WorldWideScience

Sample records for underwrite security threats

  1. 16 CFR 802.60 - Acquisitions by securities underwriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisitions by securities underwriters. 802.60 Section 802.60 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND... underwriter, in the ordinary course of business, and in the process of underwriting, shall be exempt from the...

  2. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  3. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  4. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY THREATS CLASSIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Gerić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are exposed to different types of security risks. Theconsequences of information systems security (ISS breaches can vary from e.g. damaging the data base integrity to physical "destruction" of entire information system facilities, and can result with minor disruptions in less important segments of information systems, or with significant interruptions in information systems functionality. The sources of security risks are different, and can origin from inside or outside of information system facility, and can be intentional or unintentional. The precise calculation of loses caused by such incidents is often not possible because a number of small scale ISS incidents are never detected, or detected with a significant time delay, a part of incidents are interpreted as an accidental mistakes, and all that results with an underestimation of ISS risks. This paper addresses the different types and criteria of information system security risks (threats classification and gives an overview of most common classifications used in literature and in practice. We define a common set of criteria that can be used for information system security threats classification, which will enable the comparison and evaluation of different security threats from different security threats classifications.

  5. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  6. Information security practices emerging threats and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Ahmed; Woungang, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces novel research targeting technical aspects of protecting information security and establishing trust in the digital space. New paradigms, and emerging threats and solutions are presented in topics such as application security and threat management; modern authentication paradigms; digital fraud detection; social engineering and insider threats; cyber threat intelligence; intrusion detection; behavioral biometrics recognition; hardware security analysis. The book presents both the important core and the specialized issues in the areas of protection, assurance, and trust in information security practice. It is intended to be a valuable resource and reference for researchers, instructors, students, scientists, engineers, managers, and industry practitioners. .

  7. Security Threats in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Power Conflict • Rise of China • Rise of India • Return of Russia • EU-Europe and NATO • Japan’s dilemma • Changing alliances? Threat 2 Climate Change...tomorrow. Anon. Security Threats 1. Return of great power conflict 2. Climate change 3. Uneven development 4. Overpopulation , migration, pandemics...Threat 4 Overpopulation , Migration, Pandemics • Climate change means overpopulation • Mass migrations are unstoppable • Migrations mean conflict and

  8. Insider Threat and Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

    The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

  9. Technologies to counter aviation security threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Steve

    2017-11-01

    The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) makes TSA responsible for security in all modes of transportation, and requires that TSA assess threats to transportation, enforce security-related regulations and requirements, and ensure the adequacy of security measures at airports and other transportation facilities. Today, TSA faces a significant challenge and must address a wide range of commercial, military grade, and homemade explosives and these can be presented in an infinite number of configurations and from multiple vectors. TSA screens 2 million passengers and crew, and screens almost 5 million carry-on items and 1.2 million checked bags daily. As TSA explores new technologies for improving efficiency and security, those on the forefront of research and development can help identify unique and advanced methods to combat terrorism. Research and Development (R&D) drives the development of future technology investments that can address an evolving adversary and aviation threat. The goal is to rethink the aviation security regime in its entirety, and rather than focusing security at particular points in the enterprise, distribute security from the time a reservation is made to the time a passenger boards the aircraft. The ultimate objective is to reengineer aviation security from top to bottom with a continued focus on increasing security throughout the system.

  10. Threats to financial system security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The financial system in the United States is slowly migrating from the bricks and mortar of banks on the city square to branch banks, ATM`s, and now direct linkage through computers to the home. Much work has been devoted to the security problems inherent in protecting property and people. The impact of attacks on the information aspects of the financial system has, however, received less attention. Awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milken or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These events, although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. Most of the losses can be traced to the contribution of many small attacks perpetrated against a variety of vulnerable components and systems. This paper explores the magnitude of these financial system losses and identifies new areas for security to be applied to high consequence events.

  11. NATIONAL SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF CYBER THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO AMIGO TOSSI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyber threat is one of the main risks for security in developing countries, as well in States on the development path, such as ours. This phenomena is a challenge to national security, that needs the adoption of a paramount approach in its analysis, that have to consider all the aspects that had transformed the actors and malevolent actions in this environment in one of the most important challenges to the security of governmental as well as private organizations all over the world. States, hackers, cyber activists, and cyber criminals have been main actors in several situations that had shaped a new dimension for international and national security. The purpose of this article is to propose topics that could be included in the national assessment of cyber threats to the Chilean national security, based upon several conceptual definitions, cyber attacks already executed to state and military organization’s in Chile, and lastly, considerations over cyber threats included in the National Security Strategies of some western powers.

  12. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  13. Rethinking climate change as a security threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, Corinne

    2011-10-15

    Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.

  14. Transregional Threats and Maritime Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    disputes with Vietnam and Taiwan), and the Spratly Islands (disputes with Vietnam , Malay- sia, Brunei, the Philippines, and Taiwan). In addition...continue to grow. As of 2015, China’s coast guard had 205 ships, more than the combined coast guards of Japan, Vietnam , Indonesia, Malaysia, and the...communication on which both economies depend. Both countries are concerned with non-traditional security threats such as piracy, terrorism at sea, and

  15. 12 CFR 1.3 - Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent of the bank's capital and surplus. However, if the proceeds of each issue are to be used to acquire and lease real estate and related facilities to economically and legally separate industrial tenants, and if each issue is payable solely from and secured by a first lien on the revenues to be...

  16. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  17. Nuclear Smuggling and Threats to Lithuanian Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murauskaitė Eglė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores threats related to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and dual-use goods applicable in state level nuclear programs, actualizing the global trends for the Baltic region. The article points to Eastern Europe’s changing risk profile in this respect, as increasing penetration of Russian criminal groups inside Ukraine and the destabilized situations in neighboring countries create an environment where the risk of nuclear smuggling is on the rise. Criminal entities can be seen forming new bonds, with trafficking routes intersecting and zones of influence shifting - consequently, an unusual level of criminal involvement in nuclear smuggling is observed, alongside a geographic shift of smuggling patterns. In addition, states seeking materials and technologies for their military programs have taken a notable interest in this region as a way of circumventing international transit regulations. The article looks at the likely implications of these new nuclear smuggling trends for the security of the Baltic states. It suggests that Lithuania may soon be facing a relatively new threat, and one that it is ill-prepared to counter. The article discusses the risk factors and indicators to watch before that risk becomes reality, and offers ways for Lithuania to contribute to addressing these increasingly acute problems on a regional level.

  18. Influence of security threats on tourism destination development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurež Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the modern security environment and its impact on tourism destination development. Contemporary security environment is a result of historical events affected by the elements of the contemporary safety and political environment. Ground security concepts, which dominate contemporary security environment, are pointed out and further linked to the development of the modern security threats shaping tourism destination development. We are pointing out how the major security threats influence the tourism destination development. Methodology is based on secondary analysis of literature. Several current case studies are made to support conclusions on relationship between security and tourism destination developments.

  19. The Threat of Security: Hindering Technology Integration in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, LeAnne K.; Brown, Abbie; Green, Tim

    2007-01-01

    For the last year the authors have been gathering examples of how perceived "threats of security" are hampering the integration of technology in teaching and learning. They hope that educators will examine both the challenges of increased security demands and ways in which security might enhance, rather than detract from, the use of technology for…

  20. National Security Threats at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-24

    from Latin America. There are enhanced “push” factors of overpopulation , civil unrest, unemployment, poverty and violence. Then there are the “pull...national security threat. Nevertheless, it should be addressed concurrently with border security. Securing the border will facilitate the resolution of

  1. Collective Study On Security Threats In VOIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective study will critically evaluate the voice over internet protocol VOIP Security threats issues amp challenges in the communication over the network the solution provided by different vendors. Authors will be discussing all security issues different protocols but main focus will be on SIP protocol its implementation and vendors VOIP security system.

  2. FACTORS OF PERSONNEL SECURITY THREATS IN THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Yu. Timofeeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors that influence the occurrence of threats is of particular importance in the theory and practice of ensuring personnel security in the organization. The article aims at the identification of major threats to the organizational personnel security. As the latter, we suggest considering a set of causes related to the intention of the employee/ employer to harm each other and determine the ability to causes harm. Based on the content analysis of publications we identified the main causes of threats to the personnel security of organization, sources of hazardous factors origin. Consequently, we compiled a list of personnel security threats consisting of 18 items. The authors assessed the acuteness and urgency of threats, their impact on the state of personnel security in the organizations (a study was carried out on the example of Irkutsk region. Using the technique of factor analysis, we extracted factors of personnel security threats in the organization, interpreted as the existence of vulnerabilities in the security system, poor quality of the labor force and its moral and ethical capacities, shortcomings and mistakes in the area of implemented personnel policy and in the policy of personnel security. The applied methods of analysis are as follows: content analysis; analysis of frequency tables and contingency tables; correlation and factor analysis. Materials of the expert survey conducted in the Irkutsk region (2015 serves as the analysis base. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance confirmed agreement among the experts. Obtained results can be used to investigate and identify personnel security threats in the organization, can form the basis for prediction and analysis of personnel security threats, for development of methods of their prevention.

  3. National security and the impact of cyber threats on the average citizen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Vuuren, JC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presentation addresses national security issues and the impact of cyber threats on the average citizen. It classifies cyber threats, analysis national security and provides security tips to safeguard the individual against cyber threats....

  4. Threat Prioritization Process for the Czech Security Strategy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Balaban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers systematic view of a process of identification of security threats and, subsequently, their use in the making of strategic documents, notably the Security Strategy of the Czech Republic. It is not the aim of the authors to name or define such threats, but to present the process itself. It is paramount to any credible security strategy that it deals with the threat identification in the most precise fashion. The authors take reservations against the “catalogue” approach and claim the processes of prioritization and categorization to be essential for any policies derived from the security strategy, especially in times of economic need. It is also the 2011 final paper of the project “Trends, Risks, and Scenarios of the Security Developments in the World, Europe, and the Czech Republic – Impacts on the Policy and Security System of the Czech Republic” (TRS / VG20102013009.

  5. Security threat assessment of an Internet security system using attack tree and vague sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Security threat assessment of the Internet security system has become a greater concern in recent years because of the progress and diversification of information technology. Traditionally, the failure probabilities of bottom events of an Internet security system are treated as exact values when the failure probability of the entire system is estimated. However, security threat assessment when the malfunction data of the system's elementary event are incomplete--the traditional approach for calculating reliability--is no longer applicable. Moreover, it does not consider the failure probability of the bottom events suffered in the attack, which may bias conclusions. In order to effectively solve the problem above, this paper proposes a novel technique, integrating attack tree and vague sets for security threat assessment. For verification of the proposed approach, a numerical example of an Internet security system security threat assessment is adopted in this paper. The result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of security threat assessment methods.

  6. 17 CFR 250.4 - Exemption of certain brokers, dealers and underwriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or underwriter with the bona fide intention of effecting distribution of the specific securities so... underwriting entered into with the intention of effecting immediate distribution of such securities. (c) Definition of broker, dealer or underwriter. As used in this section, the terms “broker” or “dealer” have the...

  7. Threats and Challenges in Reconfigurable Hardware Security

    OpenAIRE

    Kastner, Ryan; Huffmire, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Computing systems designed using reconfigurable hardware are now used in many sensitive applications, where security is of utmost importance. Unfortunately, a strong notion of security is not currently present in FPGA hardware and software design flows. In the following, we discuss the security implications of using reconfigurable hardware in sensitive applications, and outline problems, attacks, solutions and topics for future research.

  8. Security Evaluation of the Cyber Networks under Advanced Persistent Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Li, Pengdeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-01-01

    Advanced persistent threats (APTs) pose a grave threat to cyberspace, because they deactivate all the conventional cyber defense mechanisms. This paper addresses the issue of evaluating the security of the cyber networks under APTs. For this purpose, a dynamic model capturing the APT-based

  9. Security Information and Event Management Tools and Insider Threat Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    INFORMATION AND EVENT MANAGEMENT TOOLS AND INSIDER THREAT DETECTION by Christopher J. Callahan September 2013 Thesis Advisor: J.D. Fulp Co...1. REPORT DATE SEP 2013 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Security Information And Event Management Tools And...and reduces the overall insider threat to military networks. Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) tools can be used to identify potential

  10. Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gorine; M. Ramadan Elmezughi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issue...

  11. Quantifying Security Threats and Their Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In earlier works, we present a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper we illustrate this infrastructure by means of a sample example involving an e-commerce application.

  12. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  13. Gsm Networks: A Review Of Security Threats And Mitigation Measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gsm Networks: A Review Of Security Threats And Mitigation Measures. ... Information Manager (The) ... This paper investigates the security measures used in GSM networks which include Authentication, Encryption, Equipment Identification and Subscriber Identity Confidentiality, as well as the manifestation of network ...

  14. Threats in Information Security : Beyond technical solutions. - Using Threat Tree Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olandersson, Sandra; Fredsson, Jeanette

    2001-01-01

    To be able to protect an organisation's resources, it is important to understand what there is to protect and what to protect it from. The first step is to try to analyse the security threats that exist against an organisation's resources to explore the risks. Threats have to be identified, for the organisation to protect its resources and find where the optimal placement against threats is. This thesis analysis whether it is possible to obtain a Threat Tree Analysis that is useful ...

  15. Security Threat Assessment of an Internet Security System Using Attack Tree and Vague Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Kuei-Hu Chang

    2014-01-01

    Security threat assessment of the Internet security system has become a greater concern in recent years because of the progress and diversification of information technology. Traditionally, the failure probabilities of bottom events of an Internet security system are treated as exact values when the failure probability of the entire system is estimated. However, security threat assessment when the malfunction data of the system’s elementary event are incomplete—the traditional approach for ca...

  16. Security Threats in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    . Security and privacy are rapidly replacing performance as the first and foremost concern in many sensor networking scenarios. While security prevention is important, it cannot guarantee that attacks will not be launched and that, once launched, they will not be successful. Therefore, detection of malicious...... intrusions forms an important part of an integrated approach to network security. In this work, we start by considering the problem of cooperative intrusion detection in WSNs and develop a lightweight ID system, called LIDeA, which follows an intelligent agent-based architecture. We show how such a system...... networks are. Motivated by this unexplored security aspect, we investigate a new set of memory related vulnerabilities for sensor embedded devices that, if exploited, can lead to the execution of software-based attacks. We demonstrate how to execute malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based...

  17. Threats to economic security of the region

    OpenAIRE

    Y. A. Salikov; I. I. Zolotareva; T. A. Borodkina

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of economic security are in sight of the researchers for more than two decades. Today in the economic literature widely presents the conceptual aspects of economic safety of the state. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of this multifaceted problem lies in the researches of many domestic and foreign scientists, which are the basic levels of economic security. Among the priority levels include, in our view, the regional level (meso-level) and actual problem...

  18. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  19. Collective Study On Security Threats In MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will be discussing the security issues in MANET amp the methods to protect it. Authors will be talk about related work in securing the network different type of attacks how to sense these sorts of attack what are the features of MANET then will be describing what the requirements for securing network are. Investigation had been done in past to maintain the network from attacks but due to the feature of MANET inappropriate infrastructure and due to the disperse network quality it is open to attack. Authors will be tackling the defence against each attack. Solution has been suggested So that the users can use proper authentication techniques and network resources can be properly utilized.

  20. Threats or threads: from usable security to secure experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg

    2008-01-01

    While the domain of security dependent technologies brings new challenges to HCI research it seems that the results and breakthroughs of HCI have not been used in design of security dependent technologies. With exceptions, work in the research field of usable security may be criticized for focusing...

  1. Virus threat and secure code distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    A virus program is an auto-relocating program that carries within it a Trojan Horse that, conceptually at least, may cooperate with other efforts in the defeat of whatever security features are operational on the attacked system. Countermeasures are discussed.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SECURITY INSIDER THREAT CLASSIFICATION USING INCIDENT CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zaitsev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective information security insider threat countermeasure requires knowledge and understanding of actual insider threats and methods of their realization. The article represents analysis of existing insider threat’s and intruder’s classifications. This analysis elicited an absence of comprehensive and consistent classification nowadays. Basing of this outcome a method of insider threat classification development using clustering of incidents was introduced. For this purpose an insider incident database was created and filled with 500 open source incidents. For determination of classification criterions and criterions of result estimation an analysis of gathered statistics was carried out. Using modeling framework IBM SPSS Modeler incident clustering was conducted basing on the following algorithms: k-means, two-step clustering algorithm, Cohonen self-organizing maps. Basing on incident clustering an information security insider threat classification was developed.

  3. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  4. EMP Threats to US National Security: Congressional Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huessy, Peter

    2011-04-01

    The US Congress is considering how best to respond to concerns that EMP is a real and present danger to US security. The threats come from a variety of areas: solar storms, non-nuclear EMP from man-made machines and devices; and nuclear EMP from a nuclear device exploded above CONUS or other critical areas important to the United States and its allies. Responses have to date included passage in the House of legislation to protect the electrical grid in the United States from such threats and hearings before the Homeland Security Committee. Additional efforts include examining missile defense responses, protection of the maritime domain, and hardening of US military and related civilian infrastructure. The House of Representatives has also examined what Europe, the European Union and NATO, both government and private industry, have done in these areas. Complicating matters are related issues of cyber-security and overall homeland security priorities.

  5. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdiak, J.; Gafrik, A.; Pulis, P.; Susko, M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  6. Impact of Human Security Threats on Leadership and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human security threats in contemporary Africa have become a major political challenge. Whether it involves sectional conflicts, kidnapping, human trafficking, armed robbery they have continued to exert a far reaching impact on the leadership and political stability in the region. This paper is therefore an attempt to examine ...

  7. Food security — Seeds of threat, seeds of solutions | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-08

    Feb 8, 2011 ... Ironically, plant breeders' very success in developing new high-yielding cereal varieties over the last decades could lead to a gradual loss of plant species, threatening the world's future food security. Even more ironic, this threat can be overcome only with the help of small farmers in remote areas of the ...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c2-4 - Transmission or maintenance of payments received in connection with underwritings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... underwritings. It shall constitute a “fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act or practice” as used in section... payments received in connection with underwritings. 240.15c2-4 Section 240.15c2-4 Commodity and Securities... distribution of securities, other than a firm-commitment underwriting, to accept any part of the sale price of...

  9. Modeling and Security Threat Assessments of Data Processed in Cloud Based Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Sergeevna Simonenkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is modeling and security threat assessments of data processed in cloud based information systems (CBIS. This method allow to determine the current security threats of CBIS, state of the system in which vulnerabilities exists, level of possible violators, security properties and to generate recommendations for neutralizing security threats of CBIS.

  10. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  11. Computer Security of NPP Instrumentation and Control Systems: Cyber Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevtsov, A.L.; Trubchaninov, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to cyber threats, as one of the aspects in computer security of instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP). The basic concepts, terms and definitions are shortly addressed. The paper presents a detailed analysis of potential cyber threats during the design and operation of NPP instrumentation and control systems. Eleven major types of threats are considered, including: the malicious software and hardware Trojans (in particular, in commercial-off-the-shelf software and hardware), computer attacks through data networks and intrusion of malicious software from an external storage media and portable devices. Particular attention is paid to the potential use of lower safety class software as a way of harmful effects (including the intrusion of malicious fragments of code) on higher safety class software. The examples of actual incidents at various nuclear facilities caused by intentional cyber attacks or unintentional computer errors during the operation of software of systems important to NPP safety.

  12. A Scope for MANET Routing and Security Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lathies Bhasker T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET are wireless networks which utilize mobile nodes for communicating among them and in the external transmission range. The vulnerable nature of the network causes various security threats which upset its growth. In this survey, initially the existing security attacks in MANET are analyzed. The attacks categories fall under two stages that include internal and external attacks. The former attack is due to the malicious nodes within the network and later attack is caused by the nodes which do not belong to the network. Then the secure, efficient dynamic routing techniques which are main issues concerned with ad hoc networks are surveyed. Overall, our survey mainly concentrates the existing security attacks and possible routing solution in MANET.

  13. The cyber security threat stops in the boardroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Tim

    The attitude that 'it won't happen to me' still prevails in the boardrooms of industry when senior executives consider the threat of targeted cyber intrusions. Not much has changed in the commercial world of cyber security over the past few years; hackers are not being challenged to find new ways to steal companies' intellectual property and confidential information. The consequences of even major security breaches seem not to be felt by the leaders of victim companies. Why is this so? Surely IT security practitioners are seeking new ways to detect and prevent targeted intrusions into companies' networks? Are the consequences of targeted intrusions so insignificant that the captains of industry tolerate them? Or do only others feel the pain of their failure? This paper initially explores the failure of cyber security in industry and contends that, while industry leaders should not be alone in accepting responsibility for this failure, they must take the initiative to make life harder for cyber threat actors. They cannot wait for government leadership on policy, strategy or coordination. The paper then suggests some measures that a CEO can adopt to build a new corporate approach to cyber security.

  14. Nuclear security: A global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2016-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real. The possibility of criminals getting hold of nuclear and other radioactive material cannot be ruled out. Much progress has been made in tackling this threat nationally, regionally and globally, but more needs to be done. International cooperation is vital. As the global platform for cooperation in nuclear security, the IAEA helps countries to establish and maintain robust and sustainable national nuclear security regimes. We help ensure that measures are taken to protect nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the facilities in which such material is housed, from malicious acts. This has been an important year for nuclear security with the entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. I encourage all countries that have not yet done so to adhere to this Amendment and thereby contribute to a stronger global nuclear security regime. In this edition of the IAEA Bulletin, you will learn about the different areas of security where our work is making a real difference. We highlight the progress made in a number of countries.

