  17. Potential conflict between TRIPS and GATT concerning parallel importation of drugs and possible solution to prevent undesirable market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-Fa

    2011-01-01

    From international perspective, parallel importation, especially with respect to drugs, has to do with the exhaustion principle in Article 6 of the TRIPS Agreement and the general exception in Article XX of the GATT 1994. Issues concerning the TRIPS Agreement have been constant topics of discussion. However, parallel importation in relation to the general rules of the GATT 1994 as well as to its exceptions provided in Article XX was not seriously discussed. In the view of the paper, there is a conflict between the provisions in these two agreements. The paper explains such conflict and tries to propose a method of interpretation to resolve the conflict between GATT Article XX and TRIPS Article 6 concerning parallel importation for the purpose of reducing the possible undesirable market segmentation in pharmaceutical sector. The method suggested in the paper is a proper application of good faith principle in the Vienna Convention to interpret GATT Article XX, so that there could be some flexibility for those prohibitions of parallel importation which have positive effect on international trade.

  18. RESEARCH PREMATURE DESTRUCTION OF CONCRETE SLEEPERS ON THE MAIN LINES OF PUBLIC COMPANY «UZ»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kovalenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aims to identify the causes of premature destruction of concrete sleepers of one of Ukrainian producers. Methodology. Applied microstructural, fractographic, X-ray microanalysis revealed causes of transient corrosion processes in concrete. Findings. Subject of study in this work is a cement rock and concrete structure of prematurely shattered concrete sleepers. Another premature destruction of concrete sleepers was studied using the traditional method for Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT that was patented in 2009. The conducted research showed: 1 a cement rock near the sand particles of high concentration of chlorine and alkali metals exceeding permissible in existing standards; 2 different grained cement crystals indicates excess of water in the concrete mixture; 3 the presence in the cement rock structure of wood fibers, which are due to the additional moisture absorption accelerate chemical reactions in the operated concrete sleepers; 4 speed of alkaline-silicic-acidic reaction in concrete sleepers is 5 microns per year; 5 availability of wood fibers indicates unsatisfactory purity of aggregates screening, including crushed stone; 6 chlorine ions further accelerate structural transformation reaction of cement. Originality. The paper found the rate of corrosion processes in concrete sleepers of Ukrainian producer. The influence on the corrosion rate of contamination of large aggregates of organic substances, including wood fibers was shown in the article. There were presented characteristic signs of accelerating corrosion processes as a result of excess of water and chlorine ions in the structure of cement rock. Practical value. Identifying the typical signs of premature destruction of concrete under rail foundations prevents massive failure of railway sleepers, which affects negatively the railway traffic safety. The proposed by DNURT without steaming

  19. [Genetic aspects of premature ovarian failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Słopień, Radosław

    2005-01-01

    Among the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) two groups of factors are reported: factors which lead to decrease of follicular number and factors which stimulate follicular atresia. In the first group genetic factors are the most important whereas in the second: enzymatic autoimmunological, iatrogenic, toxins and infections are reported. In 1986 familiar POF on the background of long arm of chromosome X deletion was reported. Other chromosomes which are important for normal ovarian function are: chromosome 21 (AIRE gene), chromosome 11 (gene of beta FSH, ATM gene), chromosome 3 (gene responsible for BEPS syndrome) and chromosome 2 (genes of FSH and LH receptors). In this review the role of these genes and results of several epidemiological studies are reported.

  20. Treatment options for apnoea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sarah U; Smith, Vincent C

    2016-07-01

    Apnoea of prematurity (AOP) affects almost all infants born at <28 weeks gestation or with birth weight <1000 g. When untreated, AOP may be associated with negative outcomes. Because of these negative outcomes, effective treatment for AOP is an important part of optimising care of preterm infants. Standard treatment usually involves xanthine therapy and respiratory support. Cutting-edge work with stochastic vibrotactile stimulation and new pharmaceutical agents continues to expand therapeutic options. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of AOP, associated conditions and treatment options. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Apnea of prematurity: pathogenesis and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, O P

    2011-05-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a significant clinical problem manifested by an unstable respiratory rhythm reflecting the immaturity of respiratory control systems. This review will address the pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for AOP. Although the neuronal mechanisms leading to apnea are still not well understood, recent decades have provided better insight into the generation of the respiratory rhythm and its modulation in the neonate. Ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercarbia are impaired and inhibitory reflexes are exaggerated in the neonate. These unique vulnerabilities predispose the neonate to the development of apnea. Treatment strategies attempt to stabilize the respiratory rhythm. Caffeine remains the primary pharmacological treatment modality and is presumed to work through blockade of adenosine receptors A(1) and A(2). Recent evidences suggest that A(2A) receptors may have a greater role than previously thought. AOP typically resolves with maturation suggesting increased myelination of the brainstem.

  2. Studies on equine prematurity 1: Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossdale, P D; Ousey, J C; Dudan, F E; Leadon, D P; Cash, R S; Reddy, R; Silver, M; Fowden, A; Broughton Pipkin, F; Jeffcott, L B

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes the general management of mares and foals during the perinatal period and the methodology used in a collaborative research project on equine prematurity. Sixteen mares with dated pregnancies delivered 45 foals over three breeding seasons (1981 to 1983). In the majority, parturition was induced with oxytocin and/or fluprostenol; the remainder were allowed to foal spontaneously. Pre-colostral milk analysis provided a means of assessing the pre-foaling status of the mare. All were observed and monitored before, during and after parturition and the sampling protocol for both mare and newborn foal is discussed in detail. The foals were assessed for their degree of maturity at birth using behavioural, haematological, acid-base status and other criteria; they were then assigned to groups for further study and tests.

  3. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Kuzdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism’s natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730 g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn.

  4. Beryllium induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Shannon S A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Sharma, Sunil; Kindell, Susan M; Gary, Ronald K

    2007-07-01

    After cells have completed a sufficient number of cell divisions, they exit the cell cycle and enter replicative senescence. Here, we report that beryllium causes proliferation arrest with premature expression of the principal markers of senescence. After young presenescent human fibroblasts were treated with 3 microM BeSO(4) for 24 h, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor mRNA increased by >200%. Longer periods of exposure caused mRNA and protein levels to increase for both p21 and p16(Ink4a), a senescence regulator that prevents pRb-mediated cell cycle progression. BeSO(4) also caused dose-dependent induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity (SA-beta-gal). Untreated cells had 48 relative fluorescence units (RFU)/microg/h of SA-beta-gal, whereas 3 microM BeSO(4) caused activity to increase to 84 RFU/microg/h. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, BeSO(4) caused p53 protein to associate with its DNA binding site in the promoter region of the p21 gene, indicating that p53 transcriptional activity is responsible for the large increase in p21 mRNA elicited by beryllium. Forced expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) rendered HFL-1 cells incapable of normal replicative senescence. However, there was no difference in the responsiveness of normal HFL-1 fibroblasts (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and hTERT-immortalized cells (IC(50) = 1.7 microM) to BeSO(4) in a 9-day proliferation assay. The effects of beryllium resemble those of histone deacetylase-inhibiting drugs, which also cause large increases in p21. However, beryllium produced no changes in histone acetylation, suggesting that Be(2+) acts as a novel and potent pharmacological inducer of premature senescence.

  5. Premature graying of hair is a risk marker for osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, C J; Holick, M F; Millard, P S

    1994-09-01

    Premature graying of hair is associated with several endocrine disorders, vitiligo, and the aging process. Although the pathophysiology of melanin depletion in hair follicles is unknown, genetic factors regulate the expression of this trait. As acquisition of bone mass is also genetically determined, we performed an exploratory case control study of the association between premature graying of hair and osteopenia (lumbar bone density t score, below -1.0). Subjects were recruited from a single metabolic bone clinic. Premature graying of hair in 36 men and women with osteopenia (cases) was compared to that in 27 men and women without osteopenia (controls). Subjects with premature graying but no other identifiable risk factor were 4.4 times as likely to have osteopenia as subjects without premature graying (P = 0.02). Subjects with osteopenia and premature graying in their teens and twenties had a stronger family history of osteoporosis than those who had osteopenia and graying later in their thirties (P = 0.06), but bone density and other characteristics were not different. The association between premature graying and low bone mass could be related to genes that control peak bone mass or factors that regulate bone turnover. Premature graying of hair may be an important risk marker for osteopenia.

  6. [Complete triploidy in a liveborn premature (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, S; Skinner, C; Lechuga, J L; Fernández, E; Serrano, J; Casanova, M; Argemí, J; López, A; Castro, J M

    1980-01-01

    Authors describe the clinical, pathological and cytogenetic data of a polymalformed premature with a complete a triploidy 69,XXY). This rare condition (30 cases in the literature) may be suspected in a premature with broad posterior fontanella, eye and ear anomalies, syndactily between IV and III fingers/toes, intersexual status and mielomeningocele. Frequently the placenta presents a molar or micromolar degeneration.

  7. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  8. Research Paper Risk factors for premature termination of treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A single-parent household and the presence of a child or oppositional defiant disorder were risk factors for premature termination of treatment, while the presence of a maternal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of terminating treatment prematurely. Conducting a scholastic assessment ...

  9. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity: a review | Ajibode | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retinopathy of prematurity [ROP], previously called retrolental fibroplasia, is a vasoproliferative retinopathy that occurs principally, but not exclusively in premature and low-birth-weight infants. It occurs in two overlapping phases, namely, (a) an acute phase in which normal vasculogenesis is interrupted and a response to ...

  11. Impact of Prematurity on Language Skills at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…

  12. Lipid profile of women with premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knauff, Erik A. H.; Westerveld, Hendrika E.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Valkenburg, Olivier; van Santbrink, Evert J. P.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Earlier menopause is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events later in life. Concurrent with the ages of menopausal transition, a shift in lipid profile takes place. Premature ovarian failure (POF) or premature menopause allows LIS to Study the effect of cessation of

  13. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  14. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  15. Histological Chorioamnionitis: Effects on Premature Delivery and Neonatal Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Erdemir

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis not only causes premature deliveries, but is also associated with neonatal complications and increased mortality. Clinical findings and infectious markers in mother or infant do not predict the diagnosis of histological chorioamnionitis. Therefore, placental histopathology may have a role in predicting neonatal outcome in premature deliveries, especially those below 30 weeks.

  16. Mothers' experiences of premature birth | James | African Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature birth is an obstetrical emergency that is a global concern. Preventing complications and saving the baby's life before, during and after the premature birth has been noted to be the main goal of healthcare practitioners. It has been found through studies that the delivering mother who is at the centre of the ...

  17. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  18. Neonatal outcome in pregnancies that presented premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the neonatal outcomes of infants whose mothers had premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. This is a retrospective, descriptive, quantitative study performed in a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with 166 neonates of mothers with premature rupture of membranes, in 2010. Data were collected through research in medical records using a pre-structured form. There was a predominance of newborns at term with good birth weight and adequate vitality. Statistical analysis showed significant association between prematurity and prolonged latency and neonatal variables: need for respiratory support, neonatal infection and antibiotic use. It was concluded that gestational age has fundamental importance to conduct clinical management and prognostic evaluation of perinatal outcomes, as the main health problems related to premature rupture of membranes result from prematurity.

  19. Long-term impact of prematurity on postnatal neurohormonal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ziborova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the psychophysiological and neuroendocrine differences characteristic of premature children, which are as a result of long-term perinatal consequences. Particular emphasis is laid on the effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress system, the performance of which is reprogramed during complicated pregnancy, labor, and postnatal period under pain stress due to medical manipulations. Being extremely sensitive to all these exposures, the brain of a premature infant develops during activation of the stress system and takes on a few distinctive properties in addition to independent neuroanatomical distinctions due to premature birth. The altered neurohormonal patterns revealed in very prematurely born children and adolescents involve the regulation of mental processes, behavior, metabolism, and circadian rhythms (sleep-wake regulation, which differ from those in their maturely born peers. These cases allow learning and behavior problems and lower cognitive estimates to be considered in normally developing children born extremely prematurely who have also hormonal dysregulation.

  20. Adequacy of published screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, Deepa A; Oh, Dickson D-S; Keane, Miriam C; Fabel, Helen; Marshall, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Criteria for screening preterm infants for retinopathy of prematurity vary around the world. We aimed to analyse the efficacy of alternative screening criteria. We collected retrospective data at a tertiary level neonatal nursery. Our participants were 1007 babies, born between 1997 and 2011, at prematurity. We determined whether disease would be detected using an alternative Australian screening model (gestational age prematurity is our main outcome. Using several of the alternative criteria, two neonates with clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity, one of whom required laser treatment to preserve sight, would not have been screened, and their disease may have gone undetected. Use of prematurity may risk clinically significant cases being missed and others may screen babies unnecessarily. Alternative criteria should be considered and '<30 weeks gestational age and/or <1500 g birth weight' appears a viable option. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Sildenafil and retinopathy of prematurity risk in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; J.N. van den Anker (John); M. Laughon (Matthew); R.H. Clark; P.B. Smith; C.P. Hornik

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine the effect of sildenafil therapy on development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring surgical intervention in premature infants. Study Design: We identified premature infants who were discharged from Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care

  2. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Clapp, Carmen; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05. Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001) in the aqueous and vitreous samples. Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group. PMID:20856587

  3. Present-day conservative treatment retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika, Modrzejewska; Katarzyna, Kubasik-Kładna; Leszek, Kuprjanowicz

    2013-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity occurs in prematurely born babies. Etiology of disease is multifactorial and frequency of retinopathy of prematurity diagnosis increases. Retinopathy is one of causes for major loss of vision and amaurosis in newborns around the world. Low efficacy of treatment leads to necessity for looking for new solutions and modern therapy use in treatment of this disease. So far, therapies used are: laser and cryotherapy and cases of retina detachment, the course is combined with surgical procedures of sclera and vitrectomy. The aim of the paper was detailed observation of available literature concerning new methods of management in retinopathy of prematurity. Newest reviews on role of vascular endothelial growth factor secreted under the influence of hypoxia indicate that it takes part in angiogenesis and neovascularization. Thus, in retinopathy of prematurity management vitreous application of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors such as ranibizumab, bevacizumab are used as supplement or treatment combined with laser therapy or surgical procedures, however there are many controversies on this form of treatment. Recently there has been an interest in vitreous application of Triamcinolon and other experimental substances inhibiting fibro-vascular proliferations in mouse models of retinopathy of prematurity. Hopes connected with high efficacy of retinopathy of prematurity treatment are also related to use of gene therapy, beta-blockers, supplementation with Omega-3 acids, matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitors, gold nanoparticles-GNP and anthrax lethal toxin.

  4. Balance in children born prematurely currently aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziuba Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children born at term achieved better results in the majority of tests. The comparison of girls and boys born pre­maturely and at term showed no statistically significant difference between them in terms of dynamic balance, static balance or total balance control. The comparison of the tests performed on the right and left lower limb in prematurely born children showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Premature birth affects the ability to maintain body balance. The results of the study indicate the need to develop coordination skills that shape body balance in prematurely born children.

  5. A comparative analysis of China’s regional energy and emission performance: Which is the better way to deal with undesirable outputs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wei Yiming; Zhang Xian

    2012-01-01

    Measuring and improving the energy performance with considering emission constraints is an important issue for China’s energy conservation, pollutant emissions reduction and environment protection. This study utilizes several data envelopment analysis (DEA) based models to evaluate the total-factor energy and emission performance of China’s 30 regions within a joint production framework of considering desirable and undesirable outputs as well as separated energy and non-energy inputs. DEA window analysis is applied in this study to deal with cross-sectional and time-varying data, so as to measure the performance during the period of 2000–2009. Two treatments for undesirable outputs are combined with DEA models and the associated indicators for simplex energy performance and unified energy and emission performance measurement are proposed and compared. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment of undesirable outputs transformation is more appropriate for China’s regional energy and emission performance evaluation because it has stronger discriminating power and can provide more reasonable evaluation results that characterize China’s regions. The empirical result shows that east China has the highest and the most balanced energy and emission performance. The energy and emission performance of China remained stable during 2000–2003, decreased slightly during 2004–2006, and has continuously increased since 2007. - Highlights: ► We evaluate China’s regional energy and emission performance using DEA based models. ► We compare two undesirable outputs treatments according to the evaluation results. ► To treat undesirable outputs as inputs has weaker discriminating power in evaluation. ► Simplex energy performance, without environmental factors, is a biased evaluation. ► China’s energy and emission performance is approximately stable during study period.

  6. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.

  7. Retinopathy of prematurity: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500

  8. Maternal and neonatal factors related to prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura Leismann de; Gonçalves, Annelise de Carvalho; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da; Bonilha, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi

    2016-01-01

    To identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with prematurity in the municipality of Porto Alegre. This was a population-based case-control study. The cases were newborns under 37 weeks of gestation and the controls were newborns over 37 weeks. The data came from the records of 19,457 births in the city of Porto Alegre in the year 2012 from the Information System on Live Births of the Municipal Health Department. The analysis was carried outand adjusted by a Logistic Regression according to a hierarchical model. The variables studied were allocated into three hierarchy levels: sociodemographic variables; reproductive history; and gestational and birth factors. There were 767 cases allocated and 1,534 controls in a design of a case for two controls (1:2) by simple randomization. In the final model, a statistically significant association was found for prematurity for the following variables: mother's age under 19 years old (OR=1.32; CI 95%: 1.02-1.71) or over 34 years old (OR=1.39; CI 95%: 1.12-1.72); inadequate maternal schooling for age (OR=2.11; CI 95%: 1.22-3.65); multiple pregnancies (OR=1.14; CI 95%: 1.01-1.29); C-section (OR=1.15; CI 95%: 1.03-1.29); birth weights under 2,500g (OR=4.04; CI 95%: 3.64-4.49); Apgar score at five minutes between zero and three (OR=1.47; CI 95%: 1.12-1.91); and inadequate prenatal care (OR=1.18; CI 95%: 1.02-1.36). The present study showed the most immediate consequence of prematurity for newborns by evidencing its association with worse Apgar scores and low birth weight. The following factors were also shown as possible more distal determinants of prematurity: mother's age; inadequate maternal education; multiple gestation; inadequate prenatal care; and C-section. Identificar fatores maternos e neonatais associados à prematuridade no município de Porto Alegre. Estudo do tipo caso-controle de base populacional. Os casos foram recém-nascidos com menos de 37 semanas de gestação, e os controles foram os rec

  9. Control practices contribute to premature transformer failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, E.T. [Beckwith Electric Company Inc., Largo, FL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Studies of premature load tap changer (LTC) transformer failures on utility systems have shown the tap changers to be the primary contributing factor. Some of the LTC factors that lead to transformer failures include oil quality and particulate contamination; LTC contact temperature rise; contact coking; carbon film build-up; short circuit mechanical forces; and contact wear and arcing. These factors create increasing contact resistance thereby increasing voltage drop, localized heating, contact pitting, oil contamination and general deterioration. This paper discussed utility tapchanger control practices and methods of determining control functions to be activated as well as the determination of optimum settings contributing to excessive or untimely tap change operations. The transformer applications that were considered included transmission tie transformers as well as transmission distribution interface transformers. The paper discussed the circulating current paralleling method and the circulating reactive current or var sharing paralleling method. Several common practices were discussed, including basic voltage control ranges and setting effects; timing options available; LDC misapplications; first house protection methods; and various paralleling techniques. It was concluded that although there are several other methods of paralleling power transformers, many are not applicable under certain system configurations. In these applications, improper use of a paralleling method or improper setting and commissioning may cause hunting for appropriate tap positions and dramatically increase the number of tap changes, causing wear and degradation of the tap changer contacts. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Apnea of prematurity--perfect storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Juliann M; Martin, Richard J; Gauda, Estelle B

    2013-11-01

    With increased survival of preterm infants as young as 23 weeks gestation, maintaining adequate respiration and corresponding oxygenation represents a clinical challenge in this unique patient cohort. Respiratory instability characterized by apnea and periodic breathing occurs in premature infants because of immature development of the respiratory network. While short respiratory pauses and apnea may be of minimal consequence if oxygenation is maintained, they can be problematic if accompanied by chronic intermittent hypoxemia. Underdevelopment of the lung and the resultant lung injury that occurs in this population concurrent with respiratory instability creates the perfect storm leading to frequent episodes of profound and recurrent hypoxemia. Chronic intermittent hypoxemia contributes to the immediate and long term co-morbidities that occur in this population. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology leading to the perfect storm, diagnostic assessment of breathing instability in this unique population and therapeutic interventions that aim to stabilize breathing without contributing to tissue injury. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Telomeres, telomerase and premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Košir Pogačnik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.

  12. Urine collection from disposable diapers in premature infants: biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, C; Dhanireddy, R

    1993-05-01

    Urine collection for analysis is commonly done in premature infants in sterile adhesive bags. Leakage due to poor adherence of the bag and irritation of the skin are frequent drawbacks with this technique. Urine retrieved from the fiber padding of disposable diapers has been shown to be reliable for biochemical analysis. However, the previous studies were done under laboratory conditions and the volume of urine used was much larger than a premature infant may void at one time. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of urine collected from disposable diapers for biochemical analysis in premature infants in the intensive care nursery.

  13. Reaction Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Fumiya; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yokomori, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Reaction systems are a formal model that has been introduced to investigate the interactive behaviors of biochemical reactions. Based on the formal framework of reaction systems, we propose new computing models called reaction automata that feature (string) language acceptors with multiset manipulation as a computing mechanism, and show that reaction automata are computationally Turing universal. Further, some subclasses of reaction automata with space complexity are investigated and their la...

  14. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalyzed by Noble Metal Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenghua Tang; Wen Wu; Kai Wang

    2018-01-01

    Highly-efficient catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been extensively investigated for the development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts suffer from high price, limited accessibility of Pt, sluggish reaction kinetics, as well as undesirable long-term durability. Engineering ultra-small noble metal clusters with high surface-to-volume ratios and robust stabilities for ORR represents a new avenue. After a simple introduction ...

  15. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  16. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  17. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  18. Premature cardiovascular disease in young women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial

  19. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  20. [Disinfectants for the skin of premature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurachi, G; Tuoto, M G

    2010-06-01

    Nosocomial infections are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections is based on strategies that aim to limit susceptibility to infections by enhancing host defences, interrupting trasmission of organisms by healthcare workers and by promoting the judicious use of antimicrobials. Strategies for the prevention of nosocomial infections include hand hygiene practices, prevention of central venous (cvc)-related bloodstream infections, judicious use of antimicrobials for therapy, enhancement of host defences, skin care and early enteral feeding with human milk. Major concerns about the use of alcoholic chlorhexidine are for the high risk of skin burns in extremely premature infants during the first days of life, when the skin is thin and not fully keratinesed. Aqueous chlorhexidine could be less irritant when used in very low birthweigth infants and thus could represent a good option. A recent prospective trial of adult patients showed similar effectiveness of alcoholic and aqueos solutions of chlorexidine. However, to date no study evaluated whether the aqueos formulation is less harmful and as effective as the alcoholic formulation in neonatal infants. The lack of evidence for neonatal patients prompts urgent need for large randomised controlled trials comparing effectiveness and safety of different skin disinfectants before CVC placement in neonates and particulary in very low birth-weight infants. Nosocomial infections are still of the most serious problems for the neonatal intensive care unit. Therefore every effort must be implemented to reduce the incidence of these infections, can not be considered a toll required hospitalization, as it may not be acceptable for a place of shelter and care as the hospital may itself be a source of disease.

  1. Apnea of prematurity: caffeine dose optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francart, Suzanne J; Allen, Megan K; Stegall-Zanation, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the correlation between maintenance dose and response rates in neonates less than 28 weeks gestational age. Secondary objectives included clinical indicators of response (number of weight adjustments, dose increases, and mini-loads) and tachycardia associated with caffeine therapy. This study was a retrospective analysis of neonates admitted to the North Carolina Children's Hospital from August 2009 to August 2011. Patients included were less than 28 weeks postmenstrual age and were treated with caffeine for apnea of prematurity. Patients were excluded if they were older than 28 weeks postmenstrual age, receiving caffeine therapy for other indications, or experiencing apnea from other conditions, or if therapy was initiated more than 7 days after birth. A total of 89 neonates with a mean birth weight of 0.844 kg (range: 0.391 to 1.306 kg) and median gestational age of 26 2/7 weeks (range: 23 to 27 6/7 weeks) were evaluated. The median initial maintenance dose of caffeine citrate was 7.9 mg/kg/day, and 94.1% of neonates receiving ≤7.9 mg/kg/day required a clinical intervention during therapy compared with 76.3% in those receiving >7.9 mg/kg/day. Absolute incidence of tachycardia was low, and caffeine levels collected ranged from 16.6 to 34.4 μg/mL. In neonates less than 28 weeks gestational age, doses of caffeine citrate greater than 7.9 mg/kg/day are safe and are associated with a decreased need for clinical interventions.

  2. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and Premature Exfoliation of Primary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende,Karla Mayra; Canela,Alfredo Hiram Carrillo; Ortega,Adriana Oliveira Lira; Tintel,Claudia; Bonecker,Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare hereditary fatal disease, if not treated. These changes are associated with various diseases and syndromes that mainly cause periodontal disease and thus the premature loss of teeth. This paper describes the monitoring of premature loss of primary teeth that began when the child was 5 years old. On presentation his teeth were mobile and there was a history of gingival bleeding. Panoramic radiography revealed generalized and severe bone loss, and th...

  3. Neonatal outcome in pregnancies that presented premature rupture of membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Lima Silveira; Náira de Oliveira Caminha; Rosiléa Alves de Sousa; Sarah Maria Fraxe Pessoa; Eloah de Paula Pessoa Gurgel; Dylmara Maria Prudêncio Cavalcante

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the neonatal outcomes of infants whose mothers had premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. This is a retrospective, descriptive, quantitative study performed in a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with 166 neonates of mothers with premature rupture of membranes, in 2010. Data were collected through research in medical records using a pre-structured form. There was a predominance of newborns at term with good birth weight and adequate vitality. Sta...

  4. Efficacy of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Stage 3+ Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz-Hittner, Helen A.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Chuang, Alice Z.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Peripheral retinal ablation with conventional (confluent) laser therapy is destructive, causes complications, and does not prevent all vision loss, especially in cases of retinopathy of prematurity affecting zone I of the eye. Case series in which patients were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors suggest that these agents may be useful in treating retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, stratified, multicenter trial to assess intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for zone I or zone II posterior stage 3+ (i.e., stage 3 with plus disease) retinopathy of prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal bevacizumab (0.625 mg in 0.025 ml of solution) or conventional laser therapy, bilaterally. The primary ocular outcome was recurrence of retinopathy of prematurity in one or both eyes requiring retreatment before 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age. RESULTS We enrolled 150 infants (total sample of 300 eyes); 143 infants survived to 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age, and the 7 infants who died were not included in the primary-outcome analyses. Retinopathy of prematurity recurred in 4 infants in the bevacizumab group (6 of 140 eyes [4%]) and 19 infants in the laser-therapy group (32 of 146 eyes [22%], P = 0.002). A significant treatment effect was found for zone I retinopathy of prematurity (P = 0.003) but not for zone II disease (P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy, as compared with conventional laser therapy, in infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity showed a significant benefit for zone I but not zone II disease. Development of peripheral retinal vessels continued after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, but conventional laser therapy led to permanent destruction of the peripheral retina. This trial was too small to assess safety. PMID:21323540

  5. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing

  6. [Retinopathy of prematurity and immaturity . A clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, D P; Voinea, L; Samson, M; Bădoiu, S; Popa, R

    1995-01-01

    The retinopathy of prematurity is the most important cause of blindness at children and one of the most frequent cause of blindness in the postnatal period. 435 newborn prematures and dismatures, were examined in the first two weeks since they were born. The ophthalmological exam showed vasoconstriction of retinal vessels. The treatment consisted in cryotHerapy with good results. The most up-to-date method is the therapy with argon laser mounted on the indirect ophthalmoscope.

  7. Summary proceedings from the apnea-of-prematurity group

    OpenAIRE

    Finer, N N; Higgins, R; Kattwinkel, J; Martin, R J

    2006-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is found in >50% of premature infants and is almost universal in infants who are 20 seconds or for >10 seconds if associated with bradycardia or oxygen desaturation), but there is no consensus about the duration of apnea, the degree of change in oxygen saturation, or severity of bradycardia that should be considered pathologic. Although caregivers are able to respond successfully to apnea events with drugs (as well as physical and mechanical interventions) in the NI...

  8. Determinant of preference for the face of the premature infant

    OpenAIRE

    Yokota, Masao; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Imazeki, Setuko; Shimoda, Aiko

    2000-01-01

    The determinant of preference of premature infant faces was examined. Faces of nine infants (three premature infants and six mature infants) were photographed as stimuli. Forty-five students rated their faces on 22 scales concerning physical appearance, 22 scales concerning personality, and one scale of likeliness. A five-factor solution in physical appearance and a three-factor solution in personality were obtained via factor analysis. Eight factor scores and likeliness scores were compared ...

  9. Acute Associations Between Outdoor Temperature and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15,381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to 2 control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1°C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone, and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1°C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI, 3%, 6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI, 3%, 5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1°C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI, 1%, 3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI, 1%, 3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B312.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ENDOCERVIX IN PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Elizebeth V. Issac; Sareena Gilvaz; Neetha B. George

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) is defined as premature rupture of membrane before 37 completed weeks. It is associated with 40% preterm deliveries and results in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Present study is an attempt to find the association between infection and PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women between 29 weeks and 34 weeks of gestation who were admitted in our labour room during a period from November 2012 to Nove...

  11. Premature Growth Plate Closure in a Ballet Dancer en Pointe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Selina

    2017-09-01

    A 13-year-old ballet dancer who had been dancing en pointe (on the tips of the toes) since 10 years presented to the clinic with a shortened right second toe. She had no previous history of pain or trauma. She was diagnosed with premature growth arrest of the second metatarsal head physes resulting in a shortened metatarsal. This is the first reported case of premature growth arrest in a ballet dancer as a result of dancing en pointe.

  12. Smokers? hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and meas...

  13. Caffeine Administration to Prevent Apnea in Very Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Iranpour, Ramin; Faghihian, Eiman; Salehimehr, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Apnea intervals frequently occur in premature infants. Periods of apnea occur more often with decreases in gestational age. Periods of apnea can cause damage to the infant's developing brain and other organs. This study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of caffeine on apnea incidence in higher-risk neonates. Methods: In this single-center randomized control trial study, premature infants with a birth weight of ≤1200 g were eligible for enrollment. Twenty-six infants were r...

  14. The Severity of Retinopathy in the Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Trivli, Alexandra; Polychronaki, Maria; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Papadimas, Michail; Patelarou, Athina E.; Dermitzaki, Niki; Matalliotakis, Michail

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of extremely premature infants and to evaluate the risk factors and outcome of the cases. Materials and Methods. Out of 200 premature births, we retrospectively reviewed 9 cases that developed ROP. We excluded cases where ROP developed in newborns > 30 weeks of gestational age and cases where medical notes were unavailable or incomplete. Topical drops of cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 5% were instilled and f...

  15. Management of premature primary tooth loss in the child patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Clarice S

    2013-08-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth can result in a loss of arch length and have a negative effect on occlusion and alignment, often increasing the need for orthodontic treatment. Use of space maintainers can reduce the severity of problems such as crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction and poor molar relationship. This article presents a review of the consequences of premature tooth loss and discusses the appliances commonly used for space maintenance.

  16. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  17. Premature hair graying: a probable coronary risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Reddy, C V; Oh, K C; Kim, S G; Becker, W

    1978-11-01

    Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking are known coronary risk factors. It has been our impression that premature graying of the hair also predisposes individuals to myocardial infarctions. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated all of the patients under the age of 50 who were admitted to the coronary care unit between 1974 and 1976 with a proven diagnosis of a myocardial infarction. There were 50 patients. Thirty-eight did not have premature graying. Twelve of the male patients (24%) had virtual total graying of the hair which made them appear older than their stated age. The graying in these patients started on the average at 29 years. Five of these patients state that other family members had premature hair graying. The incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking was similar in those with and without premature hair graying. This preliminary study suggests that premature graying of the hair is associated with premature cardiovascular disease. It should probably be regarded as a coronary risk factor and used to identify patients at increased risk.

  18. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  19. Adverse respiratory outcome after premature rupture of membranes before viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Altered Amygdala Development and Fear Processing in Prematurely Born Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Anca Liliana; Gui, Laura; Vasung, Lana; Lejeune, Fleur; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Truttmann, Anita; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Prematurely born children have a high risk of developmental and behavioral disabilities. Cerebral abnormalities at term age have been clearly linked with later behavior alterations, but existing studies did not focus on the amygdala. Moreover, studies of early amygdala development after premature birth in humans are scarce. To compare amygdala volumes in very preterm infants at term equivalent age (TEA) and term born infants, and to relate premature infants' amygdala volumes with their performance on the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB) fear episode at 12 months. Eighty one infants born between 2008 and 2014 at the University Hospitals of Geneva and Lausanne, taking part in longitudinal and functional imaging studies, who had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at TEA enabling manual amygdala delineation. Amygdala volumes assessed by manual segmentation of MRI scans; volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) automatically segmented in 66 infants; scores for the Lab-TAB fear episode for 42 premature infants at 12 months. Amygdala volumes were smaller in preterm infants at TEA than term infants (mean difference 138.03 mm(3), p motor activity in the fear episode. Our results indicate that premature birth is associated with a reduction in amygdala volumes and white matter volumes at TEA, suggesting that altered amygdala development might be linked to alterations in white matter connectivity reported in premature infants. Moreover, our data suggests that such alterations might affect infants' fear-processing capabilities.

  1. [Undesirable effects of medicine in the Internal Medicine Service of the University Hospital Center du Point G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukho-Kaya, A; Minta, D K; Diarra, M T; Konaté, A; Diallo, B; Sidibé, A T; Dembélé, M; Bah, M; Doumbia, A A; Dao, K; Tolo, N; Camara, B D; Sy, D; Maiga, M Y; Traoré, H A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adverse reactions to drugs, the WHO grade, describe the clinical features and identify the drug responsible. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which took place from February 2005 to January 2006 in the Internal Medicine Department at the hospital point G. Were included in this study, all patients hospitalized during the study period, which presented adverse drug reactions (ADRs) that the relation of cause and effect was certain or likely. Thus, 47 ADRs were identified in 39 patients of 426 admitted during the same period a frequency of 9.2%. The average age of our patients was 48.5 ± 16.5 years. The sex-ratio was 1.6 for women. Eighty-two percent of our patients had an ADR and 18% more than one. The WHO grade 1 was the most met or 36.2%, followed by grades 4 and 2 respectively 27.7% and 25.5%. Antidiabetics were responsible for adverse reactions in 46.8% and 21.3% in TB. Adverse events were neurological in 53.2% and type of manifestations of hypoglycemia 46.8% (22/47 cases), polyneuritis 6.4% (3 / 47 cases) and 29.8% in digestive cases dominated by vomiting 12.8% (6 / 47 cases), the epigastria pain 6.4% (3 / 47 cases). The outcome was favorable in 87.2% of cases, however, 3 cases of death among those over 60 years all grade 4 WHO. ADRs deserve special attention to this high death rate (6.4% 3/47 cases) where the interest to search systematically for all patients under medical treatment with a good clinical examination and questioning some thoroughly.

  2. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P preeclampsia was inversely associated with the development of all ROP (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P = .003), severe ROP (aOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.36-1.06; P = .08), and infant death (aOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.11-0.32; P Preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of developing ROP among an unrestricted cohort but with a reduced risk of ROP among a restricted subcohort of P-VLBW infants. Although the conflicting associations in the full and P-VLBW cohorts may reflect true differences, the association of a reduced risk of ROP among the P-VLBW subcohort also may reflect biases from restricting the cohort to prematurity, because prematurity is an outcome of preeclampsia.

  3. Low Dose Aminophylline Effectively Decreases the Risk of Post-Operative Apnea in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Roodneshin, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the most common reason behind surgical procedures in premature newborns. Anesthesia in these patients is life-threatening due to post-operative apnea of prematurity (POA). This study aimed to determine the predisposing factors to POA in premature infants and to explore the role of prophylactic aminophylline in decreasing the incidence of POA. Materials and Methods Fifty patients with prematurity who were candidates for elective eye surgery (less ...

  4. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. Zeinab; Karkhaneh, Reza; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Mansouri, Mohammad-Reza; Roohipoor, Ramak; Ghalichi, Leila; Kadivar, Malihe; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mehdi; Naieri, Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. Methods In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), oxygen therapy,blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), mechanical ventilation,intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. Results Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period,216 (27.1%) had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7± 150.4 (range 64–1,460) days. Of these, 87 (40.3%) had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1%) had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2%) infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P<0.001), RDS (P=0.041) and blood transfusion (P=0.009) were associated with the development of ROP. Conclusion The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence of severe ROP in particular,were unacceptably high in premature infants with late screening. These findings necessitate interventions to optimize timely referral for screening of premature infants. PMID:23056670

  5. Cerebellum of the premature infant: rapidly developing, vulnerable, clinically important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Joseph J

    2009-09-01

    Brain abnormality in surviving premature infants is associated with an enormous amount of neurodevelopmental disability, manifested principally by cognitive, behavioral, attentional, and socialization deficits, most commonly with only relatively modest motor deficits. The most recognized contributing neuropathology is cerebral white matter injury. The thesis of this review is that acquired cerebellar abnormality is a relatively less recognized but likely important cause of neurodevelopmental disability in small premature infants. The cerebellar disease may be primarily destructive (eg, hemorrhage, infarction) or primarily underdevelopment. The latter appears to be especially common and relates to a particular vulnerability of the cerebellum of the small premature infant. Central to this vulnerability are the extraordinarily rapid and complex developmental events occurring in the cerebellum. The disturbance of development can be caused either by direct adverse effects on the cerebellum, especially the distinctive transient external granular layer, or by indirect remote trans-synaptic effects. This review describes the fascinating details of cerebellar development, with an emphasis on events in the premature period, the major types of cerebellar abnormality acquired during the premature period, their likely mechanisms of occurrence, and new insights into the relation of cerebellar disease in early life to subsequent cognitive/behavioral/attentional/socialization deficits.

  6. Cerebellum of the Premature Infant: Rapidly Developing, Vulnerable, Clinically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Brain abnormality in surviving premature infants is associated with an enormous amount of neurodevelopmental disability, manifested principally by cognitive, behavioral, attentional, and socialization deficits, most commonly with only relatively modest motor deficits. The most recognized contributing neuropathology is cerebral white matter injury. The thesis of this review is that acquired cerebellar abnormality is a relatively less recognized but likely important cause of neurodevelopmental disability in small premature infants. The cerebellar disease may be primarily destructive (eg, hemorrhage, infarction) or primarily underdevelopment. The latter appears to be especially common and relates to a particular vulnerability of the cerebellum of the small premature infant. Central to this vulnerability are the extraordinarily rapid and complex developmental events occurring in the cerebellum. The disturbance of development can be caused either by direct adverse effects on the cerebellum, especially the distinctive transient external granular layer, or by indirect remote trans-synaptic effects. This review describes the fascinating details of cerebellar development, with an emphasis on events in the premature period, the major types of cerebellar abnormality acquired during the premature period, their likely mechanisms of occurrence, and new insights into the relation of cerebellar disease in early life to subsequent cognitive/behavioral/attentional/socialization deficits. PMID:19745085

  7. A real case of steam-cured concrete track slab premature deterioration due to ASR and DEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration mechanisms of some premature damaged steam-cured concrete track slabs (CTS in Chinese railway less than 4 years were investigated. Field investigation, raw materials test and suspicious products analysis were carried out. Results show that steam-cured heat damage (SCHD of concrete takes place in steam-cured process. Expansion products are ettringite in hydrated products and alkali-silica gels between the interface of hydrated products and coarse aggregate. SCHD makes CTS surface layer loose, porous and more micro-cracks. Long-term fatigue load from high-speed train acting on CTS enlarges concrete microcracks, leading to water penetrating into concrete easily in moist and rainy environment. In the process of water ingression, alkali-silica reaction (ASR and delayed ettringite formation (DEF take place, hence resulting in CTS cracking and premature deterioration.

  8. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  9. Interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R

    2013-12-01

    The interactive behaviors of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants and selected maternal and infant factors affecting those behaviors were measured using naturalistic observation and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory at 3, 6, and 12 months corrected infant age. The frequency of some maternal behaviors changed over the first 12 months. Mothers spent less time holding, looking at, touching, and interacting with their premature infants and more time uninvolved as the infant aged. Maternal education and infant illness severity were associated with mother-infant interactive behaviors and HOME Inventory scores. These findings emphasize the importance of maternal and infant factors affecting the interactions between American Indian premature infants and their mothers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Specific features of physical development in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alyamovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review deals with the specilic features of physical development in extremely premature infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. It describes the regularities of an increment in basic physical development parameters (weight, height, and head circumference within the first year of life. Genetic factors, the specific features of a neonatal period, comorbidity, and different feeding types are shown to affect the increment rates of the physical development parameters. Emphasis is placed on the early initiation of enteral feeding and on the long-term use of fortified foods in low birthweight premature babies for the correction of energy deficiency resulting from preterm birth. The review shows that there is a relationship of the long-term outcomes of physical and psychomotor developments in low birthweight premature babies.

  11. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  12. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho Bonan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

  13. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  15. The Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis Among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Improved recognition of modifiable risk factors and antifungal prophylaxis have contributed to the recent decline in the incidence of this infection among infants. Invasive candidiasis typically occurs in the first six weeks of life and presents with non-specific signs of sepsis. Definitive diagnosis relies on growth of Candida in blood culture or cultures from other normally sterile sites, but this may identify fewer than half of cases. Improved diagnostics are needed to guide initiation of antifungal therapy in premature infants. PMID:25677999

  16. Prevention of premature birth: do pediatricians have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R T

    2000-05-01

    The rate of prematurity in the United States has increased over the past 15 years despite a reduction in overall infant mortality and birth weight-specific mortality. The major factors contributing to premature birth exist before pregnancy and therefore will require intervention strategies in the pediatric patient. The high-risk factors include young age at conception (16 years), use of illicit drugs and smoking, poor nutritional status, and certain vaginal infections. Pediatric intervention strategies should include sociologic as well as health education stressing heightened self-esteem and communication skills, avoidance of pregnancy and unprotected sexual activity, avoidance of smoking and drug use, and promotion of a good nutritional status.

  17. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  18. Research progress on risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of Prematurity is a retinal vascular proliferative disease. With the improvement of the medical care in China, retinopathy of prematurity(ROPhas become one of the main causes of child hood blindness in recent years. Several factors such as short gestational age, low birth weight and oxygen supplementation are the three major risk factors for the disease, however, the pathogenesis is still not clear. This review here aims to expand the etiology and pathogenesis of ROP and provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of the disease.

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angell Linda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of extremely low birth infants due to advances in antenatal and neonatal care has resulted in a population of infants at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Therapeutic interventions include the use of antenatal and postnatal steroids however, their effects on the severity of ROP is in dispute. In addition, it has not been investigated whether severe ROP is due to therapeutic interventions or due to the severity of illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (greater than stage 2 – International classification of ROP and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, antenatal and postnatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, during 1993–2000 were followed to determine factors influencing the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks and followed until resolution. We used logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio associated with risk factors of ROP. Results Of the neonates with ≤ 1500 g birth weight, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 85% (616/725 survived. Severe retinopathy of prematurity was detected in 7.8% of 576 neonates who had eye examinations. Neonates of lower gestational age (≤ 25 weeks and 26–28 weeks had an increased odds ratio of 8.49 and 3.19 for the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity, respectively, compared to those 29 weeks and older. Late postnatal steroid treatment starting after 3 weeks of life showed 2.9-fold increased odds ratio, in particular administration for two weeks and more (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.52–11.03. With increasing antenatal steroids courses the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity decreased, however, it was not significant. Lower gestational age

  20. [Feasibility, in general practice, to give to the patients clear, loyal and appropriate information about the undesirable side effects of the medicines prescribed. EICLAT study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Pascale; Raineri, François; Hebbrecht, Gilles; Duhot, Didier

    2011-12-01

    Drug prescription in general practice is present in 78 to 83% of consultations; practitioners must give to their patient clear loyal and appropriate information about the undesirable side effects of the medicines prescribed. The object of the EICLAT study was to give some light on the feasibility to respect this obligation. To that effect the study evaluates, for a normal prescription activity, the average number of potential undesirable side effects (USE) in relation with the number of lines of different medicines prescribed in each doctor's prescription. A total of 8,382 doctor's prescriptions, generating 34,427 lines of prescriptions given by 175 general practitioners, were analysed. Amongst these prescriptions, 11% included only one line, 55% from 2 to 4 lines and 34% 5 lines or more. The average doctor's prescription was of 4 lines of medicines generating 407 potential USE, of which 194 were different (the same undesirable effect may be present twice or more in the same doctor's prescription), and 293 frequent or serious potential USE, of which 166 were different. The patent medicines with a major or important added medical value (AMV), present in 7,840 doctor's prescriptions for a total of 24,127 lines exposed the patient, in the average, to 151 frequent or serious USE different. The patent medicines with an insufficient AMV, present in 2,292 prescriptions for a total of 3,887 lines, exposed the patient to 37 frequent and/or serious potential USE. Supposing that the information provided by the legal authority is sufficiently adequate, precise and exhaustive, the volume of information that must be given to the patient is not compatible with the present conditions of exercise of the profession.

  1. Commercial Bank Efficiency Evaluation in Consideration of the Undesirable Output and Its Link with Stakeholders Relationship: An Application of China’s Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyue Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the modern contract theory, expectancy theory, and stakeholder theory, this paper analyzes how stakeholders relationship influences the efficiency of commercial banks and finds that the efficiency is a function of stakeholders relationship. A DEA model with Seiford's linear transformation function is developed to evaluate the efficiency in consideration of the undesirable output. The panel Tobit model is established to conduct empirical research with data of 14 Chinese commercial banks from 2004 to 2012. The study finds that except for business customer relation, stakeholder relationship is the key variable that influences comprehensive efficiency of commercial banks.

  2. Antibiotic Therapy for Premature Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Labor and Effect on Fetal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelbach-Goebel, B.

    2013-01-01

    In Germany almost 10 % of children are born before the end of 37th week of gestation. In at least one quarter of these cases, ascending infection of the vagina plays a causative role, particularly during the early weeks of gestation. If, in addition to the decidua, the amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid and the umbilical cord are also affected, infection not only triggers uterine contractions and premature rupture of membranes but also initiates a systemic inflammatory reaction on the part of the fetus, which can increase neonatal morbidity. Numerous studies and meta-analyses have found that antibiotic therapy prolongs pregnancy and reduces neonatal morbidity. No general benefit of antibiotic treatment was found for premature uterine contractions. But it is conceivable that a subgroup of pregnant women would benefit from antibiotic treatment. It is important to identify this subgroup of women and offer them targeted treatment. This overview summarizes the current body of evidence on antibiotic treatment for impending preterm birth and the effect on neonatal outcomes. PMID:24771902

  3. Abortion and premature birth in cattle following vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluegel Dougherty, Amanda M; Cornish, Todd E; O'Toole, Donal; Boerger-Fields, Amy M; Henderson, Owen L; Mills, Ken W

    2013-09-01

    Brucella abortus RB51 is the vaccine strain currently licensed for immunizing cattle against brucellosis in the United States. Most cattle are vaccinated as heifer calves at 4-12 months of age. Adult cattle may be vaccinated in selected high-risk situations. Two herds of pregnant adult cattle in the brucellosis-endemic area of Wyoming were vaccinated with a standard label dose (1.0-3.4 × 10(10) organisms) of RB51. Reproductive losses in the vaccinated herds were 5.3% (herd A) and 0.6% (herd B) and included abortions, stillbirths, premature calves, and unbred cows (presumed early abortion). Brucella abortus was cultured from multiple tissues of aborted and premature calves (7/9), and from placenta. Isolates were identified as B. abortus strain RB51 by standard strain typing procedures and a species-specific polymerase chain reaction. Bronchopneumonia with intralesional bacteria and placentitis were observed microscopically. There was no evidence of involvement of other infectious or toxic causes of abortion. Producers, veterinarians, and laboratory staff should be alert to the risk of abortion when pregnant cattle are vaccinated with RB51, to potential human exposure, and to the importance of distinguishing field from vaccinal strains of B. abortus.

  4. Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Core-Shell Structure Supported Pd Nanocatalysts for Catalytic Nitrite Reduction with Enhanced Activity, No Detection of Undesirable Product of Ammonium, and Easy Magnetic Separation Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuzhu; Yang, Weiyi; Xu, Zhengchao; Li, Qi; Shang, Jian Ku

    2016-01-27

    Superparamagnetic nanocatalysts could minimize both the external and internal mass transport limitations and neutralize OH(-) produced in the reaction more effectively to enhance the catalytic nitrite reduction efficiency with the depressed product selectivity to undesirable ammonium, while possess an easy magnetic separation capability. However, commonly used qusi-monodispersed superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanosphere is not suitable as catalyst support for nitrite reduction because it could reduce the catalytic reaction efficiency and the product selectivity to N2, and the iron leakage could bring secondary contamination to the treated water. In this study, protective shells of SiO2, polymethylacrylic acid, and carbon were introduced to synthesize Fe3O4@SiO2/Pd, Fe3O4@PMAA/Pd, and Fe3O4@C/Pd catalysts for catalytic nitrite reduction. It was found that SiO2 shell could provide the complete protection to Fe3O4 nanosphere core among these shells. Because of its good dispersion, dense structure, and complete protection to Fe3O4, the Fe3O4@SiO2/Pd catalyst demonstrated the highest catalytic nitrite reduction activity without the detection of NH4(+) produced. Due to this unique structure, the activity of Fe3O4@SiO2/Pd catalysts for nitrite reduction was found to be independent of the Pd nanoparticle size or shape, and their product selectivity was independent of the Pd nanoparticle size, shape, and content. Furthermore, their superparamagnetic nature and high saturation magnetization allowed their easy magnetic separation from treated water, and they also demonstrated a good stability during the subsequent recycling experiment.

  5. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Femi; Knauff, Erik A. H.; Niermeijer, Martinus F.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Lambalk, Cornelius B.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  6. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, F.; Knauff, E.A.; Niermeijer, M.F.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Laven, J.S.E.; Lambalk, C.B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Goverde, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  7. Determination of tissue hypoxia by physicochemical approach in premature anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Özdemir

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that the determination of the level of tissue hypoxia by the Stewart approach may be an alternative to restrictive transfusion guidelines for timing of transfusion in premature anemia. It also showed that a low Cl/Na ratio can be used as a simple marker of tissue hypoxia.

  8. Feeding premature neonates: Kinship and species in translational neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Mie S; Juhl, Sandra M; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2017-04-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of 'translating' research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013-2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care hold the potential for stimulating and eroding kinship relations between human and nonhuman actors. In the laboratory, piglets and researchers form 'interspecies-milk-kinships' that entail the intimate care crucial to keeping the compromised piglets alive during the experiments, thereby enhancing what the researchers refer to as the 'translatability' of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the 'species flexibility' of premature beings profoundly shapes the translational processes in the field of neonatology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and problem behavior in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Verkerk, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm newborns are at risk of developing transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THoP), which has been associated with subsequent neurodevelopmental impairments. Behavioral outcomes at adult age after THoP have never been reported. Aim To examine whether there is an association

  10. Apnoea of prematurity – discontinuation of methylxanthines in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Methylxanthines such as caffeine have been proven to reduce apnoea of prematurity and are often discontinued at 35 weeks' corrected gestational age (GA). Objective. To ascertain whether a caffeine protocol based on international guidelines is applicable in our setting, where GA is often uncertain. Methods.