  15. RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC SECURITY: THREATS TO NATIONAL INTERESTS AND THEIR REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this study due to the fact that at the present time the situation inRussiais complemented by the negative consequences of market reforms in the economy. According to statistical studies in the country with infl ation of about 10% per year among the total population of more than 20% of people with incomes below the subsistence minimum, and the income gap between the highest-income populations and low-income groups more than 12 times. The inequitable distribution of material and spiritual wealth, unemployment (over 9%, ignoring the legitimate rights and interests of a particular person and their direct violation, corruption, alcoholism, drug addiction largely led to the reproduction of aggression, violence in the country. The recession has limited the ability of the material support of the institutions of culture, education, health. The majority of the population is a feeling of uncertainty, future uncertainty, anxiety, loss of landmarks.Objectives The purpose of this work is the identifi cation and characterization of threats to economic security of theRussian Federationat the present time, and to develop recommendations for the prevention of threats to the national interests ofRussia.Method’s. The methodological basis of this article was legal, comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis. Results. In the framework of the submitted article, the authors found that threats to the economic security ofRussiaare potential dangers that can occur when inept and ineffi cient use of economic resources ofRussiaon the domestic and foreign markets. Major threats to the economic security of theRussian Federationare: bankruptcy, weak absorption lines; corruption; threats to small business development; investment crisis, the massive outfl ow of capital; the crisis in the social sphere; food addiction; the crisis of industrial policy, as well as strengthening the role and place of TNCs.Conclusions and Relevance. The practical

  16. FS-OpenSecurity: A Taxonomic Modeling of Security Threats in SDN for Future Sustainable Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsick Sung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN has brought many changes in terms of the interaction processes between systems and humans. It has become the key enabler of software defined architecture, which allows enterprises to build a highly agile Information Technology (IT infrastructure. For Future Sustainability Computing (FSC, SDN needs to deliver on many information technology commitments—more automation, simplified design, increased agility, policy-based management, and network management bond to more liberal IT workflow systems. To address the sustainability problems, SDN needs to provide greater collaboration and tighter integration with networks, servers, and security teams that will have an impact on how enterprises design, plan, deploy and manage networks. In this paper, we propose FS-OpenSecurity, which is a new and pragmatic security architecture model. It consists of two novel methodologies, Software Defined Orchestrator (SDO and SQUEAK, which offer a robust and secure architecture. The secure architecture is required for protection from diverse threats. Usually, security administrators need to handle each threat individually. However, handling threats automatically by adapting to the threat landscape is a critical demand. Therefore, the architecture must handle defensive processes automatically that are collaboratively based on intelligent external and internal information.

  17. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  18. Redefining Maritime Security Threats in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Arjun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This occasional paper analyzes the general security issues and trends relating to maritime trafficking of radiological and nuclear material using small vessels, minor ports, and unchecked areas of coastline existing in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region today. By the Eastern Indian Ocean Region is meant the area starting from the tip of the Indian peninsula in the west to the Straits of Malacca in the east. It lays focus on the potential sources of nuclear or radiological material that may be trafficked here. It further undertakes a study of the terrorist groups active in the region as well as the multinational or national interdiction organizations that have been created to counter maritime threats. It also seeks to discern the various technologies for detecting materials of concern available in the area. Finally, it ascertains possible methods and technologies to improve the maritime security system in the region.

  19. Insider Threat to Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Rebecca Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    After completing this session, you should be able to: Describe the Insider Threat; Characterize the cyber insider threat; Describe preventive measures against the insider threat; Describe protective measures against the insider threat.

  20. Taro Leaf Blight—A Threat to Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Okpul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taro leaf blight (caused by the Oomycete Phytophthora colocasiae is a disease of major importance in many regions of the world where taro is grown. Serious outbreaks of taro leaf blight in Samoa in 1993 and in the last few years in Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria continue to demonstrate the devastating impact of this disease on the livelihoods and food security of small farmers and rural communities dependent on the crop. The spread of the disease to new geographical areas also poses a major threat to neighbouring countries and taro growing regions still free from the disease. Past research, particularly in the Pacific, has demonstrated that management measures such as chemical and cultural control are largely ineffective and that breeding for disease resistance is the most sustainable approach to manage the disease. Recently, the Pacific and South-east Asian regional taro networks have made excellent progress in developing cultivars resistant to taro leaf blight through enhanced utilization of taro genetic resources and close collaboration between farmers and researchers in breeding programs. These programs have secured vital taro genetic resources for future use. This paper provides an overview of the disease, its origin, distribution, biology, epidemiology, management and global impact. The paper will largely focus on breeding strategies to address the disease including challenges, opportunities and constraints. It also discusses how these breeding experiences and outputs can be scaled up to other geographical areas where the disease has been recently introduced or under threat of introduction.

  1. The health information system security threat lifecycle: an informatics theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita I; Dawson, Linda L

    2009-12-01

    This manuscript describes the health information system security threat lifecycle (HISSTL) theory. The theory is grounded in case study data analyzing clinicians' health information system (HIS) privacy and security (P&S) experiences in the practice context. The 'questerview' technique was applied to this study of 26 clinicians situated in 3 large Australian (across Victoria) teaching hospitals. Questerviews rely on data collection that apply standardized questions and questionnaires during recorded interviews. Analysis (using Nvivo) involved the iterative scrutiny of interview transcripts to identify emergent themes. Issues including poor training, ambiguous legal frameworks containing punitive threats, productivity challenges, usability errors and the limitations of the natural hospital environment emerged from empirical data about the clinicians' HIS P&S practices. The natural hospital environment is defined by the permanence of electronic HISs (e-HISs), shared workspaces, outdated HIT infrastructure, constant interruption, a P&S regulatory environment that is not conducive to optimal training outcomes and budgetary constraints. The evidence also indicated the obtrusiveness, timeliness, and reliability of P&S implementations for clinical work affected participant attitudes to, and use of, e-HISs. The HISSTL emerged from the analysis of study evidence. The theory embodies elements such as the fiscal, regulatory and natural hospital environments which impede P&S implementations in practice settings. These elements conflict with improved patient care outcomes. Efforts by clinicians to avoid conflict and emphasize patient care above P&S tended to manifest as security breaches. These breaches entrench factors beyond clinician control and perpetuate those within clinician control. Security breaches of health information can progress through the HISSTL. Some preliminary suggestions for addressing these issues are proposed. Legislative frameworks that are not related to

  2. KENYA’S CONSTITUTION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING AS A SECURITY THREAT

    OpenAIRE

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO; J. KASSILLY; L.T. MAITO; K. ONKWARE; W. A. OBOKA

    2012-01-01

    Human trafficking also referred to as modern-day slavery is seen as a security threat. Traditional security approaches to human trafficking call for analysis of trafficking as a threat to the Kenyan state and to Kenya’s control of its borders. Traditional security analyses of trafficking emphasize border security, migration controls, and international law enforcement cooperation. This article discusses three forms of child trafficking: sexual exploitation, forced labor and child soldiers and ...

  3. Information Technology Security and Human Risk: Exploring Factors of Unintended Insider Threat and Organizational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eleanor Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    That organizations face threats to the security of their computer systems from external hackers is well documented. Intentional or unintentional behaviors by organizational insiders can severely compromise computer security as well. Less is known, however, about the nature of this threat from insiders. The purpose of this study was to bridge this…

  4. Caprock Breach: A Threat to Secure Geologic Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, A. P.; Dong, W.

    2013-12-01

    The integrity of caprock in providing a reliable barrier is crucial to several environmental geosciences endeavours related to geologic sequestration of CO2, deep geologic disposal of hazardous wastes and contaminants. The integrity of geologic barriers can be compromised by several factors. The re-activation of dormant fractures and development of new fractures in the caprock during the injection process are regarded as effects that can pose a threat to storage security. Other poromechanical influences of pore structure collapse due to chemically induced erosion of the porous fabric resulting in worm-hole type features can also contribute to compromising storage security. The assessment of the rate of steady or transient seepage through defects in the caprock can allow geoscientists to make prudent evaluations of the effectiveness of a sequestration strategy. While complicated computational simulations can be used to calculate leakage through defects, it is useful to explore alternative analytical results that could be used in providing preliminary estimates of leakage rates through defects in the caprock in a storage setting. The relevance of such developments is underscored by the fact that the permeability characteristics of the storage formation, the fracture and the surficial rocks overlying the caprock can rarely be quantified with certainty. This paper presents the problem of a crack in a caprock that connects to a storage formation and an overburden rock or surficial soil formation. The geologic media are maintained at constant far-field flow potentials and leakage takes place at either steady or transient conditions. The paper develops an analytical result that can be used to estimate the steady seepage through the crack. The analytical result can also be used to estimate the leakage through hydraulically non-intersecting cracks and leakage from caprock-well casing interfaces. The analytical result is used to estimate the accuracy of a computational

  5. Forecast Of International Security Threat Of Russia In 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Bezrukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the threats to international security of Russia in 2017. It presents the analysis of the twelve situations, the development of which could have a significant effect on the interests of Russia in the field of international security. There is the most probable scenario for every situation and a list of conditions of its occurrence. The objective of the forecast is reduction of uncertainty of the future and the promotion of reasonable hypotheses about its likely scenarios. The forecast task is to help decision-makers, mentally put yourself in a situation in which realized one of the scenarios for the future and to encourage them to calculate their possible actions. In the preparation of the forecast two scenario analysis tools were used: the allocation of two key variables, the ratio of which determines the spectrum of the analyzed scenarios, and the key events method, which consists of several stages and allows to evaluate the prospect of implementing the scenario observed in real time. Authors conclude that the USA with the new president will be forced to choose between maintaining global posture and keeping order at home, and the EU will be absorbed by internal issues. In 2017 for Russia is important to keep the positive dynamics in the Transatlantic and Grand Eurasia regions, and in the Middle East. For this purpose it is necessary to ignore the provocations – mainly in Europe. The source of a new crisis may be NATO members discouraged by lack of attention to them by the USA or allies of Russia.

  6. Security, Privacy, Threats and Risks in Cloud Computing ― A Vital Review

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is a multi million dollar business. As more and more enterprises are adopting cloud services for their businesses, threat of security has become a big concern for these enterprises and cloud users. This review describes the latest threats and risks associated with cloud computing and suggests techniques for better privacy and security of data in cloud environment. Threats and risks associated with cloud service models (SaaS, PaaS and IaaS) along with cloud deployment models (p...

  7. Problems and Tools for the Detection of Threats to Personnel Security in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of threats negatively affecting the state and the development of human resources as well as the varieties of security threats is of particular importance in the theory and practice of personnel security measures. The purpose of the article is to identify and classify the ideas of the main threats to personnel security of the region (the research is carried out on the example of the Irkutsk region. On the basis of the content analysis of Russian regulatory legal acts and scientific publications, external and internal threats to personnel security of the region are highlighted. As a result, the list of threats to personnel security of the region consisting of 37 stands is composed. The political, economic, demographic, social, technical and technological, ecological, legal, ethnocultural forms of threats are demonstrated. The authors came to the conclusion that the internal threats to personnel security of the region (first of all socio-economic are dominant. An assessment of the urgency and relevance of the threats to the personnel security of the region is given. With the use of the technology of the hierarchical factorial analysis, the types of threats (factors of the lowest level were identified and their influence on the general level of the urgency of personnel security threats (a factor of the highest level is estimated. It is revealed that legal threats, as well as threats caused by the low labour potential of the region, have the most significant impact on the estimation of the urgency of threats. The study applies the following analysis methods — a content analysis, the analysis of linear and cross-distribution, hierarchical factor and correlation analysis. The analysis is based on the data of the expert survey conducted in the Irkutsk region (2015. To determine the relationship (coherence of the expert evaluations, the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is calculated. The received results can be used for studying

  8. Threats to information security in a highly organized system of the “Smart city”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurcheeva, G. I.; Denisov, V. V.; Khvorostov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses issues related to comprehensive development and introduction of technologies such as “Smart city”. The urgency of accelerating the development of such highly organized systems, primarily in terms of reducing threats to information security, is emphasized in the paper. In accordance with authors’ analysis of the composition and structure of the threats to information security, “Accessibility”, “Integrity” and “Confidentiality” are highlighted. Violation of any of them leads to harmful effects on the information and other system resources. The protection of “Accessibility” mobilizes one third of all efforts to ensure information security that must be taken into account when allocating protective actions. The threats associated with failure of the supporting infrastructure are also significantly reduced. But the threats associated with failures of the system itself and failures of users are clearly increasing. There is a high level of society and production informatization, and the threats to information security are changing accordingly.

  9. Antigovernment Groups. A Growing Threat to US Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Alicia L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-25

    Domestic terrorism is a growing threat in the United States, particularly from the 998 right-wing antigovernment (AG) groups in existence in 2015. In the years since the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City, right-wing anti-government acts have oc- curred more often and killed more people in the United States than Muslim extremists. Such AG group members are often in uenced by racist, anti-Semitic, or anti-Islamic views, believe conspiracy theories about the government, and often refuse to pay taxes or participate in frivolous lawsuits in order to intentionally waste the government's time. There is, however, a violent element to these groups which participates in events ranging from the armed take-over of federal land in Oregon, to an armed stand-o with federal agents in Nevada, to the bombing of the Oklahoma City building which killed 168 people. Such acts may be conducted by a few individuals, as is the case of the Oklahoma City bombing, or an entire group. Such groups have a wide range of capabilities, with typical weapons including legal and illegal rearms, with a focus on purchasing fully automatic weapons; hand grenades, with some homemade; deadly tox- ins, like ricin (in multiple cases) and sodium cyanide (in one case); transportation, such as all-terrain vehicles (ATVs); arson, with the intent of destroying federal property; and explosives, often in large numbers and including pipe bombs, truck bombs, IEDs, and other homemade explosives. The growing acceptance of these violent methods by Republican congressmen and governors, however, only increases visibility of such groups and encourages their behavior. Coupled with the removal of the Department of Homeland Security's division responsible for monitoring such groups, the result could prove disastrous for the safety of United States citizens.

  10. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  11. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  12. 17 CFR 270.10f-3 - Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Are subject to no greater than moderate credit risk; or (ii) If the issuer of the municipal securities... securities are subject to a minimal or low amount of credit risk. (4) Eligible Rule 144A Offering means an... purchased are: (i) Part of an issue registered under the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a—aa) that is...

  13. The Threat of Intentional Oil Spills to Desalination Plants in the Middle East: A U.S. Security Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    salts (the concentrate or brine stream).”17 There are two processes that represent the vast majority of desalination processes in use in the world and...AU/ACSC/171/1998-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE THREAT OF INTENTIONAL OIL SPILLS TO DESALINATION PLANTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST A U.S...Intentional Oil Spills to Desalination Plants in the Middle East A U.S. Security Threat Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  14. A Water Security Handbook: Planning for and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... This Water Security Handbook was developed by the U.S. EPA to help you, the water utility official, protect your water system and respond effectively to threats and contamination incidents involving your water system...

  15. KENYA’S CONSTITUTION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING AS A SECURITY THREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking also referred to as modern-day slavery is seen as a security threat. Traditional security approaches to human trafficking call for analysis of trafficking as a threat to the Kenyan state and to Kenya’s control of its borders. Traditional security analyses of trafficking emphasize border security, migration controls, and international law enforcement cooperation. This article discusses three forms of child trafficking: sexual exploitation, forced labor and child soldiers and argues that the newly promulgated Kenyan constitution in chapter three on citizenship has a provision that can be interpreted as encouraging child trafficking.

  16. A study of cyber security in hospitality industry- threats and countermeasures: case study in Reno, Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze cyber security and security practices of electronic information and network system, network threats, and techniques to prevent the cyber attacks in hotels. Helping the information technology directors and chief information officers (CIO) is the aim of this study to advance policy for security of electronic information in hotels and suggesting some techniques and tools to secure the computer networks. This research is completely qualitative while the cas...

  17. Organizational Security Threats Related to Portable Data Storage Devices: Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant growth of portable devices capable of storing both personal data as well as sensitive organizational data. This growth of these portable devices has led to an increased threat of cyber-criminal activity. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of security threats to the data assets of organizations…

  18. Food security — Seeds of threat, seeds of solutions | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Modern agriculture faces a significant threat: genetic erosion. Ironically, plant breeders' very success in developing new high-yielding cereal varieties over the last decades could lead to a gradual loss of plant species, threatening the world's future food security. Even more ironic, this threat can be overcome only with the ...

  19. Addressing the Cyber-security and Cyber-terrorism Threats [video

    OpenAIRE

    Robi Sen; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2015-01-01

    While cyber terrorism is a relatively new threat in the world of national defense, the security issues we face are not necessarily new as a genre. In this segment, Chief Science Officer Robi Sen draws on the changing attitudes towards the cyber world. Topics include cooperation between law enforcement and hackers, the major motivations behind criminal hacking, and the realistic threats of cyber terrorism.

  20. Threats to Security Posed by ISIS in Syria: A Human Security Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil war in Syria coupled with the attacks by ISIS, has resulted in one of the largest humanitarian crises since World War II. Although international efforts have resulted in regaining control of important cities, these military approaches have escalated and inflamed the violence of which innocent civilians bear the consequences. The continuing violence and resulting threats or insecurities negatively affect the lives, freedom, dignity and development of the people to name but a few. For that reason, the aim is to explore the applicability of a human security approach to the conflict in Syria that focuses on, among other aspects, minimising violence, mitigating the effects of the conflict, protecting people, restoring peace and eliminating the grounds that resulted in the development of these conditions in the first place.

  1. Predictive medical information and underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, John H

    2007-01-01

    Medical underwriting involves the application of actuarial science by analyzing medical information to predict the future risk of a claim. The objective is that individuals with like risk are treated in a like manner so that the premium paid is proportional to the risk of future claim.

  2. New Technology's Surprising Security Threats. Building Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Terence

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, security issues have increasingly come to dominate the technological development process--although still in a more reactive than proactive mode. It now seems more important than ever to monitor security trends and policy developments, especially if technology is regarded as a potential community builder. This article suggests…

  3. Quantifying Security Threats and Their Potential Impacts: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we present a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper, we illustrate this infrastructure by means of an e-commerce application.

  4. Ethnicity: A threat to Nigeria's security and development | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative implications of ethnicity to national security and development are enormous. This paper interrogates ethnicity as the major hindrance to Nigeria.s security and development. The paper unveils the role of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in strengthening ethnicity and calls for a constitutional ...

  5. Planning for nuclear security: Design Basis Threats and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A competent authority for nuclear security then gives approval for the implementation of the physical protection plan. The DBT assessment methodology is an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended method for designing security measures corresponding to the categories of radioactive sources. The higher ...

  6. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security: threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauch, H.G.; Oswald Spring, Ú.; Mesjasz, C.; Grin, J.; Kameri-Mbote, P.; Chourou, B.; Dunay, P.; Birkmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10

  7. Toward a generic model of security in organizational context: exploring insider threats to information infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Samsa, M. E.; Burke, J. F.; Akcam, B. K.; Decision and Information Sciences; Rockefeller Coll. at the State Univ. of New York at Albany

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a generic model for information security implementation in organizations. The model presented here is part of an ongoing research stream related to critical infrastructure protection and insider threat and attack analysis. This paper discusses the information security implementation case.

  8. Strategies to Minimize the Effects of Information Security Threats on Business Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Stella Ifeyinwa

    2017-01-01

    Business leaders in Nigeria are concerned about the high rates of business failure and economic loss from security incidents and may not understand strategies for reducing the effects of information security threats on business performance. Guided by general systems theory and transformational leadership theory, the focus of this exploratory…

  9. Secure in insecurity: The case of threat perception/acceptance in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador IV Peleo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current theoretical and policy-based explanations of security in the Philippines have portrayed “politics” and “security” as distinct and separate fields. However, the recent “2011–2016 National Security Policy: Securing the Gains of Democracy”, has conflated “security” and “politics”, as may be observed in its two national security goals “to promote internal socio-political stability” and “to exercise full sovereignty over its territory”. Although likely derived from administrative expediency, the composite policy definition is also likely to result in the conceptualisation of political goals that are only partially attainable and of a security environment that will remain “unsecured”. As this appears to be a norm of governance in the Philippines, this paper examines the possibility that national security policy-making is likely more concerned with the survival of the regime during which the policy was created rather than with the long-term stabilisation of the entire state. Several theories may be useful in accounting for this behaviour; namely, small states conflict theory, securitisation theory and threat normalisation theory. This paper is intended to show that the definition of threat corresponds to threat-acceptance and may likely lead to threat-toleration than to threat-resolution.

  10. Chinese Perceptions of Traditional and Nontraditional Security Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, Susan L

    2007-01-01

    .... It will show that China has a comprehensive concept of national security that includes not only defending its sovereignty and territorial integrity, but continuing its economic and social development...

  11. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  12. Study on Cyber Security and Threat Evaluation in SCADA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    http://www.isa.org/Template.cfm?Section=Shop_ISA&Template=/ Ecommerce /ProductDisplay.cfm&Produ ctid=9665 • Integrating Electronic Security into...the Manufacturing and Control Systems Environment, ISA, 2004 - http://www.isa.org/Template.cfm?Section=books&template= Ecommerce /FileDisplay.cfm...template= Ecommerce /FileDisplay.cfm&ProductID=738 0&file=Preview.pdf • Peterson, D. and Howard, D. "Cyber Security for the Electric Sector," September 12

  13. Security threats and their mitigation in infrastructure as a service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineet Kumar Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a hot technology in the market. It permits user to use all IT resources as computing services on the basis of pay per use manner and access the applications remotely. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS is the basic requirement for all delivery models. Infrastructure as a service delivers all possible it resources (Network Components, Operating System, etc. as a service to users. From both users and providers point of view: integrity, privacy and other security issues in IaaS are the important concern. In this paper we studied in detail about the different types of security related issues in IaaS layer and methods to resolve them to maximize the performance and to maintain the highest level of security in IaaS.

  14. Using a Prediction Model to Manage Cyber Security Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Venkatesh; Cherurveettil, Priyesh; Muthu Sivashanmugam, Premapriya

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-attacks are an important issue faced by all organizations. Securing information systems is critical. Organizations should be able to understand the ecosystem and predict attacks. Predicting attacks quantitatively should be part of risk management. The cost impact due to worms, viruses, or other malicious software is significant. This paper proposes a mathematical model to predict the impact of an attack based on significant factors that influence cyber security. This model also considers the environmental information required. It is generalized and can be customized to the needs of the individual organization.

  15. Using a Prediction Model to Manage Cyber Security Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Jaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-attacks are an important issue faced by all organizations. Securing information systems is critical. Organizations should be able to understand the ecosystem and predict attacks. Predicting attacks quantitatively should be part of risk management. The cost impact due to worms, viruses, or other malicious software is significant. This paper proposes a mathematical model to predict the impact of an attack based on significant factors that influence cyber security. This model also considers the environmental information required. It is generalized and can be customized to the needs of the individual organization.

  16. Technical solutions for mitigating security threats caused by health professionals in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Aleman, Jose Luis; Belen Sanchez Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Mateos, Gines; Toval, Ambrosio

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a brief description of technical solutions for health information system security threats caused by inadequate security and privacy practices in healthcare professionals. A literature search was carried out in ScienceDirect, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Digital Library to find papers reporting technical solutions for certain security problems in information systems used in clinical settings. A total of 17 technical solutions were identified: measures for password security, the secure use of e-mail, the Internet, portable storage devices, printers and screens. Although technical safeguards are essential to the security of healthcare organization's information systems, good training, awareness programs and adopting a proper information security policy are particularly important to prevent insiders from causing security incidents.