  11. Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Leaving hospital care prematurely could threaten the healthy survival of and expose children to a risk of harmful alternatives. It is also a concern and a challenge to healthcare providers and the health system. A better understanding of its characteristic could help mitigate the impact on children. Objective: To ...

  12. Experiences of Fathers with Inpatient Premature Neonates: Phenomenological Interpretative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhahtehrani, Tahmineh; Eskandari, Narges; Khalajinia, Zohre; Ahmari-Tehran, Hoda

    2018-01-01

    Birth and hospitalization of premature neonates create enormous challenges for the family with serious impacts on parents' mental and emotional health. The present study was designed to explore the experiences of fathers with premature neonates hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this interpretative phenomenological study, data were collected using in-depth interviews guided with a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Totally seven interviews were conducted with six participants. The mean age of the fathers was 32 (23-42) years, and all of the fathers lived with their wives. Experiences of the fathers were categorized into 13 subordinate and three superordinate themes: "abandonment and helplessness" (lack of financial support, lack of informational support, and indignation and distrust toward the hospital staffs); "anxiety and confusion" (family disruption, shock due to the premature birth of the neonate, uncertainty, the loss of wishes, feeling of guilt and blame, and occupational disruption); and "development and self-actualization" (emotional development, spiritual development, independence and self-efficacy, and responsibility). The present study showed that the fathers with premature neonates hospitalized in NICU encounter both positive (development and self-actualization) and negative experiences (lack of financial and informational supports, distrusting toward the hospital staffs, family disruption, and occupational disruption). Planning to manage adverse experiences can help fathers to cope with this situation.

  13. Focal seizure-induced premature myelination: speculation from serial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprez, T.; Grandin, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Ghariani, S.; Gadisseux, J.F.; Evrard, P. [Department of Pediatric Neurology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Smith, A.M. [MRI Laboratory, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Local changes in the white matter underlying a focus of cortical thickening were monitored using MRI in an epileptic 2-month-old boy. We hypothesise that these changes reflected seizure-induced premature myelination. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 figs., 10 refs.

  14. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity in a provincial hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an emerging public health problem in many middle-income countries where improved neonatal survival rates coupled with inadequate health resources have created a new epidemic. There are limited available data on the magnitude of the problem, and screening in South ...

  15. Nevirapine plasma concentrations in premature infants exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -dose nevirapine (sd NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Aim. To describe NVP decay pharmacokinetics in two groups of premature infants – those whose mothers either received or did not receive NVP during ...

  16. The womb as target: Linking Procreative Sex with Premature Death ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Putting current HIV/AIDS policy of deterrence in an historical context illuminates how the national response to contagious diseases and premature mortality is limited when regarded chiefly as the direct effect of socio-sexual dysfunction. The evidence assembled here reveal that attention to women's lack of social ...

  17. Om ouers van 'n premature baba in 'n neonatale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, the author and his wife's experience with their premature baby in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is described and compared with recent literature. Two broad themes, namely vulnerability and strengths, were identified through interpretative phenomenological analysis. Vulnerability is characterised by ...

  18. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  19. Premature Discontinuation in Adult Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joshua K.; Greenberg, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Premature discontinuation from therapy is a widespread problem that impedes the delivery of otherwise effective psychological interventions. The most recent comprehensive review found an average dropout rate of 47% across 125 studies (Wierzbicki & Pekarik, 1993); however, given a number of changes in the field over the past 2 decades,…

  20. [Incidence and risk factor analysis of retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Li, Xiao-Xin; Li, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Wei

    2005-04-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of infant blindness. This study was designed to screen the high-risk premature infants and investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of ROP. From July 1 2002 to June 30 2003, all premature infants born in Beijing Maternal and Children Healthcare Hospital with birth body weight (BBW) less than 2000 gm or gestational age (GA) less than 34 weeks were enrolled and underwent ophthalmologic examination. The perinatal variables were analyzed to evaluate their correlation with the development of ROP. In 98 premature infants, the incidence of ROP was 17.3% (17 in 98 patients). Four cases with 7 eyes (4.1%) developed threshold ROP. There was significant difference in birth body weight, gestational age, maximal oxygen tension, oxygen use for more than 5 days and sepsis between ROP and Non-ROP groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that long time use of oxygen was a significant risk factor associated with the development of ROP. GA and BBW were protective factors of ROP. Low birth body weight, young gestational age and long time oxygen usage are the most important risk factors in the development of ROP.

  1. Safety of Premature Loading on Reinforced Concrete Slabs | Shema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two-thirds of its characteristic strength. The reliability indices of a prematurely loaded reinforced concrete slab in flexure are directly proportional to the characteristic strength of concrete. Therefore in practice, due consideration must be given to early-age strength development in reinforced concrete slabs before loading.

  2. Tackling the premature convergence problem in Monte-Carlo localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Monte-Carlo localization uses particle filtering to estimate the position of the robot. The method is known to suffer from the loss of potential positions when there is ambiguity present in the environment. Since many indoor environments are highly symmetric, this problem of premature convergence is

  3. Economic Evaluation of Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukhovny, Dmitry; Lorch, Scott A.; Schmidt, Barbara; Doyle, Lex W.; Kok, Joke H.; Roberts, Robin S.; Kamholz, Karen L.; Wang, Na; Mao, Wenyang; Zupancic, John A. F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment with caffeine compared with placebo for apnea of prematurity in infants with birth weights less than 1250 g, from birth through 18 to 21 months' corrected age. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective economic evaluation of the cost per

  4. Doxapram Treatment for Apnea of Prematurity: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Roseanne J. S.; ten Hove, Christine H.; Onland, Wes; van Kaam, Anton H. L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, for which caffeine is the first treatment of choice. In case of persistent AOP, doxapram has been advocated as an additional therapy. To identify and appraise all existing evidence regarding efficacy and safety of doxapram use for

  5. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the maternal outcomes of immediate induction of labor with expectant management in women presenting with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at term. Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were randomized into either immediate induction of labor with oxytocin or ...

  6. Management of premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the optimal way to manage patients with premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks' gestation. Design. A prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing immediate induction and delayed induction after 24 • 48 hours. Setting. Tygerberg Hospital, Gape Town. Participants. Seventy ...

  7. Premature rupture of membranes: many questions still unanswered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) still remains a subject of controversy among obstetricians. Although prompt delivery is generally recommended at term to reduce the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality, some authors recommend expectant management especially in cases of poor Bishop's ...

  8. Power relations and premature mortality in Spain's autonomous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme; Urbanos, Rosa; Pasarín, M Isabel; Rico, Ana; Fraile, Marta; Ramos, Xavier; Navarro, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    This trends ecological study analyzes, across 17 autonomous communities of Spain from 1989 to 1998, the relationship between mortality (total and by main causes of death) and power relations (type of government: social democratic (SDP), conservative (CDP), and others), labor market variables, welfare state variables, income inequality, absolute income, poverty, and number of civil associations. The authors conducted a descriptive analysis; a bivariate analysis (Pearson correlation coefficients) between mortality and each of the independent variables; and a multivariate analysis, adjusting multilevel linear regression models. All dimensions of the conceptual power relations model were related to premature mortality in the direction hypothesized. The cross-pooled multilevel regression models show that total premature mortality in males, male and female cerebrovascular mortality, male and female cirrhosis mortality, and male lung cancer mortality decreased somewhat more in communities where primary health care reform was implemented more quickly. Premature mortality decreased somewhat more in SDP than in CDP communities for male and female total premature mortality, cerebrovascular mortality, and cirrhosis mortality, and male lung cancer mortality. These results are in accord with earlier studies that found a relationship among health indicators and variables related to labor market, welfare state, income inequalities, civil associations, and power relations.

  9. On the premature convergence of particle swarm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rie B.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses convergence issues of the basic particle swarm optimization algorithm for different pa- rameters. For the one-dimensional case, it is shown that, for a specific range of parameters, the particles will converge prematurely, i.e. away from the actual minimum of the objective...

  10. Premature Ovarian Failure in French Canadian Leigh Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddhab, Chiraz; Morin, Charles; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A; Van Vliet, Guy; Huot, Céline

    2017-05-01

    In all surviving girls with Leigh syndrome, French Canadian variety, a mitochondrial disease, we detected premature ovarian failure, manifested as absent or arrested breast development, lack of menarche, high follicle-stimulating hormone, a prepubertal uterus, and small ovaries. Pubertal onset and progression should be evaluated in girls with mitochondrial diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mothers' perceptions of their premature infant's communication: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bonding and attachment experiences of premature infants and their parents are often challenged, further placing these infants at risk for communication difficulties. This study firstly aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of ... Three visits took place in the first year of life. Subjective maternal reports were obtained through ...

  12. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...

  13. Management practices to control premature senescence in bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial cultivation of Bt cotton produced higher boll load which led to stiff inter-organal competition for photosynthates resulting in early cessation of growth (premature senescence) due to more availability of sink and less sources. To overcome this problem field experiment was conducted durin...

  14. Managing Premature Infant Stress: Training Does Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyly, M. Virginia; And Others

    The Nurse-Parent Training Project, developed in cooperation with Children's Hospital of Buffalo (New York), was designed to provide developmental supportive care for premature infants, and to reduce stress while optimizing neurobehavioral development. A program was conducted to train nurses working in neonatal intensive care nurseries, to enable…

  15. Probiotics in premature infants: focus on necrotising enterocolitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The premature infant may be exposed to an environment that is associated with the development of gastrointestinal complications. In preventing the latter, it is crucial that, if probiotics is chosen as a preventive measure, the selection of a safe product with documented probiotic properties together with close monitoring of ...

  16. Anaesthetic considerations in a prematurely born infant with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditions such as congenital bilateral cataract and congenital hypothyroidism may be associated with other birth defects and syndromes. Recommendations for early cataract surgery may necessitate anaesthetising premature infants with postconceptional ages less than 60 weeks, or those who have had recently ...

  17. Telemedicine for Retinopathy of Prematurity Diagnosis: Evaluation and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Grace M.; Williams, Steven L.; Starren, Justin; Flynn, John T.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder affecting low birth weight infants. Although timely diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce the risk of severe complications, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Limitations of current disease management strategies include extensive travel and logistical coordination requirements for ophthalmologists and neonatologists, decreasing availability of adequately-trained ophthalmologists at the point...

  18. Probiotics in premature infants: focus on necrotising enterocolitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enhances enteral nutrition.20. A recent meta-analysis of 11 randomized clinical trials that involved. 2 176 premature infants treated with oral probiotics concluded that there are significant benefits with regards to the use of probiotic supplements in reducing all-cause mortality and NEC in preterm neonates. Overall evidence ...

  19. The economic impact of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fuente, María; Arruza, Luis; Muro, Marta; Zozaya, Carlos; Avila, Alejandro; López-Ortego, Paloma; González-Armengod, Carmen; Torrent, Alba; Gavilán, Jose Luis; Del Cerro, María Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most serious chronic lung diseases in infancy and one of the most important sequels of premature birth (prevalence of 15-50%). Our objective was to estimate the cost of BPD of one preterm baby, with no other major prematurity-related complications, during the first 2 years of life in Spain. Data from the Spanish Ministry of Health regarding costs of diagnosis-related group of preterm birth, hospital admissions and visits, palivizumab administration, and oxygen therapy in the year 2013 were analyzed. In 2013, 2628 preterm babies were born with a weight under 1500 g; 50.9% were males. The need for respiratory support was 2.5% needed only oxygen therapy, 39.5% required conventional mechanical ventilation, and 14.9% required high-frequency ventilation. The incidence of BPD was of 34.9%. The cost of the first 2 years of life of a preterm baby with BPD and no other major prematurity-related complications ranged between 45,049.81 € and 118,760.43 €, in Spain, depending on birth weight and gestational age. If the baby required home oxygen therapy or developed pulmonary hypertension, this cost could add up to 181,742.43 €. Prematurity and BPD have an elevated cost, even for public health care systems. This cost will probably increase in the coming years if the incidence and survival of preterm babies keeps rising. The development of new therapies and preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of BPD and other morbidities associated with prematurity should be a priority. What is known: • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious chronic lung disease related with premature birth. • BPD is an increasing disease due to the up-rise in the number of premature births. What is new: • The economic cost of preterm birth and BPD has never before been estimated in Spain nor published with European data. • Preterm babies with BPD and a good clinical outcome carry also an important economic and social burden.

  20. Prematurity and biliary atresia: a 30-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Natalie; Deheragoda, Maesha; Davenport, Mark

    2017-12-01

    The diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA) remains challenging and delay can lead to significant morbidity with time to surgery a key factor in determining outcome. Prematurity may impact on outcome potentially delaying diagnosis. We sought to assess whether the premature BA infants (PBA) have a delayed time to surgery and as such, worse outcomes? Review of a single-centre prospectively maintained database. Prematurity was defined as delivery premature and term cohorts. Data are quoted as median (range) unless indicated. A P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. 21 (female n = 14, 67%) premature infants with BA were treated in the period Jan. 1988-Dec. 2016 and compared with 41 contemporaneous term BA controls. Median gestation was 33 (29-36) weeks and birth weight 1930 (948-4230)g. Twin pregnancy (n = 10) was the leading cause for prematurity and significantly higher than the controls (48 vs. 0%; P  50 days) was seen in n = 13 but not associated with parenteral nutrition use (46 vs. 33%, P = 0.59) or phototherapy (50 vs. 83%, P = 0.19). Both BASM (33 vs. 7.5%; P = 0.01) and duodenal atresia (19 vs. 0%; P = 0.01) were seen more frequently in the PBA cohort. Mean fibrosis scores (Ishak) from diagnostic biopsies were lower in the premature group than the control group (2.71 vs. 3.53, P = 0.043) indicating less fibrosis but this equalized by time of subsequent KPE (P = 0.17). Primary surgery was Kasai portoenterostomy (n = 20) at an older median age than controls (65 vs. 56 days; P = 0.06). Liver transplantation was the primary procedure in one late-presenting child. There was an increased but non-significant clearance of jaundice in the PBA group [n = 12/20 (60%) vs 20/41 (48%); P = 0.23] post-KPE. Native liver survival and true survival were not different (P = 0.58 and 0.23). PBA infants have similar outcomes to term infants, despite delayed diagnosis and higher frequency of the

  1. Respiratory Failure in Premature Babies Born from Multiple Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the factors that are responsible for the development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and the specific features of its course in preterm twin neonates. Subjects and methods. Twenty-three patients who had had twin pregnancy, including 9 (39.1% and 14 (60% with monochorial and bichorial biamniotic twin pregnancies, respectively, were examined. Their mean age was 28.5±5.4 years. Obstetric and gynecologic histories, conditions at conception, the course of pregnancy, the type of pla-centation, and fetal presentation were considered. The placentas were morphologically examined. In all the patients, pregnancy ended in birth of 46 premature neonates, of them there were 19 (41.3% boys and 27 (58.7% girls. The gestational age of the neonates averaged 31.7±2.3 weeks. The evaluation of the efficiency of performed therapy used clinical assessment of the status of the premature neonates; measurement of partial oxygen tension (pO2 and calculation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2, respiratory index (RI, and oxygenation index (OI; death rates were analyzed. Results. The main cause of respiratory failure (RF was RDS in premature twins. Neonatal blood aspiration-caused pneumonia occurred in one case. The course of RDS was variable. Most neonatal infants needed exogenous surfactant replacement therapy and mechanical ventilation (MV. No signs of RF were present in 7 (15.2% premature neonates. Conclusion. Premature twins are a high RDS risk group. The unfavorable factors that contribute to the development of the disease are multiple pregnancy, a past maternal obstetric history, in-vitro fertilization-induced pregnancy, severe gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, and preterm delivery. The type of placentation affects the fetal status after birth. Fatal outcome occurred in infants from the monochorial bioamniotic twins. In multiple pregnancies, there are pathological changes in the placenta, its membranes, and umbilical

  2. Overweight dogs are more likely to display undesirable behaviours: results of a large online survey of dog owners in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Blackwell, Emily; Evans, Mark; Westgarth, Carri

    2017-01-01

    Much of the global canine population is now overweight, and this can adversely affect health, lifespan and quality of life. Undesirable behaviours are also common in pet dogs, and these can adversely affect welfare, as well as being stressful to owners. However, links between obesity and behavioural disorders have never previously been explored. An online survey was conducted between June and August in 2014, coinciding with the broadcast of a National UK television programme, exploring dog health, welfare and behaviour. Information gathered included signalment, overweight status and the prevalence of a range of undesirable behaviours. Fisher's exact test and OR were used to determine associations between overweight status and owner-reported behaviours. A total of 17 028 responses were received. After data verification, the final dataset comprised 11 154 dogs, 1801 (16·1 %) of which were reported by owners to be overweight. Owners of overweight dogs were more likely to see them as 'a baby' ( P  dogs were also more likely to guard food ( P  dogs included barking, growling or snapping at strangers ( P  = 0·0011) and other dogs ( P  = 0·0015), being fearful of outdoors ( P  dog's health ( P  dogs. Further studies are now required to explore the reasons for these associations.

  3. [Fluorine as a factor in premature aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machoy-Mokrzyńska, Anna

    2004-01-01

    osteoblasts, stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagenase, and trigger toxic reactions in osteocytes and chondrocytes of trabecular bone. Growing deformations of the skeleton reduce mobility and result in permanent crippling of the patient. Fluoride increases the mass of non-collagen proteins such as proteoglycans and glucosaminoglycans, accelerating skin aging even though protein biosynthesis is generally suppressed. The final outcome includes progressive vascular lesions and disorders of energy metabolism in muscles. In conclusions, the use of fluoride, particularly by dentists and pediatricians, must be controlled and adapted to individual needs. It is worth remembering that fluoride: is the cause of disability due to bone deformations and abnormalities in the musculoskeletal system; reduces the incidence of caries but do not protect against tooth loss; exerts an adverse effect of metabolic processes in the skin; accelerates calcification of vessels and thus reduces their elasticity; inhibits bioenergetic reactions, in particular oxidative phosphorylation, reducing physical activity of muscles. These findings suggest that fluorine may be yet another factor in accelerated aging and revive the dispute started more than two and half thousand years ago whether aging is a physiologic or pathologic process. The understanding of factors modifying the process of aging is the basis for preventive measures aimed at extending life and maintaining full psychosocial activity.

  4. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  5. Retinopathy of prematurity: screening, incidence and risk factors analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C S; Chen, S J; Lee, F L; Hsu, W M; Liu, J H

    2001-12-01

    The sequela of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of infant blindness. This study was designed to screen the high-risk premature infants and investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of ROP. From October 1997 to October 1998, all premature infants with birth body weight (BBW) less than 2000 gm or gestational age (GA) less than 36 weeks were enrolled and underwent ophthalmologic examination at 4 to 6 weeks of age at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. The perinatal variables were analyzed to evaluate their correlation with the development of ROP. In totally 108 premature infants, the incidence for development of ROP was 25% (27 in 108 patients). The threshold ROP occurred in 15 eyes (7%). The average BBW and GA (1267+/-341 gm and 29.7+/-2.7 weeks) were significantly lower in ROP group than in the non-ROP group (1703+/-368 gm and 32.3+/-2.2 weeks). The artificial ventilation for more than 5 days, chronic lung disease and periventricular leukomalacia were significant risk factors associated with highest rate of ROP. The respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, congenital heart disease and sepsis were significant risk factors accompanied by moderate rate of ROP. Low birth body weight and young gestational age are the most important risk factors in the development of ROP. The analysis of risk factors will be helpful in understanding and prediction of ROP formation in high-risk neonates. The timely clinical screening retina examination of high-risk premature infants is important to prevent the development of advanced ROP.

  6. FOETOMATERNAL AND NEONATAL OUTCOME OF PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumam Vilangot Nhalil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane is defined as rupture of foetal membrane before onset of labour at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Incidence of PPROM is around 3-10% of all deliveries. Primary complication for mother is infection and for foetus and neonate is prematurity, foetal distress, cord compression, deformation, pulmonary hypoplasia, necrotising enterocolitis and neurologic disorders. Most likely outcome is preterm delivery within 1 week. The aim of the study is to study the foetomaternal and neonatal outcome in PPROM patients and the common prevalent organism in PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cohort study of pregnant women from 24-37 weeks with PPROM admitted to IMCH for a period of 1 year, January 2016 to December 2016. 100 patients with PPROM were taken up for the study. The data was collected using the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria are gestational age 24-37 weeks confirmed by dates, clinical examination and ultrasound with lack of uterine contractions for at least 1 hour from PPROM; single live pregnancy in vertex presentation; PPROM confirmed by direct visualisation, neonates admitted in NICU soon after delivery. RESULTS 49% of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes were from 18-24 years.68% of patients had a latency period of 3 weeks.15% of patients had maternal tachycardia, 4% had tenderness of uterus and 4% had leucocytosis and 14% had an elevated CRP. Thus, clinical chorioamnionitis was seen in 14% of patients, 38% of babies born had prematurity and 2% had sepsis and 19% had respiratory distress syndrome and hyperbilirubinaemia, 2% had perinatal asphyxia, 2% had anomalies, 1% had necrotising enterocolitis and 5% were NND. Common organisms were normal flora, E. coli, Streptococci and Enterococci. CONCLUSION PPROM increases the incidence of maternal morbidity with longer hospital stay due to chorioamnionitis. Neonatal morbidity is increased due to

  7. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term encephalopathy of prematurity encompasses not only the acute brain injury (such as intraventricular hemorrhage but also complex disturbance on the infant’s subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL. Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9 and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  8. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Dinlen, Nurdan Fettah; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Beken, Serdar; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2017-11-01

    Aim To evaluate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 25 (OH) D, levels and retinopathy of prematurity. Methods and Results Serum 25 (OH) D levels were measured in 97 very low birth weight infants, prior to vitamin D supplementation. The development of retinopathy of prematurity and its treatment requirement were evaluated. At follow-up, retinopathy of prematurity developed in 71 (73.2%) infants. Serum 25 (OH) D levels were significantly lower in infants with retinopathy of prematurity than ones without retinopathy of prematurity ( P prematurity development [OR: 1.14, 95% CI (1.02-1.27), P = 0.02]. Conclusion Lower 25 (OH) D levels in the first days of life may be related to retinopathy of prematurity development and treatment requirement in premature infants.

  9. [The definition of chemiluminescence intensity in experimental model of premature senescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavishnikova, S A; Arutiunian, A V; Ryzhak, G A

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic possibilities of chemiluminescence's intensity research for premature senescence prognosis are described in this article. The definition of chemiluminescence's intensity enables to reveal the individuals stable to processes of premature senescence in the model of acute radiation.

  10. A Preliminary Study of Cortisol Reactivity and Behavior Problems in Young Children Born Premature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Vohr, Betty R.; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between cortisol reactivity and comorbid internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among children born premature. Children between the ages of 18 and 60 months who were born premature. PMID:20806330

  11. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation has not yet been reached because of debates based on subjective authority opinions and nonstandardized assessment methods to measure ejaculation time and ejaculation control. Aim. To provide a definition for lifelong premature

  12. Identification of 30 protein species involved in replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierick, Jean François; Kalume, Dário E; Wenders, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of human proliferative cells to subcytotoxic stress triggers stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is characterized by many biomarkers of replicative senescence. Proteomic comparison of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence indicates that, at the level...

  13. [Premature labour with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes: maternal, obstetric and neonatal features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Ana Maria Simões; Domingues, Ana Patrícia Rodrigues; Fonseca, Etelvina Morais Ferreira; Miranda, Teresa Maria Antunes; Belo, Adriana; Moura, José Paulo Achando Silva

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of maternal, obstetrics e neonatal features in both spontaneous preterm births (PTB) with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Retrospective study of single fetus pregnancies with PTB between 2003 and 2012. PTB associated with ou without PPROM. Exclusion criterias: PTB by medical indication due to fetal/maternal disease and all non accessible or incomplete clinical files. Different characteristics were compared between two groups of PTB: spontaneous PTB without PPROM (sPTB) versusPPROM. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Levene, χ2, t Student and Mann-Withney tests were used for statistical analysis. From 2,393 PTB of single fetus, 1,432 files were analysed, from which 596 were sPTB and 836 PPROM. The socioeconomic conditions were similar in both groups. Multiparity (50.7 versus 40.3%), personal history of previous PTB (20.8 versus10.2%), cervical length (18.2 versus27.2 mm), lower body index mass (23.4 versus 24.3 kg/m2) and higher infectious parameters (Protein C Reactive: 2.2 versus1.2 mg/L; Leukocytes: 13.3 versus 12.4 x109) were more frequent in PBTs (p<0,001). Neonatal outcomes, specially neurologic outcomes (4.7 versus2.8%, p<0,001), were worst in PBTs. PTB with or without PPROM has a complex etiology. From all evaluated features in our study, only maternal thinness, multiparity with a previous PTB, the cervical length and worst systemic infections parameters were significant in sPTB. This group also showed worst neonatal outcomes, specially on neurological outcomes.

  14. Premature responding is associated with approach to a food cue in male and female heterogeneous stock rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher P; Palmer, Abraham A; Woods, Leah C Solberg; Hawk, Larry W; Richards, Jerry B; Meyer, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of behavioral regulation, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug addiction, are in part due to poor inhibitory control, attentional deficits, and hyper-responsivity to reward-associated cues. To determine whether these traits are related, we tested genetically variable male and female heterogeneous stock rats in the choice reaction time (CRT) task and Pavlovian conditioned approach (PavCA). Sex differences in the response to methylphenidate during the CRT were also assessed. In the CRT task, rats were required to withhold responding until one of two lights indicated whether responses into a left or right port would be reinforced with water. Reaction time on correct trials and premature responses were the operational definitions of attention and response inhibition, respectively. Rats were also pretreated with oral methylphenidate (0, 2, 4 mg/kg) during the CRT task to determine whether this drug would improve performance. Subsequently, during PavCA, presentation of an illuminated lever predicted the delivery of a food pellet into a food-cup. Lever-directed approach (sign-tracking) and food-cup approach (goal-tracking) were the primary measures, and rats were categorized as "sign-trackers" and "goal-trackers" using an index based on these measures. Sign-trackers made more premature responses than goal-trackers but showed no differences in reaction time. There were sex differences in both tasks, with females having higher sign-tracking, completing more CRT trials, and making more premature responses after methylphenidate administration. These results indicate that response inhibition is related to reward-cue responsivity, suggesting that these traits are influenced by common genetic factors.

  15. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  16. Prematurity and fetal lung response after tracheal occlusion in fetuses with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananes, Nicolas; Rodo, Carlota; Peiro, Jose Luis; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Favre, Romain; Joal, Arnaud; Gaudineau, Adrien; Silva, Marcos Marques da; Tannuri, Uenis; Zugaib, Marcelo; Carreras, Elena; Ruano, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the independent association of fetal pulmonary response and prematurity to postnatal outcomes after fetal tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Fetal pulmonary response, prematurity (prematurity (prematurity was not statistically associated with mortality after controlling for fetal pulmonary response (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.12-2.30, p=0.367). Fetal pulmonary response after FETO is the most important factor associated with survival, independently from the gestational age at delivery.

  17. The Mediterranean diet adherence by pregnant women delivering prematurely: association with size at birth and complications of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Agakidou, Eleni; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Diamanti, Elisavet

    2017-11-13

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome and gestational diabetes due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of its components. The aim was to investigate the potential association of MD adherence (MDA) during pregnancy by mothers delivering prematurely, with intrauterine growth as expressed by neonates' anthropometry at birth and complications of prematurity. This is a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study of 82 women who delivered preterm singletons at post conceptional age (PCA) ≤ 34 weeks and their live-born neonates. Maternal and neonatal demographic and clinical data were recorded. All mothers filled in a food frequency questionnaire, and the MDA score was calculated. Based on 50th centile of MD score, participants were classified into high-MDA and low-MDA groups. The low-MDA mothers had significantly higher pregestational BMI and rates of overweight/obesity (odd ratios (OR) 3.5) and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (OR 3.8). Neonates in the low-MDA group had significantly higher incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (OR 3.3) and lower z-scores of birth weight and BMI. Regarding prematurity-related complications, the low MDA-group was more likely to develop necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.2, 1.3, and 1.6, respectively), while they were less likely to develop respiratory distress syndrome (OR 0.49), although the differences were not statistically significant. However, adjustment for confounders revealed MDA as a significant independent predictor of hypertension/preeclampsia, IUGR, birth weight z-score, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. High MDA during pregnancy may favorably affect intrauterine growth and certain acute and chronic complications of prematurity as well as maternal hypertension/preeclampsia.

  18. 'Direct and Indirect Shadow Price Estimates of Nitrate Pollution Treated as an Undesirable Output and Input', Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics Vol. 27, No. 2 (December 2002) pp: 420-432.

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem Shaik; Glenn A Helmers; Michael Langemeier

    2005-01-01

    The implication of treating environmental pollution as an undesirable output (weak disposability) as well as a normal input (strong disposability) on the direct and indirect shadow price and cost estimates of nitrogen pollution abatement is analyzed using Nebraska agriculture sector data. The shadow price of nitrogen pollution abatement treated as an undesirable output represents the reduced revenue from reducing nitrogen pollution. In contrast, the shadow price of nitrogen pollution abatemen...

  19. Analysis of regional total factor energy efficiency in China under environmental constraints: based on undesirable-minds and DEA window model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Li, Deshan; Li, Shuangqiang; Jiang, Hanyu; Shen, Yuqing

    2017-06-01

    With China’s entrance into the new economy, the improvement of energy efficiency has become an important indicator to measure the quality of ecological civilization construction and economic development. According to the panel data of Chinese regions in 1996-2014, the nearest distance to the efficient frontier of Undesirable-MinDS Xeon model and DEA window model have been used to calculate the total factor energy efficiency of China’s regions. Study found that: Under environmental constraints, China’s total factor energy efficiency has increased after the first drop in the overall 1996-2014, and then increases again. And the difference between the regions is very large, showing a characteristic of “the east is the highest, the west is lower, and lowest is in the central” finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy suggestions.

  20. Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes and Genital Mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kacerovský

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cervical colonization by genital mycoplasmas in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM. Method: We studied 225 women between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation with PPROM. Cervical swabs were obtained for genital mycoplasmas and standard vaginal smears of bacterial culture were performed at the time of patients’ admission. In the control group were 225 women with a normal pregnancy. Results: Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 68 % (152/225 and Mycoplasma hominis was detected in 28 % (63/225 of the patients with PPROM between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation and. In the control group Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 17 % (38/225 and Mycoplasma hominis in 15 % (35/225 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of an association between cervical colonization with genital mycoplasmas and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

  1. Serial hexachlorophene blood levels in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, S J; Ferry, D G; McQueen, E G; Malcolm, D S; Buckfield, P M

    1975-04-09

    The concentration of hexachlorophene was determined in serial blood samples taken from seven premature infants washed with pHisoHex. Results indicated that after a single wash with 5ml of pHisoHex, blood concentrations reached a maximum of 0.75-1.20mug/ml two to four days after application. The results obtained in this study confirm that the dermal absorption of hexachlorophene is greater in premature than in full-term infants. Use of hexachlorophene for infants. Use of hexachlorophene for infants of birth weight less than 2kg has now been discontinued at Queen Mary Hospital and the amount of pHisoHex used in the initial toileting of infants with birth weight more than 2kg has been limited to a single application of 5ml.

  2. Chediak-Higashi syndrome and premature exfoliation of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Karla Mayra; Canela, Alfredo Hiram Carrillo; Ortega, Adriana Oliveira Lira; Tintel, Claudia; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare hereditary fatal disease, if not treated. These changes are associated with various diseases and syndromes that mainly cause periodontal disease and thus the premature loss of teeth. This paper describes the monitoring of premature loss of primary teeth that began when the child was 5 years old. On presentation his teeth were mobile and there was a history of gingival bleeding. Panoramic radiography revealed generalized and severe bone loss, and the teeth showed no bony support enough for their stability. Blood test was ordered to assess the overall health of the child and giant cells with cytoplasmic granules were found, confirming the diagnosis of CHS. The management of periodontal disease focused on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by mechanical and chemical methods.

  3. Respiratory changes related to prematurity in neonatal intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Cristina Krey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify respiratory clinical changes in preterm newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: this is a documentary research with 145 medical records by an instrument with sociodemographic variables of preterm newborns and their mothers. Results: most of the newborn were male, 66.9% were born surgically, 64.8% were moderately premature, and the birth weights were between 1,500 and 2,500 grams. Among the respiratory changes, there were early respiratory dysfunction, hyaline membrane, and apnea. There was the prevalence of women in preterm labor (42.8%, water breaking (32.4% and pre-eclampsia (20.7% among others were found to be related to obstetric factors related to prematurity. Conclusion: a high incidence of preterm births was observed, with significant respiratory changes.

  4. Outcomes of preterm premature rupture of membranes in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Jean-Pierre, Claudel; Baergen, Rebecca; Chasen, Stephen T

    2008-08-01

    To describe outcomes in twin pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Dichorionic twin pregnancies complicated by PPROM at premature rupture of membranes (PROM), latency from PROM to delivery, and infection were examined. In 49 twin pregnancies, the median gestational age at PROM was 31 weeks with a median latency between PROM and delivery of 0 days (interquartile range 0-6). Latency intervals of >or=2 and >or=7 days were achieved by 40.8% and 22.4%, respectively. PPROM at or= 2 days (70.6% vs. 25.0%) and >or=7 days (47.1% vs. 9.4%). There was a significant relationship between latency and clinical and histologic signs of infection. After 30 weeks, most twin pregnancies with PPROM delivered within 2 days. Infection appears to be a consequence rather than a cause of PPROM in most cases.

  5. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity - from recognition of risk factors to treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Reija; Vesti, Eija

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative retinal disorder diagnosed exclusively in prematurely born infants. In retinopathy of prematurity, growth of the retinal vasculature is disturbed, leading to hypoxia-induced pathological changes typical of retinopathy of prematurity, in the worst case resulting in retinal detachment. The most typical risk factors predisposing to the disease include hyperoxemia, low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and low birth weight in relation to weeks of pregnancy. Laser therapy of peripheral retina is the currently established form of treatment. Screening is applied in order to recognize the pathological changes in retinopathy of prematurity early enough.

  7. Erythropoiesis and the approach to anemia in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    To review causes of anemia in preterm infants and to suggest potential preventive measures. Data for this review is obtained from review of the literature. An approach to investigating and treating causes of neonatal anemia is outlined. Clinical practices can significantly impact anemia in premature infants. Delayed cord clamping, decreasing phlebotomy loss and optimizing nutritional support are practices that may decrease the severity of anemia, thereby decreasing the need for transfusions or erythropoietin treatment.

  8. Patterns of placental pathology in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong-Wells, J.; Post, M. D.; Donnelly, M.; Manco-Johnson, M. J.; Fisher, B. M.; Winn, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neonatal outcomes. Subchorionic thrombi, with or without inflammation, may also be a significant pathological finding in PPROM. Patterns of inflammation and thrombosis may give insight into mechanisms of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with PPROM. To characterize histologic findings of placentas from pregnancies complicated by PPROM at altitude, 44 placentas were evaluated for gross and histologica...

  9. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Grantz, Katherine L.; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 ��m or less than 2.5 ��m in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide...

  10. Is vitamin C able to prevent premature rupture of membranes?

    OpenAIRE

    Citra Aryanti

    2016-01-01

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is leakage of amniotic fluid through ruptured chorioamniotic membranes that occur before starting the labor pain at any gestational age. This is one of the most common problems in obstetrics with many adverse pregnancy outcomes. Main and final mechanisms of membrane rupture is disturbances in its collagen content metabolism. Vitamin C is found to stabilize the cross link triple helix collagen structure and scavange oxidant that involved in PPROM. Associat...

  11. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Cooper, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: There is limited evidence that physical behavioral techniques for PE improve IELT and other outcomes over waitlist and that behavioral therapies combined with drug treatments give better outcomes than drug treatments alone. Further RCTs are required to assess psychotherapeutic approaches to PE. Cooper K, Martyn‐St James M, Kaltenthaler E, Dickinson K, Cantrell A, Wylie K, Frodsham L, and Hood C. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: A systematic review. Sex Med 2015;3:174–188.

  12. [Extremely prematurely born children's and their parents' need for support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, knowledge on the psychosocial consequences of extremely preterm birth was requested. The Danish Paediatric Society therefore launched a prospective longitudinal study of all children born in Denmark in 1994-95 with a gestational age of <28 weeks and/or a bodyweight...... and professionals with knowledge of their situation. We therefore need to consider the appropriateness of today's follow-up procedures for prematurely born children and their parents Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/13...

  13. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestan, Karen K L; Marks, Jeremy D; Hecox, Kurt; Huo, Dezheng; Schreiber, Michael D

    2005-07-07

    Chronic lung disease and severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia in premature infants are associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. In a previous randomized, controlled, single-center trial of premature infants with the respiratory distress syndrome, inhaled nitric oxide decreased the risk of death or chronic lung disease as well as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia. We hypothesized that infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide would also have improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study of premature infants who had received inhaled nitric oxide or placebo to investigate neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age. Neurologic examination, neurodevelopmental assessment, and anthropometric measurements were made by examiners who were unaware of the children's original treatment assignment. A total of 138 children (82 percent of survivors) were evaluated. In the group given inhaled nitric oxide, 17 of 70 children (24 percent) had abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, defined as either disability (cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no disability, but one score of less than 70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II), as compared with 31 of 68 children (46 percent) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.53; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.87; P=0.01). This effect persisted after adjustment for birth weight and sex, as well as for the presence or absence of chronic lung disease and severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia. The improvement in neurodevelopmental outcome in the group given inhaled nitric oxide was primarily due to a 47 percent decrease in the risk of cognitive impairment (defined by a score of less than 70 on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index) (P=0.03). Premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide have improved neurodevelopmental

  14. Pain relief for premature infants during ophthalmology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Yogavijayan; Smith, Roger; Wright, Ian M R; Hartley, Leo

    2011-06-01

    The ophthalmological examination of premature infants, which is essential for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), can be painful and distressing for the infant. Various researchers have investigated the benefits of topical anesthesia, oral sucrose, and non pharmacological intervention for pain relief. The purpose of this study is to review the current state of knowledge on the effectiveness of these approaches. A literature search was performed with MEDLINE (January 1980 to January 2011) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Issue 1 of 4 (January 2011), to determine the currently available evidence on methods of pain relief for premature infants undergoing ROP examination. Most studies supported the use of topical proparacaine, which marginally decreased pain without any side effects. Oral sucrose did not significantly reduce pain scores during ROP examinations, and withholding feeding before the examination was not beneficial. Infants given pacifiers had lower pain scores than those without pacifiers, and infants who were nested experienced less distress during and after the procedure. Conflicting data existed on the benefits of different examination techniques, but the insertion of a lid speculum appeared to be the most uncomfortable aspect of the screening examination. Topical anesthetics marginally reduce pain during eye examination in premature infants. Contrary to standard practice, it appears that patients are more comfortable if they are fed before the examination, and there is no benefit of oral sucrose. Nonpharmacological interventions, including sucking on a pacifier and nesting, may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxytocin enhances onset of lactation among mothers delivering prematurely.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, H; Rolland, R; Doesburg, W; Broeders, G; Corbey, R

    1981-01-01

    In a double-blind group sequential trial the efficiency of an oxytocin nasal spray in enhancing lactation was studied during the first five days after delivery in women who had given birth prematurely. The cumulative volume of breast milk obtained between the second and fifth days after delivery was 3.5 times greater in primiparas given oxytocin than in primiparas given placebo. There was no significant difference in the composition of the milk between the untreated women and those given oxyt...

  16. The Premature Use of English Grammar by EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mukminatien

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of conscious learning and error corrections have been questioned since the development of communicative approaches to language teaching, along with theoritical and empirical insights from Second Language Acquisition (SLA research. Whether overt learning really helps the learner produce better L2 performance is a mistery. This article describes the premature use of English Grammar by EFL learners as shown on their writing performance. It also reviews theoritical insights from SLA theories to uncover the mystery.

  17. Premature epiphyseal fusion and extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, N.; Orazi, C.; Danza, S.M.; Falappa, P.G.; Fabbri, R.

    1987-01-01

    The main skeletal abnormalities in β-thalassemia are widening of medullary spaces, rarefaction of bone trabeculae, thinning of cortical bone, and perpendicular periosteal spiculation. Premature epiphyseal fusion (PEF) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) are found, though more rarely. The incidence of PEF and EH in 64 patients affected by β-thalassemia is reported. The different incidence of such complications in thalassemia major and intermedia is reported, and a possible correlation with transfusion regimen is also considered. (orig.)

  18. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

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    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  19. The relationship between pregnancy, preterm and premature delivery

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    Soleymani-e- Shayesteh Y

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, different froms of periodontal disease such as pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumors, pregnancy stomatitis, may be encountered. But the most considerable point is the pregnant women's infection with periodontal disease and its effect on delivery and weight of newborn infants. Based on the latest researches and statistics, it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm or premature delivery. On the other hand, poor hygiene, should be considered as another danger, resulting in premature delivery. Besides, the presence of a collection of oral fosobacteria in ammoniutic fluid in mothers with premature delivery, increases the probability of an oral- haematogenous connection. Moreover, prostaglandin E2, in cervicular fluid, has been considered as an index for periodontal disease activity and loss of weight at the time of birth. These findings suggest that effective steps, to prevent preterm delivery, can be taken, if women, genycologists and dentists have enough knowledge. This article focuses on the special supervision that is required to prevent the effects of hormonal changes on periodontal tissues and conversely to reduce systemic disorders resulting from periodontal disease, in pregnant woman.

  20. Premature ovarian failure (POF in Brazilian fragile X carriers

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    Angela M. Vianna-Morgante

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The gynecological and reproductive histories of 193 women from fragile X families were surveyed. Among the 101 carriers of the premutation, 14 experienced premature menopause, contrarily to their 37 fully mutated and 55 noncarrier female relatives. Although premature menopause showed a tendency to cluster in certain fragile X families, as a group, the premutated women experienced menopause earlier than noncarriers. This suggests that premature menopause may be the extreme effect of a spectrum of ovarian anomalies associated with the fragile X premutation.Entrevistamos 193 mulheres de famílias com afetados pela síndrome do cromossomo X frágil, quanto a sua história ginecológica e reprodutiva. Entre as 101 portadoras da pré-mutação, 14 tiveram menopausa precoce, mas nenhuma das 37 portadoras da mutação completa ou das 55 não portadoras apresentaram esta anomalia. Observamos uma tendência para a concentração da menopausa precoce em certas famílias, o que poderia significar uma peculiariedade de certas pré-mutações. Entretanto, o fato de as mulheres pré-mutadas tenderem a entrar em menopausa mais cedo do que as não portadoras sugere que a menopausa precoce seja o extremo do espectro de efeitos ovarianos da pré-mutação.

  1. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaillac, Marie; Labarinas, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson's R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was −0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of −4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring. PMID:27375901

  2. Genetic contribution to patent ductus arteriosus in the premature newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vineet; Zhou, Gongfu; Bizzarro, Matthew J; Buhimschi, Catalin; Hussain, Naveed; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Heping

    2009-02-01

    The most common congenital heart disease in the newborn population, patent ductus arteriosus, accounts for significant morbidity in preterm newborns. In addition to prematurity and environmental factors, we hypothesized that genetic factors play a significant role in this condition. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of genetic factors to the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborns. A retrospective study (1991-2006) from 2 centers was performed by using zygosity data from premature twins born at Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by echocardiography at each center. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of specific covariates. Latent variable probit modeling was then performed to estimate the heritability of patent ductus arteriosus, and mixed-effects probit modeling was used to quantify the genetic component. We obtained data from 333 dizygotic twin pairs and 99 monozygotic twin pairs from 2 centers (Yale University and University of Connecticut). Data on chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, gestational age, body weight, gender, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, oxygen supplementation, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were comparable between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. We found that gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, and institution were significant covariates for patent ductus arteriosus. After controlling for specific covariates, genetic factors or the shared environment accounted for 76.1% of the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus. Preterm patent ductus arteriosus is highly familial (contributed to by genetic and environmental factors), with the effect being mainly environmental, after controlling for known confounders.

  3. [Dapoxetine in treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-bo; Mao, Yu; Wei, Qiang; Wu, Tai-xiang; Dong, Qiang

    2010-08-18

    To assess the effectiveness of dapoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation. Both English and Chinese studies involving men with prematrue ejaculation who were treated with dapoxetine from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CNKI, CBM, VIP between 1979 and 2009.were included in the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the data processed by RevMan. Five RCTs involving 4433 patients were included in the Meta analysis, of which 3 were of grade A and 2 were of grade B according to the quality evaluation of methodology. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), patient-reported global impression of change (PGI), satisfaction with sexual intercourse (SWSI), perceived control over ejaculation (PCOE), personal distress related to ejaculation (PDRE) were used for assessment. Meta analysis based on included studies of patients having been treated with dapoxetine for 9-24 weeks showed that: (1) the difference of the patients' IELT between treatment group and control group was statistically significant [Pserious side effects of dapoxetine during the treatment period. The available evidence indicates that dapoxetine would improve the symptoms of premature ejaculation, prolong IELT over 9-24 weeks in men from a wide range of cultural backgrounds, and significantly improve all patients' reported outcomes and the patients' clinical global impressions of premature ejaculation, including more control, greater satisfaction, and less distress.

  4. Inflammation and premature aging in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman, Jeroen P; Dekker, Marijke J; Usvyat, Len A; Kotanko, Peter; van der Sande, Frank M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Shiels, Paul G; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications, which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification, and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have a direct effect on cellular and tissue function. In addition to uremia-specific causes, such as abnormalities in the phosphate-Klotho axis, there are remarkable similarities between the pathophysiology of uremic inflammation and so-called "inflammaging" in the general population. Potentially relevant, but still somewhat unexplored in this respect, are abnormal or misplaced protein structures, as well as abnormalities in tissue homeostasis, which evoke danger signals through damage-associated molecular patterns, as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Systemic inflammation, in combination with the loss of kidney function, can impair the resilience of the body to external and internal stressors by reduced functional and structural tissue reserves, and by impairing normal organ crosstalk, thus providing an explanation for the greatly increased risk of homeostatic breakdown in this population. In this review, the relationship between uremic inflammation and a premature aging phenotype, as well as potential causes and consequences, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The Severity of Retinopathy in the Extremely Premature Infants

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    Alexandra Trivli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of extremely premature infants and to evaluate the risk factors and outcome of the cases. Materials and Methods. Out of 200 premature births, we retrospectively reviewed 9 cases that developed ROP. We excluded cases where ROP developed in newborns > 30 weeks of gestational age and cases where medical notes were unavailable or incomplete. Topical drops of cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 5% were instilled and fundoscopy was performed using a direct ophthalmoscope. Results. The incidence of ROP was 4.5% in the 9-year period. The infants were divided into two groups. Group 1 included premature infants ≤27 weeks of age and Group 2 included those >27 weeks but ≤ 30 weeks of age. We found that the infants of Group 1 showed advanced stages of ROP in comparison to Group 2. Out of 18 eyes, 11 eyes had stage 3 ROP and they were all found in Group 1 (100% of cases. Conclusion. The severity of ROP was associated with earlier gestational age, lower birth weight, and oxygen supplementation. Constant cooperation between physicians and nursing staff is necessary to avoid undetected cases and further prevent ROP related blindness.

  6. Prematurity and Programming Contribution of neonatal (NICU) interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Wilson-Costello, Dee

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include (1) Intrauterine growth restriction (2) Interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species injury (3) Nutritional and pharmacological protocols for Clinical care (4) Nutritional care in the first two years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by effecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy. PMID:25054678

  7. Premature ovarian failure risk factors in an Iranian population

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    Ghassemzadeh A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alieh Ghassemzadeh1,2, Laya Farzadi1,2, Elaheh Beyhaghi1,21Women’s Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Alzahra University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The aim of this study was to determine possible correlates of premature ovarian failure (POF in an Iranian population.Methods: In a case-control study, 80 patients with POF were compared with 80 controls enrolled from the same setting during 2007–2008. A food diary was used to assess food consumption habits.Results: Mean age of starting ovarian failure symptoms was 19.3 ± 5.7 years and mean age of menopause was 22.6 ± 6.3 years. Familial coincidence was observed in 16 POF patients versus no one in the control group (P < 0.05. POF patients had lower frequency of both eating red meat and fish when compared with controls (P < 0.001. POF and control subjects consumed similar amounts of dairy products, being 5.3 ± 3.2 times per week in POF and 5.6 ± 2.1 times in the control groups.Conclusion: In this study, an association between POF and lower red meat or fish consumption was found.Keywords: POF, etiology, case-control, nutrition, premature menopause, premature ovarian dysfunction, primary ovarian insufficiency

  8. Economic evaluation of caffeine for apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovny, Dmitry; Lorch, Scott A; Schmidt, Barbara; Doyle, Lex W; Kok, Joke H; Roberts, Robin S; Kamholz, Karen L; Wang, Na; Mao, Wenyang; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment with caffeine compared with placebo for apnea of prematurity in infants with birth weights less than 1250 g, from birth through 18 to 21 months' corrected age. We undertook a retrospective economic evaluation of the cost per survivor without neurodevelopmental impairment by using individual-patient data from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity clinical trial (N = 1869). We included direct medical costs either to the insurance payer or the hospital but excluded costs to parents and society, such as lost productivity. We used a price of $0.21/mg of generic caffeine citrate for our base-case analysis. All costs were expressed in 2008 Canadian dollars and discounted at 3%. The time horizon for this analysis extended through 18 to 21 months' corrected age to match the clinical trial. The mean cost per infant was $124 466 in the caffeine group and $133 505 in the placebo group (difference: $9039 [-14 749 to -3375]; adjusted P = .014). Cost-effectiveness analysis showed caffeine to be a dominant or "win-win" therapy: in >99% of 1000 bootstrap replications of the analysis, caffeine-treated infants had simultaneously better outcomes and lower mean costs. These results were robust to a 1000% increase in the individual resource items, including the price of caffeine citrate. In comparison with placebo, caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity in infants weighing less than 1250 g is economically appealing for infants up to 18 to 21 months' corrected age.

  9. Heritability of apnea of prematurity: a retrospective twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Salisbury, Elisabeth; Hall, Mei Hua; Sharma, Priya; Boyd, Theonia; Bednarek, Francis; Paydarfar, David

    2010-10-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a disturbance in respiratory rhythm defined by idiopathic pauses in breathing that reduce blood oxygen levels and/or heart rate. It is a major clinical problem among preterm infants. The primary goal of this study was to estimate the genetic susceptibility to AOP in a cohort of preterm twins. A secondary aim was to identify risk factors associated with AOP in this cohort. A single-center, retrospective study (2000-2008) was performed by using data from 317 premature twin pairs (premature twins were assessed by using mixed-effects logistic regression. The heritability of AOP was 87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.97) among same-gender twins. A gender-dependent model revealed that genetic factors accounted for 99% of the variance in male twins (95% CI: 0.89-1.00) and 78% of the variance in female twins (95% CI: 0.49-0.94). Significant risk factors for AOP were low gestational age (P<.001), cesarean delivery (P=.017), and conception through assisted reproductive technologies (P=.008). These findings suggest that AOP has an important genetic basis underlying this developmental-related disorder of respiratory control. Future genomic studies may provide information on pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie AOP.