  17. Risks and threats of tax state security and methods of their neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Lebedzevych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the relevance of the study to ensure security of the state tax. Scientists studied different approaches to defining the essence of the concept of "security tax" on the key features that would satisfy the interests of all subjects of tax relations and the necessity of legal consolidation of this concept. Analyzed the economic, social and legal nature of the existence of the security tax, identified key indicators of fiscal security of Ukraine. To determine the effectiveness of the tax administration in the interests of the tax security highlights the main threats, tax security risks caused by external and internal factors, and propose measures for their elimination and prevent the possibility of their occurrence. The stages of tax risk management with effective building security tax, designed structurally-logic of the tax risk management security.

  18. The threat nets approach to information system security risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirembe, Drake

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for healthcare services is motivating hospitals to strengthen outpatient case management using information systems in order to serve more patients using the available resources. Though the use of information systems in outpatient case management raises patient data security

  19. MILITARY TRADE UNIONS: A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REALLY? Lindy Heinecken. Stellenbosch University. Introduction. The opinion piece by Eric Z. Mnisi claiming that national security has been sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions is a claim often muted, not only in South Africa but elsewhere. In the Handbook on. Human Rights ...

  20. Security in transnational interoperable PPDR communications: Threats and requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrús, R.; Sallent, O.; Verkoelen, C.; Fransen, F.; Saijonmaa, J.; Olivieri, C.; Duits, M.; Galin, A.; Pangallo, F.; Modi, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of cross border security operations has been identified as a priority at European level for a long time. A European network where Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) forces share communications processes and a legal framework would greatly enforce response to disaster recovery

  1. Threats and trusted countermeasures using a security protocol in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile Agent computing is a paradigm of distributed computing, that has generated considerable excitement in the research community. Despite that, it has not been translated into a significant number of real-world applications due to a new dimensionality of security problem it brings along with it. In this paper ...

  2. Cyber terrorism and cyber-crime – threats for cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Ackoski, Jugoslav; Dojcinovski, Metodija

    2012-01-01

    This paper has aim to give contribution in supporting efforts against cyber threats recognized as a cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Also, it has aim to show future challenges related to cyber security and their emerging threats – cyber war, cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Accelerate weapon development called ICT (Information Communication Technology) which is developed every day faster and faster, and development of human conscious on higher level about consequences of ICT enormous pene...

  3. Cyber Security Insider Threats :: Government’s Role in Protecting India’s Critical Infrastructure Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Pulkit

    2014-01-01

    This research identifies the problem of insider threats in the critical infrastructure sectors of India. It is structured to answer the research question: "Why insider threats should be the primary concern for Indian government to protect its critical infrastructure sectors.” It defines the critical infrastructure sectors and portrays the cyber security scenario of India. Also, through the research study, it identifies the lack of awareness and non-seriousness of employees in the critical sec...

  4. Threats to the National Economic Security of Ukraine at the Current Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuharskaya Natalia A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated that the most important factor of the national economic security of the country is to match both the economic and the industrial relations systems to the economic development of the country. The article provides detailed consideration of the particularities of occurrence of threats to the national economic security of Ukraine by allocating seven major structural blocks, in which threats were not overcome during the years of independence, and some of them even became intensified: 1 institutional sphere; 2 social sphere; 3 financial sphere; 4 shadowing and corruptness of economy; 5 a high level of physical wear and tear of fixed assets and of the production infrastructure; 6 de-industrialization of economy; 7 innovative development. The main components of the national economic security, which would assist in overcoming these threats, have been developed.

  5. MINIMIZATION OF IMPACTS PERTAINING TO EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENERGY SECURITY THREATS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a classification of internal and external threats for thermal power plants and recommendations on minimization of these risks. A set of concrete measures aimed at ensuring TPP energy security has been presented in the paper. The system comprises preventive measures aimed at reducing the possibilities of emergence and implementation of internal and external threats. The system also presupposes to decrease susceptibility of fuel- and energy supply systems to the threats, and application of liquidation measures that ensure elimination of emergency situation consequences and restoration of the conditions concerning fuel- and power supply to consumers.

  6. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material: The 'net' security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Steinhausler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, which could be used for building a nuclear weapon or a radiological dispersal device, has been a subject of concern for more than a decade. A major obstacle to assessing the actual security threat due to nuclear trafficking is the inclusion in the analysis of incidents that do not represent a security threat, in the sense of being a possible pre-stage to a clandestine nuclear weapons programme or a terrorist operation involving a crude nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device. International transport of contaminated scrap metal, or discovery of lost or abandoned radioactive sources are examples of such incidents, which have little or no security relevance. This paper analyses the global data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSO) using special filters to discriminate between incidents that are of security relevance and those that are not. (author)

  7. Review of July 2013 Nuclear Security Insider Threat Exercise November 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, Ann C. [ORNL; Snow, Catherine L. [ORNL; Townsend, Jeremy [ORNL; Shannon, Michael [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    This document is a review of the Nuclear Security Insider Threat Exercise which was hosted at ORNL in July 2013. Nuclear security culture and the insider threat are best learned through experience. Culture is inherently difficult to teach, and as such is best learned through modeled behaviors and learning exercise. This TTX, NSITE, is a tool that strives to aid students in learning what an effective (and ineffective) nuclear security culture might look like by simulating dynamic events that strengthen or weaken the nuclear security regime. The goals of NSITE are to stimulate complex thought and discussion and assist decision makers and management in determining the most effective policies and procedures for their country or facility.

  8. The new Middle East security threat the case of Yemen and the GCC

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hajjri, Ibrahim Abdulwahab

    2007-01-01

    Since Yemen has a history of border disputes with Saudi Arabia, this addresses the question of Yemen's role in the security of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen suffers from a weak economy and a number of security issues of its own. Through the borders shared with its GCC neighbors, Yemen has become plagued by a nexus of terrorism, arms smuggling, and drug trafficking. Yet Yemen is unable to effectively combat these threats because of weak border control and poor cooperation with its regional ...

  9. Infrastructure, Attitude and Weather: Today’s Threats to Supply Chain Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Blank

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global economy can be viewed today as a myriad of border-crossing supply chain networks of production, supply, distribution and marketing systems. Given the enormous value embodied in these systems, and an environment increasingly characterized by uncertainty and vulnerability, it is not surprising that concern about supply chain security has intensified. Concern takes many forms. For example, how supply chains might be used as vehicles for criminal activity (smuggling, trafficking of narcotics and importing counterfeit goods or acts of terrorism (radio-active materials, bombs, even nukes in containers. Technology-based threats to supply chains, such as cybercrimes, data breaches and IT failures, now appear more frequently in the literature on supply chain security. These threats could result in substantial disruption to supply chains and damage to companies and their customers.Clima But larger storms are brewing, whose menace to supply chain security is greater still – and where actions to protect supply chains move more slowly. These include the continued deterioration of transportation infrastructure, a new posture on trade which views supply chains as threats to jobs and wages, and the impact of climate change. These threats do not lie off in the distant future; they are threats of today and tomorrow.

  10. 49 CFR 1572.9 - Applicant information required for HME security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Has not been adjudicated as lacking mental capacity or committed to a mental health facility... lacking mental capacity, or committed to a mental health facility. (c) The applicant must certify and date... security threat assessment. Routine Uses: Routine uses of this information include disclosure to the FBI to...

  11. METHODS FOR ASSESSING SECURITY THREATS CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION FOR THE INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Belokurova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the different approaches to assessing the safety of confidential information-term for information and telecommunication systems of various pre-appreciable destination in the presence of internal and external threats to its integrity and availability. The difficulty of ensuring the security of confidential information from exposure to information and telecommunication systems of external and internal threats at the present time, is of particular relevance. This problem is confirmed by the analysis of available statistical information on the impact of threats on the security circulating in the information and telecommunications system. Leak confidential information, intellectual property, information, know-how is the result of significant material and moral damage caused to the owner of the restricted information. The paper presents the structure of the indicators and criteria shows that the most promising are analytical criteria. However, their use to assess the level of security of confidential information is difficult due to the lack of appropriate mathematical models. The complexity of the problem is that existing traditional mathematical models are not always appropriate for the stated objectives. Therefore, it is necessary to develop mathematical models designed to assess the security of confidential information and its impact on information and telecommunication system threats.

  12. Cyber security information exchange to gain insight into the effects of cyber threats and incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, F.; Smulders, A.C.M.; Kerkdijk, H.

    2015-01-01

    The last couple of years we have seen an increase in interests and initiatives in establishing threat intelligence sharing communities, and on the development of standards and platforms for automated cyber security information sharing. These initiatives are focused on helping organisations to

  13. Quantitative Analysis of the Security of Software-Defined Network Controller Using Threat/Effort Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SDN-based controller, which is responsible for the configuration and management of the network, is the core of Software-Defined Networks. Current methods, which focus on the secure mechanism, use qualitative analysis to estimate the security of controllers, leading to inaccurate results frequently. In this paper, we employ a quantitative approach to overcome the above shortage. Under the analysis of the controller threat model we give the formal model results of the APIs, the protocol interfaces, and the data items of controller and further provide our Threat/Effort quantitative calculation model. With the help of Threat/Effort model, we are able to compare not only the security of different versions of the same kind controller but also different kinds of controllers and provide a basis for controller selection and secure development. We evaluated our approach in four widely used SDN-based controllers which are POX, OpenDaylight, Floodlight, and Ryu. The test, which shows the similarity outcomes with the traditional qualitative analysis, demonstrates that with our approach we are able to get the specific security values of different controllers and presents more accurate results.

  14. REGIONAL SECURITY IN THE HORN OF AFRICA: CONFLICTS, AGENDAS AND THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fernandes Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing security dynamics in the Horn of Africa in the post-independence period, identifying the actors, agendas and threats. For this purpose, it is subdivided into three parts. The first one analyzes the security dynamics taking place in the Horn of Africa during the Cold War period, focusing on the regional rivalries and on the penetration of extraregional actors. In the second part, there is a discussion regarding the transformations which occurred in region in the immediate post-Cold War period, focusing both on the unities’ (states internal security dynamics and on the regional ones. The third and last section aims at identifying “new” threats and regional and international responses, as well as the emerging strategic importance of the region to traditional superpowers in the post-9/11 period, marked by the process of securitization.

  15. Threat detection: a framework for security architects and designers of metropolitan rail systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Borrion

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metro rail systems (MRS currently face a serious threat from terrorist attacks – especially through use of explosives. The threat comes at a time when scores of new MRS are under construction or at the planning stage in cities across the world. Designers of these systems need to consider ways to detect explosives without an adverse impact upon passenger comfort and profitability. This paper presents a framework for designers to identify security functions in MRS, understand current methods of threat detection used in MRS and recognise their relationship with other operational requirements. Application of this framework at the planning stage can assist in designing systems where terrorist threats can be better addressed with reduced impact on passenger experience and MRS operations. The application of a framework of analysis inspired by Ekblom’s work to nine functioning MRS yields a concise representation of the major design issues architects and security specialists have to consider for effective integration of security systems in stations.

  16. Unpacking Terrorism, Revolution and Insurgency in Yemen: Real and Imagined Threats to Regional Security

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Recent months have seen a seeming escalation in the international threat posed by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), a terrorist network that has taken Yemen as its regional base of operations. In light of recent attacks, and resulting embassy closures, Yemen is a rising priority in the Western-led War on Terror. However, this has resulted in a side-lining of other security threats in Yemen, which may cause serious challenges to the authority of the Yemeni Government. In reality, the r...

  17. Classification of Device Behaviour in Internet of Things Infrastructures: Towards Distinguishing the Abnormal From Security Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrando, Roman; Stacey, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are being woven into the fabric of our physical world. With this rapidly expanding pervasive deployment of IoT devices, and supporting infrastructure, we are fast approaching the point where the problem of IoT based cyber-security attacks is a serious threat to industrial operations, business activity and social interactions that leverage IoT technologies. The number of threats and successful attacks against connected systems using IoT devices an...

  18. Evolution of the perception of the threats to security in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grasa

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available security was internal, in other words, subversion and opposition to the regime. Public opinion, however, revealed that characteristics very different to those in the context of the western block existed, such as a void perception of the soviet threat as opposed to a marked antiamericanism for its support of the regime.This legacy of threats weighed heavily during the transition together with the existence of a cleavage between the armed forces, the political actors and public opinion regarding the real necessity of intergration into NATO. In the eighties there exists a clear differentiation between the threats perceived by public opinion and those considered by the political elites. With regard to the former,serious threats to Spain do not exist. only certain concerns when the subject of security took on importance in the field of public opinion, such as during the referendum campaign over NATO in 1986 which was mixed with the scarce perception of the soviet threat, theconstant danger represented by the United States and the slight rise in those who believed in the Moroccan threat, and the impact of the Gulf War in 1991 and the consequent increase of the threat represented by the arab countries. For the political actors, the mainthreat contemplated was the protection of territorial integrity on a stage closer to the western Mediterranean instead of a global threat to the western block something only considered at a theoretical level with the strategic concept of Spanish defence within the framework of participation in NATO.From 1992 onwards with the Defence Directive, the threat concept is replaced by that of risk and which recovers the importance given over to North Africa. It is argued in the belief that security is indivisible and must be shared not only with the European members. A greater convergence is also initiated in the nineties between the political actors and public opinion with respect to considering what are the risks in a global

  19. Computer Security: Computer security threats, vulnerabilities and attacks (3/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Antonio Perez Perez works in the Computer Security Team doing software development, sysadmin tasks and operations. He is also involved on grid security and does 1st line security support at CERN on ROTA. With the prevalence of modern information technologies and its increasing integration into our daily live, digital systems become more and more playground for evil people. While in the past, attacks were driven by fame& kudos, nowadays money is the motivating factor. Just the recent months have shown several successful attacks against e.g. Sony, PBS, UNESCO, RSAsecurity, Citibank, and others. Credit card information of hundreds of thousands of people got exposed. Affected companies not only lost their assets and data, also their reputation has suffered. Thus, proper computer security measures are essential. Without question, security must even more become an inherent ingredient when developing, deploying, and operating applications, web sites, and computing services. These lectures shall give an ove...

  20. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  1. Cyber security threats in the power sector: Need for a domain specific regulatory framework in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda Kumar, V.; Pandey, Krishan K.; Punia, Devendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    India is poised to spend over USD 5.8 billion as part of the National Smart Grid Mission aimed to alleviate India's ailing power sector as part of its 12th Five year plan (2012–2017). The federal government sponsored Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (R-APDRP) is also focused on building ICT capability in the state electricity boards. Presently however, there is no power sector specific cyber security mandates or policies in India. The Stuxnet, Shamoon and Anonymous incidents have shown that cyber attacks can cause significant damage and pose a risk to National Critical Infrastructure. A lack of security planning as part of designing the Smart grids can potentially leave gaping holes in the country's power sector stability. The paper highlights key cyber security threats across the entire power sector value chain—from generation, to transmission and distribution. It is aimed at building the case for power sector specific cyber security regulations based on the experience of regulators in other critical infrastructure sectors like Banking and Telecom in India and power sector regulations internationally. - Highlights: • Cyber security in power sector is key to protecting national critical infrastructure. • Poor cyber security planning would impact the power sector in India. • A laissez-faire approach to cyber security in power sector may not yield results. • There is a need for power sector specific cyber security regulations

  2. Security Analysis System to Detect Threats on a SIP VoIP Infrasctructure Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SIP PBX is definitely the alpha and omega of any IP telephony infrastructure and frequently also provides other services than those related to VoIP traffic. These exchanges are, however, very often the target of attacks by external actors. The article describes a system that was developed on VSB-TU Ostrava as a testing tool to verify if the target VoIP PBX is adequately secured and protected against any real threats. The system tests the SIP element for several usually occurring attacks and it compiles evaluation of its overall security on the basis of successfully or unsuccessfully penetrations. The article describes the applications and algorithms that are used by system and the conclusion consists recommendations and guidelines to ensure effective protection against VoIP PBX threats. The system is designed as an open-source web application, thus allowing independent access and is fully extensible to other test modules.

  3. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  4. FRAUDULENT TRANSACTIONS WITH BANK PLASTIC CARDS AS A THREAT TO ECONOMIC SECURITY IN THE BANKING SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ilinich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banks active development of cashless payments by plastic cards, the growing number of fraudulent transactions and the damage they cause, create new challenges and threats to economic security in the sphere of banking activity. The latest information technologies are active used by organized crime groups, the methods of committing crimes are changing and are not yet adequately reflected by banks and law enforcement agencies.

  5. VIRTUAL REALITY: U.S. INFORMATION SECURITY THREATS CONCEPT AND ITS INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Batueva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT and the formation of the global information space changed the agenda of national and international security. Such key characteristics of cyberspace as openness, accessibility, anonymity, and identification complexity determined the rise of actors in cyber space and increased the level of cyber threats. Based on the analyses of the U.S. agencies' approach, the author defines three major groups of threats: use of ICT by states, criminals and terrorists. This concept is shared by the majority of the countries involved in the international dialogue on information security issues and is fundamental for providing cyber security policy on both national and international levels. The United States is developing a complex strategy for cyber space that includes maximization of ICT's advantages in all strategically important fields as well as improvement of national information systems and networks security. On the international level the main task for the American diplomacy is to guarantee the U.S. information dominance. The United States is the only country that takes part practically in all international and regional fora dealing with cyber security issues. However process of the development of a global cyber security regime is not going to be fast due to countries' different approaches to key definitions and lack of joint understanding of cyber security issues as well as due to the position of the countries, among all the United States, that are not interested in any new obligatory international norms and principles. Such American policy aims at saving the possibility of using cyberspace capacity in reaching political and military goals, thus keeping the global leadership.

  6. Virtual Reality: U.S. Information Security Threats Concept And Its International Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Batueva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT and the formation of the global information space changed the agenda of national and international security. Such key characteristics of cyberspace as openness, accessibility, anonymity, and identification complexity determined the rise of actors in cyber space and increased the level of cyber threats. Based on the analyses of the U.S. agencies' approach, the author defines three major groups of threats: use of ICT by states, criminals and terrorists. This concept is shared by the majority of the countries involved in the international dialogue on information security issues and is fundamental for providing cyber security policy on both national and international levels. The United States is developing a complex strategy for cyber space that includes maximization of ICT's advantages in all strategically important fields as well as improvement of national information systems and networks security. On the international level the main task for the American diplomacy is to guarantee the U.S. information dominance. The United States is the only country that takes part practically in all international and regional fora dealing with cyber security issues. However process of the development of a global cyber security regime is not going to be fast due to countries' different approaches to key definitions and lack of joint understanding of cyber security issues as well as due to the position of the countries, among all the United States, that are not interested in any new obligatory international norms and principles. Such American policy aims at saving the possibility of using cyberspace capacity in reaching political and military goals, thus keeping the global leadership.

  7. A Game Theoretic Approach to Nuclear Security Analysis against Insider Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyonam; Kim, So Young; Yim, Mansung; Schneider, Erich

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with authorized access to a facility and system who use their trusted position for unauthorized purposes, insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also capitalize on their knowledge to exploit any vulnerabilities in safety-related systems, with cyber security of safety-critical information technology systems offering an important example of the 3S interface. While this Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) approach is appropriate for describing fundamentally random events like component failure of a safety system, it does not capture the adversary's intentions, nor does it account for adversarial response and adaptation to defensive investments. To address these issues of intentionality and interactions, this study adopts a game theoretic approach. The interaction between defender and adversary is modeled as a two-person Stackelberg game. The optimal strategy of both players is found from the equilibrium of this game. A defender strategy consists of a set of design modifications and/or post-construction security upgrades. An attacker strategy involves selection of a target as well as a pathway to that target. In this study, application of the game theoretic approach is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem. Novel to our approach is the modeling of insider threat that affects the non-detection probability of an adversary. The game-theoretic approach has the advantage of modelling an intelligent adversary who has an intention and complete knowledge of the facility. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three groups of adversary paths assisted by insiders and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. Certainly more work needs to be done to

  8. Exploring Operational Safeguards, Safety, and Security by Design to Address Real Time Threats in Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-07

    Over the last few years, significant attention has been paid to both encourage application and provide domestic and international guidance for designing in safeguards and security in new facilities.1,2,3 However, once a facility is operational, safeguards, security, and safety often operate as separate entities that support facility operations. This separation is potentially a serious weakness should insider or outsider threats become a reality.Situations may arise where safeguards detects a possible loss of material in a facility. Will they notify security so they can, for example, check perimeter doors for tampering? Not doing so might give the advantage to an insider who has already, or is about to, move nuclear material outside the facility building. If outsiders break into a facility, the availability of any information to coordinate the facility’s response through segregated alarm stations or a failure to include all available radiation sensors, such as safety’s criticality monitors can give the advantage to the adversary who might know to disable camera systems, but would most likely be unaware of other highly relevant sensors in a nuclear facility.This paper will briefly explore operational safeguards, safety, and security by design (3S) at a high level for domestic and State facilities, identify possible weaknesses, and propose future administrative and technical methods, to strengthen the facility system’s response to threats.

  9. Smart Secure Homes: A Survey of Smart Home Technologies that Sense, Assess, and Respond to Security Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Jessamyn; Cook, Diane J; Wang, Xiaobo; Honglei, Wang

    2017-08-01

    Smart home design has undergone a metamorphosis in recent years. The field has evolved from designing theoretical smart home frameworks and performing scripted tasks in laboratories. Instead, we now find robust smart home technologies that are commonly used by large segments of the population in a variety of settings. Recent smart home applications are focused on activity recognition, health monitoring, and automation. In this paper, we take a look at another important role for smart homes: security. We first explore the numerous ways smart homes can and do provide protection for their residents. Next, we provide a comparative analysis of the alternative tools and research that has been developed for this purpose. We investigate not only existing commercial products that have been introduced but also discuss the numerous research that has been focused on detecting and identifying potential threats. Finally, we close with open challenges and ideas for future research that will keep individuals secure and healthy while in their own homes.

  10. Unpacking Terrorism, Revolution and Insurgency in Yemen: Real and Imagined Threats to Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lewis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent months have seen a seeming escalation in the international threat posed by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP, a terrorist network that has taken Yemen as its regional base of operations. In light of recent attacks, and resulting embassy closures, Yemen is a rising priority in the Western-led War on Terror. However, this has resulted in a side-lining of other security threats in Yemen, which may cause serious challenges to the authority of the Yemeni Government. In reality, the role of AQAP has been heavily manipulated throughout Yemen’s contemporary history: this was most evident during the 2011 Arab Spring, when both sides in the conflict claimed that Al Qaeda operatives were working with members of the other. Two years later, the true nature of the AQAP threat in Yemen is rarely questioned by external observers, yet remains largely shrouded in mystery. There is a need for more critical approaches to the AQAP challenges, which take the broader context of Yemeni security into account.