  10. Prematurity-Related Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

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    Karolina Poplawska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the functional and structural immaturity of different organ systems, preterms have a higher rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevention and treatment of the complications of prematurity is a major challenge in perinatal health care. Recently, there have been several multicenter research trials analysing the impact of prematurity or low birth weight on the health problems of children and adolescents. Many of these studies deal with the issue of pediatric hypertension. An analysis of 15 studies conducted in the years 1998–2011, in which blood pressure values in ex-preterm children were measured, was performed. Comparison was based on several issues: measurement method, cohorts age, size, and birthweight. It has been proven that hypertension occurs more often in former preterm infants; however the etiologic pathways that cause this condition still remain unclear. Moreover, pediatric hypertension is a significant problem, because of its transformation into adult hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk later in life. Therefore it is crucial to introduce wide-spread screening and detection of elevated blood pressure, especially among prematurely born children.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ENDOCERVIX IN PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

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    Elizebeth V. Issac

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM is defined as premature rupture of membrane before 37 completed weeks. It is associated with 40% preterm deliveries and results in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Present study is an attempt to find the association between infection and PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women between 29 weeks and 34 weeks of gestation who were admitted in our labour room during a period from November 2012 to November 2013 were included. Preterm Premature Rupture of Membrane (PPROM is confirmed by history, sterile per speculum examination demonstrating pooling of fluid in posterior vaginal fornix and vaginal pH. An ultrasound examination showing oligohydramnios also supports the diagnosis. RESULTS 62% of neonates had RDS; p value <0.001, strong significance. 16% had no morbidity. 10% had late sepsis. 6% had NHB; p value 0.090, moderate significance. 6% had PHTN. CONCLUSION Relation between infection and PPROM remains an association. So patients at risk for preterm delivery need to be watched more closely for infection as it is also associated with neonatal morbidity.

  12. Predictors of premature discontinuation of treatment in multiple disease states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nantz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nantz1, Hong Liu-Seifert2, Vladimir Skljarevski21Department of Statistics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: Premature discontinuation of treatment impacts outcomes of clinical practice. The traditional perception has been patient discontinuation is mainly driven by unwanted side effects. Systematic analysis of data from clinical trials across several disease states was performed to identify predictors of premature discontinuation during clinical interventions.Methods: A post hoc analysis was conducted on 22 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of fibromyalgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Analyses were conducted on pooled data within each disease state.Results: Lack of early therapeutic response was a significant predictor of patient discontinuation in each disease state. Visit-wise changes in therapeutic response and severity of adverse events were also significant risk factors, with change in therapeutic response having a higher significance level in three disease states. Patients who discontinued due to adverse events had similar therapeutic responses as patients completing treatment.Conclusion: Contrary to the conventional belief that premature treatment discontinuation is primarily related to adverse events, our findings suggest lack of therapeutic response also plays a significant role in patient attrition. This research highlights the importance of systematic monitoring of therapeutic response in clinical practice as a measure to prevent patients’ discontinuation from pharmacological treatments.Keywords: attrition, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia, therapeutic response, adverse event

  13. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

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    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  14. Caffeine Administration to Prevent Apnea in Very Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Iranpour, Ramin; Faghihian, Eiman; Salehimehr, Nima

    2016-10-01

    Apnea intervals frequently occur in premature infants. Periods of apnea occur more often with decreases in gestational age. Periods of apnea can cause damage to the infant's developing brain and other organs. This study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of caffeine on apnea incidence in higher-risk neonates. In this single-center randomized control trial study, premature infants with a birth weight of ≤1200 g were eligible for enrollment. Twenty-six infants were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg/kg caffeine, as the loading dose, which was followed by 5 mg/kg daily as the maintenance dose until the 10 th day of life; these infants were compared with 26 infants in the control group. Primary outcomes were incidence of apnea, bradycardia, and cyanosis. Fifty-two infants were enrolled (26 in the caffeine group and 26 in the control group). The preventive effect of caffeine on apnea was significant in these infants. The relative risk for incidence of apnea in preterm neonates with a birth weight of apnea, compared with 16 (61.5%) in the control group (p = 0.001). It seems that preventative effects of caffeine on apnea become apparent by using the drug in very premature infants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Development and evaluation of an e-learning program for mothers of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nae-Young; Kim, Young-Hae

    2008-02-01

    It has been attempted to support mother of premature infants by providing information of premature infant care using e-learning because premature infants need continuous care from birth to after discharge. The e-Learning Program for mother of premature was developed with Xpert, Namo web editor, Adobe Photoshop, and PowerPoint and applied for 4 weeks from 4 to 30 September 2006. 1) We found that the contents of information which premature infants' need when being in the hospital and after discharge were the definition of a premature infant, orientation of NICU, care of premature infants, care of premature infants' common diseases, the connection of healthcare resources, exchange of information, and the management of rearing stress. 2) The program content consisted of cause of premature birth, comparison to full-term baby, physiology character, orientation of NICU, common health problems, follow up care, infection control, feeding, normal development physically and mentally, weaning method, and vaccination. Considering the results, this program for mother of premature is a useful means to provide premature-care information to mothers. This information can be readily accessible and can be varied and complex enough to be able to help mothers to the information and assistance they require.

  16. Undesirable behavior in forest campgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger N. Clark

    1971-01-01

    A 3-year study indicates that nuisance behaviors, law violations, vandalism, and littering in forest campgrounds are more extensive than is generally believed. All campers share responsibility for the problems. Violations occur because of ignorance of, lack of understanding, or a willingness to disregard rules. Control measures are discussed, including an incentive...

  17. [Systemic reactions to orally applied metal alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilzer, A J; Kleverlaan, C J; Prahl, C; Muris, J

    2013-06-01

    Orally applied metal alloys can cause undesirable physical effects. A distinction needs to be made in this respect between local and systemic reactions and toxic and immunological reactions. A case is presented which illustrates this problem. In this case, the application of orthodontic appliances was probably the trigger for an exacerbation of nickel allergy. The oral exposure to nickel resulted in hand eczema. The patient was also exposed to nickel by single-unit fixed dental prostheses, a removable dental prosthesis, and food, as a result of which removal of the orthodontic appliances did not result in complete healing. Therefore, the single-unit fixed dental prostheses also had to be removed and food had to be prepared henceforward in nickel free pans.

  18. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the growth rate of premature infants in the first weeks of life and factors associated with extrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 254 premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit conducted from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Infants who died or had malformations incompatible with life were excluded. Median weight curves according to gestational age were constructed for the first four weeks of life. The Fenton growth chart calculations provided the weight Z-scores. Extrauterine growth restriction was defined as corrected weight-for-age Z-score ≤-2. Perinatal, morbidity, and health care variables were analyzed. The Poisson regression model yielded the prevalenceratios . Associations between extrauterine growth restriction and the perinatal, morbidity, and care variables were investigated. Poisson regression controlled possible confounding factors. Results: The frequency of extrauterine growth restriction was 24.0%. Most (85.0% small-for-gestational-age infants developed extrauterine growth restriction; 55.3% of extrauterine growth restriction cases involved small-for-gestational-age infants. Premature infants with gestational age >32 weeks did not recover the median birth weight until the third week of life and had a higher frequency of small-for-gestational-age. The Z-scores of non-small-for-gestational-age infants decreased more after birth than those of small-for-gestational-age infants. extrauterine growth restriction was associated with small-for-gestational-age (PR=6.14; 95%CI=3.33-11.33;p <0.001 and time without enteral diet (PR=1.08; 95%CI=1.04-1.13; p =0.010. Conclusion: Extrauterine growth restriction occurs in premature infants of all gestational age. The participation of small-for-gestational-age and nutritional practices in its genesis is noteworthy. We suggest prospective studies of all premature infants. The implementation of best care practices

  19. SOME OF THE RISK FACTORS FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Stanković – Babić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains the main cause of visual impairment in preterm infants. The study was aimed to assess the impact of some of the risk factors (gestational age, body weight of children at birth, associated diseases in children, maternal age at delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, multiple pregnancies on the occurrence of ROP in the sample of premature infants. We statistically processed the results (Student’s t test and the χ2 test of 93 preterm infants of both sexes: 39 boys and 54 girls, examined by indirect ophthalmoscope (Haine 500, Germany in mydriasis. The examination included all premature neonates with birth weight ≤ 2000g and/or gestational age ≤37 weeks, as well as neonates >37 weeks which have associated risk factors (oxygen, ventilation, sepsis, etc. Among 93 premature infants, with normal findings on the retina there were 72 children (77.42%, while in 21 (22.58% children we found ROP. Ophthalmological findings: the first stage of ROP was found in 15.05%, the second stage of ROP in 2.15% and third stage of ROP in 5.38% of the examined children. There were no patients with an aggressive form of ROP. Children with ROP were statistically of lower gestational age - 32.10 ± 2.70 compared to children without ROP - 35.37 ± 1.72 (p<0.001. Children with ROP had at birth significant lower body weight of 1741g ± 579.19 than children without ROP - 2168.75 ± 528.58 (p<0.01. Mothers of the children with ROP were, at the time of giving birth, over 29 ± 6.09 years old compared to mothers of children without ROP who were 26.42 ± 5.75 years old (p=0.0773. The presence of other diseases was significantly more prevalent in children with ROP 52.38% vs. 2.78% (p<0.001. The number of mothers of children with ROP who smoked during their pregnacy was considerable - 57.14 % vs. 37.50% (percent of non-smoking mothers, though the difference was not statistically significant. Knowing the risk factors and their

  20. Reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Anh

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported [fr

  1. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

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    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  2. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  3. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

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    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Raul Velez-Montoya1, Carmen Clapp2, Jose Carlos Rivera2, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre1, Virgilio Morales-Cantón1, Jans Fromow-Guerra1, Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo1, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado31Retina Department Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, México City, México; 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, México; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado, USAPurpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular ­endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity.Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05.Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001 in the aqueous and vitreous samples.Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no ­statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group

  4. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation

  5. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  6. cycloaddition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... has shown very severe limitations in predicting the regioselectivity. In comparison,. DFT-based descriptors are better suited to model the regioselectivity of cycloaddition reactions. Acknowledgements. GG thanks the Council of Scientific and Industrial. Research for a fellowship. References. 1. Winkler J D 1996 Chem. Rev.

  7. Diferentes métodos de controle de plantas indesejáveis em pastagem nativa Different methods for controlling undesirable plants in native pasture

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    Luiz Giovani de Pellegrini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido em área de pastagem nativa representativa da transição entre a Serra do Sudeste e a Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, onde as espécies indesejáveis foram representadas especialmente por carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., caraguatá (Eryngium horridum (Spreng. Less. e alecrim (Vernonia nudiflora Less.. Foram avaliados os efeitos iniciais de dois métodos de controle de espécies indesejáveis (até 60 dias após aplicação sobre a produção de forragem, a dinâmica da vegetação e a eficiência de controle: sem-controle; controle mecânico; e controle químico (herbicida comercial à base de Picloram [64 g/L] + 2,4-D [240 g/L], na dosagem de 5 L do produto comercial/ha. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A massa gramíneas verdes secas e a massa total de MS não diferiram entre os métodos de controle. Foram obtidos valores de 587,9; 472,0 e 0 kg de MS com o controle mecânico, o controle químico e sem-controle, respectivamente, o que comprova influência do método de controle sobre a massa de forragem de leguminosas. A eficiência de controle das espécies indesejáveis, em comparação à ausência de controle, foi de 76,2% para o controle químico e 27,9% para o controle mecânico. A eficiência de controle de espécies, sob aspectos de freqüência dos componentes da pastagem, evidenciou que o controle mecânico não foi eficiente aos 60 dias após aplicação no controle de plantas de alecrim no segundo toque (-27,7% e plantas de caraguatá no primeiro toque (-30,0%.The study was conducted in a representative native pasture area in the transition between the Serra do Sudeste and Depressão Central of RS. The main undesirable species were represented by: carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., caraguatá (Eryngium horridum (Spreng. Less. and alecrim (Vernonia nudiflora Less. It was evaluated the initial effect (until 60 days after

  8. Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz; Aksoy, Sefika Nur; Perk, Peren; Saygili, Oguzhan; Güngör, Kivanc

    2015-08-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative vascular disease affecting premature newborns and occurs during vessel development and maturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal iron deficiency anemia as possible risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity among premature or very low birth weight infants. In this study, mothers of 254 infants with retinopathy of prematurity were analyzed retrospectively, and their laboratory results of medical records during pregnancy were reviewed for possible iron deficiency anemia. In a cohort of 254 mothers of premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity, 187 (73.6%) had iron deficiency, while the remaining 67 (26.4%) mothers had no deficiency. Babies born to mothers with iron deficiency anemia with markedly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, and ferritin levels were more likely to develop retinopathy of prematurity. Our results are the first to suggest that maternal iron deficiency is a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Our data suggest that maternal iron supplementation therapy during pregnancy might lower the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in premature rupture of membranes

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    Maissa Marçola Scandiuzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducion: pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes (PROM are associated with bad outcomes and controvertial management. Although underlain mechanism is unknown, strong evidences point infection as the main cause underneath preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labour. Objective: to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Method: retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by PROM at University Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Jundiaí, from march 2007 to june 2009. Results: the results showed a higher prevalence: age between 20 and 30 years (54.5%, caucasian (58.6%, unmarried (46%, non-smokers (72.82%, gestation LMP term (63.3% and USG (64.5%, number of prenatal consultations more than six (59.8%, multiparous (66.6%, obstetric history with normal vaginal delivery (PVN (56.3%, cervical dilatation at admission between 2 cm - 3 cm, evanescence 50%, ruptured membranes between 1 and 4 hours, conduct the spontaneous delivery (82.5%, type of delivery PVN (55,6%, newborn weighing 2,500 kg and 3,500 kg (61.6%, Apgar score greater than seven at 1 and 5 minutes (89.2% and 99.2% respectively, need for resuscitation (81,5%, Neo ICU (2.6% and length of the binomial two days. Conclusion: based on our results and in comparison with the literature review, we found a similar prevalence in our service and other services of those studies. The exception was the high prevalence of cesarean section over the other and the high number of pregnant women had not received prenatal care (22.9%.

  10. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Janaillac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2, compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2. Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks’ gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g, providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson’s R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was −0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of −4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring.

  11. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  12. Caffeine for apnea of prematurity: a neonatal success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, K; Bassler, D

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine and nonspecific inhibitor of adenosine receptors, is an example of a drug that has been in use for more than 40 years. It is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in neonatal medicine. However, until 2006, it had only a few relatively small and short-term studies supporting its use. It is thanks to the efforts of Barbara Schmidt and the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Group that we now have high-quality and reliable data not only on short-term but also long-term outcomes of caffeine use for apnea of prematurity. CAP was an international, multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial designed to determine whether survival without neurodevelopmental disability at a corrected age of 18 months is improved if apnea of prematurity is managed without methylxanthines in infants at a high risk of apneic attacks. CAP was kept simple and pragmatic in order to allow for maximum generalizability and applicability. Infants with birth weights of 500-1,250 g were enrolled during the first 10 days of life if their clinicians considered them to be candidates for methylxanthine therapy. The most frequent indication for therapy reported in CAP was treatment of documented apnea, followed by the facilitation of the removal of an endotracheal tube. Only about 20% of the neonatologists in the trial started caffeine for the prevention of apnea and the findings of CAP cannot automatically be extrapolated to an exclusive prophylactic indication. However, recent data suggest that the administration of prophylactic methylxanthine by neonatologists is now common practice.

  13. Summary proceedings from the apnea-of-prematurity group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Neil N; Higgins, Rosemary; Kattwinkel, John; Martin, Richard J

    2006-03-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is found in >50% of premature infants and is almost universal in infants who are apnea in infants (breathing pauses that last for >20 seconds or for >10 seconds if associated with bradycardia or oxygen desaturation), but there is no consensus about the duration of apnea, the degree of change in oxygen saturation, or severity of bradycardia that should be considered pathologic. Although caregivers are able to respond successfully to apnea events with drugs (as well as physical and mechanical interventions) in the NICU, it remains unproven whether such interventions have any long-term effects. One of the most effective drugs, caffeine citrate, is currently labeled for short-term use only and within a limited gestational-age population. Clinicians often use off-label drugs that have been approved for gastroesophageal reflux disease, which is common in premature infants, with the belief that such treatments also have an impact on AOP, although this link has never been demonstrated. Key treatment issues include (1) lack of standardization for definition, diagnosis, and treatment of AOP, (2) unproven benefit of intervention, (3) lack of real-time data documenting AOP events, (4) unevaluated sustained treatment improvement at 7 days or later, (5) failure to address confounding conditions, (6) unsubstantiated AOP-gastroesophageal reflux disease relationship, and (7) undetermined role of AOP affecting long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. In addressing study-design issues, the pulmonary group identified (1) key questions about neonatal apnea, (2) methodologic requirements for study, (3) appropriate outcome measures, and (4) ethical considerations for future studies. This article describes a sample framework for the study of apnea in neonates and identifies future research needs. Plenary-session discussion points are also listed.

  14. Is "Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping" Beneficial for Premature Newborns?

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    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The appropriate moment for clamping the umbilical cord is controversial. Immediate cord clamping (ICC is an item of active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL. Unclamped umbilical cord may cause inconvenience in preterm neonates because they commonly need some levels of emergent services. Some studies revealed delayed cord clamping (DCC of preterm neonates results in better health conditions like lower rates of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, less morbidities in labor room and lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on premature neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this single‑center randomized control trial study, sixty premature neonates (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks were randomly assigned to ICC (cord clamped at 5–10 seconds or DCC (30–45 seconds groups and followed up in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Primary outcomes were 1st and 5th minute Apgar score, average of level of hematocrit after birth, intra ventricle hemorrhage and need some levels of resuscitation. Results: Differences in demographic characteristics were not statistically significant. After birth, neonates who had delayed clamping had significantly higher mean hematocrit after at 4-hour of birth (49.58+5.15gr/dl vs. 46.58+5.40gr/dlin DCC vs. ICC groups, respectively (P=0.031. Delayed cord clamping reduced the duration of need to nasal continues positive airway pressure (NCPAP (86.7% and 60.0% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P= 0.039. Attractively, the results showed lower incidence of clinical sepsis in delayed cord clamping neonates (53.3% vs. 23.3% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P=0.033. Conclusion: Prematurity complications might decrease by delay umbilical cord clamping which improve the hematocrit, duration of need to NCPAP and incidence of clinical sepsis. Furthermore, DCC may have no negative impact on neonatal resuscitation.

  15. The effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

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    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (<1500 grams or ≥1500 grams. Design This is a retrospective chart review. Methods We reviewed the charts of 137 patients who underwent open fetal/fetoscopic surgery from 1996–2004. Surgical indications included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, myelomeningocele (MMC, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH, sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT, cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP. Of these, 17 patients had local ROP examination data. Binomial tests were performed to assess whether rates of ROP in our fetal/fetoscopic surgery cohort were significantly different from published rates. Results There were 5 patients each with an underlying diagnosis of TTTS and MMC, 2 patients each with CDH and TRAP, and 1 patient each with SCT, CCAM, and mediastinal teratoma. The mean gestational age at surgery was 23 4 / 7 ± 2 3 / 7 weeks, mean gestational age at birth was 30 ± 2 5 / 7 weeks, and mean birth weight was 1449 ± 510 grams (610–2485. Compared to published rates of ROP and threshold ROP, our fetal surgery patients had significantly higher rates of ROP and threshold ROP in both the <1500 grams and the ≥1500 grams group (all p-values <0.05. Conclusions Fetal/fetoscopic surgery appears to significantly increase the rate of ROP and threshold ROP development. Greater numbers are needed to confirm these observations.

  16. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  17. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Janaillac; Sonia Labarinas; Riccardo E. Pfister; Oliver Karam

    2016-01-01

    Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy...

  18. Reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Christi

    2017-04-19

    Cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory disease, are a leading cause of premature death and disability worldwide. This article emphasises the importance of prevention in reducing death and disability from preventable non-communicable diseases, especially for individuals with established risk factors for these diseases. It reviews global initiatives to reduce morality rates from these diseases, identifies opportunities for nurses and other healthcare professionals to discuss risk factors with patients, and provides practical suggestions on how to provide advice on healthy lifestyles and enable behaviour change.

  19. [Macula structure and function in retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogoleva, L V; Katargina, L A; Rydnitskaia, Ia L

    2011-01-01

    Macula structure and function were studied in 64 patients with retinopathy of prematurity (RP) stage I-III aged 8-17 years old using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography. Absence of foveolar depression associated with preservation of fovea layers and normal electroretinography indices were showed to be the evidence of differentiation damage and macula underdevelopment due to immaturity and to have no effect on visual acuity. Preserved or pathologic foveolar depression associated with abnormal OCT findings and central retina electrogenesis damage indicate dysfunction and morphological changes of macula due to not macula underdevelopment because of immaturity only but RP either that can lead to depression, visual function.

  20. Oxytocin enhances onset of lactation among mothers delivering prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruis, H; Rolland, R; Doesburg, W; Broeders, G; Corbey, R

    1981-08-01

    In a double-blind group sequential trial the efficiency of an oxytocin nasal spray in enhancing lactation was studied during the first five days after delivery in women who had given birth prematurely. The cumulative volume of breast milk obtained between the second and fifth days after delivery was 3.5 times greater in primiparas given oxytocin than in primiparas given placebo. There was no significant difference in the composition of the milk between the untreated women and those given oxytocin. The results of this study show that oxytocin nasal spray is an effective and safe means of enhancing lactation in women using a breast pump.

  1. Caffeine for apnea of prematurity: a neonatal success story

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, K; Bassler, D

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine and nonspecific inhibitor of adenosine receptors, is an example of a drug that has been in use for more than 40 years. It is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in neonatal medicine. However, until 2006, it had only a few relatively small and short-term studies supporting its use. It is thanks to the efforts of Barbara Schmidt and the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Group that we now have high-quality and reliable data not only on short-term but ...

  2. Unusual persistent fetal vasculature presentation in a premature baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Zahavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV is a congenital developmental disorder manifesting as a fibrovascular remnant of the embryonal hyaloid vascular system within the vitreal space. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP presents as varying degrees of non-vascularized retinal tissue with potentially devastating ocular complications. Both pathologies arise from ocular vascular system abnormalities, and various treatment modalities have been attempted in the past. In this report we describe a unique case of a late manifesting PFV that may be associated with the development of ROP, complicated by a visually significant cataract.

  3. FEATURES OF INTENSIVE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT OF PREMATURE INFANTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Romanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modern approaches to preterm infants feeding, principles of parenteral and enteral nutrition. The importance of adequate control of deficit status in preterm infants at different periods of developmental care is marked. Arguments for using the enriched milk or specialized formulas for prematurity during the in-clinic and out-clinic periods of care are provided.Key words: premature infants, enteral nutrition, formulas for premature infants, breast milk, breast milk enriches.

  4. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity and treatment outcome in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, L Pl; Lai, C Hy; Fan, M Cy; Wong, I Yh; Lai, J Sm

    2017-02-01

    Studies on the prevalence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity in the local population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, screening, and treatment outcome of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. The study evaluated 89 premature infants who were born at the hospital and were screened for retinopathy of prematurity, in accordance with the 2008 British Guidelines, between January 2013 and December 2013. The prevalences of retinopathy of prematurity and severe retinopathy requiring treatment were studied. The mean (± standard deviation) gestational age at birth was 30 +2 weeks ± 16.5 days (range, 24 +1 to 35 +5 weeks). The mean birth weight was 1285 g ± 328 g (range, 580 g to 2030 g). A total of 15 (16.9%) infants developed retinopathy of prematurity and three (3.4%) required treatment. In a subgroup analysis of extremely-low-birth-weight infants of prematurity and 17.6% required treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested low birth weight and patent ductus arteriosus were significantly associated with development of retinopathy of prematurity (Pprematurity, all regressed successfully after one laser treatment. Retinopathy of prematurity is a significant problem among premature infants in Hong Kong, especially those with extremely low birth weight. Our screening service for retinopathy of prematurity was satisfactory and treatment results were good. Strict adherence to international screening guidelines and vigilance in infants at risk are key to successful management of retinopathy of prematurity.

  5. Lower Extremity Abscess Formation in Premature Infants due to Routine Infant Vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuhang; Mundluru, Surya N.; Chu, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of vaccines, the impact of vaccinations has been immeasurable. Under the current immunization guidelines, infants receive the first of their routine infant vaccinations at 2 months of age. While the benefits of routine infant vaccinations in premature infants have been demonstrated, there is relatively little data on the dosing of these vaccines in premature infants. The medical records of two premature infants who developed intramuscular abscesses after receiving their...