  11. Children and adolescents facing a continuous security threat: Aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2017-07-01

    There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza. Participants filled out quantitative questionnaires, which relate to the pathological consequences of continuous exposure to security threats, and to the role of the school and the community as a protective environment against disruptive behavior resulting from such exposure. The findings revealed that PTSS responses were mainly related to the security threat, whereas interpersonal aggression resulted from other types of traumatic events. Significant differences were found between aggression and posttraumatic symptoms, by age and gender. PTSS was found to be lower for older participants and higher for girls, whereas aggression was higher for boys and higher for older participants. Furthermore, the sense of belonging to the place of residence was negatively associated with PTSS as well as with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging, the lower their levels of PTSS and aggressive responses. In contrast, the sense of belonging to the school was negatively associated only with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging to the school, the lower their aggressive responses. The findings are discussed in the light of trauma theories and in light of the results of previous research. The study contributed to knowledge about the differential consequences of exposure to a security threat, and highlighted the importance of

  12. On the use of polygraph in the interests of identifying insider threats to information security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Nikolaevich Obukhov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the polygraph for detecting potential threats to information security while hiring new job candidates or examining the staff is justified. Based on the Russian Federation Constitution and the Labour Codex we justify the legality of the use of the polygraph in Russian Federation. Based on the theoretical approach describing the freeze-flight-fight reaction, as well as the Ivanitsky’s theory of informational synthesis we justified the scientific value of psychophysiological methods of detecting lies. In order to justify a reliability of the obtained information we make use of statistical studies by American scientists. A list of information needed to identify insider threats and incident investigation is given in this paper, and it is proposed to use the polygraph in order to obtain this information directly from those who obtain it.

  13. Deploying Difference: Security Threat Narratives and State Displacement from Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lunstrum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available State actors are increasingly treating protected areas as sites of security threats and policing resident communities as though they are the cause of this insecurity. This is translating into community eviction from protected areas that is authorised by security concerns and logics and hence not merely conservation concerns. We ground this claim by drawing upon empirical work from two borderland conservation areas: Mozambique's Limpopo National Park (LNP and Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR. In both cases, we show how these security-provoked evictions are authorised by the mobilisation of interlocking axes of difference that articulate notions of territorial trespass with that of a racialised enemy. Rather than a new problem or phenomena, we show how these axes are rooted in prior histories of state actors rendering racialised subjects dangerous, Cold War histories in both cases and a longer colonial history with the LNP. We also show how standing behind these evictions is the nation-state and its practices of protected area territorialisation. From here, we illustrate how the rationale behind displacement from protected areas matters, as evictions become more difficult to contest once they are authorised by security considerations. The cases, however, differ in one key respect. While displacement from the LNP is an instance of conservation-induced displacement (CID, although one re-worked by security considerations, eviction from the MBR is motivated more centrally by security concerns yet takes advantage of protected area legislation. The study hence offers insight into a growing literature on conservation-security encounters and into different articulations of conservation, security, and displacement.

  14. Climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament. From security threats to sustainable peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffran, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    In the future, nuclear and climate risks may interfere with each other in a mutually enforcing way. Con-flicts induced by climate change could contribute to global insecurity and create more incentives for states to rely on military force, including nuclear weapons. Rather than being a direct cause of war, cli-mate change significantly affects the delicate balance between social and environmental systems in a way that could undermine human security and societal stability with potentially grave consequences for international security. Increased reliance on nuclear energy to reduce carbon emissions will contribute to the risks of nuclear proliferation. A renewed nuclear arms race would consume considerable resources and undermine the conditions for tackling the problem of climate change in a cooperative manner. Nuclear war itself would severely destabilize human societies and the environment, not to speak of the possibility of a nuclear winter that would disrupt the atmosphere. On the other hand, finding solutions to one problem area could help to find solutions in the other. Pre-venting the dangers of climate change and nuclear war requires an integrated set of strategies that ad-dress the causes as well as the impacts on the natural and social environment. Institutions are needed to strengthen common, ecological and human security, build and reinforce conflict-resolution mechanisms and low-carbon energy alternatives, and create sustainable lifecycles that respect the capabilities of the living world. This article examines the linkages between nuclear and climate risks, identifies areas where both threats converge, and offers an approach to move from living under these security threats to building sustain-able peace. By bringing to light the multidimensional interplay between climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament, this study aims to help the reader grasp their interconnectedness and recognize its critical implications for the strategic security

  15. Deterrence and National Security in the Face of an Amorphous Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werne, R

    2001-01-05

    The National Security threats that we face today and, in turn, the National Security . requirements, are more diverse and complex than they were during the Cold-War from 1945-1990. During that period, and bolstered by the experiences of World Wars I and II, US National Security policy was focused on the stabilization of post WW II country boundaries and containment of the Soviet block and China. The result was the bipolar world in which the nuclear and conventional forces of the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies ensured a measure of political stability through a military stalemate of world wide proportions. The practical result was that large scale changes in national borders were unlikely, but internal conflict within countries, and local conflicts between neighboring countries could still occur, albeit with participation from one or both of the Superpower camps. US National Security Policy was designed primarily for stabilization of the bipolar world on the military front and for competition with the Soviet Union and China on economic and political fronts. The collapse of the Soviet Union changed the global picture. The bipolar world and its military stalemate appear to be gone for the moment and the threat which was the foundation for US National Security policy has changed significantly. Some will argue that China has intentions of replacing the Soviet Union as a military superpower and thus recreate the bipolar world. Furthermore, Russia still has significant nuclear forces and has recently talked of lowering the nuclear threshold in an apparent attempt to make up for its weakened conventional forces. Clearly the threat of large scale nuclear war is much reduced, but not gone entirely. Having acknowledged the Chinese and Russian threats, what does the global picture look like today? The boundaries of most countries are secure but there are significant frictions, that have, or could lead, to armed conflict. Most of these are today

  16. AR.Drone: security threat analysis and exemplary attack to track persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, Fred; Fruth, Jana; Hildebrandt, Mario; Hoppe, Tobias; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-01-01

    In this article we illustrate an approach of a security threat analysis of the quadrocopter AR.Drone, a toy for augmented reality (AR) games. The technical properties of the drone can be misused for attacks, which may relate security and/or privacy aspects. Our aim is to sensitize for the possibility of misuses and the motivation for an implementation of improved security mechanisms of the quadrocopter. We focus primarily on obvious security vulnerabilities (e.g. communication over unencrypted WLAN, usage of UDP, live video streaming via unencrypted WLAN to the control device) of this quadrocopter. We could practically verify in three exemplary scenarios that this can be misused by unauthorized persons for several attacks: high-jacking of the drone, eavesdropping of the AR.Drones unprotected video streams, and the tracking of persons. Amongst other aspects, our current research focuses on the realization of the attack of tracking persons and objects with the drone. Besides the realization of attacks, we want to evaluate the potential of this particular drone for a "safe-landing" function, as well as potential security enhancements. Additionally, in future we plan to investigate an automatic tracking of persons or objects without the need of human interactions.

  17. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material: the 'net' security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, which could lead to the creation of a nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device (RDD), has been a subject of concern for more than a decade now. This concern became even more pronounced after the September 11 th attacks in the United States, which demonstrated that modern day terrorists are willing and capable of inflicting mass casualties among civilian population in target countries in order to further their goals. The problem of illicit trafficking - intentional diversion and smuggling of nuclear fissile material and radioactive sources - has been closely watched and studied by several national institutions and international organizations. This resulted in the establishment of several nuclear smuggling databases, tracking illicit trafficking incidents. The number of such incidents for a given period varies widely between the different databases, reflecting the different sources of information used, the different geographical regions covered, as well as the different methodologies applied to data mining and data analysis. One major obstacle to assessing the actual security threat due to illicit trafficking is the inclusion of incidents in the analysis, which do not represent a security threat in the sense of being the pre-stage of a terrorist operation or a malevolent act. Such incidents mainly involve inadvertent movement of illegally disposed of radioactive sources in scrap metal or contaminated goods across international borders and discoveries of so called 'orphan' radiation sources. This paper analyzes the global data contained in the database on nuclear smuggling, theft and orphan radiation sources (DSTO) operated by the University of Salzburg, using special filters to discriminate between illicit trafficking incidents involving a criminal intent and those that do not. Thereby, the net security threat of illicit trafficking will be determined to help provide a realistic

  18. The Urban Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Threat to Human Security and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediel Hove

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban centres have existed and have been evolving for many centuries across the world. However, the accelerated growth of urbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon. The enormous size of urban populations and more significantly, the rapidity with which urban areas have been and are growing in many developing countries have severe social, economic and physical repercussions. This paper argues that the accelerated growth of urbanisation has amplified the demand for key services. However, the provision of shelter and basic services such as water and sanitation, education, public health, employment and transport has not kept pace with this increasing demand. Furthermore, accelerated and poorly managed urbanisation has resulted in various types of atmospheric, land and water pollution thereby jeopardising human security. This paper offers the conclusion that the increased environmental, social and economic problems associated with rapid urbanisation pose a threat to sustainable development, human security and, crucially, peace.

  19. Mediating Cyber and Physical Threat Propagation in Security Smart Grid Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, Clifford; Tan, Kymie

    2011-10-01

    The power grid is a federated system. Regions of the system are controlled by different organizations and security of the grid is imposed from above through regulation of the security techniques used by the federants. This approach will be less effective as we move to a smart grid, where control of some elements of the grid rests in the customer’s home through technologies that enable remote access to appliances. These regions of the smart grid are less trusted, yet they interact in various ways with other parts of the grid. This paper demonstrates threat propagation in the smart grid from such regions, and discusses architectural approaches to mediating the impact of such flows.

  20. Risk perception and environmental health concerns in conditions of social security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarova, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)

  1. Organizational structure, functions and role of the security system in the process of dealing with security risks and threats in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ice Ilijevski; Zlate Dimovski; Kire Babanoski

    2016-01-01

    Main object of this paper is to present the organizational structure and the function of the security system of the Republic of Macedonia by the regulatory authorities. The security institutions, whose primary purpose is to cope with all sorts of threats and risks, need to be properly interconnected and the cooperation should be on a high level. The security system is a reflection of the characteristics of the state and should be functional, professional and based on law. The purpose of this ...

  2. Cross-selling lending and underwriting : scope economies and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Laux, Christian; Walz, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    We highlight the implications of combining underwriting services and lending for the choice of underwriters and for competition in the underwriting business. We show that cross-selling can increase underwriters' incentives, and we explain three phenomena: first, that cross-selling is important for universal banks to enter the investment banking business; second, that cross-selling is particularly attractive for highly leveraged borrowers; third, that less-than-market rates are no prerequisite...

  3. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti, a threat to food security for the poor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yonow

    Full Text Available The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations. We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675, correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature.

  4. A Method to Analyze Threats and Vulnerabilities by Using a Cyber Security Test-bed of an Operating NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sik; Son, Choul Woong; Lee, Soo Ill

    2016-01-01

    In order to implement cyber security controls for an Operating NPP, a security assessment should conduct in advance, and it is essential to analyze threats and vulnerabilities for a cyber security risk assessment phase. It might be impossible to perform a penetration test or scanning for a vulnerability analysis because the test may cause adverse effects on the inherent functions of ones. This is the reason why we develop and construct a cyber security test-bed instead of using real I and C systems in the operating NPP. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze threats and vulnerabilities of a specific target system by using a cyber security test-bed. The test-bed is being developed considering essential functions of the selected safety and non-safety system. This paper shows the method to analyze threats and vulnerabilities of a specific target system by using a cyber security test-bed. In order to develop the cyber security test-bed with both safety and non-safety functions, test-bed functions analysis and preliminary threats and vulnerabilities identification have been conducted. We will determine the attack scenarios and conduct the test-bed based vulnerability analysis

  5. 78 FR 46295 - Enterprise Underwriting Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... 2590-AA53 Enterprise Underwriting Standards AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Proposed...), (together, the Enterprises) relating to mortgage assets affected by Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE... that were encumbered by this retrofit lending program that created a priority ahead of the Enterprise...

  6. 77 FR 41107 - Enterprise Underwriting Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1254 RIN 2590-AA53 Enterprise Underwriting Standards AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTIONS: Proposed rulemaking; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On June 15, 2012, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) published in the Federal Register a...

  7. The Value of Bond Underwriter Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetz, Stine Louise; Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    and lower underpricing. However, if the underwriter becomes distressed, this spills over to the issuer's credit risk, because it weakens the relationship and increases the risk of involuntary relationship termination. The credit risk spillover is more pronounced for risky, opaque issuers with high rollover...

  8. How to define and build an effective cyber threat intelligence capability how to understand, justify and implement a new approach to security

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry; Carnall, James

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence-Led Security: How to Understand, Justify and Implement a New Approach to Security is a concise review of the concept of Intelligence-Led Security. Protecting a business, including its information and intellectual property, physical infrastructure, employees, and reputation, has become increasingly difficult. Online threats come from all sides: internal leaks and external adversaries; domestic hacktivists and overseas cybercrime syndicates; targeted threats and mass attacks. And these threats run the gamut from targeted to indiscriminate to entirely accidental. Amo

  9. International forum on nuclear and biological decommissioning: Management of global security threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanian, G.; Kouzminov, V.; Martellini, M.; Santesso, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats was organized by the Landau Network-Centro Volta (LNCV) with the support of the UNESCO Venice Office, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Italian National Board for Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), the Lombardy Region and the Municipality of Como. Subjects dealt with at the conference included the reconversion of nuclear and biological military equipment produced in the 50 years of the Cold War period and the effects of radio contamination on the environment and on human life. This conference was the most recent of a number of initiatives on reconversion organized in collaboration with the UNESCO Venice Office. The issues dealt with at the conference will be among the subjects for discussion at the UNESCO International School Science for Peace, which will be set up at the 'A. Volta' Center for Scientific Culture

  10. Lack of skilled personnel as threat to HR security of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernikova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the needs of Russian industrial enterprises for skilled labor. The authors consider deficiency in qualified personnel as a threat to the human resources security of industrial enterprises, and analyze its causes. The study includes the criteria to distinguish highly skilled employees in the labor force (education level, occupation, correspondence of performed work to education, and analysis of the dynamics of their number. It identifies the internal and external factors that have a significant influence on the number of qualified personnel. The external factors include the size of the salary, population growth due to migration, the regional level of the socio-economic development. The applied methods of analysis are single-factor analysis of variance (F-test, multiple regression and descriptive statistics. The analysis is based on the materials of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service, as well as on the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey - Higher School of Economics.

  11. Combining Traditional Cyber Security Audit Data with Psychosocial Data: Towards Predictive Modeling for Insider Threat Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    The purpose of this chapter is to motivate the combination of traditional cyber security audit data with psychosocial data, to support a move from an insider threat detection stance to one that enables prediction of potential insider presence. Twodistinctiveaspects of the approach are the objectiveof predicting or anticipating potential risksandthe useoforganizational datain additiontocyber datato support the analysis. The chapter describes the challenges of this endeavor and reports on progressin definingausablesetof predictiveindicators,developingaframeworkfor integratingthe analysisoforganizationalandcyber securitydatatoyield predictions about possible insider exploits, and developing the knowledge base and reasoning capabilityof the system.We also outline the typesof errors that oneexpectsina predictive system versus a detection system and discuss how those errors can affect the usefulness of the results.

  12. 77 FR 27509 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ...; (D) the underwriter has a duty to purchase securities from the issuer at a fair and reasonable price, but must balance that duty with its duty to sell municipal securities to investors at prices that are... authority to bind the issuer by contract with the underwriter and that, to the knowledge of the underwriter...

  13. Security threats to automotive CAN networks-Practical examples and selected short-term countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Tobias; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The IT security of automotive systems is an evolving area of research. To analyse the current situation and the potentially growing tendency of arising threats we performed several practical tests on recent automotive technology. With a focus on automotive systems based on CAN bus technology, this article summarises the results of four selected tests performed on the control systems for the window lift, warning light and airbag control system as well as the central gateway. These results are supplemented in this article by a classification of these four attack scenarios using the established CERT taxonomy and an analysis of underlying security vulnerabilities, and especially, potential safety implications. With respect to the results of these tests, in this article we further discuss two selected countermeasures to address basic weaknesses exploited in our tests. These are adaptations of intrusion detection (discussing three exemplary detection patterns) and IT-forensic measures (proposing proactive measures based on a forensic model). This article discusses both looking at the four attack scenarios introduced before, covering their capabilities and restrictions. While these reactive approaches are short-term measures, which could already be added to today's automotive IT architecture, long-term concepts also are shortly introduced, which are mainly preventive but will require a major redesign. Beneath a short overview on respective research approaches, we discuss their individual requirements, potential and restrictions.

  14. COMPUTER SYSTEM AND MODELLING OF THREATS TO ENERGY SECURITY OF MOLDOVA IN CASE OF INTERSYSTEM COMMUNICATION DISCONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicova E.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper modeling of a group of scenarios of threats to energetic security of Moldovan energy system, which occur in case of disconnecting (or limitation of cross-flows of electricity of 330 kV transmission line Balti-Dniester HPS. It was used for analysis a software application for energy security monitoring. The application has been developed in IE ASM.

  15. Book Review: Cyber Security and Global Information Assurance: Threat Analysis and Response Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Knapp, K.J. (Ed. (2009. Cyber Security and Global Information Assurance: Threat Analysis and Response Solutions. Hershey, NY: Information Science Reference. 434 + xxii pages, ISBN: 978-1-60566-326-5, US$195.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gck@garykessler.netI freely admit that this book was sent to me by the publisher for the expressed purpose of my writing a review and that I know several of the chapter authors. With that disclosure out of the way, let me say that the book is well worth the review (and I get to keep my review copy.The preface to the book cites the 2003 publication of The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace by the White House, and the acknowledgement by the U.S. government that our economy and national security were fully dependent upon computers, networks, and the telecommunications infrastructure. This mayhave come as news to the general population but it was a long overdue public statement to those of us in the industry. The FBI's InfraGard program and the formation of the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC pre-dated this report by at least a half-dozen years, so the report was hardly earthshattering. And the fact that the bulk of the telecom infrastructure is owned by the private sector is a less advertized fact. Nonetheless, reminding the community of these facts is always a Good Thing and provides the raison d’être of this book.(see PDF for full review

  16. Reducing the global threat of radiological terrorism in Central Asia and Caucus regions. The global threat reduction initiative approach to radioactive source security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2010-01-01

    The security of radioactive sources is of worldwide concern, due to their wide use in civilian commerce and the potentially devastating effects of their misuse. In cooperation with host countries and international partners, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative has utilized a proven process for providing technical and financial assistance to protect radioactive sources in diverse uses and unique circumstances at hundreds of sites worldwide. The mission of the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's program includes reducing the risk posed by vulnerable radiological materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device). The program's objectives are to identify, consolidate, secure, and/or dispose of high-activity radiological materials to prevent their theft and malicious use. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program's scope is global, with projects in over 100 countries at more than 755 radiological sites, including industrial, medical and commercial facilities. In addition to working bilaterally, the Program works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other partner countries. (author)

  17. Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: An Emerging Security Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelasity, Márk; Bilicki, Vilmos

    In recent years peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable communication medium for self-organization and survival. It has been shown that malicious P2P networks would be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant number of fixed overlay connections per node for communication. While overlay networks of a small constant maximal degree are generally considered to be unscalable, we argue in this paper that it is possible to design them to be scalable, efficient and robust. This is an important finding from a security point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover with state-of-the-art methods is a plausible threat. In this paper we discuss algorithms and theoretical results that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic simulations using an event based implementation of a proof-of-concept system. Besides P2P botnets, our results are also applicable in scenarios where relying on a large number of overlay connections per node is not feasible because of cost or the limited number of communication channels available.

  18. XRIndex: A brief screening tool for individual differences in security threat detection in x-ray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eRusconi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray imaging is a cost-effective technique at security checkpoints that typically require the presence of human operators. We have previously shown that self-reported Attention to Detail can predict threat detection performance with small-vehicle x-ray images (Rusconi et al., 2012. Here we provide evidence for the generality of such a link by having a large sample of naïve participants screen more typical dual-energy x-ray images of hand luggage. The results show that the Attention to Detail score is a linear predictor of threat detection accuracy. We then develop and fine-tune a novel self-report scale for security screening: the XRIndex, which improves on the Attention to Detail scale for predictive power and opacity to interpretation. The XRIndex is not redundant with any of the Big Five personality traits. We validate the XRIndex against security x-ray images with an independent sample of untrained participants and suggest that the XRIndex may be a useful aid for the identification of suitable candidates for professional security training with a focus on x-ray threat detection. Further studies are needed to determine whether this can also apply to trained professionals.

  19. Opening of Offshore Oil Business in Mexico and Associated Framework to Cope with Potential Maritime Security Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila-Zúáiga-Nordfjeld

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After 75 years of State oil monopoly, Mexico performed the first business oil round in 2015 involving the private sector. This auction-round offered 14 oil exploration fields located on the continental shelf to private companies. The development and exploitation of these hydrocarbon fields faces significant challenges regarding security. The economic loss for theft of hydrocarbons through illegal connections to pipelines is estimated to 973 million, 125 thousand U.S. dollar, only for the year of 2014. While productive research has been made, it has mainly focused on transportation systems and basically, pipelines. The development and establishment of policies prioritizing maritime security and protection of critical offshore infrastructure against theft of hydrocarbons, drugs organizations and terror attacks needs to be included in the national agenda to improve maritime security and mitigate potential security threats at sea, including damage to the marine environment. This could increase the trust of investors and stakeholders and would contribute to the faster development of new exploration and production fields. While the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code is the cornerstone for the construction of the port?s security program and establishes the requirements of the Port Facility Security Plan (PFSP, including oil port facilities, it has not been fully implemented in several important Mexican ports. It is concluded that some important ports lack many of the core security processes, procedures and controls that should be included in any PFSP. This article briefly reviews the situation of the oil industry from a security perspective and discusses key elements of maritime security; addressing the necessity of the inclusion of maritime security and protection of critical oil infrastructure offshore in the national agenda that would provide for future research directions in the maritime security domain and contribute to

  20. Human trafficking as a threat for the security of member states of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kapo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic “Trafficking of human beings” as subject to advanced studies has been chosen due to a growing interest linked with the phenomenon in question. The study introduces a legal criminal overview of the criminal activity consisted of the recruitment, transport, transfer or reception of persons by means of force or forms of fraud for exploitation purposes. Human trafficking represents a threat for the security of member states. The trend to penetrate to all spheres of the society has obliged the European states to draft a new directive reflecting the growing concern about the phenomenon in question, by respecting human rights in accordance with the legal framework under the United Nations, International Labor Organization (ILO, and Council of Europe etc. The new European priorities aim at victims’ identification, their protection and prevention of the phenomenon and more intense criminal prosecution of traffickers. With the view of fully developing this topic, the outline consists of four chapters preceded by a historical background of human trafficking. Special importance in this study, specifically in the second chapter, is attached to the assistance and protection of the victims of human trafficking. It is crucial that these victims exercise their rights effectively. Therefore, the European directives foresee assistance and support before, after and during the criminal proceeding. The third chapter refers to the relevant legal mechanisms in this field assuring the victims of trafficking legal defense, the right to information and their social, psychological and physical recovery. One of the “key” legal instruments is the Palermo Convention, which gives for the first time a detailed definition of the term of trafficking and smuggling and makes the differences between them. All legal instruments converge to one point: the consent of the human trafficking victim is not important when it is used any of the means of force, threat

  1. Domestic Threats, Regional Solutions? The Challenge of Regional Security Integration in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerstad, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the salience of different theories of regional security integration through the prism of the experience of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It tracks the region's progress from a hostile security complex to a nascent security community and asks what strategy for security integration should be employed to continue this positive trend. Although Southern African leaders seem to prefer a collective security strategy à la NATO, the common security approach o...

  2. 76 FR 77865 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Instituting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... underwriting and related services performed as to constitute an unfair practice with regard to the issuer that... practice.'' The scope of the Notice would apply to underwriters and their duty to municipal entity \\8\\ issuers of municipal securities in negotiated underwritings (except as set forth otherwise), but would not...

  3. Secure Threat Information Exchange across the Internet of Things for Cyber Defense in a Fog Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Gabriel IONITA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Threat information exchange is a critical part of any security system. Decisions regarding security are taken with more confidence and with more results when the whole security context is known. The fog computing paradigm enhances the use cases of the already used cloud computing systems by bringing all the needed resources to the end-users towards the edge of the network. While fog decentralizes the cloud, it is very important to correlate security events which happen in branch offices around the globe for correct and timely decisions. In this article, we propose an infrastructure based on custom locally installed OSSEC agents which communicate with a central AlienVault deployment for event correlation. The agents are based on a neural network which takes actions based on risk assessment inspired by the human immune system. All of the threat information is defined by STIX expressions and a TAXII server can share this information with foreign organizations. The proposed implementation can successfully be implemented in an IoT scenario, with added security for the “brownfiled” devices.

  4. Simulating the Adaptive Mechanisms to Reduce the Risks of Occurence of Threats to the Economic Security of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushchevsky Vyacheslav V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with addressing the topical problem of effectively countering real and potential threats to economic security of enterprises and reducing the risks of their occurrence. The article is aimed at simulating the adaptive mechanisms to counteract external influences on the marketing component of enterprise’s economic security and developing a system of measures for removing threats to price destabilization of its orders portfolio based on a modern economic-mathematical instrumentarium. The common causes of the threats occurrence related to the price policy of enterprise and the tactics of the contractual processes with the business partners have been explored. Hidden reserves for price maneuvering in concluding contracts with customers have been identified. An algorithmic model for an adaptive pricing task in terms of an assortment of industrial enterprise has been built. On the basis of this model, mechanisms have been developed to counteract the threats of occurrence and aggravation of a «price conflict» between the producing enterprise and the potential customers of its products, and to advise on how to remove the risks of their occurrence. Prospects for using the methodology together with the instrumentarium for economic-mathematical modeling in terms of tasks of the price risks management have been indicated.

  5. Modelling multiple threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld Policy Support System

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. J. van Soesbergen; M. Mulligan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a multitude of threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld policy support system. WaterWorld is a spatially explicit, physically-based globally-applicable model for baseline and scenario water balance that is particularly well suited to heterogeneous environments with little locally available data (e.g. ungauged basins) and which is delivered through a simple web interface, requiring little local capacity for use. The model is capable of pr...

  6. 13 CFR 115.15 - Underwriting and servicing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Underwriting and servicing standards. 115.15 Section 115.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND... underwriting and the Surety's principles and practices on unguaranteed bonds. The Principal must satisfy the...

  7. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  8. Security in Iraq: A Framework for Analyzing Emerging Threats as U.S. Forces Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    become more secure and stable following its paroxysm of violence in 2006–2007. Over the past two years, most Sunni tribes have turned against al Qaeda in...and Security Conditions of U.S. Withdrawal Background By every measure, Iraq has become more secure and stable since its paroxysm of violence in

  9. Russian Threat Perceptions and Security Policies: Soviet Shadows and Contemporary Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Cimbala, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between military reform in Russia and Russian threat perceptions is influenced by the Soviet past, by Russian domestic politics, and by the character of current U.S.-Russian and NATO-Russian relations. Prospective Russian military reform is endangered by continuing threat perceptions that exaggerate Russian military weakness and by domestic forces that play against a rational assessment of Russia's geostrategic requirements.

  10. Status, progress and plans for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses the efforts under the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, also known as GTRI. On May 26, 2004, then Secretary of Energy Abraham established GTRI. GTRI is a cooperative program to provide international support for countries' national programs to identify, secure, recover or facilitate the disposition of vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world that pose a potential threat to the international community. The formation of GTRI consolidated a number of nonproliferation programs you may be familiar with that work together to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civil nuclear applications worldwide. In particular, the Office of Global Threat Reduction, which was set up to implement GTRI, has oversight of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program, the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance program, and the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return program. This consolidation allows these three programs to work in concert to bring about the elimination of research reactor materials as a source of proliferation concern. This speech is highlighting the work that these programs have undertaken in cooperation with the global research reactor community and the importance placed on fuel development under the RERTR program It contains an update on the work done to support the US - Russian Presidential Bratislava Summit Statement

  11. The underwriting process of liability insurance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson, S. E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liability risks may embody far-reaching financial consequences for individuals, business enterprises and professional people. This paper focuses on the underwriting process which should be taken into consideration by short-term insurers when they are underwriting the main types of liability insurance, which include employer’s, householder’s, personal, product, professional and public liability insurance. The improvement of financial decision-making by short-term insurers when underwriting liability insurance represents the objective of this research. A study of secondary data was done to identify the existing literature, which formed the basis for compiling a questionnaire to obtain primary data. The top 10 short-term insurers which are the market leaders of liability insurance in South Africa and who received more than 85% of the annual gross written premiums for liability insurance in South Africa, represented the sample of the empirical study. This paper highlights the importance of the underwriting factors concerning liability insurance, how often the stipulations of insurance policies should be adjusted by the short-term insurers to account for the underwriting factors, as well as the problem areas which the underwriters may experience when they are underwriting liability insurance. Possible solutions to solve the problem areas were also addressed

  12. Insider threats to cybersecurity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakha, D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Darshan Lakha Vodacom Group CTSO 6th CSIR Conference 6 October 2017 INSIDER THREATS Darshan Lakha 2 INSIDER THREATS | Impact Darshan Lakha 3 Are insider threats the main security threat in 2017? 2017 insider threat Intelligence report (Dtex...,2017) High Risk Applications 95% Leavers, Joiners & Movers 56% Public Data 64% Inappropriate Internet Usag 59% Security Bypass x2 INSIDER THREATS | Who is involved? Darshan Lakha 4 Privileged Users Terminated Employees Third...

  13. A Pilot Examination of the Methods Used to Counteract Insider Threat Security Risks Associated with the Use of Radioactive Materials in the Research and Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenov, B G; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W; Gonzalez, J Reingle; Gemeinhardt, G L

    2018-03-01

    While many organizations maintain multiple layers of security control methodologies to prevent outsiders from gaining unauthorized access, persons such as employees or contractors who have been granted legitimate access can represent an "insider threat" risk. Interestingly, some of the most notable radiological events involving the purposeful contamination or exposure of individuals appear to have been perpetrated by insiders. In the academic and medical settings, radiation safety professionals focus their security efforts on (1) ensuring controls are in place to prevent unauthorized access or removal of sources, and (2) increasing security controls for the unescorted accessing of large sources of radioactivity (known as "quantities of concern"). But these controls may not completely address the threat insiders represent when radioactive materials below these quantities are present. The goal of this research project was to characterize the methodologies currently employed to counteract the insider security threat for the misuse or purposeful divergence of radioactive materials used in the academic and medical settings. A web-based survey was used to assess how practicing radiation safety professionals in academic and medical settings anticipate, evaluate, and control insider threat security risks within their institutions. While all respondents indicated that radioactive sources are being used in amounts below quantities of concern, only 6 % consider insider threat security issues as part of the protocol review for the use of general radioactive materials. The results of this survey identify several opportunities for improvement for institutions to address security gaps.

  14. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  15. Integrated assessment and mitigation of physical and digital security threats: Case studies on virtualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Tiel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtualization is one of the enabling technologies of cloud computing. It turns once dedicated physical computing resources such as servers into digital resources that can be provisioned on demand. Cloud computing thus tends to replace physical with digital security controls, and cloud security must

  16. Dodging Bullets: The Threat of Space Debris to U.S. National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    strategies towards space. The 2007 ISAB Report on U.S. Space Policy emphasizes a Option Two: Protect Assets Against Threats in Space Through Force...decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists . This generic use of the term “convention” embraces all international agreements...

  17. Bank holding companies' participation in credit insurance underwriting

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Watro

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the public and corporate benefits associated with credit insurance underwriting by bank holding companies in the Fourth Federal Reserve District, featuring rate reduction guidelines, performance ratios, and earnings comparisons.

  18. Securing services in the cloud: an investigation of the threats and the mitigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroha, Bassam S.; Farroha, Deborah L.

    2012-05-01

    The stakeholder's security concerns over data in the clouds (Voice, Video and Text) are a real concern to DoD, the IC and private sector. This is primarily due to the lack of physical isolation of data when migrating to shared infrastructure platforms. The security concerns are related to privacy and regulatory compliance required in many industries (healthcare, financial, law enforcement, DoD, etc) and the corporate knowledge databases. The new paradigm depends on the service provider to ensure that the customer's information is continuously monitored and is kept available, secure, access controlled and isolated from potential adversaries.

  19. Nuclear security. IAEA: Working to build a global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    The IAEA helps to ensure that measures are taken to control and protect nuclear and radioactive materials from falling into the wrong hands. The IAEA delivers training, technical assistance, and equipment to States, and provides international guidance on improving nuclear security. IAEA nuclear security activities include: · Risk reduction (such as repatriating research reactor fuel and strengthening border monitoring) · International legal instruments and supporting their implementation · Internationally accepted guidance and benchmarks for nuclear security · Information exchange · Human Resource Development programmes · Research and development

  20. Inland capture fishery contributions to global food security and threats to their future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, So-Jung; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Cowx, Ian G.; Beard, T. Douglas; Bartley, Devin; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Inland fish and fisheries play important roles in ensuring global food security. They provide a crucial source of animal protein and essential micronutrients for local communities, especially in the developing world. Data concerning fisheries production and consumption of freshwater fish are generally inadequately assessed, often leading decision makers to undervalue their importance. Modification of inland waterways for alternative uses of freshwater (particularly dams for hydropower and water diversions for human use) negatively impacts the productivity of inland fisheries for food security at local and regional levels. This paper highlights the importance of inland fisheries to global food security, the challenges they face due to competing demands for freshwater, and possible solutions.

  1. TH-A-12A-01: Medical Physicist's Role in Digital Information Security: Threats, Vulnerabilities and Best Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K; Curran, B

    2014-01-01

    I. Information Security Background (Speaker = Kevin McDonald) Evolution of Medical Devices Living and Working in a Hostile Environment Attack Motivations Attack Vectors Simple Safety Strategies Medical Device Security in the News Medical Devices and Vendors Summary II. Keeping Radiation Oncology IT Systems Secure (Speaker = Bruce Curran) Hardware Security Double-lock Requirements “Foreign” computer systems Portable Device Encryption Patient Data Storage System Requirements Network Configuration Isolating Critical Devices Isolating Clinical Networks Remote Access Considerations Software Applications / Configuration Passwords / Screen Savers Restricted Services / access Software Configuration Restriction Use of DNS to restrict accesse. Patches / Upgrades Awareness Intrusion Prevention Intrusion Detection Threat Risk Analysis Conclusion Learning Objectives: Understanding how Hospital IT Requirements affect Radiation Oncology IT Systems. Illustrating sample practices for hardware, network, and software security. Discussing implementation of good IT security practices in radiation oncology. Understand overall risk and threats scenario in a networked environment

  2. The application of nuclear and national security safeguard strategies to the insider threat in the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the insider threat in commercial enterprises represents multi-billion dollar losses on an annual basis. While much of this experience is in low value, theft-related shrinkage, there are a growing number of organizations where the loss or compromise of critical assets or interruption of vital systems cannot be tolerated. In very real ways, the survival of the organization may turn on the hostile acts of knowledgeable insiders. The nuclear and National security information operations environments represents a baseline of experience from which the corporate world can draw for cost-effective, alternative approaches to this threat. However, it is equally clear that there are a variety of subtle and obvious constraints imposed by the private sector's mission, service delivery, lifestyle and cost-benefit requirements which dictate careful planning and user involvement in safeguards development and application. Where protection of our National security assets are grounded in a consequence-driven set of policies and standards, the private sector is often subject to the lack of a similar (but directly analogous) policy foundation

  3. The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Needed Changes to Counter Today's Threats to Energy Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peck, Jr, Bruce L

    2006-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) of the United States is critical to its national security because of the nation's reliance on oil and refined petroleum products as the cornerstone of its economic and military power...

  4. The New Middle East Security Threat: The Case of Yemen and the GCC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hajjri, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    .... Yemen suffers from a weak economy and a number of security issues of its own. Through the borders shared with its GCC neighbors, Yemen has become plagued by a nexus of terrorism, arms smuggling, and drug trafficking...

  5. How to use security risk assessments to manage risks, prevent violence and deal with new threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Hamilton, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    With a growing number of healthcare security requirements from states as well as regulators like FEMA, CMS, and DHS, the need to conduct comprehensive Security Risk Assessments has become essential, according to the author. In this article, she provides the basic elements of such assessments as well as guidance on how to apply them to a facility report and how to present the report to management.

  6. A study on the promotion of Japan's Nuclear Security Culture. Based on the Implementing Guide of IAEA and actually-occurred threat cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The ministerial ordinance relating to the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law, revised in 2012, requires licensees of nuclear facilities to establish a system to foster Nuclear Security Culture. However, such measures are introduced without thorough consideration of essentials of Nuclear Security Culture. This report aims to provide deeper understanding of the concept and raise issues relating to implementation of nuclear security measures by reviewing the Implementing Guide of Nuclear Security Culture published by International Atomic Energy Agency and related documents, as well as analyzing security threats that actually happened recently. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Two beliefs, namely, 'a credible threat exists' and 'nuclear security is important', form the basis of Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture bears a high degree of resemblance to Nuclear Safety Culture because the both assume the same organizational culture model. The differences between the two are derived from whether the malevolence of adversaries should be taken into consideration or not. As the questioning attitude plays an important role to implant the two beliefs, a proper management system of Nuclear Security Culture is necessary to cultivate it. 2) Based on the related documents and an analysis of the cases of actual threats, the following viewpoints should be made clear: (a) the role of the actors of Nuclear Security Culture, (b) flexible sensitivity to share the same understanding about the credible threat, (c) systematic revision of the related regulation about sensitive information management and security clearance of the personnel, and complementary measures such as hotline, (d) measures to encourage the positive action of the personnel, (e) how to construct continuous cycle of improvement of Nuclear Security Culture at state level. (author)

  7. Design Basis Threat (DBT) Approach for the First NPP Security System in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ign Djoko Irianto

    2004-01-01

    Design Basis Threat (DBT) is one of the main factors to be taken into account in the design of physical protection system of nuclear facility. In accordance with IAEA's recommendations outlined in INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 (Corrected), DBT is defined as: attributes and characteristics of potential insider and/or external adversaries, who might attempt unauthorized removal of nuclear material or sabotage against the nuclear facilities. There are three types of adversary that must be considered in DBT, such as adversary who comes from the outside (external adversary), adversary who comes from the inside (internal adversary), and adversary who comes from outside and colludes with insiders. Current situation in Indonesia, where many bomb attacks occurred, requires serious attention on DBT in the physical protection design of NPP which is to be built in Indonesia. This paper is intended to describe the methodology on how to create and implement a Design Basis Threat in the design process of NPP physical protection in Indonesia. (author)

  8. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: A Threat to the United States National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    to be an existing member of Los Zetas. The immigrant, who was arrested by the Zapata Sheriffs Department while smuggling 400 pounds of marijuana...new pubs/jp1 02. pdf . Retrieved 20 February 2011. 2. US Department of Justice, National Drug Threat Assessment 2010 (Washington D.C.: National Drug...Cartels, CRS Report for Congress, (October 16, 2007), http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215. pdf . 8. Jeremy Roebuck, "Violence the result of fractured

  9. Combining Trust and Behavioral Analysis to Detect Security Threats in Open Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    language to define the various behaviors that threats exhibit over time. We conclude that a more formal model of trust is needed that couples identity with...N., Seltzer, M., and Vansummeren, S., “Provenance: a future history,” OOP - SLA ’09: Proceeding of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN conference companion on Object...oriented programming systems languages and applications, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2009, pp. 957–964. [15] Gray, E., marc Seigneur, J., Chen, Y., and

  10. Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime: Addressing Converging Threats to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    here and join in building a new framework for international cooperation to protect all our citizens from the violence, harm, and exploitation wrought...trafficking as increasingly intertwined threats to maximize the impact of U.S. resources. It also provides a framework to direct U.S. power against...open sources intelligence ( OSINT ). This effort will be aided through greater information sharing with foreign partners and closer cooperation among

  11. Transnational Challenges and U.S. National Security: Defining and Prioritizing Borderless Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    made extensive and innovative use of social media , including Twitter and Facebook, to garner support from its followers around the globe in ways...United States. But other issues —humanitarian crises, international economic flows, international justice, and threats to public health —have flowed...Coordinator and Health Diplomacy, Office of the Representative for Global Health Diplomacy Office of Global Women’s Issues Office of Global Food

  12. PENGARUH REPUTASI UNDERWRITER DAN REPUTASI AUDITOR TERHADAP UNDERPRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfauziah Nurfauziah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStock prices in the primary market are set by agreement between the issuer with the underwriter. Underwriters have more information to the request of the issuer's shares, so the information can be used to obtain optimal agreement with the issuer is to minimize the risk of having to buy shares that are not sold cheaply. With that reputation, share price offered in the primary market is lower than expected after stocks entered in the secondary market or did not happen underpricing. Auditors are also able to influence the level of underpricing. Auditor reputation of quality and professionalism demonstrated auditors audited the financial statements of the company. Using auditors of reputation will reduce the opportunities for issuers to cheat in presenting inaccurate information to the market. For this reason, it is needed; a study examines the effect of Underwriter Reputation and Auditor Reputation on Underpricng. The research was carried out on companies that experience underpricing at initial public offering in 2007 until 2009. Based on examining 42 companies that have been underpricing showing no effect of both underwriter and auditor reputation toward underpricing individually as well as all together.Keywords: IPO, underwriter, auditor, underpricing.AbstrakHarga saham di pasar perdana ditetapkan berdasarkan kesepakatan antara emiten dengan underwriter. Underwriter memiliki informasi yang lebih banyak terhadap permintaan saham-saham emiten, sehingga informasi tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memperoleh kesepakatan optimal dengan emiten yaitu dengan memperkecil risiko keharusan membeli saham yang tidak laku terjual dengan harga murah. Dengan reputasinya itu, harga saham yang ditawarkan di pasar perdana diharapkan tidak lebih rendah dibandingkan setelah saham masuk di pasar sekunder atau tidak terjadi underpricing. Auditor juga mampu mempengaruhi tingkat underpricing. Reputasi auditor menunjukkan kualitas dan profesionalisme auditor yang

  13. "The Islamic State Of Iraq And The Levant" (ISIL In The System Of Threats To The National Security Of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Agapov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors analyze political, economic, military and many other aspects of the "Islamic State of Iraq and Levant" activity as essential factor of the destabilization in the region of the Middle East. Authors investigate destructive consequences of this terrorist religious group's positions strengthening for the national security of the Russian Federation and border states. Authors note that actions in Syria and Iraq have indirect, but transnational effect, pose threat to the interests of the national security of Russia, especially including one, conducted in Crimea with the use of Islamic radicals for this purpose, who are on the peninsula and territory of the Ukraine. In the present article authors note that every year in the process of the population's psychological fatigue strengthening, new losses among the military personnel and the intelligence services staff and also death of peaceful citizens, their positions will only amplify. "Defeatism" will become a powerful political force. Problem of the international legal aspect of the counteraction to the threat from the actions of foreign fighters-terrorists who are hired or accepted with ISIL, al-Nusra Front and other groups and organizations of the terrorist orientation is connected with the implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 2178 (2014 made on September 24, 2014. It’s main objective – development of the nonviolent ways of the conflicts prevention and settlement for the purposes of the radicalization to the level generating terrorism risk degree decrease. In the conclusion authors argument that it is especially actual for the Russian regions, which is extremely vulnerable to extremism (North Caucasus, Volga Region.

  14. Role of nuclear material accounting and control on nuclear security. Countermeasure against insider threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Possibility on unauthorized removal (theft) of nuclear material by a facility insider is a recognized as a serious threat. An insider could take advantage or knowledge of control system and access to nuclear material to intercept facility's system designed to protect theft of nuclear material by an insider. This paper will address how the facility level Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (NMAC) System should be designed and implemented to enhance deterring and detect theft of nuclear material by a facility insider. (author)

  15. Novel data visualizations of X-ray data for aviation security applications using the Open Threat Assessment Platform (OTAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Holswade, Erica A.; Nunna, Rahul S.