  6. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children

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    Galina V. Nicolaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in extremely premature infants.Methods:Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g, and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g. Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g. The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results:The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05.Conclusion:The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns’ somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  7. Impact of physiotherapy on neuromotor development of premature newborns

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    Giselle Athayde Xavier Coutinho

    Full Text Available Introduction The population of children born prematurely has increased in line with improving the quality of perinatal care. It is essential to ensure to these children a healthy development. Objective We evaluate the neuromotor development of a group of preterm infants regularly assisted by a physiotherapy service in comparison to full-term newborns, checking, so the impact of the service. Materials and methods We randomly assigned preterm and full-term infants that formed two distinct groups. The group of preterm infants was inserted into a monitoring program of physiotherapy while the other infants were taken as a control group not receiving any assistance in physiotherapy. The groups were compared using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS at forty-week, four and six months of corrected gestational age and the scores were compared using Student's t-test, assuming a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05. Results The preterm group had significantly lower scores at 40th week compared to the control group, but subsequent scores showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion The timely and adequate stimulation was efficient to promote the motor development of premature infants included in a follow up clinic.

  8. Prenatal sonographic assessment and perinatal course of ichthyosis prematurity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, H G K; Salvesen, K Å; Khnykin, D; Jahnsen, F L; Eik-Nes, S H

    2012-04-01

    All cases of ichthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS), registered at the National Center for Fetal Medicine in Trondheim, Norway between 1987 and 2010 were identified and the findings analyzed. Five fetuses with IPS were identified between 1988 and 2000. All five developed polyhydramnios between 28 and 31 weeks. The fetal stomach appeared to be empty in four cases, and was not described in one case. The fetal skin was described as 'uneven' at ultrasound examination in two cases. Separation of chorionic and amniotic membranes with a peculiar appearance of echo-free fluid in the chorionic cavity and echogenic sediment in the amniotic cavity were observed between 28 + 5 and 32 + 3 weeks in all cases. All fetuses were delivered prematurely between 30 and 34 weeks. All neonates had difficulties in breathing, two developed aspiration pneumonia, and one had bilateral pneumothorax after intubation and died at 6 months because of pulmonary and cardiac sequelae. Prenatal sonographic signs of IPS are separation of the membranes, echogenic amniotic fluid and echo-free chorionic fluid occurring between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation. Delivery occurs at 30-34 weeks and, as there is a high risk of asphyxia, an experienced neonatal intensive care unit team should be present at delivery. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Smokers' hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Shahait, Awni D; Ayoub, Musa N; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-04-01

    To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  10. Smokers’ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the “PHG” group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking. PMID:23741662

  11. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    J. M. Ortega-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014 was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001, postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001, and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014. Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code.

  13. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

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    Deepak sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  14. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Molina, J. M.; Anaya-Alaminos, R.; Uberos-Fernández, J.; Solans-Pérez de Larraya, A.; Chaves-Samaniego, M. J.; Salgado-Miranda, A.; Piñar-Molina, R.; Jerez-Calero, A.; García-Serrano, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014) was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001), postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001), and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014). Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code. PMID:26089603

  15. Assessment of orbital blood flow velocities in retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Pehmen Yasin; Dogan, Ferit; Sonmez, Kenan; Con, Rahim; Dokumaci, Dilek Sen; Seyhanli, Eyüp Sabri

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the presence of any stage retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) alters central retinal artery (CRA) and ophthalmic artery (OA) blood flow parameters in premature infants. The patients were divided into two groups according to the development of ROP; those who have ROP were defined as group I, those without ROP were defined as group II. Ninety eyes of 45 patients in group I and 40 eyes of 20 patients in group II were investigated. The blood flows in the CRA and OA were measured using ultrasound color doppler imaging (CDI) that allows to evaluate the peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistivity index (RI). The results were compared between two groups of subjects. There were no significant differences in the PSV, EDV, and RI of CRA between two groups (P = 0.09, P = 0.20 and P = 0.63, respectively). The mean PSV value of OA in group I was found to be significantly higher than the one in group II (P  0.05), whereas the difference in the mean PSV values of OA were found to be significant among the eyes with stage 1 ROP, eyes with stage 2 ROP, and eyes without ROP (P = 0.03). This study demonstrated significant alterations in systolic flow velocities in the OA predicted by CDI in infants with ROP.

  16. Mandibular function, temporomandibular disorders, and headache in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Liselotte; Ekberg, Ewacarin; Nilner, Maria; Bondemark, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headache in prematurely born 8- to 10-year-old children, and to compare the findings with matched full-term born controls. Seventy-three preterm children were selected from the Medical Birth Register--one group comprising 36 extremely preterm children born before the 29th gestational week, the other group 37 very preterm children born during gestational weeks 29 to 32. The preterm children were compared with a control group of 41 full-term children matched for gender, age, nationality, and living area. The subjective symptoms of TMD and headache were registered using a questionnaire. Mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of TMD and headache were registered. TMD diagnoses were set per Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD). No significant differences between groups or gender were found for TMD diagnoses according to RDC/TMD or for headache. The preterm children had smaller mandibular movement capacity than the full-term control group, but when adjusting for weight, height, and head circumference mostly all group differences disappeared. Prematurely born children of 8 to 10 years of age did not differ from full-term born children when considering diagnoses according to RDC/TMD, signs, and symptoms of TMD or headache.

  17. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Brown, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The general consensus has been that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). We reviewed new observational studies that challenge this simple conclusion. Methods This was a review of observational studies of the association of premature or early menopause with stroke or IS published in English from 2006 through 2010. Results Three cohort studies showed an increased risk of all stroke in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy compared with women who conserved their ovaries before age 50 years. The increased risk of stroke was reduced by hormonal therapy (HT) in one of the studies, suggesting that estrogen deprivation is involved in the association. Four additional observational studies showed an association of all stroke or IS with the early onset of menopause or with a shorter lifespan of ovarian activity. In three of the seven studies, the association was restricted to IS. Age at menopause was more important than type of menopause (natural vs induced). Conclusions The findings from seven recent observational studies challenge the consensus that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for IS and can be reconciled by a unifying timing hypothesis. We hypothesize that estrogen is protective for IS before age 50 years and may become a risk factor for IS after age 50 years or, possibly, after age 60 years. These findings are relevant to women who experienced premature or early menopause, or to women considering prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of natural menopause. PMID:21993082

  18. [Central female hypogonadism as a model of premature aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovayskaya, I A; Lazebnik, L B; Kulikov, A V

    Central (hypogonadotropic) hypogonadism in women could also be a cause of persistent amenorrhea and hypoestrogenemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate symptoms of premature aging in women of young age with central hypogonadism. 88 young women (25 [21; 30] y.o.) with central hypogonadism (with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism n=42, and associated with the other types of pituitary insufficiencies n=46), 53 healthy young women (24 [23; 28] y.o.) and 50 healthy postmenopausal women (56 [53; 58] y.o.) were examined. In young women with central hypogonadism frequency of psychoemotional, neurovegetative and urogenital disorders, peripheral sex steroid concentrations, lipid and mineral homeostasis parameters differed significantly from the healthy young women of similar age and were comparable with postmenopausal women of middle/older age. Thus, according to clinical, hormonal and biochemical abnormalities biological age of female patients with central hypogonadism advanced significantly chronological young age and corresponded to middle/older age. The central female hypogonadism is a model of premature aging.

  19. [Current research status of drug therapy for apnea of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shu, Xian-Xiao; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Shi, Jing; Tang, Jun; Mu, De-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the current status of studies on drug therapy for apnea of prematurity (AOP) in the past decade in China and abroad, and to describe the research trends in the field. CNKI and MEDLINE were searched with the key words "apnea of prematurity" and "treatment" for articles published in the past decade (January 2006 to December 2015). The articles were screened and the key words were extracted to establish the co-occurrence matrix. Ucinet 6.2 was used to plot the knowledge map. A total of 26 Chinese key words and 20 English key words were included. Those in the center of the co-existent knowledge map of Chinses keywords were "preterm infants", "apnea", "primary apnea", "naloxone" and "aminophylline"; while "apnea", "preterm infants" and "caffeine" located in the central place of the co-existent knowledge map of English keywords. Methylxanthines are still the major drugs for AOP; however, aminophylline is mainly used in China, while caffeine is mainly used in foreign countries. Other drugs such as naltrexone are also used in the clinical treatment of AOP.

  20. [Osteopenia of prematurity--prophylaxis, diagnostics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitrova, St; Slancheva, B; Popivanova, A; Vakrilova, L; Pramatarova, T; Emilova, Z; Yarakova, N

    2012-01-01

    Osteopenia of prematurity is a metabolic bone disease of premature infants with birth weight importance is determined by relatively high frequency--between 30-70% of infants at risk, multifactorial etiology and impact on early and late morbidity of the newborns. The prevention and treatment of bone disorders are important aspects of the care of preterm babies. To identify of the risk factors, to determine early diagnostic criteria and to create a prevention program for osteopenia in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight. The prospective study includes 39 preterm babies with birth weight below 1500 gr. and phosphorus levels and normalization at eight weeks of age. There was a significant positive correlation between 25OHD/phosphorus at eight weeks/r = 0.353/. Significantly elevated levels of parathyroid hormone in eight weeks, correlating with low levels of vitamin D (negative correlation between 25OHD/parathormone r = -0.581). Blood levels of calcium and alkaline phosphatase were in normal limits. Risk factors for osteopenia are: the low gestational age and low levels of vitamin D at birth. Biochemical markers of osteopenia are: changes in levels of parathyroid hormone, phosphorus and vitamin D at eight weeks of age. Prevention includes: early supplementation of vitamin D in the risk neonates with individual dose adjustment. Upon biochemical evidence of osteopenia treatment should begin in the second week of life with supplementation of phosphorus, and vitamin D 1320 IU/daily and appropriate physiotherapy.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered indomethacin in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalji, A A; Carr, I; Yeh, T F; Raval, D; Luken, J A; Pildes, R S

    1980-12-01

    We studied the pharmacokinetics of indomethacin (0.3 mg/kg) given intravenously in 17 premature infants to promote closure of persistent ductus arteriosus. The decay of indomethacin generally showed an initial rapid distribution (alpha) phase followed by a slower elimination (beta) phase. The mean half-life of elimination (20.7 +/- 8 hours) was three times longer, and the mean clearance rate (13 +/0 9.5 ml/kg/hour) was seven times less than that reported in adults. The indomethacin clearance rate was linearly correlated with postnatal age (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). There was strong evidence of later re-entry of indomethacin into the plasma, suggesting that enterohepatic recirculation may be common in premature infants and may contribute to the relatively long half-life of elimination. Our data do not clarify the question of target concentration or minimal exposure time above which permanent closure may occur, but the group of infants who had permanent PDA closure after only one dose (8/17) had a significantly higher plasma indomethacin concentration time integral than the group (9/17) who needed more than one dose (P < 0.01). A 24-hour dosage interval was often sufficient when an iv indomethacin bolus of 0.3 mg/kg was used but, below the age of nonresponsiveness to indomethacin, a shorter interval may be preferable as postnatal age increases.

  2. Liquid incubator with perfluorochemicals for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroma, Takehiko; Baba, Atsushi; Tamura, Masanori; Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of appropriate body temperature, humidification and prevention of skin injury are very important in the management of extremely premature infants with immature skin. We have developed a new closed liquid incubator, utilising the characteristics of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids, i.e., high specific gravity and chemical and biological inertness. The potential of this incubator to control body temperature was evaluated in rats. PFC liquid (FC43; 3M Company, Tokyo, Japan) within the incubator was heated or cooled and the rectal temperature of each rat and the PFC temperature were monitored. The rectal temperature of rats floating on the PFC liquid surface changed almost in parallel to the temperature of PFC within the incubator, indicating that this technique can be used to warm or cool adults rats in a stable manner. The relative humidity of air within the incubator was maintained constant at 100%. The liquid incubator used in the present study maintained an environment with a relative humidity of 100% and allowed stable maintenance of temperature in adult rats. We also demonstrated that heating and cooling the PFC liquid allowed control of body temperature. Although further studies are required, this new incubator may be useful for the clinical management of extremely premature infants. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Early onset neonatal sepsis in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of early onset neonatal sepsis in newborn with various duration of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Combined Military Hospital, Lahore from November 2009 to November 2010. Material and Methods: Neonates of singleton pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) with delivery between 30 and 36 weeks gestation were included in the study. The overall frequency of neonatal sepsis was calculated on clinical and serological basis. Comparison of the frequency of sepsis among groups with varying duration of rupture of membranes was done. Results: Out of 164 babies, 84 (51.2%) were female and 80 (48.8%) were male. Mean maternal age was 23 years (range: 18-36 years). Mean gestational age was 33 weeks (range: 30-36 weeks). Sepsis was suspected in 41(25%) babies on clinical grounds. C-reactive protein was raised in 36 (22%) neonates. There was statistically insignificant difference between clinical versus serological diagnosis (p=0.515). Frequency of neonatal sepsis was significantly higher in mothers with longer duration of rupture of membrane (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Frequency of neonatal sepsis was observed to be 22%. PPROM is an important risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. (author)

  4. Bilateral Coats’ Disease Combined with Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    Huseyin Gursoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of bilateral Coats’ disease combined with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Case. Retinal vascularization was complete in the right eye, whereas zone III, stage 3 ROP and preplus disease were observed in the left eye at 43 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA in a 31-week premature, 1200-g neonate. Intraretinal exudates developed and retinal hemorrhages increased in the left eye at 51 weeks of PMA. Diode laser photocoagulation (LP was applied to the left eye. Exudates involved the macula, and telangiectatic changes developed one month following LP. Additional LP was applied to the left eye combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection at 55 weeks of PMA. Disease regressed one month after the additional therapy. At the 14-month examination of the baby, telangiectatic changes and intraretinal exudates were observed in the right eye. Diode LP was applied to the right eye combined with IVB injection. Exudates did not resolve completely, and cryotherapy was applied one month following LP. Retinal findings regressed three months following the cryotherapy. Conclusion. This is the first report of presumed bilateral Coats’ disease combined with ROP. If Coats’ disease could be diagnosed at early stages, it would be a disease associated with better prognosis.

  5. Mean trombosit volume in patients with retinopathy of prematurity

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    Harun Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP with respect to development of type 1 ROP Methods: The medical records of the premature infants were evaluated. Babies with a birth weight under 1500 g and a gestational age under 32 weeks were enrolled to the study. Birth weight, gestational age, onset and grade of retinopathy, presence of plus disease were analyzed. At the time of type 1 ROP diagnosis, blood samples were obtained. In the patients without type 1 ROP the blood samples were also obtained at similar gestational age. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and MPV results were recorded. Results: Sixty-three infants were studied. 22 of them had type 1 ROP and 41 had not developed type 1 ROP. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight between groups were not statistically significant. The mean MPV values in patients with type 1 ROP and without type 1 ROP was 9,1±2,0 fL and 9,4±1,8 fL, respectively (p=0.61. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that MPV values were not associated with severity of ROP in our study population. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  6. Identification of vitreous proteins in retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji; Saito, Akio; Kusaka, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-07-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of blood vessels in the retina developed in premature infants and the leading cause of the blindness in children. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify vitreous proteins specific to patients with ROP. Vitreous humor samples were obtained from three patients with ROP and two patients with congenital cataract, the latter included as a control group. The vitreous samples were separated by 2D-PAGE and the proteins running as definitive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry. We identified 13 and 6 proteins in the vitreous from ROP and cataract patients, respectively. Albumin, transferrin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and transthyretin were found in both patient groups. In the samples from ROP patients, PEDF and transthyretin levels were lower than in those from cataract patients, and retinol binding protein 3 and prostaglandin D synthase were not detected. Of the 13 proteins, 9 proteins including α-2-macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, α-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein, α-1-antitrypsin, α-1-β-glycoprotein, hemopexin, apolipoprotein A-1 and A-lV were found in vitreous samples of only the ROP patients. PEDF has anti-angiogenic and neurotrophic functions. Whether PEDF is increased or decreased in diabetic retinopathy has been controversial but we observed lower PEDF in the ROP samples than in the controls. The proteins specific to or decreased in ROP, if confirmed in future studies, may provide clue to understanding its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ozone Induced Premature Mortality and Crop Yield Loss in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Jiang, F.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient ozone is a major risk factor for health impacts such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cause damage to plant and agricultural crops. But these impacts were usually evaluated separately in earlier studies. We apply Community Multi-scale Air Quality model to simulate the ambient O3 concentration at a resolution of 36 km×36 km across China. Then, we follow Global Burden of Diseases approach and AOT40 (i.e., above a threshold of 40 ppb) metric to estimate the premature mortalities and yield losses of major grain crops (i.e., winter wheat, rice and corn) across China due to surface ozone exposure, respectively. Our results show that ozone exposure leads to nearly 67,700 premature mortalities and 145 billion USD losses in 2014. The ozone induced yield losses of all crop production totaled 78 (49.9-112.6)million metric tons, worth 5.3 (3.4-7.6)billion USD, in China. The relative yield losses ranged from 8.5-14% for winter wheat, 3.9-15% for rice, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. We can see that the top four health affected provinces (Sichuan, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu) are also ranking on the winter wheat and rice crop yield loss. Our results provide further evidence that surface ozone pollution is becoming urgent air pollution in China, and have important policy implications for China to alleviate the impacts of air pollution.

  8. Identification of 30 protein species involved in replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierick, Jean François; Kalume, Dário E; Wenders, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of human proliferative cells to subcytotoxic stress triggers stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is characterized by many biomarkers of replicative senescence. Proteomic comparison of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence indicates that, at the level...... of protein expression, stress-induced premature senescence and replicative senescence are different phenotypes sharing however similarities. In this study, we identified 30 proteins showing changes of expression level specific or common to replicative senescence and/or stress-induced premature senescence....... These changes affect different cell functions, including energy metabolism, defense systems, maintenance of the redox potential, cell morphology and transduction pathways....

  9. THE PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT IN CHILDREN WITH RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Neroev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of blindness prevention and visual impairment in children with retinopathy of prematurity is a multidisciplinary medical problem, and includes the prevention of the preterm birth, the correction of terms of caring for premature babies, early detection, monitoring, and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity, as well as the organization of the long clinical supervision. Patients with retinopathy of prematurity need a comprehensive approach to the prevention of the visual impairment in order to ensure high functional outcomes and improve their quality of life. 

  10. Spallation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugon, J.

    1996-01-01

    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from ∼ 0.1 to ∼ 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author)

  11. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  12. Purifying Sufism: Observations on the Marginalization and Exclusion of Undesirable and Rejected Elements in the Earlier Middle Period (late fourth/tenth to mid-seventh/thirteenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrat, Daphna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers observations on the process of differentiation and purification within premodern Sufism during a seminal period in the institutionalization of the Sufi ṭarīqa as a Path to God and as a community of followers. Drawing on manuals and narratives by prominent articulators and representatives of the emerging mainstream Sufi tradition, the article highlights the discursive and actual mechanisms they employed to delineate the borderlines of affiliation with the communities of the genuine Sufis, disentangle the solid-core from lay affiliates, and exclude undesirable elements wrongly associated with Sufism. The construction of higher barriers between mainstream Sufism and its margins is closely tied to the spread of popular forms of Sufism and a new kind of antinomianism that gained popularity in the public sphere, beginning in the late sixth/twelfth century. The final part of the article considers the involvement of the political rulers of the time in the inner dynamics of Sufism. My main conclusion is that by patronizing mainstream Sufis and supporting arbiters of true religion in the public sphere, the ruling elite of military lords in the Arab Near East played a significant role in marginalizing the undesirable and rejected elements and in strengthening the mainstream Sunni camp against its rivals.Este artículo ofrece una serie de observaciones sobre el proceso de diferenciación y purificación dentro del sufismo pre-moderno durante un periodo crucial para la institucionalización de las ṭarīqa-s sufíes como una Vía hacia Dios y como una comunidad de seguidores. Basándose en manuales y en narraciones de autores prominentes y representantes de la tradición sufí mainstream emergente, este artículo pone de relieve los mecanismos discursivos que emplearon para marcar los bordes de la afiliación con comunidades de sufíes genuinos, separar el núcleo central de los afiliados externos, y excluir a los elementos

  13. A critical assessment for the value of markers to gate-out undesired events in HLA-peptide multimer staining protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odunsi Kunle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of antibody markers to identify undesired cell populations in flow-cytometry based assays, so called DUMP channel markers, has become a practice in an increasing number of labs performing HLA-peptide multimer assays. However, the impact of the introduction of a DUMP channel in multimer assays has so far not been systematically investigated across a broad variety of protocols. Methods The Cancer Research Institute's Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium (CRI-CIC conducted a multimer proficiency panel with a specific focus on the impact of DUMP channel use. The panel design allowed individual laboratories to use their own protocol for thawing, staining, gating, and data analysis. Each experiment was performed twice and in parallel, with and without the application of a dump channel strategy. Results The introduction of a DUMP channel is an effective measure to reduce the amount of non-specific MULTIMER binding to T cells. Beneficial effects for the use of a DUMP channel were observed across a wide range of individual laboratories and for all tested donor-antigen combinations. In 48% of experiments we observed a reduction of the background MULTIMER-binding. In this subgroup of experiments the median background reduction observed after introduction of a DUMP channel was 0.053%. Conclusions We conclude that appropriate use of a DUMP channel can significantly reduce background staining across a large fraction of protocols and improve the ability to accurately detect and quantify the frequency of antigen-specific T cells by multimer reagents. Thus, use of a DUMP channel may become crucial for detecting low frequency antigen-specific immune responses. Further recommendations on assay performance and data presentation guidelines for publication of MULTIMER experimental data are provided.

  14. Histological evidence of oxidative stress and premature senescence in preterm premature rupture of the human fetal membranes recapitulated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Boldogh, Istvan; Hawkins, Hal K; Woodson, Michael; Polettini, Jossimara; Syed, Tariq Ali; Fortunato, Stephen J; Saade, George R; Papaconstantinou, John; Taylor, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) may lead to preterm births (PTBs). We investigated premature senescence of fetal membranes in women with pPROM and spontaneous PTB with intact membranes (membrane senescence phenotype by oxidative stress in vitro. IHC was performed for p53, p21, and phospho (p)-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as markers of senescence phenotype in pPROM, PTBs, and term births. Term fetal membranes were exposed to cigarette smoke extract to induce oxidative stress. Western blots documented p-p53 and p-p38 MAPK. Transmission electron microscopy assessed cellular morphologic features in clinical and cigarette smoke extract-treated membranes. A total of 80% of pPROM cells and >60% of term cells were positive for all three senescence phenotype markers, and concentrations were higher than in PTBs (P membranes from PTB and term birth pregnancies, whereas only membranes in vivo and after cigarette smoke extract treatment in vitro but was less apparent in PTBs. Histologic and biochemical resemblance of pPROM and term membranes suggests premature senescence of the membranes is a mechanistic feature in pPROM, and this can be phenocopied in an in vitro model. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of enteral protein supplementation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrus DM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David M Barrus1, Joann Romano-Keeler2, Christopher Carr3, Kira Segebarth4, Betty Claxton2, William F Walsh2, Paul J Flakoll51Department of Neonatology, Saint Francis Hospital–Bartlett, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Surgery, Naval Hospital Bremerton, Bremerton, WA, 4Pediatric and Diabetes Specialists, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 5Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAObjective: The quantity of enteral protein supplementation required by premature infants to optimize growth has not been determined. This study compares the growth of premature infants fed the current standard intake of protein (3.5 g/kg/day with the growth of those fed a higher amount (4.0 g/kg/day.Study design: Fifty-two infants <1500 g and <33 weeks gestational age participated in a blinded, single-center, prospective randomized control trial to compare growth between two groups of different protein-intake levels. Primary outcomes were average daily weight gain (g/kg/day, head-circumference (cm/kg/week and linear growth velocity (cm/kg/week. Secondary outcomes were serum indices of protein tolerance and plasma amino acid concentrations.Results: Infants receiving higher amounts of protein had higher rates of growth for body weight (18.2 ± 0.7 versus 16.2 ± 1.0 g/kg/day; P < 0.05 and head circumference (0.87 ± 0.08 versus 0.62 ± 0.07 cm/kg/week; P < 0.05, with no differences in blood protein or plasma amino acid concentrations. Length of hospital stay was 14 days shorter for the higher-protein group (51.4 ± 4.0 versus 65.9 ± 6.3 days.Conclusion: Increasing premature infant enteral protein supplementation from a calculated intake of 3.5–4.0 g/kg/day improved growth in a safe manner.Keywords: human milk, human milk fortifier, growth, low birth weight

  16. The Undesirable Behaviors of Students in Academic Classrooms, and the Discipline Strategies Used by Faculty Members to Control Such Behaviors from the Perspective of the College of Education Students in King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qahtani, Norah Saad Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the undesirable students' behaviors in academic classrooms, and the disciplinary, preventive and therapeutic strategies that will be used by faculty members to control those behaviors from the perspective of the College of Education's students in King Saud University. The results of the study has shown that the…

  17. Arrhythmia associated with tetracaine in an extremely low birth weight premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidi, Halima; McNair, Carol; Seller, Neil; Kirsh, Joel; Bradley, Timothy J; Greenway, Steven C; Tomlinson, Chris

    2012-12-01

    Infants in NICUs undergo a variety of painful procedures. The management of pain has become an integral part of newborn infant care with the use of both systemic and topical agents to provide analgesia and anesthesia for procedural pain. Tetracaine and prilocaine-lidocaine are the 2 topical anesthetics most frequently used. Tetracaine belongs to an ester group of local anesthetics available as a topical 4% gel (Ametop, Smith and Nephew, Canada). The major side effects reported when using topical anesthetics are cutaneous reactions. There are no definite reports of systemic toxicity in the published literature. We present a recent case of an extremely low birth weight premature infant who developed a clinically significant arrhythmia after topical tetracaine was applied before the insertion of a peripherally inserted central catheter. The infant had no other identifiable cause for the resulting bradycardia that occurred only after Ametop was applied. The cardiac symptoms resolved with treatment. This case highlights a significant potential adverse event when using topical tetracaine.

  18. [An autopsy case of brain candidiasis in premature infant: morphology and intraparenchymal distribution of Candida foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Goto, N

    1993-07-01

    An autopsy case of brain candidiasis occurring in a premature infant is presented, and the morphology and intraparenchymal distribution of Candida foci are described in detail with the aid of serial sections of the affected brain. The patient was a boy, who was born after 25 weeks of gestation and died on day 15. Candida foci were composed of two infectious forms of Candida (yeasts and pseudohyphae) and various inflammatory reactions of the host. They were widely disseminated in the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges and ventricular system. In view of their morphology, they were classified into the acute and chronic inflammatory types. The acute type foci, characterized by microabscess of infiltration of neutrophils, were large and localized predominantly in the cerebral white matter, fiber tracts, central grey matter of the midbrain, reticular formation, floor of fourth ventricle and subependymal germinal layer; most of the acute type foci were found in the watershed zones where the blood supply was considered to be poorer than the other parts of the brain parenchyma. In contrast, the chronic type foci, characterized by nodular proliferation of astrocytes, were small and localized in the grey matter (the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei) and the leptomeninges. This study suggests that Candida infection to the brain may occur by different two kinds of way correlating with the proper vasoarchitecture of brain. In addition, it is recommended to make a close examination of the maternal vagina, placenta and umbilical cord after delivery to detect the risk of Candida infection.

  19. Collagen type I alpha 1 gene polymorphism in premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Premature ovarian failure (POF is characterized by amenorrhea, hypergonadotropism and hypoestrogenism in women bellow 40 years. Osteoporosis is one of the late complications of POF. Objective. To correlate collagen type I alpha1 (COLIA1 gene polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD in women with POF. Methods. We determined the COLIA1 genotypes SS, Ss, ss in 66 women with POF. Single nucleotide polymorphism (G to T substitution within the Sp 1-binding site in the first intron of the COLIA1 gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP analysis. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the lumbar spine region by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Statistics: Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Chisquare test, Spearman correlation test. Results. The relative distribution of COLIA1 genotype alleles was SS - 54.4%, Ss - 41.0% and ss - 4.5%. No significant differences were found between genotype groups in body mass index, age, duration of amenorrhea or BMD. A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI and parity. Conclusion. The COLIA1 gene is just one of many genes influencing bone characteristics. It may act as a marker for differences in bone quantity and quality, bone fragility and accelerated bone loss in older women. However, in young women with POF, COLIA1 cannot identify those at higher risk for osteoporosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173056

  20. [Pain assessment in the premature newborn in Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luciano Marques; Pereira, Monick Piton; dos Santos, Leandro Feliciano Nery; de Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the process of pain identification in premature by the professional staff of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. This is a quantitative descriptive exploratory study that was made through a form applied to twenty-four health professional of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results showed 100% of professionals believed that newborns feel pain, 83.3% knew the pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated; 54,8% did not know the pain assessment scales; 70.8% did not use scales and highlighted behavioral and physiological signs of the newborn as signs suggestive of pain. Thus, it is important that professionals understand the pain as a complex phenomenon that demands early intervention, ensuring the excellence of care.

  1. Automatic Tortuosity-Based Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkaew, Lassada; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Makhanov, Stanislav S.; Barman, Sarah; Pangputhipong, Pannet

    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is an infant disease characterized by increased dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels. Automatic tortuosity evaluation from retinal digital images is very useful to facilitate an ophthalmologist in the ROP screening and to prevent childhood blindness. This paper proposes a method to automatically classify the image into tortuous and non-tortuous. The process imitates expert ophthalmologists' screening by searching for clearly tortuous vessel segments. First, a skeleton of the retinal blood vessels is extracted from the original infant retinal image using a series of morphological operators. Next, we propose to partition the blood vessels recursively using an adaptive linear interpolation scheme. Finally, the tortuosity is calculated based on the curvature of the resulting vessel segments. The retinal images are then classified into two classes using segments characterized by the highest tortuosity. For an optimal set of training parameters the prediction is as high as 100%.

  2. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between thigh circumference and incident cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease and total mortality. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with Cox proportional hazards model and restricted cubic splines. SETTING: Random subset of adults...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 1436 men and 1380 women participating in the Danish MONICA project, examined in 1987-8 for height, weight, and thigh, hip, and waist circumference, and body composition by impedance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year incidence of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease and 12.5 years...... of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...

  3. Practice Bulletin No. 172: Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Preterm delivery occurs in approximately 12% of all births in the United States and is a major factor that contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality (1, 2). Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates approximately 3% of all pregnancies in the United States (3). The optimal approach to clinical assessment and treatment of women with term and preterm PROM remains controversial. Management hinges on knowledge of gestational age and evaluation of the relative risks of delivery versus the risks of expectant management (eg, infection, abruptio placentae, and umbilical cord accident). The purpose of this document is to review the current understanding of this condition and to provide management guidelines that have been validated by appropriately conducted outcome-based research when available. Additional guidelines on the basis of consensus and expert opinion also are presented.

  4. Surgery is not indicated for the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaissie, James; Yafi, Faysal A.

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is considered the most common male sexual disorder, affecting up to 75% of men at some point in their lives. While medical management is the mainstay of therapy, surgical options such as dorsal nerve neurectomy (DNN), hyaluronic acid (HA) gel glans penis augmentation, and circumcision have been studied as alternative forms of treatment. Preliminary studies have suggested that DNN and HA gel glans penis augmentation are relatively safe and effective, but due to a lack of large, multicenter, randomized-control trials with long-term follow-up, the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) has been unable to endorse DNN or HA gel glans penis augmentation as options in the treatment of PE. Conflicting data regarding the efficacy and safety of circumcision has similarly led to its exclusion from ISSM recommendations for the treatment of PE. Ethical concerns, particularly the fundamental concept of non-maleficence, are also barriers to the implementation of surgery for PE. PMID:27652232

  5. The new mythologies and premature aging in the youth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, D

    1973-06-01

    Comparative studies of aging men in a variety of preliterate traditional societies suggest that older men, across cultures, are relatively mild and uncompetitive, as compared to younger men from the same communities. Older men are more interested in receiving than in producing, more interested in communion than in agency; their sense of pleasure and security is based on food, religion, and the assurance of love. The counterculture gives priority to the same themes, and thereby seems to sponsor a premature senescence, in the psychological sense. Various contemporary myths stemming from affluence and consumerism that have led to the new geriatrics are examined, particularly the myth of the all-including, omnipotential self, which is seen as a translation of socialist, collectivist ideals into the domain of personality. The effects of the new psychic collectivism on ego development in the adolescent and postadolescent periods are also considered.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary A.; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Ramenghi, Luca A. [University of Milan, NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. (orig.)

  7. Cellular senescence in normal and premature lung aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartling, B

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of chronic respiratory diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) and interstitial lung diseases (e.g., pneumonia and lung fibrosis) increases with age. In addition to immune senescence, the accumulation of senescent cells directly in lung tissue might play a critical role in the increased prevalence of these pulmonary diseases. In the last couple of years, detailed studies have identified the presence of senescent cells in the aging lung and in diseased lungs of patients with COPD and lung fibrosis. Cellular senescence has been shown for epithelial cells of bronchi and alveoli as well as mesenchymal and vascular cells. Known risk factors for pulmonary diseases (cigarette smoke, air pollutions, bacterial infections, etc.) were identified in experimental studies as being possible mediators in the development of cellular senescence. The present findings indicate the importance of cellular senescence in normal lung aging and in premature aging of the lung in patients with COPD, lung fibrosis, and probably other respiratory diseases.

  8. Emerging treatments for premature ejaculation: focus on dapoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne JG Hellstrom

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wayne JG HellstromChief, Section of Andrology, Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE is a common problem in men worldwide. It has a significant impact on affected men and their partners in terms of self-esteem, dissatisfaction with their sexual relationships, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Psychological therapies may achieve short-term improvements, but there are limited data on the long-term success of these methods. Oral therapy with long-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs improves intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, but these agents are designed to be administered daily and may be associated with unwanted sexual side effects and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI that can be taken as needed (prn by men with PE. It has been studied in five separate multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving more than 6000 men with PE. In four studies that evaluated IELT as an endpoint (N = 4843, dapoxetine 30 and 60 mg prn achieved statistically significant increases in IELT versus placebo. Dapoxetine also showed statistically significant improvements in perceived control over ejaculation, PE-related personal distress, and other patient-reported outcomes in all five trials. Dapoxetine treatment is generally well-tolerated, with low incidences of discontinuation syndrome, sexual dysfunction, and treatment-emergent mood symptoms. The most common adverse events with dapoxetine included nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and somnolence.Keywords: dapoxetine, discontinuation syndrome, premature ejaculation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

  9. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity screening criteria in Iran: new screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohipoor, Ramak; Karkhaneh, Reza; Farahani, Afsar; Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Modjtahedi, Bobeck; Fotouhi, Akbar; Yaseri, Mehdi; Khodabande, Alireza; Zarei, Mohammad; Imani Fuladi, Marjan; Taheri, Arash; Riazi Esfahani, Mohammad; Loewenstein, John

    2016-07-01

    To test the applicability of existing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) guidelines on Iranian patients and to develop novel ROP screening criteria in Iran. Both eyes of 1932 infants born ≤37 weeks of gestation and/or weighting ≤3000 g were included in this prospective cohort study that was conducted across nine neonatal intensive care units and a tertiary eye hospital ROP clinic. The patients were examined for ROP and the need for treatment (type 1 ROP or worse). All the patients were screened 4 weeks after birth or at 31 weeks of postmenstrual age, whichever was later. The patients were followed until retinal vascularisation was completed or the patients reached 50 weeks of gestational age (GA) without prethreshold ROP. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best screening criteria for ROP. Screening criteria from other countries were applied to our patient data to determine their ability to appropriately detect ROP. Patients with ROP requiring treatment. The mean GA±SD and birth weight (BW)±SD of the screened patients were 32±2.7 weeks and 1713±516 g, respectively. Using criteria of GA≤32 weeks or BW ≤2000 yielded sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 26.7%, respectively, for treatment requiring ROP regardless of clinical comorbidities. Using screening recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics would miss 25.4% of ROP and 8.4%ROP requiring treatment in our cohort. Other countries screening recommendations would result in a significant amount of missed cases of treatment requiring ROP when applied to Iran. As a result, we have proposed new guidelines for premature babies in Iran. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  12. Ventilator flow data predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann H. Bentsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD may facilitate tailored management for neonates at risk. We investigated whether easily accessible flow data from a mechanical ventilator can predict BPD in neonates born extremely premature (EP. In a prospective population-based study of EP-born neonates, flow data were obtained from the ventilator during the first 48 h of life. Data were logged for >10 min and then converted to flow–volume loops using custom-made software. Tidal breathing parameters were calculated and averaged from ≥200 breath cycles, and data were compared between those who later developed moderate/severe and no/mild BPD. Of 33 neonates, 18 developed moderate/severe and 15 no/mild BPD. The groups did not differ in gestational age, surfactant treatment or ventilator settings. The infants who developed moderate/severe BPD had evidence of less airflow obstruction, significantly so for tidal expiratory flow at 50% of tidal expiratory volume (TEF50 expressed as a ratio of peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF (p=0.007. A compound model estimated by multiple logistic regression incorporating TEF50/PTEF, birthweight z-score and sex predicted moderate/severe BPD with good accuracy (area under the curve 0.893, 95% CI 0.735–0.973. This study suggests that flow data obtained from ventilators during the first hours of life may predict later BPD in premature neonates. Future and larger studies are needed to validate these findings and to determine their clinical usefulness.

  13. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  14. Diuretic exposure in premature infants from 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughon, Matthew M.; Chantala, Kim; Aliaga, Sofia; Herring, Amy H.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Hughes, Rachel; Clark, Reese H.; Smith, P. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diuretics are often prescribed off-label to premature infants, particularly to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We examined their use and safety in this group. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of infants diuretics in 333 neonatal intensive care units from 1997–2011. We examined use of acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, chlorothiazide, diazoxide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, mannitol, metolazone, or spironolactone combination. Respiratory support and FiO2 on the first day of each course of diuretic use were identified. Results Thirty-seven percent (39,357/107,542) of infants were exposed to at least 1 diuretic; furosemide was the most commonly used (93% with ≥1 recorded dose), followed by spironolactone, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, and acetazolamide. Seventy-four percent were exposed to 1 diuretic at a time, 19% to 2 diuretics simultaneously, and 6% to 3 diuretics simultaneously. The most common combination was furosemide/spironolactone, followed by furosemide/chlorothiazide and chlorothiazide/spironolactone. Many infants were not receiving mechanical ventilation on the first day of each new course of furosemide (47%), spironolactone (69%), chlorothiazide (61%), and hydrochlorothiazide (68%). Any adverse event occurred on 42 per 1000 infant-days for any diuretic and 35 per 1000 infant-days for furosemide. Any serious adverse event occurred in 3.8 for any diuretic and 3.2 per 1000 infant-days for furosemide. The most common laboratory abnormality associated with diuretic exposure was thrombocytopenia. Conclusion Despite no FDA indication and little safety data, over one third of premature infants in our population were exposed to a diuretic, many with minimal respiratory support. PMID:24801161

  15. Exploring societal solidarity in the context of extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Manya J; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Klein, Sabine D; Streuli, Jürg C; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Fauchère, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-21

    Extreme prematurity can result in long-term disabilities. Its impact on society is often not taken into account and deemed controversial. Our study examined attitudes of the Swiss population regarding extreme prematurity and people's perspectives regarding the question of solidarity with disabled people. We conducted a nationwide representative anonymous telephone survey with 1210 Swiss residents aged 18 years or older. We asked how people estimate their own personal solidarity, the solidarity of their social environment and the solidarity across the country with disabled persons. Spearman's correlation calculations were used to assess if a correlation exists between solidarity and setting financial limits to intensive care and between solidarity and withholding neonatal intensive care. According to 36.0% of the respondents intensive medical care should not be withheld from extremely preterm infants, even if their chances for an acceptable quality of life were poor. For 28.8%, intensive care should be withheld from these infants, and 26.9% held an intermediate position depending on the situation. A total of 31.5% were against setting a financial limit to treatment of extremely preterm newborns with an uncertain future quality of life, 34.2% were in favour and 26.9% were deliberating. A majority (88.8%) considered their solidarity toward disabled people as substantial; the solidarity of their personal environment and of the society at large was estimated as high by 79.1% and 48.6%, respectively. The Swiss population expressed a high level of solidarity which may alleviate some pressure on parents and health care providers in the decision-making process in neonatal intensive care units. In addition, there was no relationship between solidarity and people's willingness to pay for the care or withholding treatment of extremely preterm babies.

  16. Risk of premature cerebrovascular disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwen; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Yufei; Yu, Zhe; Yu, Shengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are at an elevated risk for the development of coronary artery disease, but the risk cerebrovascular disease among these patients remains incompletely understood. We investigated the cerebrovascular risk profiles of patients with a cerebrovascular disease and AS and compared these profiles to those of cerebrovascular disease patients without AS. We retrospectively analyzed 34 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease also diagnosed with AS and 597 controls without AS with respect to patient age, gender, cerebrovascular risk factors, and laboratory test results. AS patients were significantly younger than control patients in this study (56.2±13.5 years vs. 63.0±13.4 years, respectively; p=0.004). Logistic regression analysis did not indicate significant relationships between gender, cerebrovascular risk factors, and biochemical risk factors in AS patients, nor were any significant relationships found between erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein and biochemical risk factors. A low frequency of large-artery atherosclerosis and high frequency of small-vessel occlusion according to TOAST classification were found in AS patients with stroke. Among the patients included in this study, patients with AS sought treatment for cerebrovascular disease were at a younger age compared to control patients without AS. Thus, our results indicate that AS patients have an increased risk for the premature onset of cerebrovascular disease. And the premature atherosclerosis may associate with the patients with AS. Furthermore, the high frequency of the small-vessel stroke subtype in AS patients indicates that small-vessel inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases in AS patients. Further prospective study with more samples will be needed to confirm this point of view.

  17. Proportional assist versus assist control ventilation in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sandeep; Bhat, Prashanth; Hickey, Ann; Peacock, Janet L; Milner, Anthony D; Greenough, Anne

    2016-01-01

    During proportional assist ventilation (PAV), the applied pressure is servo-controlled based on continuous input from the infant's breathing. In addition, elastic and resistive unloading can be employed to compensate for the abnormalities in the infant's lung mechanics. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in very prematurely born infants remaining ventilated beyond the first week, PAV compared to assist control ventilation (ACV) would be associated with superior oxygenation. A randomised crossover study was undertaken. Infants were studied for 4 hours each on PAV and ACV in random order; at the end of each 4-h period, the oxygenation index (OI) was calculated. Eight infants, median gestational age of 25 (range 24-33) weeks, were studied at a median of 19 (range 10-105) days. It had been intended to study 18 infants but as all the infants had superior oxygenation on PAV (p = 0.0039), the study was terminated after recruitment of eight infants. The median inspired oxygen concentration (p = 0.049), mean airway pressure (p = 0.012) and OI (p = 0.012) were all lower on PAV. These results suggest that PAV compared to ACV is advantageous in improving oxygenation for prematurely born infants with evolving or established BPD. During proportional assist ventilation (PAV), the applied pressure is servo controlled throughout each spontaneous breath. Elastic and resistive unloading can compensate for the infant's abnormalities in lung mechanics. In a randomised crossover study, infants with evolving/established BPD were studied on PAV and ACV each for 4 h. The oxygenation index was significantly lower on PAV in all infants studied.

  18. An evaluation of the screening for retinopathy of prematurity in very ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is known to be an important cause of visual impairment and blindness in the surviving premature population. Over the last 10 - 15 years an estimated 50 000 children are blind as a result of ROP, and it is likely that many more are unilaterally blind or visually impaired.[1] As the disease can ...

  19. A new risk-based screening criterion for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark.......The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark....

  20. Development of a video decision aid to inform parents on potential outcomes of extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Ú; Suh, S; Wang, E; Stickelman, V; Kirpalani, H

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study is to develop and validate a video-based parental decision aid about the outcomes of extremely premature infants. Thirty-one clinicians and 30 parents of extremely premature infants (prematurity (n=14) and healthy 'naïve' women without prior knowledge of prematurity (n=13). Two iterations of the video were created. Following a simulated counseling session, an eight-question survey and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to parents and 'naïve' participants to assess usefulness and stress provocation. The final 10-min video shows six children/parent dyads of former 23 to 25 week premature children with a wide range of outcomes. This video was well accepted by clinicians as well as parent and 'naïve' participants, who perceived it as 'balanced' with a 'neutral' message. The video was felt to provide useful information and insight on prematurity. The final version of the video did not induce anxiety: parents STAI-S 36.1±12.1; 'naïve' 30.2±8.9. A short video showing the range of outcomes of extreme prematurity has been produced. It is well accepted and does not increase levels of anxiety as measured by the STAI. This video may be a useful and non-stress-inducing aid at the time of counseling parents facing extreme prematurity.

  1. Eye size in threshold retinopathy of prematurity, based on a Danish preterm infant series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans Callø; Fledelius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation.......To validate a hypothesis of restricted postnatal ocular growth associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), with a view also to preceding intrauterine growth retardation....

  2. Early postnatal hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Louise Bering; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national registers...

  3. Outcomes of Pre-Term Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre-term premature rupture of fetal membranes (pPROM) contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. These include chorioamnionitis, prematurity and still-births. Various microbial organisms have been implicated. Few studies have been done on pPROM in this environment. Objectives: To determine ...

  4. 19 CFR 4.34 - Prematurely discharged, overcarried, and undelivered cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... forwarding cargo. When it is desired that prematurely landed cargo, overcarried cargo, or cargo so stowed as... substitute traveling manifest for the prematurely landed or overcarried cargo being forwarded as residue... forwarding is made on the Cargo Declaration, the new substitute traveling manifest shall be stamped to show...

  5. Caffeine is a risk factor for osteopenia of prematurity in preterm infants: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ebtihal; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Moffatt, Michael; Narvey, Michael; Reed, Martin; Jiang, Depeng

    2018-01-22

    Caffeine, the most commonly used medication in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, has calciuric and osteoclastogenic effects. To examine the association between the cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine and osteopenia of prematurity, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including premature infants less than 31 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Osteopenia of prematurity was evaluated using chest X-rays on a biweekly basis over 12 weeks of hospitalization. The cohort included 109 infants. 51% had osteopenia of prematurity and 8% had spontaneous rib fractures. Using the generalized linear mixed model, caffeine dose and duration of caffeine therapy showed a strong association with osteopenia of prematurity. Steroids and vitamin D were also significantly correlated with osteopenia of prematurity while diuretic use did not show a statistically significant effect. The cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine, as well as steroid are associated with osteopenia of prematurity in this cohort. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the lowest dose of caffeine needed to treat effectively apnea of prematurity.

  6. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  7. Effects of midazolam and morphine on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam sedation and morphine analgesia are commonly used in ventilated premature infants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of midazolam versus morphine infusion on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in ventilated premature infants. METHODS: 11 patients (GA 26.6-33.0 weeks, BW

  8. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  9. The perception of partnership between parents of premature infants and nurses in neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Larsen, Palle; Weis, Janne

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify how parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and nurses perceive their partnership.The review questions are: how do parents of premature infants and nurses perceive their partnership during hospita...

  10. Metabolomics of prematurity: analysis of patterns of amino acids, enzymes, and endocrine markers by categories of gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Hawken, Steven; Ducharme, Robin; Potter, Beth K; Little, Julian; Thébaud, Bernard; Chakraborty, Pranesh

    2014-02-01

    Prematurity may influence the levels of amino acids, enzymes, and endocrine markers obtained through newborn screening. Identifying which analytes are the most affected by degree of prematurity could provide insight into how prematurity impacts metabolism. Analytes from blood spots assayed by Newborn Screening Ontario between March 2006 and April 2009 were used in this analysis. We examined the associations between the degree of prematurity and the levels of amino acids, enzymes, and endocrine markers in all newborns with and without adjustment for birth weight, feeding status, sample timing, transfusion, and sex. Our analysis included the following cohorts: 373,819 children born at term (>36 wk gestation), 26,483 near-term children (33-36 wk gestation), 4,354 very premature children (28-32 wk gestation), and 1,146 extremely premature children (prematurity, the levels of three amino acids (arginine, leucine, and valine) were at least 50% different between the cohorts of extremely premature and term children. The levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone increased with increasing prematurity, while thyrotropin-stimulating hormone values consistently decreased with increasing prematurity. None of the three enzyme markers we examined showed a trend in levels across categories of prematurity. This study demonstrates that children at different stages of prematurity are metabolically distinct. Future research should focus on the mechanism by which specific analytes are influenced by prematurity.

  11. Mães avaliam comportamentos socialmente "desejados" e "indesejados" de pré-escolares Mothers assess socially "desirable" and "undesirable" behavior of kindergarteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Comportamentos socialmente habilidosos promovem o desenvolvimento, ao passo que problemas de comportamento dificultam o acesso a novas contingências de reforçamento, facilitadoras da aquisição de repertórios de aprendizagem. Esta pesquisa investiga avaliações maternas de repertórios socialmente "desejados" e "indesejados" de crianças que, segundo o professor, apresentam problemas de comportamento. Participaram mães de 24 crianças indicadas pelo professor como tendo problemas de comportamento e mães de 24 crianças indicadas como tendo comportamentos socialmente "desejados". O Questionário de Comportamentos Socialmente Desejados e a Escala Comportamental Infantil de Rutter foram aplicados nas residências das participantes. Os resultados indicaram mais problemas de comportamento externalizante no grupo previamente indicado como tendo problemas; os grupos não diferiram quanto a comportamentos "desejados". Em ambos os grupos, as crianças obtiveram altos escores de comportamentos socialmente desejados, apontando reservas comportamentais. Também em ambos foram identificadas crianças que poderiam ser beneficiadas com programas para a promoção de interações sociais mais equilibradas, prevenindo problemas de comportamento.Socially desirable behaviors promote development but behavior problems prevent the access to new reinforcement contingencies that could facilitate the acquisition of relevant learning repertoires. This work investigated assessments of mothers concerning socially "desirable" and "undesirable" behaviors in children whose teachers identified as having behavior problems. The sample consisted of 24 mothers of children indicated as having behavioral problems, and 24 mothers of children indicated as presenting socially desirable behaviors. Data about children's behaviors were collected during a home interview, when the Socially Desired Behavior Questionnaire and the Rutter Scale for Parents were filled out. Results

  12. Pathophysiology and therapeutics of premature ageing in chronic kidney disease, with a focus on glycative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yosuke; Jao, Tzu-Ming; Inagi, Reiko

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major concern in public health. The pathology of CKD includes premature ageing in the kidney and vessels, which results in a high risk of cardiovascular events and end-stage renal disease. Many factors are involved in premature ageing in CKD, including hormonal imbalance, glycative stress, nitrogenous metabolites, and oxidative stress. Of these, the most important role in premature ageing in CKD is played by glycative stress, namely a massive and unfavourable glycation state, since the kidney is responsible for the clearance of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In an animal model, overexpression of glyoxalase I (GLO-1), a detoxifier of AGEs, has been found to alleviate premature ageing in the kidney and vessels. Both lifestyle changes and drug therapy have shown promise in overcoming premature ageing. Promising drug therapies include a GLO-1 activator and an absorbent against glycotoxin and nitrogenous metabolites. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Review: Accounting for prematurity in developmental assessment and the use of age-adjusted scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Samantha L; Cradock, Mary Michaeleen

    2004-12-01

    This review summarizes the literature to date concerning age adjustment in developmental assessment and illustrates relevant issues for clinicians and researchers in this area. Pubmed, Medline, Premedline, and PsycInfo databases were used to search the following terms: assessment, prematurity, age adjustment, and adjusted age. Additional sources were obtained through the references listed in the primary articles. Differences in clinical opinions persist with regard to whether, what type, and how long age adjustments are to be made for premature infants. Research is inconclusive regarding the most appropriate method for accounting for prematurity. Previous data may no longer describe the current population of premature infants. Current research is needed to inform developmental assessment practices for this population. Meanwhile, clinicians should remain aware of the issues regarding whether and how to adjust for prematurity. The authors recommend a multifaceted approach to clinical decision making and provide suggestions for future research.