    2017-02-01

    This work will demonstrate the implementation of a traditional and non-traditional visualization of x-ray images for aviation security applications that will be feasible with open system architecture initiatives such as the Open Threat Assessment Platform (OTAP). Anomalies of interest to aviation security are fluid, where characteristic signals of anomalies of interest can evolve rapidly. OTAP is a limited scope open architecture baggage screening prototype that intends to allow 3rd-party vendors to develop and easily implement, integrate, and deploy detection algorithms and specialized hardware on a field deployable screening technology [13]. In this study, stereoscopic images were created using an unmodified, field-deployed system and rendered on the Oculus Rift, a commercial virtual reality video gaming headset. The example described in this work is not dependent on the Oculus Rift, and is possible using any comparable hardware configuration capable of rendering stereoscopic images. The depth information provided from viewing the images will aid in the detection of characteristic signals from anomalies of interest. If successful, OTAP has the potential to allow for aviation security to become more fluid in its adaptation to the evolution of anomalies of interest. This work demonstrates one example that is easily implemented using the OTAP platform, that could lead to the future generation of ATR algorithms and data visualization approaches.

  16. Security in software-defined wireless sensor networks: threats, challenges and potential solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pritchard, SW

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available water management. This model makes use of a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) approach to manage a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in order to solve most of the inherent issues surrounding WSNs. One of the most important aspects of any network, is security...

  17. SYSTEMATIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ENSURING ECONOMIC SECURITY OF EXACERBATION OF THE THREATS AND CHALLENGES OF A NEW TYPE FOR NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Momot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to systematize the international experience of economic security both in terms of individual countries and the global economy as a whole. Setting such a goal it is associated with the growth of globalization and integration processes in the world economy, which are the new threat of economic security. Methods. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study were research and findings on issues of economic security at the level of the world economy as a whole and individual national economies in particular. We used such general scientific and special methods, such as analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, adaptation. The findings led to the conclusion that the protection of national interests and the formation of an economic security strategy – the most important functions of the state, the implementation of which is impossible without a system of self-regulation mechanisms and regulation. The government should implement a set of measures to promote economic growth, and that will guarantee the economic security of the country. These measures should cover all sectors of the economy. These measures include the implementation an active structural and social policies, enhancing the activity of the state in investment, financial, monetary and foreign economic sphere, the continuation of institutional reforms. The practical significance is to separate the differences used methodological approaches to ensure the economic security of the EU member countries and the CIS. This is explained by the fact that the first group of countries is focused on standards and borrows the experience of the leading EU countries (Germany, France, and the second group, located in the zone of influence of Russia (Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, – on the Russian developments and standards. In turn, Russia in their design focuses more on standards to ensure economic security, which have been made in the period of the Soviet

  18. Threats and risks to information security: a practical analysis of free access wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirumbay, Daniel I.; Coronel, Iván. A.; Bayas, Marcia M.; Rovira, Ronald H.; Gromaszek, Konrad; Tleshova, Akmaral; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an ever-growing need to investigate, consult and communicate through the internet. This need leads to the intensification of free access to the web in strategic and functional points for the benefit of the community. However, this open access is also related to the increase of information insecurity. The existing works on computer security primarily focus on the development of techniques to reduce cyber-attacks. However, these approaches do not address the sector of inexperienced users who have difficulty understanding browser settings. Two methods can solve this problem: first the development of friendly browsers with intuitive setups for new users and on the other hand, by implementing awareness programs on essential security without deepening on technical information. This article addresses an analysis of the vulnerabilities of wireless equipment that provides internet service in the open access zones and the potential risks that could be found when using these means.

  19. Entropy and Self-Organization - An Open System Approach to the Origins of Homeland Security Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    theoretical approaches and facts, it will put together a picture of what that animal might look like—in other words, suggest a pattern in the gestalt ...222 Catarina Kinnvall, “Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity, and the Search for Ontological Security. Political Psychology 25...Management Policy,” Culture & Psychology 12, no. 4 (2006): 421. 255 Moghaddam, How Globalization Spurs Terrorism, 97–98. 256 Moghaddam

  20. Groupthink: A Significant Threat to the Homeland Security of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    had a devil’s advocate present. The study discovers that regardless of the gender composition of the groups, significantly lower quality decisions...effective attack against Pearl Harbor because Japan was too heavily engaged in other conflicts in Asia . Even after this catastrophic failure and...www.cbsnews.com/news/toxic-morale-crippling-air-marshals/. 151 Department of Homeland Security, Allegations of Misconduct and Illegal Discrimination and

  1. Threats to U.S. National Security Interests in Space: Orbital Debris Mitigation and Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-08

    United Arab Emirates, May 7, 2013, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/2013/209192.htm. 38 Frank A. Rose, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Arms...Space Security Conference 2013: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, Geneva, Switzerland, April 2, 2013, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls... avc /rls/188088.htm. For instance, the Code includes language in which subscribing states pledge to refrain from actions that intentionally damage or

  2. Understanding the nature and threats of drug trafficking to national and regional security in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwesi Aning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several West African states are threatened by increasingly powerful transnational organised criminal networks. Yet, scholarly work on the nature, characteristics and strength of these groups and how their activities threaten states remains sparse, leading to misunderstandings and inadequate appreciation of the precise nature of the threats they pose to West Africa. This paper seeks to fill these lacunae in our knowledge. It focuses on the nexus between drugs, crime and terrorism. It argues that, the financial spin-offs from criminal activities contribute to the development of opportunistic relationships between criminals and extremist groups that threatens West Africa’s fragile states. The analyses are based on evidence from several West African states, but employ the ongoing crisis in the Sahel, particularly Mali, as an empirical case, to demonstrate how ‘profitable collusion’ among different actors permits hollow states to become edifices that allows corruption, criminality and impunity to flourish.

  3. The National Youth Service Corps Programme and Growing Security Threat in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka Okafor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC was established in 1973 after the Nigerian civil war to involve Nigerian university graduates below the age of thirty in nation building. Gradually, the scheme was opened-up for polytechnic graduates.  The article presents the objectives and deployment policy of the programme. It shows that the early phase of the programme recorded the problems of corruption, ghost corps members, accommodation, language barriers as well as hostile culture. However, the contemporary Nigerian society has been overtaken by the destructive wind of insecurity. The article reveals that the various waves of political violence in the country, including Boko Haram terrorism, hostage crises, and geographical threats have turned into a collection of overwhelming menace to the programme, thereby leading to massive agitation for itabrogation. The article recommends for multiple series of reforms in order to protect the lives of many Nigerian graduates that are building the nation through this admirable development programme.

  4. Negotiable Collateral Damage: Civil Liberties Versus National Security in Times of Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    concept: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility , provide for the...Justice‖; 3) ―insure domestic Tranquility ‖; 4) ―provide for the common defence [sic]‖; 5) ―promote the general Welfare‖; and 6) ―secure the Blessings of...authorizations enabled federal agencies ―to intercept wire, oral , and electronic communications relating to terrorism …; seize voice-mail message pursuant to a

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining biodiversity, securing habitats, and reducing threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmann, Jonas

    of this thesis has been to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of protected area in securing biodiversity, by evaluating their ability to either improve conservation responses, the state of biodiversity, or alternatively to reduce the human pressures responsible for the loss of biodiversity. The scope...... already published works. For protected areas ability to reduce habitat loss the evidence is stronger, suggesting that protected areas have been able to reduce the rate of habitat loss compared to a counterfactual scenario. In chapter II we evaluate the different types of methods to assess management...

  6. Game Theory Meets Wireless Sensor Networks Security Requirements and Threats Mitigation: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Abdalzaher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of using game theory for protecting wireless sensor networks (WSNs from selfish behavior or malicious nodes. Due to scalability, low complexity and disseminated nature of WSNs, malicious attacks can be modeled effectively using game theory. In this study, we survey the different game-theoretic defense strategies for WSNs. We present a taxonomy of the game theory approaches based on the nature of the attack, whether it is caused by an external attacker or it is the result of an internal node acting selfishly or maliciously. We also present a general trust model using game theory for decision making. We, finally, identify the significant role of evolutionary games for WSNs security against intelligent attacks; then, we list several prospect applications of game theory to enhance the data trustworthiness and node cooperation in different WSNs.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining biodiversity, securing habitats, and reducing threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmann, Jonas

    Protected areas are amongst the most important conservation responses to halt the loss of biodiversity and cover more than 12.7% of the terrestrial surface of earth. Likewise, protected areas are an important political instrument and a key component of the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD...... of this thesis has been to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of protected area in securing biodiversity, by evaluating their ability to either improve conservation responses, the state of biodiversity, or alternatively to reduce the human pressures responsible for the loss of biodiversity. The scope...... areas do have an effect and that many protected areas have seen an improvement in management over time. A second and perhaps equally important conclusion is that strong empirically based evidence on the effectiveness of protected areas is impeded by the lack of good data to measure change compared...

  8. Game Theory Meets Wireless Sensor Networks Security Requirements and Threats Mitigation: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalzaher, Mohamed S; Seddik, Karim; Elsabrouty, Maha; Muta, Osamu; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Abdel-Rahman, Adel

    2016-06-29

    We present a study of using game theory for protecting wireless sensor networks (WSNs) from selfish behavior or malicious nodes. Due to scalability, low complexity and disseminated nature of WSNs, malicious attacks can be modeled effectively using game theory. In this study, we survey the different game-theoretic defense strategies for WSNs. We present a taxonomy of the game theory approaches based on the nature of the attack, whether it is caused by an external attacker or it is the result of an internal node acting selfishly or maliciously. We also present a general trust model using game theory for decision making. We, finally, identify the significant role of evolutionary games for WSNs security against intelligent attacks; then, we list several prospect applications of game theory to enhance the data trustworthiness and node cooperation in different WSNs.

  9. Salinity a Serious Threat to Food Security – Where Do We Stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.; Shahid, Shabbir A; Pharis, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past many years, overexploitation has shrunk the soil resources to an unprecedented level and there is great concern that it may not be able to provide the needed food to mankind in future, especially the food for the growing population. This shows that we are using soil resources as they are inexhaustible, continuing withdrawing from an account but never paying in and thus jeopardizing our and our children future. Thus soil resources are at the stake of diminishing capacity for ecosystem services including food production. Increasing human population, demographic pressures, climate change, increased competition between land and water resources, water scarcity, land degradation by salinity are likely to increase vulnerability to food security. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations jointly with International Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS) has published the first-ever comprehensive report “status of the world’s soil resources” and the overwhelming conclusion drawn is very astonishing “the majority of the world’s soil resources are in only fair, poor or very poor conditions…” and conditions are getting worse in far more cases than they are improving. It also states that further loss of productive soils will seriously damage food production and food security, amplify food price volatility, and potentially plunge millions of people into hunger and poverty. Globally 33 percent land is in the state of degradation. The report offers evidence that this loss of soil resources and functions can be avoided (FAO and ITPS 2015). The latter part of the above quote gave hope; however, the question is how this damage can be reversed.

  10. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  11. 24 CFR 81.43 - Reports; underwriting and appraisal guideline review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Reports; underwriting and appraisal guideline review. (a) Reports. Each GSE, in the AHAR required under § 81.63, shall assess underwriting standards, business practices, repurchase requirements, pricing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports; underwriting and appraisal...

  12. Construction of Structure of Indicators of Efficiency of Counteraction to Threats of Information Safety in Interests of the Estimation of Security of Information Processes in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kurilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The theorem of system of indicators for an estimation of the security of information processes in the computer systems is formulated and proved. A number of the signs is proved, allowing to consider set of the indicators of efficiency of counteraction to the threats of information safety of the computer systems as the system.

  13. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  14. International Scientific Migration: Progress or a Threat to Russia’s Scientific and Technological Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Anatolyevich Koksharov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus on the issues of scientific migration. This trend is relevant from both an academic perspective — studying the individual’s economic behaviour, as well as practical one, because competition for talent has a significant impact on innovation policy initiatives around the world. Most Russian and foreign researchers are unanimous about the main complication for these studies: the lack of reliable information about scientific researchers’ migration. To search for these data, we have developed a methodology implemented in software based on the big data technology. This software allows to analyse data sets from leading scientific citation bases. The information on scientific migration resulted from the analysis of changes in affiliation. We have collected the data on the scientific migration of researchers employed by the Ural Federal University from the Scopus database. The verification of the obtained data showed their high reliability. Most researchers move to Western European countries and the United States (up to 72 %. The main areas of emigrating researchers’ scientific interests are natural and technical sciences. The optimal approach to minimizing the negative impact of scientific migration on Russia’s scientific and technological security is the practical application of the theory of brain sharing. According to this theory, a large scientific diaspora abroad is an essential resource for the development of science and innovation.

  15. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether

  16. Modelling multiple threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld Policy Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soesbergen, A. J. J.; Mulligan, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores a multitude of threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld policy support system. WaterWorld is a spatially explicit, physically-based globally-applicable model for baseline and scenario water balance that is particularly well suited to heterogeneous environments with little locally available data (e.g. ungauged basins) and which is delivered through a simple web interface, requiring little local capacity for use. The model is capable of producing a hydrological baseline representing the mean water balance for 1950-2000 and allows for examining impacts of population, climate and land use change as well as land and water management interventions on hydrology. This paper describes the application of WaterWorld to the Peruvian Amazon, an area that is increasingly under pressure from deforestation and water pollution as a result of population growth, rural to urban migration and oil and gas extraction, potentially impacting both water quantity and water quality. By applying single and combined scenarios of: climate change, deforestation around existing and planned roads, population growth and rural-urban migration, mining and oil and gas exploitation, we explore the potential combined impacts of these multiple changes on water resources in the Peruvian Amazon and discuss the likely pathways for adaptation to and mitigation against their worst effects. See Mulligan et al. (2013) for a similar analysis for the entire Amazon Basin.

  17. Hybrid threats, cyber warfare and NATO's comprehensive approach for countering 21st centry threats - mapping the new frontier of global risk and security management

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    The end of the so-called ‘Cold War’ has seen a change in the nature of present threats and with it to the overall role and mission of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact in 1991 also removed the original raison d’etre of the Alliance: the prospect of having to repel a Soviet led attack by the Warsaw Pact on the West through the so called ‘Fulda gap’ in Germany (referring to the German lowlands between Frankfurt am Main and the for...

  18. Offensive Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A. Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper try to give us more details about the meaning of directory, and which type of security involved within the intended with each type of the specified directory. The security threats pose a significant and increasing problem for organizations. This is shown by the regular stories of fraud and data loss reported daily in the media in anywhere in the world. There is a need to provide systematic protection from insider attacks because of their privileged access. Moreover, we should provide a systematic protection from the outside attacks, as well. It is worthy to separate the duty of directory by indentifying the main two duties: the duty of the system administrator and the database administrator, and we have to recognize the difference between them. We will provide the researchers with four main threats that might be offensive to the security of directory. Moreover, we will address the nature of attack and the purpose of this attack that may encounter the directory or network assets. Finally, we will show the relation between Active Directory Security and Server Security.

  19. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  20. THE EFFECT OF MULTINATIONAL UNDERWRITING FIRMS ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL DISCLOCURE IN INDONESIAN IPO PROSPECTUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezie L. Warganegara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multinational underwriters on intellectual capitaldisclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Intellectual capital disclosure practices were driven by the adviceof underwriters. Multinational underwriters had a greater capacity to produce more relevant information so itreduced the information gap for IPO market participants. The information included IC disclosure practices inIPO prospectuses. This study found that the nationality of underwriting firms positively affected the extent ofintellectual capital disclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Exposure to IPOs in other countries and theability to combine dispersed knowledge across their international branches seemed to have a positive effect onmulti-national underwriting firms in as much as it led to a higher standard of disclosure of intellectual capitalthan that of local underwriting firms.

  1. Capacity in the energy underwriting market - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhall, L.

    1992-01-01

    It is important to clarify the different definitions of capacity, and in the insurance business this work has two distinct interpretations. The capacity of a Lloyd's syndicate is described by its ability to write premium income. Of more interest is the maximum ability and willingness of an underwriter, whether Lloyds's or Company, to commit itself to catastrophe loss policies. Or put more simply, what is the size of their line? It is this capacity for covering high value catastrophic exposure or Target Risks that will be discussed using the definition that capacity in this case is: ''The ability of insurance markets to cover any single maximum loss''. (Author)

  2. The science of lipidology impacts underwriting and improves mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Substantial change in how we think about lipids and atherosclerosis is on the afoot. Discoveries in lipidology are changing the relative importance of commonly used lipid markers, and indentifying new lipid markers for premature disease, new targets for treatment, and new treatment regimens. These advances in lipid science will definitely change clinical practice. They will also force life insurance medical directors to write new underwriting guidelines and consider new testing paradigms. At a minimum, the new science of lipidology offers an opportunity for alert medical directors to substantially improve risk classification and selection.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism. 8 November 2004, Sydney, Australia, Asia-Pacific Nuclear Safeguards and Security Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Today, the focus of the world is on nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism in Asia and the Pacific, and this address is presenting the perspectives on the challenges IAEA faces, and how the IAEA is working to strengthen nuclear security and the nuclear non-proliferation regime. But one would emphasize at the outset that, while much of our work must begin locally and regionally, we must not forget to think globally, because ultimately the existence of a nuclear threat anywhere is a threat everywhere, and as a global community, we will win or lose this battle together. This presentation, discusses cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks, and the importance of learning from each other. In effect, the focal subject is 'security culture', a mindset that, while providing the impetus for local and regional action, thinks globally and is fully capable of extending across borders. Sixty years ago, on a day in August, the dawn of the Nuclear Age in Asia left nearly a quarter of a million people dead, with two devices considered crude by modern standards. For six decades, we have managed to avoid a repeat of that event, but remain haunted by the prospect. It is my firm belief that we cannot move out from under the shadow of Hiroshima and Nagasaki until we are ready to make that move collectively, and build a system of security that transcends borders, that focuses on the equal value of every human life, and in which nuclear weapons have no place. May it not ultimately be said of our civilization that we created the inventions that led to our own demise

  4. 46 CFR 308.8 - War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. 308.8 Section 308.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.8 War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement. Standard form MA-355 of...

  5. How do underwriters value initial public offerings? An empirical analysis of the french IPO market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates how French underwriters value the stocks of companies they bring public. Underwriters often use several valuation methods to determine their fair value estimate of the initial public offering (IPO) firm's equity. We investigate five of these valuation methods:

  6. 12 CFR 616.6300 - Leasing policies, procedures, and underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing policies, procedures, and underwriting standards. 616.6300 Section 616.6300 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6300 Leasing policies, procedures, and underwriting standards. The board of each institution...

  7. Intelligent Recognition of Acoustic and Vibration Threats for Security Breach Detection, Close Proximity Danger Identification, and Perimeter Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    tested with different types of the horse gaits, namely walk as a 4-beat gait, trot as a 2-beat gait, canter as a 3-beat gait, and gallop as...threat by smart fence sensors is the plan for the future work. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Theodore W. Berger, PhD, is the David Packard Professor of

  8. The institutional dimension of the European Union’s combat transnational crime, as one of the main threats to European security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the role of the leading institutions of European Union in the fight with transnational crime. It was determined that the problem of transnational crime occupies one of the central places in the field of European security. This is due to the fact that the overall level of crime in Europe in recent years has increased several times compared with the beginning of the XXI century. It was found that today transnational crime is becoming a serious obstacle on the way of building stability and sustainable development. It is nothing less than terrorism, illegal immigration affects the state of European security, creating the new center of a danger in Europe. It is proved that each institution has its own specific of struggle, but the unifying factor is that all of them are working on the same thing – the elimination of the threat in order to increase the level of security in Europe in general and in EU in particular. Substantiated the thesis that it is important to further developing of close and constructive cooperation between the main European institutions, as well as mutual exchange of information and data regarding the recent changes and the manifestations of transnational crime. This will give an opportunity to strengthen the European security system, as well as implement common practical methods of counteraction. It was determined that the actualization of the practical component in the framework of EU institutional dimension in the future will contribute to strengthening European.

  9. Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Jerry P

    2008-01-01

    ... between private security and the KCPD. To empower this resource as a terrorism prevention force multiplier the development of a web based virtual knowledge sharing initiative was explored in this study as a solution to provide "one stop...

  10. Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Jerry P

    2008-01-01

    Each day approximately 6,800 members of the private security workforce are deployed across Kansas City to provide protection services at venues, many of which have been identified as being critical...

  11. Counterintelligence Screening Needed lo Reduce Security Threat That Unscreened Local National Linguists Pose to U.S. Forces (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    Logistics Civil Augmentation Program MEP Mission Essential Personnel MFR Memorandum for Record OCI Organizational Conflict of Interest OCONUS Outside...reports would draw conclusions and recollllllel1dations on the retention, hir.ing, or threat posed by the LNs. MEP would send thjl MFRs to tlie...office responsible for issning badges on the local installations if the MFRs had no negative CI infonnation. If the MFRs had CI exploitable information

  12. Promoting nuclear security: What the IAEA is doing. The Agency is implementing a comprehensive programme aimed at stemming the threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The threat to public safety and security posed by some form of nuclear terrorism is not new. But in the wake of recent highly organized terrorist attacks in Kenya, Tanzania, the US, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Morocco and numerous other nations, the international community has come to recognize that new and stronger measures must be taken to protect against and prepare for a diverse range of terrorist scenarios. Given the multiplicity of targets and scenarios for terrorists, States must consider a comprehensive approach to combating nuclear terrorism. Among the key priorities: Adequate physical protection of all nuclear materials, radioactive materials and facilities plus transport systems; Proper regulatory control of nuclear and radioactive material; Effective detection and interdiction of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials; Integration of nuclear safety and security systems for maximum benefits; and Readiness for implementing emergency response plans. The IAEA is assisting its Member States with these challenges in many ways. Through well-established activities, the Agency has been heavily involved in providing assistance and technical support to States in all these areas. The IAEA has established several advisory services to help Member States to assess the effectiveness and the need for improvement of their national physical oversight systems. The IAEA provides peer reviews in related areas such as regulatory or control infrastructures, and also supplies expert technical advice on the required upgrades. Several of these specialized services aim directly at protecting against terrorist threats. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service is a new initiative that is providing specialized services promoting enhanced nuclear security. The International SSAC Advisory Service (ISSAS) is another new initiative providing advice to Member States in strengthening their SSAC. The IAEA also offers the EPREV (Emergency Preparedness REView

  13. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsema, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether there is an association between the level of insured capital and medical risk in terms of mortality. The aim of the study is to examine the prognostic value of parameters from the health declaration and application form on extra mortality based on results from additional medical testing. Methods A history register-based cohort study was conducted including about 15.000 application files accepted between 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, lipids, cotinine and glucose levels were used as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Resampling validation was applied using 250 bootstrap samples to calculate area under the curves (AUC’s). The AUC was used to discriminate between persons with and without at least 25% extra mortality. Results BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration by an insurance physician or medical underwriter showed the strongest discrimination in multivariable analysis. Including all variables at minimum cut-off levels resulted in an AUC of 0.710 while by using a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and gender, the AUC was 0.708. Including all variables at maximum cut-off levels lead to an AUC of 0.743 while a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and age resulted in an AUC of 0.741. Conclusions The outcome of this study shows that BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration were the dominant variables to discriminate between applicants for life-insurance with and without at least 25 percent extra mortality. The variable insured capital set by insurers as factor for additional medical testing could not be established in this study population. The indication for additional medical

  14. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bronsema

    Full Text Available In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD. Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether there is an association between the level of insured capital and medical risk in terms of mortality. The aim of the study is to examine the prognostic value of parameters from the health declaration and application form on extra mortality based on results from additional medical testing.A history register-based cohort study was conducted including about 15.000 application files accepted between 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, lipids, cotinine and glucose levels were used as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Resampling validation was applied using 250 bootstrap samples to calculate area under the curves (AUC's. The AUC was used to discriminate between persons with and without at least 25% extra mortality.BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration by an insurance physician or medical underwriter showed the strongest discrimination in multivariable analysis. Including all variables at minimum cut-off levels resulted in an AUC of 0.710 while by using a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and gender, the AUC was 0.708. Including all variables at maximum cut-off levels lead to an AUC of 0.743 while a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and age resulted in an AUC of 0.741.The outcome of this study shows that BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration were the dominant variables to discriminate between applicants for life-insurance with and without at least 25 percent extra mortality. The variable insured capital set by insurers as factor for additional medical testing could not be established in this study population. The indication for additional medical testing at underwriting life

  15. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsema, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W

    2015-01-01

    In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether there is an association between the level of insured capital and medical risk in terms of mortality. The aim of the study is to examine the prognostic value of parameters from the health declaration and application form on extra mortality based on results from additional medical testing. A history register-based cohort study was conducted including about 15.000 application files accepted between 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, lipids, cotinine and glucose levels were used as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Resampling validation was applied using 250 bootstrap samples to calculate area under the curves (AUC's). The AUC was used to discriminate between persons with and without at least 25% extra mortality. BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration by an insurance physician or medical underwriter showed the strongest discrimination in multivariable analysis. Including all variables at minimum cut-off levels resulted in an AUC of 0.710 while by using a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and gender, the AUC was 0.708. Including all variables at maximum cut-off levels lead to an AUC of 0.743 while a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and age resulted in an AUC of 0.741. The outcome of this study shows that BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration were the dominant variables to discriminate between applicants for life-insurance with and without at least 25 percent extra mortality. The variable insured capital set by insurers as factor for additional medical testing could not be established in this study population. The indication for additional medical testing at underwriting life-insurance can

  16. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on...

  17. Changes in Arable Land Demand for Food in India and China: A Potential Threat to Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmita Nath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available India and China are two similar developing countries with huge populations, rapid economic growth and limited natural resources, therefore facing the massive pressure of ensuring food security. In this paper, we will discuss the food security situations in these two countries by studying the historical changes of food supply-demand balance with the concept of agricultural land requirements for food (LRF from 1963–2009. LRF of a country is a function of population, per capita consumption/diet, cropping yield and cropping intensity. We have attempted to discuss and compare our results in a framework which links consumption of different groups of food items to diet patterns; then, to the total land requirement for food in a scenario when population is growing rapidly and diet diversification and urbanization due to economic reform impose excessive pressure on food security of both countries. We also elaborate on the role of technology dissemination and critically analyze the achievements and drawbacks of government policies to ensure food self-sufficiency and food security of nations. Our results show that the total LRF increases approximately by 42% and 40%, whereas per capita LRF decreases significantly by about 48% and 30% from 1963–2009, for India and China, respectively. Furthermore, our studies reveal that population growth dominates most of the increase in total LRF for India; whereas diet pattern change induced by income growth drives the major increase in LRF for China. Therefore, sustainable management of agricultural land resource is an urgent need both for India and China as there will be demand for more food to meet the diet requirement for the entire population. We also demonstrate the role of India and China in future global food security programs and the challenges to implement the new land reform policies domestically.

  18. Department of Defense Information Network (DODIN): A Study of Current Cyber Threats and Best Practices for Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    had made the decision to move a memorial of the Soviet liberation of Estonia from the Nazis to a “less prominent and visible location in Tallinn... erased . The attack occurred when hackers gained access after a scam e-mail was opened, and a bad link was clicked which allowed access; “In a matter of...with security implications 1995 LINK Symbolic link following 45 46 MEMLEAK Memory leak (doesn’t free memory when it should) 258 METACHAR

  19. Accruals quality, underwriter reputation, and corporate bond underpricing: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between accruals quality and the underpricing of corporate bonds in China and how underwriter reputation affects this relationship. We find that (1 accruals quality is negatively associated with the magnitude of bond underpricing and (2 the impact of low accruals quality on underpricing is partially offset by hiring reputable underwriters. A path analysis shows that approximately 11% of the effect of accruals quality on underpricing is attributable to the indirect path through reputable underwriters, suggesting that accruals quality is more effective than reputable underwriters in lowering bond underpricing. These findings are significant for initial bond offerings, but not for secondary bond offerings. We also find that low accruals quality is associated with more restrictive non-price contract terms such as greater collateral requirements and stricter covenants.

  20. Security an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Purpura, Philip P

    2011-01-01

    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur

  1. Threat Analysis : Work Package 1.2 - Expert Group on the security and resilience of Communication networks and Information systems for Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to be aware of the various threats that are relevant to Smart Grids, the team designed an all hazards threat taxonomy taking into account threats that may harm Smart Grid stakeholders. The analysis and weighting of these threats makes it easier to determine how measures can be taken in

  2. Threat to food security under current levels of ground level ozone: A case study for Indian cultivars of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Richa; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    A higher ozone concentration in rural agricultural region poses threat to food production in developing countries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the growth, biomass accumulation and allocation pattern, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grains for two tropical rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L. cv NDR 97 and Saurabh 950) at ambient O 3 concentrations at a rural site in the Indo Gangetic plains of India. Percent inhibition in number of leaves was higher for NDR 97, but in leaf area for Saurabh 950 grown in non filtered chambers (NFCs) compared to filtered chambers (FCs). Higher inhibition in root biomass was recorded in Saurabh 950 and in leaf and standing dead biomass for NDR 97. During vegetative phase, relative growth rate showed more percent inhibition in Saurabh 950, but at reproductive phase in NDR 97. Net assimilation rate showed higher values for Saurabh 950 than NDR 97 in NFCs but percent inhibition in leaf area ratio was higher for former than latter cultivar in NFCs. The ozone resistance was higher in NDR 97 during vegetative phase, but in Saurabh 950 at reproductive phase. Number of grains was higher in NDR 97 than Saurabh 950, but test weight and weight of grains m -2 showed reverse trends. Concentrations of starch, protein, P, N, Ca, Mg and K decreased, while reducing and total soluble sugar increased in grains of both the cultivars in NFCs compared to FCs. The study concluded that under ambient condition of O 3 exposure, the two cultivars responded differently. Saurabh 950 favoured biomass translocation priority towards ear in reproductive phase and hence showed higher resistivity due to maintenance of higher test weight. NDR 97, however, showed better growth during vegetative period, but could not allocate efficiently to developing ears, hence higher number of unfilled grains in NFCs led lower test weight.

  3. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it. PMID:25538455

  4. The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From ′lessons learned′ to coordinated multilateral containment efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kalra

    2014-01-01

    as a public health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it.

  5. Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN), an Emerging Threat to Maize-Based Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuku, George; Lockhart, Benham E; Wanjala, Bramwel; Jones, Mark W; Kimunye, Janet Njeri; Stewart, Lucy R; Cassone, Bryan J; Sevgan, Subramanian; Nyasani, Johnson O; Kusia, Elizabeth; Kumar, P Lava; Niblett, C L; Kiggundu, Andrew; Asea, Godfrey; Pappu, Hanu R; Wangai, Anne; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2015-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. The disease has since been confirmed in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and similar symptoms have been reported in Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. In 2012, yield losses of up to 90% resulted in an estimated grain loss of 126,000 metric tons valued at $52 million in Kenya alone. In eastern Africa, MLN was found to result from coinfection of maize with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), although MCMV alone appears to cause significant crop losses. We summarize here the results of collaborative research undertaken to understand the biology and epidemiology of MLN in East Africa and to develop disease management strategies, including identification of MLN-tolerant maize germplasm. We discuss recent progress, identify major issues requiring further research, and discuss the possible next steps for effective management of MLN.

  6. Threats and vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  7. India Sinking: Threats to the Right to Food, Food Security & Development, in an Era of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Pillay

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite reports of being Asia’s next economic superpower, India is experiencing a crisis in food that threatens development, peace, and security. Affecting 700 million Indians, the food crisis is caused by the State’s failures to uphold its legal obligations to protect the international human right to food. Conflicting post-Independence agricultural policies, the Green Revolution, and neoliberal reforms imposed at the behest of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization, have dismantled the country’s food production capacity. The result is increased hunger, poverty, malnutrition, starvation, deaths, vast social inequities, inflated food prices, the decimation of small-scale farming, epidemic farmer suicides, and the loss of biodiversity, each of which violate the international human right to food, and threaten development, peace, and security. Part II of this article sets out India’s legal obligations to protect the right to food, the prerequisite of this right for development, and the duty of the State to ensure non-State actors respect this right. Part III of this article explains how and why policy reforms in India have removed key resources from small-scale farmers and rural Indians, leaving India with the highest malnutrition, poverty, and hunger rates in the world. Part IV concludes that the neoliberal reforms have resulted in the failure of the right to food and the right to development in the country, and have perpetuated poverty, powerlessness, and exclusion among India’s poor; India must pursue a development strategy that is human-rights centered, and must implement economic reforms that are grounded in justice, equity, and respect for the inherent dignity of the human being. Some initial areas for reform are identified as a means for the Indian government to protect the right to food, and to work towards the realization of the full benefits of development for all Indians. Malgré les

  8. Securing 'supportive environments' for health in the face of ecosystem collapse: meeting the triple threat with a sociology of creative transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Blake; Dooris, Mark; Haluza-Delay, Randolph

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reflect on and explore what remains to be done to make the concept of supportive environments--one of the Ottawa Charter's five core action areas--a reality in the context of growing uncertainty about the future and accelerated pace of change. We pay particular attention to the physical environment, while underscoring the inextricable links between physical and social environments, and particularly the need to link social and environmental justice. The paper begins with a brief orientation to three emerging threats to health equity, namely ecological degradation, climate change, and peak oil, and their connection to economic instability, food security, energy security and other key determinants of health. We then present three contrasting perspectives on the nature of social change and how change is catalyzed, arguing for an examination of the conditions under which cultural change on the scale required to realize the vision of 'supportive environments for all' might be catalyzed, and the contribution that health promotion as a field could play in this process. Drawing on sociological theory, and specifically practice theory and the work of Pierre Bourdieu, we advocate rethinking education for social change by attending more adequately to the social conditions of transformative learning and cultural change. We conclude with an explication of three key implications for health promotion practice: a more explicit alignment with those seeking to curtail environmental destruction and promote environmental justice, strengthening engagement with local or settings-focused 'communities of practice' (such as the Transition Town movement), and finding new ways to creatively 'engage emergence', a significant departure from the current dominant focus on 'risk management'.

  9. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  10. Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneepkens, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Generalized Linear Model (GLM) were used. Results .- Contrary to the results in the univariate analyses, the multivariate analyses show no difference between the USLT and VBT models. In both models the RHs of SBP and albuminuria increase over time, while the RH of LDH decreases over time. Only the slopes are different, reflecting the rate of mortality increase between USLT and VBT. The RHs of ASAT and serum albumin are independent of time in both models. Discussion .- Time dependency of RHs can be assumed to exist with many risk indicators. Time dependency may take two forms: decreasing the RH and increasing the RH of a variable as time passes. Medical underwriting guidelines should therefore differentiate between short term and long term life insurances. Medical directors should realize that the presence of time dependency diminishes the value of short term clinical studies for life insurance medical underwriting. Life insurance mortality studies should always contain a discussion of the time dependency of the predictive value of the variables under study.

  11. Climate change: A threat towards achieving ‘Sustainable Development Goal number two’ (end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.

  12. Climate change: A threat towards achieving ‘Sustainable Development Goal number two’ (end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.

  13. PROSEDUR UNDERWRITING BANCASSURANCE DAN ASURANSI JIWA SYARIAH PADA PT. ASURANSI TAKÂFUL KELUARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Patriana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the comparative risk selection (of underwriting in bancassurance products and Islamic life insurance products at PT. Family Takaful Insurance. The result revealed that the underwriting procedures of each product are different based on their characteristics. Full protection is designed as a simple of underwriting product only with age provisions and administrative requirements. Financing takâful products cover all financing from the bank. Thus, bank which does the insurance process will make these data as basic information about insurance customers. Since the bank is insured, and apply risk selection process as risky selection process at most insurance companies.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2543

  14. The shape of uncertainty: underwriting decisions in the face of catastrophic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keykhah, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will explore how insurance and re-insurance underwriters price catastrophe risk from natural perils. It will first describe the theoretical nature of pricing risk, and outline studies of underwriting that propose analyzing decision making from a more behavioral than rational choice perspective. The paper then argues that in order to provide the appropriate context for probability (which is the focus of the studies on decision making under uncertainty), it may be helpful to look at the nature of choice within a market and organizational context. Moreover, the nature of probability itself is explored with a review to construct a broader analysis. Finally, it will be argued that the causal framework of the underwriter, in addition to inductive reasoning, provides a shape to uncertainty. (author)

  15. Internal Security Threats to Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    DENSITY (PERSON/SQ. MILE) URBANIZATION (PERCENTAGE) LITERACY (PERCENTAGE) 1951 1961 1951 1961 1951 1961 1951 1961 East Pakistan 41.9 50.8...issues, affected the Mohajirs of urban Sindh and thus, triggered their demand for identification as a fifth ethnic group in Pakistan . To safeguard...noticeable progress in agricultural sector. Pakistan was considered to be a model capitalist economy in the 1960s.176 Periods of rapid growth

  16. Emerging Threats to National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Treverton, Gregory F

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Gregory F. Treverton, Director, Intelligence Policy Center, RAND Corporation, Associate Dean, Pardee RAND Graduate School, before the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, given before the United States...

  17. Extracting Cyber Threat Intelligence From Hacker Forums

    OpenAIRE

    Deliu, Isuf

    2017-01-01

    The use of more sophisticated tools and methods from cyber criminals has urged the cyber security community to look for enhancements to traditional security controls. Cyber Threat Intelligence represents one such proactive approach and includes the collection and analysis of information for potential threats from multiple diverse sources of data. The objective is to understand the methodology that different threat actors are using to launch their campaigns, and proactively adapt security cont...

  18. Emergence and Spread of New Races of Wheat Stem Rust Fungus: Continued Threat to Food Security and Prospects of Genetic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi P; Hodson, David P; Jin, Yue; Lagudah, Evans S; Ayliffe, Michael A; Bhavani, Sridhar; Rouse, Matthew N; Pretorius, Zacharias A; Szabo, Les J; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Basnet, Bhoja R; Lan, Caixia; Hovmøller, Mogens S

    2015-07-01

    Race Ug99 (TTKSK) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, detected in Uganda in 1998, has been recognized as a serious threat to food security because it possesses combined virulence to a large number of resistance genes found in current widely grown wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties and germplasm, leading to its potential for rapid spread and evolution. Since its initial detection, variants of the Ug99 lineage of stem rust have been discovered in Eastern and Southern African countries, Yemen, Iran, and Egypt. To date, eight races belonging to the Ug99 lineage are known. Increased pathogen monitoring activities have led to the identification of other races in Africa and Asia with additional virulence to commercially important resistance genes. This has led to localized but severe stem rust epidemics becoming common once again in East Africa due to the breakdown of race-specific resistance gene SrTmp, which was deployed recently in the 'Digalu' and 'Robin' varieties in Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively. Enhanced research in the last decade under the umbrella of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative has identified various race-specific resistance genes that can be utilized, preferably in combinations, to develop resistant varieties. Research and development of improved wheat germplasm with complex adult plant resistance (APR) based on multiple slow-rusting genes has also progressed. Once only the Sr2 gene was known to confer slow rusting APR; now, four more genes-Sr55, Sr56, Sr57, and Sr58-have been characterized and additional quantitative trait loci identified. Cloning of some rust resistance genes opens new perspectives on rust control in the future through the development of multiple resistance gene cassettes. However, at present, disease-surveillance-based chemical control, large-scale deployment of new varieties with multiple race-specific genes or adequate levels of APR, and reducing the cultivation of susceptible varieties in rust hot-spot areas remains the best

  19. The correlation between concepts of «uncertainty», «risk», «challenge», «threat», «danger» in the context of the sociology of operating security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kalashnikova

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of the concepts led to the conclusion that all these concepts are related to one another by the degree of damage to the individual, society and state. The use of these categories will allow ranking the range of possible threats to the security of life and will contribute to the development of adequate, appropriate technologies to combat it, to minimize their negative effects and, consequently, will improve the current system of ensuring safety of personality, society and state.

  20. Assessing Psycho-Social Resilience in Diplomatic, Civilian & Military Personnel Serving in a High-Threat Security Environment during Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism Operations in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently thousands of military, diplomatic and civilian personnel are deployed under NATO, UN, and other multi-national, as well as national auspices in high-threat security environments, including active conflict zones such as Iraq and Afghanistan.  Soldiers are generally well trained and prepared psychologically to face armed conflict. Civilian contractors and diplomats, on the other hand, often are not.  Moreover in today’s high-threat security environments terrorists, insurgents and even child soldiers may be the opposing force, creating a more uncertain and anxiety provoking environment and more difficult to identify security threat. These facts have serious implications for the psycho-social resilience of diplomatic, civilian and military personnel deployed in such environments.  This article investigates psycho-social resilience in a small exploratory sample of US embassy staff, contractors and US forces serving in Iraq during 2007, a time when Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, roadside bombings, mortar attacks, kidnappings, murders and sniper fire were an everyday occurrence in Iraq.

  1. Appropriateness of using integrated security systems for better protection against terroristic threats to objects of high importance, vulnerable to acts of sabotage

    OpenAIRE

    Rogozhin, Alexander; Drimba, Stanislav; Gerba, Julius

    2008-01-01

    Questions of integrated security systems design of a large industrial object of vital importance, and choice of the optimal construction option, are described in the article. A structure of integrated security system, providing complete security of objects, is suggested by means of the following subsystems integration: access control, video surveillance, security and fire protection alarm system and life-support control.

  2. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  3. Convergent and Discriminant Validiation of Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) Examinations by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajtelsmit, John W.

    1979-01-01

    A validational procedure was used, which involved a matrix of intercorrelations among tests reresenting four areas of Chartered Life Underwriter content knowledge, each measured by objective multiple-choice and essay methods. Results indicated that the two methods of measuring the same trait yielded fairly consistent estimates of content…

  4. 24 CFR 573.5 - Underwriting standards and availability of loan guarantee assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable financial risk under HUD's generally applicable loan underwriting standards based on the following: (1) The Borrower's ability to pay debt service; and (2) The value of the collateral assigned or... insufficient to make the guarantee an acceptable financial risk, or if the proposed interest rates or fees are...

  5. 75 FR 60171 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... credit history in order to properly underwrite the veteran's loan. VA loans may not be guaranteed unless the veteran is a satisfactory credit risk. The data collected on the following forms will be used to... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Proposed Information Collection (Credit...

  6. 75 FR 76082 - Agency Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... must obtain specific information concerning a veteran's credit history in order to properly underwrite the veteran's loan. VA loans may not be guaranteed unless the veteran is a satisfactory credit risk... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Agency Information Collection (Credit...

  7. 78 FR 60379 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... credit history in order to properly underwrite the veteran's loan. VA loans may not be guaranteed unless the Veteran is a satisfactory credit risk. The data collected on the following forms will be used to... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Proposed Information Collection (Credit...

  8. 78 FR 4159 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Direct Endorsement Underwriter/HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... lender's analysis of the appraisal report, identify areas of weakness for future training, and removing lenders that consistently exhibits careless underwriting and subsequently affect the risk to the... information collected is used by FHA to monitor the quality of the lender's analysis of the appraisal report...

  9. Security

    OpenAIRE

    Leander, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that security belongs to a specific category of commodities: “contested commodities” around which there is an ongoing and unsettled symbolic struggle over whether or not they can and should be though of as commodities (section 1). The contested nature of commodification has implications for how markets function; market practices tend to be defined and organized in ways that minimize their contentiousness and obfuscate their expansion. The paper looks at the implications of t...

  10. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  11. Russian Security Strategy under Putin: U.S. and Russian Perspectives. U.S. Interests in the New Eurasia. Russia'a Threat Perception and Strategic Posture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nation, R. C; Trenin, Dimitri

    2007-01-01

    .... Recent Russian policies reflect that perception and Moscow's adaptation to it. We may think this threat perception to be misguided, even bizarrely misconceived, given our own beliefs about what American policy is and what...

  12. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  13. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  14. Mobile IP: Security & application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuquerres, G.; Salvador, M.R.; Sprenkels, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As required in the TGS Mobile IP Advanced Module, this paper presents a survey of common security threats which mobile IP networks are exposed to as well as some proposed solutions to deal with such threats.

  15. 77 FR 55218 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... environment; evolving threats in cyber security; Transportation Security Administration operations; DHS... associated with airport security. Specifically, there will be material presented regarding the latest viable... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0055] Homeland Security Advisory Council...

  16. A Quantitative Approach to Credit Risk Management in the Underwriting Process for the Retail Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Costea

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The core of this paper encloses a mathematical approach of credit risk management, based on a scorecard model used in the bank’s underwriting process. The main purpose of this paper is to present how to develop, validate and apply a rating model in practice. Using 21568 loan applications provided by one of the largest banks from Romania, a scorecard is built for the underwriting purposes. The customer data used in the modeling is based on socio-demographic characteristics. The model is developed according to a set of statistical methods for parameter estimation. A real-life example of how to use such a model in the strategic decisions of a bank is presented. The cut-off score for the acceptance of the applications is calibrated to a potential risk appetite of the main four banks in Romania. From an evaluative perspective, this paper is compatible with an exploratory approach to quantitative research methodology.