  14. [Buffering capacity of the vitreous body in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amkhanitskaia, L I; Sidorenko, E I; Nikolaeva, G V; Kuznetsova, Iu D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of vitreous body changes in the pathogenesis of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. The study included 60 children with stage 4-5 retinopathy of prematurity demonstrating either classical or aggressive posterior form of progression. In all cases vitreous samples for laboratory testing were taken during surgery. The study showed that aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is associated with more significant metabolic changes in comparison with classical form of the disease. The degree of biochemical imbalance of the vitreous appeared directly related to the stage of the disease, which was determined by the type and extent of retinal detachment. Volcano-shaped retinal detachment with intensive exudation within the posterior eye segment is considered the most severe variant of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is characterized by substantial disturbance of metabolism of the vitreous body, which contributes to exudation and proliferation, thus aggravating the course of the disease and worsening the prognosis.

  15. The effects of caffeine on heart rate variability in newborns with apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, I; Haleluya, N S; Blazer, S; Weissman, A

    2014-08-01

    Apnea of prematurity is a common complication in premature newborns and caffeine is a widespread medication used to treat this complication. Caffeine may have adverse effects on the cardiovascular and central nervous system, yet its effects on the autonomic nervous system modulation of heart rate have not been studied in premature newborns, which was the objective of our study. We prospectively studied 21 premature newborns who were treated with caffeine. We analyzed heart rate variability by power spectral density and by dynamic nonlinear analyses methods. There were no changes in heart rate, blood pressure or the autonomic nervous system tone following administration of caffeine, nor were the nonlinear dynamical properties of the system altered by caffeine. Caffeine does not have detrimental effects on heart rate variability, heart rate or blood pressure in conventional doses given to premature newborns.

  16. [Mode of delivery and perinatal outcomes in women with premature rupture of membranes at term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L; Wang, X; Zou, L Y; Ruan, Y; Chen, Y; Li, G H; Zhang, W Y

    2016-04-05

    Comparative study of delivery mode and perinatal outcomes in women with premature rupture of membranes at term compared to those with intact membranes. A cross sectional survey of all deliveries in 39 hospitals in 3 geographic regions of mainland China from January 1 to December 31, 2011 was carried out to investigate the demographic data and delivery outcomes. In our analysis of 103 124 pregnancies, 14 073(13.6%) were complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Compared to those with intact membrane, the risks of postpartum hemorrhage, maternal complications and neonatal complications were increased significantly for women with premature rupture of membranes at term, especially the prevalence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome(NRDS) and meconium aspiration syndrome. The risk of low Apgar (premature rupture of membranes at term. The adverse perinatal outcomes are slightly higher in women with term premature rupture of membranes than those with intact membrane.

  17. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease in premature infants using a radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Michiomi

    2001-01-01

    The cases of 36 very low birthweight infants (premature group) and 52 mature infants with birth weights as low as 1500 g (mature group) with gastro-esephageal reflux disease (GERD) were reviewed. These infants received 24 hour pH monitoring, reflux scintigraphy, gastric emptying, and antrum motility measurement. The results of 24-hour pH monitoring of the premature group are not different from these of the mature group. Time required for reflux scintigraphy of the premature group is higher than that of the mature group. Emptying time of premature group is slower than that of the mature group. Dietary management in premature infants with GERD is important. Using a nasoduodenal feeding tube is quite effective. Radionuclide method, in addition to 24-hour pH monitoring, should be used to evaluate total gastroesophageal function. (author)

  18. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  19. Perspectives and attitudes of pediatricians concerning post-discharge care practice of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, A; Parkinson, E; Khawar, N; Elmeki, A; Narula, P; Hoang, D

    2017-01-01

    Survival rates of premature infants are at a historical high and increasingly more pediatricians are caring for former premature infants. The goal of this study was to describe the perspectives and attitudes of pediatricians, as well as, the challenges of rendering post-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge care for premature infants. An anonymous 22-question web-based survey was emailed to pediatricians who are current members of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and practicing in Kings County, New York. There were 148 completed surveys with 79% being general pediatricians. Of all respondents, 63% believed that premature infants should have a neonatal high risk follow-up visit within days after discharge and 64% were satisfied with the NICU discharge summary acquisition. While 74% of pediatricians felt comfortable following up with former extremely premature infants, 65% referred to specialists, most often to child development, neurology, and physical and/or occupational therapy. The majority (85%) were more likely to refer premature infants to early intervention. Participating pediatricians varied in their knowledge of immunization and breastfeeding guidelines. Finally, 88% of respondents acknowledged that caregivers of premature infants experience increased stress, with 53% stating that the stress should be addressed. Understanding the perceptions and challenges of pediatricians who care for premature infants may help improve post NICU quality of care. Transition to the outpatient setting is a crucial step in the management of premature infants and a focus on improved hand-off procedures between hospital and physicians may prove beneficial. Also, pediatricians must stay abreast of current recommendations for breastfeeding and vaccinations. Furthermore, emphasis should be given to stress reduction and management for caregivers of former premature infants.

  20. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

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    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  1. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-10

    The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province from January 2001 to December 2012. We used data from 16 monitoring sites to examine the trend and risk factors for premature birth as well as infant mortality associated with prematurity. A total of 818,481 live births were documented, including 76,923 preterm infants (94 preterm infants per 1,000 live births) and 2,248 deaths due to prematurity (2.75 preterm deaths per 1,000 live births). From 2001 to 2012, the incidence of preterm birth increased from 56.7 to 105.2 per 1,000 live births (P for trend infant mortality rate due to prematurity declined from 95.0 to 13.4 per 1,000 live births (P for trend infant male sex were independently associated with a higher incidence of preterm birth (all p values mortality rate, while use of newborn emergency transport services (NETS) was associated with a lower preterm mortality rate (all p values infant mortality due to prematurity were observed in Hubei Province from 2001 to 2012. Our results provide important information for areas of improvements in reducing incidence and mortality of premature birth.

  2. Predictive Factors for Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Theophylline for Extubation in Infants with Apnea of Prematurity.

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    Tomoko Kondo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP after weaning from mechanical ventilation.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013.A total of 100 infants were evaluated as two separate groups in terms of efficacy and safety of theophylline. Sixty-seven (67.0% infants had effective theophylline therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age at birth was significant, with an odds ratio of 0.59 (p < 0.001. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off value was 31.1 weeks old for predicting the efficacy of theophylline (specificity, 66.7%; sensitivity, 86.6%; p < 0.001; area under the curve, 0.750; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.74. Adverse reactions were identified in 21 (21.0% infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of days of theophylline administration from birth was associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions after theophylline administration (p = 0.01.Physicians need to be aware of the possibility that theophylline fails to produce therapeutic effects for extubation in infants aged less than 31.1 weeks old, and adverse reactions can easily develop when theophylline is administered soon after birth.

  3. Predictive Factors for Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Theophylline for Extubation in Infants with Apnea of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoko; Kondo, Yuki; Orita, Yuji; Mitarai, Fumi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Shimodozono, Yoshihiro; Douchi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yasuo; Irie, Tetsumi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP) after weaning from mechanical ventilation. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013. A total of 100 infants were evaluated as two separate groups in terms of efficacy and safety of theophylline. Sixty-seven (67.0%) infants had effective theophylline therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age at birth was significant, with an odds ratio of 0.59 (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off value was 31.1 weeks old for predicting the efficacy of theophylline (specificity, 66.7%; sensitivity, 86.6%; p < 0.001; area under the curve, 0.750; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.74). Adverse reactions were identified in 21 (21.0%) infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of days of theophylline administration from birth was associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions after theophylline administration (p = 0.01). Physicians need to be aware of the possibility that theophylline fails to produce therapeutic effects for extubation in infants aged less than 31.1 weeks old, and adverse reactions can easily develop when theophylline is administered soon after birth.

  4. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p < 0.0001; BW: 839.8 ± 287.0 and 1288.1 ± 321.5 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). Customized alarms of ROPScore and CHOP ROP correctly identified all infants having any ROP or type 1 ROP. WINROP missed 19 cases of ROP, including three type 1 ROP. ROPScore and CHOP ROP provided the best performances with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe ROP of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-0.96, respectively), and WINROP obtained 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Median time from alarm to treatment was 11.1, 5.1 and 9.1 weeks, for WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP, respectively. ROPScore and CHOP ROP showed 100% sensitivity to identify sight-threatening ROP. Predictive algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

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    Chris G. McMahon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aimml To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994-2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1-3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged > 18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all. The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg, dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg, and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg, and evaluation of validated rated scales

  6. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ELKAR (L-CARNITINE IN PREMATURE INFANTS

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    Svetlana V. Garina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recently in Russia there is a tendency to increase the proportion of premature infants, prolonged postnatal adaptation which may be associated with carnitine deficiency Early diagnosis and correction of carnitine deficiency in premature infants is possible to reserve the prevention of pathological conditions of the prenatal period in these patients. Materials and Methods. 98 newborn infants have been examined with the help of clinical laboratory methods. Results. It has been stated that the overwhelming majority of newborn infants irrespective of their gestational age and body mass at the moment of birth had reference ranges of crude carnitine and higher degree of floating carnitine in their peripheral blood within the first days of their lives. These changes are particularly characteristic for small pre-mature infants. Statistically significant differences between the levels of crude carnitine and floating carnitine depended on the gender of newborn infants have been revealed. Directly correlated dependence of the level of crude carnitine on the body mass at the moment of birth of small premature infants has been stated. Discussion and Conclusions. It has been proved that implementing L-carnitine into the development care plan for premature infants facilitates quick body weight gain, significantly cuts down the period of tube feeding, lowers frequency of anemia development of premature infants and duration of neonatal jaundice. The ability of Elkar to correct functional diseases of cardio vascular system of premature infants has been shown.

  7. Retinopathy of Prematurity: Clinical Features, Classification, Natural History, Management and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-11-07

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations. The standard current treatment indications, modalities and outcomes from landmark randomized controlled trials on retinopathy of prematurity have been mentioned. This review would help pediatricians to update their current knowledge on classification and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity, in India, should be performed in all preterm neonates who are born <34 weeks gestation and/or <1750 grams birthweight; as well as in babies 34-36 weeks gestation or 1750-2000 grams birthweight if they have risk factors for ROP. Screening should start by one month after birth.

  8. Features of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Ahmad Zeeshan; Tahir, Muhammad Younis; Ayub, Muhammad Hammad; Mirza, Khurram Azam

    2015-02-01

    To study the demographic and clinical features of Retinopathy of Prematurity in urban Punjab. The cross-sectional study was performed at Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore, from April 2010 to October 2013 and comprised neonates born with birth weight less than 2000 g, gestational age less than 37 weeks, or those who were considered high risk for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Variables recorded included history, birth weight, gestational age, oxygen supplementation, development of Retinopathy of Prematurity, and laser treatment. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. There were 285 neonates in the study with a mean birth weight of 1280.34 ± 350.43 g and mean gestational age being 29.38 ± 3.14 weeks. Overall, 167 (58.6%) received supplemental oxygen, 86(30.2%) were anaemic and 44 (15.4%) received blood transfusion. Besides, 47 (16.5%) premature babies were product of multiple gestation, 34 (11.9%) were having respiratory distress, 25 (8.8%) had sepsis and received intravenous antibiotics, 70(24.6%) developed Retinopathy of Prematurity, and 22 (7.7%) developed threshold disease and received laser treatment at mean gestational age of 32.11 ± 2.53 weeks. Screening is key to preventing childhood blindness caused by Retinopathy of Prematurity. Prematurity, low birth weight and supplemental oxygen therapy are significant risk factors for the condition.

  9. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Prematurity and Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Rachel G; Kumar, Rajesh; Arguelles, Lester M; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Apollon, Stephanie; Bonzagni, Anthony; Ortiz, Kathryn; Pearson, Colleen; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prenatal maternal smoking and prematurity independently affect wheezing and asthma in childhood. Objective We sought to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal smoking and prematurity upon the development of early childhood wheezing. Methods We evaluated 1448 children with smoke exposure data from a prospective urban birth cohort in Boston. Maternal antenatal and postnatal exposure was determined from standardized questionnaires. Gestational age was assessed by the first day of the last menstrual period and early prenatal ultrasound (pretermprematurity and maternal antenatal smoking on recurrent wheeze, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In the cohort, 90 (6%) children had recurrent wheezing, 147 (10%) were exposed to in utero maternal smoke and 419 (29%) were premature. Prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1) was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, but in utero maternal smoking was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.4). Jointly, maternal smoke exposure and prematurity caused an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). There was an interaction between prematurity and maternal smoking upon episodes of wheezing (p=0.049). Conclusions We demonstrated an interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prematurity on childhood wheezing in this urban, multiethnic birth cohort. PMID:22290763

  10. Effects of prematurity on language acquisition and auditory maturation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechia, Inaê Costa; Oliveira, Luciéle Dias; Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Biaggio, Eliara Pinto Vieira; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    To verify which damages prematurity causes to hearing and language. We used the decriptors language/linguagem, hearing/audição, prematurity/prematuridade in databases LILACS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scielo. randomized controlled trials, non-randomized intervention studies and descriptive studies (cross-sectional, cohort, case-control projects). The articles were assessed independently by two authors according to the selection criteria. Twenty-six studies were selected, of which seven were published in Brazil and 19 in international literature. Nineteen studies comparing full-term and preterm infants. Two of the studies made comparisons between premature infants small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age. In four studies, the sample consisted of children with extreme prematurity, while other studies have been conducted in children with severe and moderate prematurity. To assess hearing, these studies used otoacoustic emissions, brainstem evoked potentials, tympanometry, auditory steady-state response and visual reinforcement audiometry. For language assessment, most of the articles used the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development. Most studies reviewed observed that prematurity is directly or indirectly related to the acquisition of auditory and language abilities early in life. Thus, it could be seen that prematurity, as well as aspects related to it (gestational age, low weight at birth and complications at birth), affect maturation of the central auditory pathway and may cause negative effects on language acquisition.

  11. The relationship of the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anne M; Wagner, Brandie D; Hodges, Jennifer K; Thevarajah, Tamara S; McCourt, Emily A; Cerda, Ashlee M; Mandava, Naresh; Gibbs, Ronald S; Palestine, Alan G

    2017-09-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an adverse outcome of preterm birth and is a leading cause of childhood blindness. The relationship between the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity is understudied. To investigate whether there is a difference in the incidence of type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity in infants with preterm birth resulting from spontaneous preterm labor, a medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 827 infants screened for retinopathy of prematurity who were delivered at a single tertiary care center in Colorado. All infants fulfilled the American Academy of Pediatrics 2013 screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity defined as "infants with a birth weight of ≤1500 g or gestational age of 30 weeks or less (as defined by the attending neonatologist) and selected infants with a birth weight between 1500 and 2000 g or gestational age of >30 weeks with an unstable clinical course, including those requiring cardiorespiratory support and who are believed by their attending pediatrician or neonatologist to be at high risk for retinopathy of prematurity." Two independent reviewers masked to retinopathy of prematurity outcomes determined whether preterm birth resulted from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. Data were analyzed with univariate and multivariable logistic regression. In our cohort, the frequency of preterm birth resulting from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes was 34%, 40%, and 26%, respectively. The mean gestational age (weeks, days) ± SD (range) in the cohort and across the preterm birth subtypes was as follows: entire cohort, 28 weeks, 6 days ± 2 weeks, 3 days (23 weeks, 3 days - 36 weeks, 4 days); spontaneous preterm labor

  12. Risk factors for premature birth in French Guiana: the importance of reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneuve-Dorilas, Malika; Favre, Anne; Carles, Gabriel; Louis, Alphonse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-11-27

    French Guiana has the highest birth rate in South America. This French territory also has the highest premature birth rate and perinatal mortality rate of all French territories. The objective was to determine the premature birth rate and to identify the prevalence of risk factors of premature birth in French Guiana. A retrospective study of all births in French Guiana was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014 using the computerized registry compiling all live births over 22 weeks of gestation on the territory. During this period 12 983 live births were reported on the territory. 13.5% of newborns were born before 37 (1755/12 983). The study of the registry revealed that common sociodemographic risk factors of prematurity were present. In addition, past obstetrical history was also important: a scarred uterus increased the risk of prematurity adjusted odds ratio =1.4, 95%CI (1.2-1.6). Similarly, obstetrical surveillance, the absence of preparation for birth or of prenatal interview increased the risk of prematurity by 2.4 and 2.3, the excess fraction in the population was 69% and 72.2%, respectively. Known classical risk factors are important. In the present study excess fractions were calculated in order to prioritize interventions to reduce the prematurity rate.

  13. Cost estimate of hospital stays for premature newborns in a public tertiary hospital in Brazil

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    Claudia Maria Desgualdo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stays for premature newborns in the Interlagos Hospital and Maternity Center in São Paulo, Brazil and to assess the difference between the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System and the real cost of care for each premature newborn. METHODS: A cost-estimate study in which hospital and professional costs were estimated for premature infants born at 22 to 36 weeks gestation during the calendar year of 2004 and surviving beyond one hour of age. Direct costs included hospital services, professional care, diagnoses and therapy, orthotics, prosthetics, special materials, and blood products. Costs were estimated using tables published by the Unified Health System and the Brasindice as well as the list of medical procedures provided by the Brazilian Classification of Medical Procedures. RESULTS: The average direct cost of care for initial hospitalization of a premature newborn in 2004 was $2,386 USD. Total hospital expenses and professional services for all premature infants in this hospital were $227,000 and $69,500 USD, respectively. The costs for diagnostic testing and blood products for all premature infants totaled $22,440 and $1,833 USD. The daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing less than 1,000 g was $115 USD, and the daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing more than 2,500 g was $89 USD. Amounts reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System corresponded to only 27.42% of the real cost of care. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of hospital stays for premature newborns was much greater than the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System. The highest costs corresponded to newborns with lower birth weight. Hospital costs progressively and discretely decreased as the newborns' weight increased.

  14. [Estimation on the indirect economic burden of disease-related premature deaths in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Feng, Luzhao; Zheng, Yaming; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the indirect economic burden of disease-related premature deaths in China, 2012. Both human capital approach and friction cost methods were used to compute the indirect economic burden of premature deaths from the following sources: mortality from the national disease surveillance system in 2012, average annual income per capita from the China Statistic Yearbook in 2012, population size from the 2010 China census, and life expectancy in China from the World Health Organization life table. Data from the Human Capital Approach Estimates showed that the indirect economic burden of premature deaths in China was 425.1 billion in 2012, accounting for 8‰ of the GDP. The indirect economic burden of chronic non-communicable diseases associated premature deaths was accounted for the highest proportion(67.1%, 295.4 billion), followed by those of injuries related premature deaths (25.6% , 108.9 billion), infectious diseases, maternal and infants diseases, and malnutrition related deaths (6.4% , 26.9 billion). The top five premature deaths that cause the indirect economic burden were malignancy, cardiovascular diseases, unintentional injuries, intentional injuries, and diseases of the respiratory system. The indirect economic burden of premature deaths mainly occurred in the population of 20-59 year-olds. Under the Friction Cost method, the estimates appeared to be 0.11%-3.49% of the total human capital approach estimates. Premature death caused heavy indirect economic burden in China. Chronic non-communicable diseases and injuries seemed to incur the major disease burden. The indirect economic burden of premature deaths mainly occurred in the working age group.

  15. Ex-Premature Infant Boys with Hypospadias are Similar in Size to Age-Matched, Ex-Premature Infant Boys Without Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael H.; Alonzo, David G.; Gonzales, Edmond T.; Jones, Eric A.; Cisek, Lars J.; Roth, David R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies have postulated that hypospadias, prematurity, and low birth weight are linked by defects in androgen signaling. To determine whether premature, hypospadiac boys are small and remain so, we compared their size at birth and at hypospadias repair to premature boys who underwent post-neonatal circumcision. METHODS We identified premature boys admitted to Texas Children's Hospital who underwent either hypospadias repair or circumcision after 4 months of age. Age, weight, and height at birth and surgery were recorded. RESULTS Fifty-four boys had hypospadias and 34 did not. For hypospadiac boys, the mean birth weight and age, height, and weight at surgery were lower than for boys without hypospadias. More importantly, length-for-age and weight-for-age percentiles were also lower for hypospadiac boys. When subset analysis was performed on boys younger than 2 years at surgery, however, there were no significant differences in height or weight between hypospadiac and nonhypospadiac boys. CONCLUSION Our series suggests that premature, hypospadiac boys are born smaller than age-matched, non-hypospadiac controls. However, there were no age-corrected size differences between hypospadiac and non-hypospadiac boys at surgery. This implies that hypospadiac boys exhibit postneonatal ‘rebound’ growth. Global growth deficits, if any, do not persist in hypospadiac boys. PMID:20833109

  16. Relation of ventricular premature beats to underlying heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretz, E F; Denes, P; Ruggie, N; Vasilomanolakis, E; Messer, J V

    1984-03-01

    The relation between ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and physiologic disease was investigated in 305 patients who had 24-hour Holter monitoring tests, cardiac catheterization and angiography. Both frequency and Lown class of VPBs were measured. Analyses showed that occurrence of VPBs at an average frequency of more than 2 per hour or occurrence of complex VPBs (Lown class greater than 2) have the highest association with the presence and severity of cardiac disease. Using these criteria, VPB severity was then compared with extent of ventricular wall motion abnormality (right anterior oblique projection segments), ejection fraction, end-diastolic pressure, category of disease (normal, coronary artery disease [CAD], valvular heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy), age and severity of CAD (major coronary arteries with greater than 75% diameter reduction). Severe VPBs defined either by complexity or frequency were significantly correlated with extent of wall motion abnormality, ejection fraction, category of disease and age. Severe VPBs were not significantly correlated with end-diastolic pressure or severity of CAD. Discriminant analysis then showed that in addition to wall motion abnormality and ejection fraction, category of disease and age are independently correlated with VPB severity.

  17. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation.

  18. Retinopathy of prematurity: screening and treatment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarez-Carvajal, Ana Catalina; Montes-Cantillo, Milagro; Unkrich, Kelly H; Trivedi, Rupal H; Peterseim, Mae Millicent Winfrey

    2017-12-01

    To determine the recent demographic data, risk factors and results of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and treatment in Costa Rica. The medical records of all preterm infants meeting ROP screening criteria (≤34 weeks' gestational age (GA) or birth weight (BW) ≤1750g, and those determined at risk by neonatologists) in the national healthcare system, Costa Rica, January 2010-December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. The numbers and percentages of infants with ROP, risk factors, percentage of patients treated and treatment outcomes were determined. Comparison is made with screening criteria and literature reports of ROP incidence in other countries. The study population included 3018 preterm infants. Overall, 585 patients (585/3018, 19.4%) were found to have ROP. Of these, 15.4% (90 patients) required laser treatment, and 53% of those requiring treatment had BW Costa Rica allowing assessment and comparison of screening criteria and protocol. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Risk Factors for Premature Hair Graying in Young Turkish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Belli, Asli; Etgu, Fatma; Ozbas Gok, Seyran; Kara, Bilge; Dogan, Gursoy

    2016-07-01

    Premature hair graying (PHG) is a common condition resulting in loss of self-esteem. Studies investigating PHG risk factors for both sexes with a large number of patients are scarce. We sought to investigate the socioclinical risk factors for PHG in young Turkish men and women and the differences between the sexes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,119 participants who answered a survey about PHG and some socioclinical characteristics between February and July 2015. The number of gray hairs, onset age of hair graying, and family history of PHG were asked about, as well as demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, sports life, diet, medical history, educational status, occupation, marital status, monthly income, and Fitzpatrick skin type. Of 1,119 participants, 315 (28.1%) had PHG and 804 did not. Maternal and paternal PHG, alcohol consumption, presence of chronic disease, educational status, hair loss, perceived stress scale (PSS) score, age, and height were significantly higher in subjects with PHG. Rates of maternal and paternal PHG were high in women with PHG, and the rate of paternal PHG was high in men with PHG. According to the multivariate ordinal regression analysis, PSS score, age, hair loss, and family history of PHG were correlated with the severity of PHG. PHG is closely related to factors causing oxidative stress, such as emotional stress, alcohol consumption, and chronic diseases in genetically predisposed men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Melatonin, a possible promising panacea for premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is characterized by impairment of ovarian function unrelated to elevatedfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH before the age of 40. The consequence of POF is severe and distinctive, presentingfrom infertility to symptoms caused by hormone deprivation. The mechanism of POF remains unclearand current treatments are therefore ineffective. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is a neuroendocrinalhormone chiefly secreted by the pineal body. Melatonin exerts extensive physiological and pharmacologicaleffects on the biological rhythm, oxidative stress, reproduction, autoimmune and tumourigenesis. However,current researches have not yet brought melatonin into the study of POF. In the present review, we have involvedstate-of-the-art research progress of melatonin in ovary with regard to oxidation, follicle formation and function,and ovarian autoimmune disorders since these aspects mainly dispose to POF development. The features thatmelatonin scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS, directly and indirectly induces follicle maturation, ovulationand inhibits apoptosis, and modulates autoimmune derangements in the ovaries are highly indicative that melatonincan effect in combating POF. Also, in this respect we have discussed the possibility of applying melatoninin the treatment of POF and have listed evidence of studies in vitro and in vivo. Vacant research directions aresubsequently suggested and the future application of melatonin in POF treatment is prospected.