  17. Combatting Insider Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter G.

    Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

  18. 17 CFR 200.735-5 - Securities transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... underwriter and hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor... in order to round out fractional shares; (4) To the acceptance of stock dividends on securities... invest in nondiversified registered investment companies. (l) No member or employee shall have a...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION AND UNDERWRITING PERFORMANCE IN UK PROPERTY-LIABILITY INSURANCE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Nghiem, Hien

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between product diversification and underwriting performance. To do this, we use panel data analysis on a long panel data set of UK property-liability insurance market for period from 1985-2010. Our analysis encompasses two stages. Firstly, we examine the effect of product diversification on performance using the whole panel data. The results indicate that diversification has positive relationship with performance, which means that specialized i...

  20. Age dependent decline of relative risks in life insurance medical underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneepkens, Robert F; Lindeboom, R

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY: Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards. People are free to insure themselves for small or large amounts and for short or long-terms. This freedom makes it necessary for life insurers to assess and select the mortality risks in a medical underwriting process. Medical underwriting guidelines are based on company statistics, population surveys following (clinical) epidemiological principles and clinical studies. Mortality of potential life insurance applicants is compared to life tables of insured populations, or to adjusted life tables of the general population. Because many risk determinants have higher normal values at higher ages, it is reasonably to assume that the relative hazards (RHs) or mortality ratios calculated for these risk determinants should be age dependent. This is also common use in underwriting guidelines, and can have much influence on the accessibility of life insurances for (chronically) diseased people. A proof of principle is therefor warranted. This population-based cohort study uses NHANES- datafiles from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which theoretically both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables based on the insured population of 35 US life insurers. The age dependency was assessed of the values and the RH s of the systolic blood Pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotranseferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum

  1. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  2. 49 CFR 1540.115 - Threat assessments regarding citizens of the United States holding or applying for FAA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrator, poses a security threat. (b) Definitions. The following terms apply in this section... piracy or terrorism; (3) A threat to airline or passenger security; or (4) A threat to civil aviation...

  3. 49 CFR 1540.117 - Threat assessments regarding aliens holding or applying for FAA certificates, ratings, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... security threat. (b) Definitions. The following terms apply in this section: Assistant Administrator means...— (1) A threat to transportation or national security; (2) A threat of air piracy or terrorism; (3) A...

  4. Air Cargo Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    security identification display areas ( SIDAs ). This effectively elevates the required security measures for these cargo handling areas and requires...monitoring. Additional technologies, such as computer algorithms for highlighting potential threat objects, may also be considered to aid human observers

  5. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Protecting the source. Securing nuclear material and strong radiation sources. New threats of terrorism are prompting the need for swift action to better secure nuclear material and strong radiation sources. Are measures already in place enough? The Stanford-Salzburg initiative suggests not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2003-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over threats of terrorism, the security of nuclear and radioactive material is an urgent and serious issue. Working with a range of partners, the IAEA has put into place a multi-faceted Action Plan to help countries upgrade their capabilities. But more needs to be done to counter new types of threats. One particular area that needs to be strengthened is the physical protection of nuclear and radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 opened our eyes to i he urgent need to strengthen national physical protection (PP) practices for nuclear and other radioactive material. The principle that highly radioactive material will protect itself does not apply to the newest generation of terrorists. Existing PP systems were not designed to deal with the threat of suicidal terrorists commanding the numbers, skills, training, and resources available to those who carried out the attacks in the US. Moreover, because there are no mandatory international standards for domestic PP systems for nuclear or radioactive material, protection measures vary greatly from country to country. The IAEA recommended standards (Inference/225/Rev. 4) were not designed with the new terrorist threats in mind and national practices often fall short of even these recommendations. The result is inadequate protection against the new form of terrorism. Few argue the point that national physical protection practices for nuclear and other radioactive material need to be strengthened. This article summarizes a Stanford-Salzburg plan developed by experts from Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation, (USA) and revised at the EU-Physical Protection NUMAT Conference in September 2002 in Salzburg, Austria. It includes six recommended elements to consider in addition to what the IAEA is now doing to improve PP practices around the world: Establish a global list of physical protection priorities; Create a multilateral security cooperation

  7. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  8. Hot Under the Collar: Lessons from the 2003 Heatwave in France and the Security Implications for Coping with Environmental Threats in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Stephenson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the sweltering temperatures of August 2003 there were over 15,000 fatalities in France, the majority among the elderly. The heatwave (canicule was the greatest natural catastrophe in Europe for 50 years. Political mismanagement contributed to the death toll and government initially to blame medical services. However, other politico-cultural, societal and psychological factors may have contributed to the failure to protect the most vulnerable citizens. This article identifies 20 obstacles (“pathogens” to ensuring effective response in the face of environmental or weather-related threats, distinguishing between state-institutional and individual-community barriers, most of which have a cultural dimension. These factors require greater consideration by policy-makers to improve preparedness for environmental threats in the EU. The case raises questions about crisis management and how best to reduce risk for elderly populations, illustrating the limits of the state in offering social protection through institutionalised solidarity mechanisms, and recognises calls to strengthen community-capacity.

  9. The threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, S.; Touchard, P.; Ferrandery, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Second chapter of the book on the geopolitics of the sustainable development, this chapter deals with the threats of the climatic change on the earth and the humans. the authors analyze the consequences of the climatic change on the developing countries of the South and the necessity of a sustainable development implementation in the North. They inform on the resources depletion, the water problem, the nuclear activities and the public health and the french government policy facing the sustainable management of the territory. (A.L.B.)

  10. A seguridade social sob a ameaça do ajuste recessivo no Brasil (Social security under threat of recessive adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cortes Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta reflexão sobre a seguridade social como direito do cidadão. Discute o impacto das transferências de renda da seguridade social na redução da pobreza no Brasil. Apresenta as medidas de ajustes recessivos promovidas pelo Governo federal a partir de 2015 em relação à seguridade social. O texto organiza-se em 04 itens, parte da discussão sobre a seguridade social como direito de cidadania, apresenta o contexto neoliberal da década de 1990, a experiência de ampliação da proteção social no período de 2003-2015 e, para finalizar a discussão das medidas adotadas pela EC 095/2016 e da PEC 287/16. O objetivo é apresentar argumentos em defesa da seguridade social como instrumento importante para a redução da pobreza no país. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, documental e dados de sites oficiais do governo federal.Palavras-chave: Seguridade social, transferência de rendas, pobreza, cidadaniaAbstract: The article presents a reflection on social security as a citizen’s right. It discusses the impact of social security income transfers on poverty reduction in Brazil. It presents the measures of recessive adjustments promoted by the FederalGovernment from 2015 on social security. The text is  organized in 04 sessions, part of the discussion on social security as a right of citizenship, presents the neoliberal context of the 1990s, the experience of expanding social protection in the period 2003-2015 and, to finalize the discussion of the measures adopted by EC 095/2016 and PEC 287/16. The objective is to present arguments in defense of social security as an important instrument for the reduction of poverty in the country. The data were obtained through bibliographical research, documentary and data from official websites of the federal government.Key words: Social security, income transfer, poverty,  citizenship

  11. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  12. El crimen organizado en Europa: Una grave amenaza para la seguridad y el orden público/The crime organized in Europe: A serious threat to the security and public order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Rodrigo Luelmo (España

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El crimen organizado es una de las amenazas más graves para la seguridad internacional y de los Estados por la multitud de actividades delictivas que practica, pero también por su mundialización. Su existencia ha preocupado a organizaciones como Naciones Unidas y la Unión Europea, que lo han intentado definir para mejorar la eficacia jurídico-policial en la lucha contra este riesgo. Europa es un espacio muy afectado por el crimen organizado, en forma de mafias (por ejemplo, en Italia y Rusia y narcotraficantes de droga. Se trata, pues, de un fenómeno criminal que pone en riesgo la integridad de los ciudadanos y el respeto al Estado de Derecho en Europa y en el resto del mundo. The organized crime is one of the most important threats for the international and states’ security, because of the enormous variety of punishable activities which practices, but also because of its global spreading. Its existence has worried some organizations such as United Nations and European Union, which have tried to define it in order to improve the judicial and police efficiency in the fight against this threat. Europe is a space very affected by the organized crime, with mafias (e.g., in Italy and Russia and drugs-traffickers. So, this criminal phenomenon risks the citizen’s integrity and the respect for the rule of law in Europe and in the rest of the world.

  13. Anomaly Detection of IP Header Threats

    OpenAIRE

    S.H.C. Haris, Ghossoon M. Waleed, R.B. Ahmad & M.A.H.A. Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Threats have become a big problem since the past few years as computerviruses are widely recognized as a significant computer threat. However, the roleof Information Technology security must be revisit again since it is too often. ITsecurity managers find themselves in the hopeless situation of trying to uphold amaximum of security as requested from management. At the same time they areconsidered an obstacle in the way of developing and introducing newapplications into business and government...

  14. Key issues in body armour: threats, materials and design

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will examine the mechanics and materials of body armour in military, police and some security related applications to protect the wearer from penetrative threats. These threats will include battlefield threats such as shell fragments and high velocity bullets, and threats to law enforcement personnel such as handgun bullets and knives. Regardless of whether the threat is a high velocity bullet, or a knife, the essential requirements of body armour are the same; first an interacti...

  15. 76 FR 81516 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Transportation Security Administration's (TSA) Frequent Traveler Program; examine evolving threats in cyber security; and provide information on the threat of an electromagnetic pulse attack and its associated... Evolving Threats in Cyber Security. Basis for Closure: In accordance with Section 10(d) of the Federal...

  16. Cyber Security : Home User's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Cyber security is important to understand for home users. New technology allows for new cyber threats to emerge and new solutions must be considered to counter them. Nearly every device is connected to the Internet and this opens new possibilities and threats to cyber security. This Bachelor's thesis explores the different aspects of cyber security and suggests solutions to different cyber security issues found. The different aspects of cyber security under research here include personal ...

  17. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  18. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  19. Addressing Software Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  20. Disability insurance : can underwriting criteria for the self-employed be based on predictors used for disability amongst employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.H.; Bronsema, J.; Brouwer, S.; Dijkstra, G.J.; Haselager, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to trace risk factors for disability amongst the self-employed. Knowledge about these risk factors can contribute to more evidence-based underwriting criteria for disability insurance. BACKGROUND: The trend towards privatization of social disability services in certain

  1. 49 CFR 15.5 - Sensitive security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sources and methods used to gather or develop threat information, including threats against cyber..., including threat images and descriptions of threat images for threat image projection systems. (10) Security... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sensitive security information. 15.5 Section 15.5...

  2. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  3. Junos Security

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Rob; Giecco, Patricio; Eberhard, Timothy; Quinn, James

    2010-01-01

    Junos® Security is the complete and authorized introduction to the new Juniper Networks SRX hardware series. This book not only provides a practical, hands-on field guide to deploying, configuring, and operating SRX, it also serves as a reference to help you prepare for any of the Junos Security Certification examinations offered by Juniper Networks. Network administrators and security professionals will learn how to use SRX Junos services gateways to address an array of enterprise data network requirements -- including IP routing, intrusion detection, attack mitigation, unified threat manag

  4. Environmental Threats to Security, Stability, and U.S. Interests in Southern Africa: Opportunity Knocks - Time for a Comprehensive Region Defense Environmental International Cooperation and Environmental Security Assistance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    the region are largely on the wane but, environmental trends and stresses which significantly threaten human security and state stability in the...development in southern Africa. Average annual rainfall for the SADC countries is 948mm; however most of the region‟s area including all of Botswana...the largest proportion being in Mozambique, followed by Angola , South Africa, Zambia and Malawi.”23 Southern Africa has also been hit by acute

  5. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We

  6. US-Central Asian Security. Balancing Opportunities and Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babus, Sylvia

    1999-01-01

    .... While their greatest security threats are internal political repression, inequitable distribution of income, ethnic and tribal unrest their leaders focus instead on external threats such as hostile...

  7. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  8. Secure Transportation Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, P. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  9. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  10. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

  11. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...

  12. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  13. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  14. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  15. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  16. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo

    1987-01-01

    him with his own weapon come close to the myth of the beginning of time when a Lapp managed to secure his existence and defend his community against an outside threat. Without the proto-Lapp battle against evil, the community would not have had a chance to exist, the right to live in its area, as the community does nowadays.

  17. Threat model framework and methodology for personal networks (PNs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    To be able to build a secure network, it is essential to model the threats to the network. A methodology for building a threat model has been proposed in the paper. Several existing threat models and methodologies will be compared to the proposed methodology. The aim of the proposed methodology i...... been used. Also risk assessment methods will be discussed. Threat profiles and vulnerability profiles have been presented....

  18. Embedded Java security security for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Talhi, Chamseddine

    2007-01-01

    Java brings more functionality and versatility to the world of mobile devices, but it also introduces new security threats. This book contains a presentation of embedded Java security and presents the main components of embedded Java. It gives an idea of the platform architecture and is useful for researchers and practitioners.

  19. Security practices and resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Fine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A widely held misconception about the terrorist threat is particularly evident in refugee resettlement practices, where refugees are placed on a security continuum alongside transnational criminals and terrorists.

  20. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart

    2005-01-01

    .... However, policy makers have received mixed signals about the relative security risk posed by GA, due to its diversity and a general lack of detailed information regarding the threat and vulnerability...

  1. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart

    2008-01-01

    .... However, policymakers have received mixed signals about the relative security risk posed by GA, due to its diversity and a general lack of detailed information regarding the threat and vulnerability...

  2. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  3. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  4. Medical Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...

  5. Building a Secure Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Allen C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents tips for building a secure library system to guard against threats like hackers, viruses, and theft. Topics include: determining what is at risk; recovering from disasters; developing security policies; developing front-end security; securing menu systems; accessing control programs; protecting against damage from viruses; developing…

  6. The corporate security professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Lund

    2013-01-01

    In our age of globalization and complex threat environments, every business is called upon to manage security. This tendency is reflected in the fact that a wide range of businesses increasingly think about security in broad terms and strive to translate national security concerns into corporate...... speech. This article argues that the profession of the security manager has become central for understanding how the relationship between national and corporate security is currently negotiated. The national security background of most private sector security managers makes the corporate security...... professional inside the company a powerful hybrid agent. By zooming in on the profession and the practice of national security inside companies, the article raises questions about where to draw the line between corporate security and national security along with the political consequences of the constitution...

  7. Threats and Challenges in Reconfigurable Hardware Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    logic synthesis tools from EDA companies like Cadence, Mentor Graphics, Synopsys, and Magma . Finally, phys- ical synthesis tools transform the logic...example of the former is that DRAM cells contain their contents for seconds to minutes after power- down, even at room temperature and even if removed from...effect that temperature plays on the remanence. It is well-known that SRAM bits at lower temperatures hold charge longer than those at higher

  8. Obesity: A Threat to National Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    the leading causes of premature death in the United States, including our nation‟s biggest killer: heart disease. Furthermore, obesity is now the...Some of the health conditions they face include, but are not limited to:  Sleep apnea  Coronary heart disease  Hypertension  Type 2

  9. Complacency: A Threat to Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    employ vast numbers of men and women made it impractical to select individuals for specific jobs. Thus, the focus shifted to designing for people’s...research scientist, academician, businessman, and philanthropist, started the Santa Fe Institute in Los Alamos, New Mexico ; Stephen Wolfram began the...symptoms of groupthink, including illusions of invulnerability and a sense of superiority, collective rationalization, and stereotyping of outsiders

  10. Narcocultura: A Threat to Mexican National Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    bands account for approximately two-thirds of domestic Latin music sales .132 The style of the narcocorrido is an institutionalized tradition in...derribado aviones que nos han caído al campo a quemarnos los plantíos donde sale el polvo blanco con bazucas y metrallas los hemos mandado al Diablo...legitimacy of the Mexican government’s actions. In August 2011, the Veracruz state government arrested two individuals who falsely reported the kidnapping

  11. The Submersible Threat to Maritime Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    clandestine shipyard in the jungles of Ecuador (Popkin, 2011). Although no drugs were recovered in the raid on the shipyard, this discovery was...July 2, 2010, authorities in Ecuador confiscated a nearly completed 74-foot fully-submersible submarine made of Kevlar and carbon fiber (Popkin, 2011...protect its citizens • Discourage foreign investments, tourism , or assistance programs that can affect the target country’s economy and support of

  12. 49 CFR 1544.305 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessment or to a specific threat against civil aviation, TSA issues a Security Directive setting... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  13. COMPUTER SECURITY AND SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Stošić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing development of computer and communications technology growth and increasing needs and development of information systems security. The problem of security must be approached with greater caution. With the development of computer and communication technologies have developed numerous tools to protect files and other information. A set of tools, procedures, policies and solutions to defend against attacks are collectively referred to as computer network security. It is necessary above all to define and learn about the concepts of attack, risk, threat, vulnerability and asset value. During the design and implementation of information systems should primarily take into account a set of measures to increase security and maintenance at an acceptable level of risk. In any case, there is a need to know the risks in the information system. Sources of potential security problems are challenges and attacks, while the risk relates to the probable outcome and its associated costs due to occurrence of certain events. There are numerous techniques help protect your computer: cryptography, authentication, checked the software, licenses and certificates, valid authorization... This paper explains some of the procedures and potential threats to break into the network and computers as well as potential programs that are used. Guidance and explanation of these programs is not to cause a break-in at someone else's computer, but to highlight the vulnerability of the computer's capabilities.

  14. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  15. Energy security in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosyan, Emil

    2009-09-01

    Yemen, situated in the Arab world, has considerable energy resources. However, its history of repeated revolts, civil wars and terrorism and also the presence of the Wahabi movement and al Qaeda in the country constitute security issues for the energy industry and its infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact level on the security of the energy sector in Yemen and the effect that the threats to that sector could have on global energy security. Analyses of the political environment, the security threats and the measures taken to respond to these threats have been carried out. Results showed that Yemen's resources are depleting and that the government is having trouble containing the escalation of conflicts; this situation could lead to Yemen's political collapse which could have an important impact on global energy security.

  16. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingshott, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  17. DNS security management

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Michael

    2017-01-01

    An advanced Domain Name System (DNS) security resource that explores the operation of DNS, its vulnerabilities, basic security approaches, and mitigation strategies DNS Security Management offers an overall role-based security approach and discusses the various threats to the Domain Name Systems (DNS). This vital resource is filled with proven strategies for detecting and mitigating these all too frequent threats. The authors—noted experts on the topic—offer an introduction to the role of DNS and explore the operation of DNS. They cover a myriad of DNS vulnerabilities and include preventative strategies that can be implemented. Comprehensive in scope, the text shows how to secure DNS resolution with the Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC), DNS firewall, server controls, and much more. In addition, the text includes discussions on security applications facilitated by DNS, such as anti-spam, SFP, and DANE.

  18. Securing the Vista Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "Securing the Vista Environment" takes you on a quick tour of the most significant security features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in almost six years. You'll get background on threats and vulnerabilities that will make you think differently about security. Security is more than just the technology and configurations--it's about how we use the system that makes it secure or not. Then we'll cover Vista's security features, from user privileges to Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker, as well as strategies for protecting your information from unwanted disclo

  19. Security Bingo

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Want to check your security awareness and win one of three marvellous books on computer security? Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us by 31 October 2011 at either Computer.Security@cern.ch or P.O. Box G19710.   Winners[1] must show that they fulfil at least five good practices in a continuous vertical, horizontal or diagonal row. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult http://cern.ch/security. I personally…   …am concerned about computer security. …run my computer with an anti-virus software and up-to-date signature files. …lock my computer screen whenever I leave my office. …have chosen a reasonably complex password. …have restricted access to all my files and data. …am aware of the security risks and threats to CERN’s computing facilities. &hell...

  20. Pattern and security requirements engineering-based establishment of security standards

    CERN Document Server

    Beckers, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Security threats are a significant problem for information technology companies today. This book focuses on how to mitigate these threats by using security standards and provides ways to address associated problems faced by engineers caused by ambiguities in the standards. The security standards are analysed, fundamental concepts of the security standards presented, and the relations to the elementary concepts of security requirements engineering (SRE) methods explored. Using this knowledge, engineers can build customised methods that support the establishment of security standards. Standard

  1. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  2. 76 FR 4123 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    .... The closed portions of the meeting will address threats to our homeland security, results of a cyber... regarding domestic and international threats to our homeland security; a presentation on the timely sharing... who wish to attack our cyber security, and hence, would certainly frustrate the successful...

  3. Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-04-28

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY (CYBER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Ansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Business Organizations and Government unequivocally relies on upon data to deal with their business operations. The most unfavorable impact on association is disappointment of friendship, goodness, trustworthiness, legitimacy and probability of data and administrations. There is an approach to ensure data and to deal with the IT framework's Security inside association. Each time the new innovation is made, it presents some new difficulties for the insurance of information and data. To secure the information and data in association is imperative on the grounds that association nowadays inside and remotely joined with systems of IT frameworks. IT structures are inclined to dissatisfaction and security infringement because of slips and vulnerabilities. These slips and vulnerabilities can be brought on by different variables, for example, quickly creating headway, human slip, poor key particulars, poor movement schedules or censuring the threat. Likewise, framework changes, new deserts and new strikes are a huge piece of the time displayed, which helpers augmented vulnerabilities, disappointments and security infringement all through the IT structure life cycle. The business went to the confirmation that it is essentially difficult to ensure a slip free, risk free and secure IT structure in perspective of the disfigurement of the disavowing security parts, human pass or oversight, and part or supplies frustration. Totally secure IT frameworks don't exist; just those in which the holders may have changing degrees of certainty that security needs of a framework are fulfilled do. The key viewpoints identified with security of data outlining are examined in this paper. From the start, the paper recommends pertinent legitimate structure and their duties including open association obligation, and afterward it returns to present and future time, system limits, structure security in business division. At long last, two key inadequacy markers

  5. Security systems engineering overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.)

  6. 32 CFR 154.61 - Security education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security education. 154.61 Section 154.61... PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Continuing Security Responsibilities § 154.61 Security education. (a... threat to our national security from traditional cold-war era foreign intelligence services, foreign...

  7. Computer Security Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bosworth, Seymour; Whyne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The classic and authoritative reference in the field of computer security, now completely updated and revised With the continued presence of large-scale computers; the proliferation of desktop, laptop, and handheld computers; and the vast international networks that interconnect them, the nature and extent of threats to computer security have grown enormously. Now in its fifth edition, Computer Security Handbook continues to provide authoritative guidance to identify and to eliminate these threats where possible, as well as to lessen any losses attributable to them. With seventy-seven chapter

  8. PBX Security and Forensics A Practical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif I

    2013-01-01

    PBX Security and Forensics begins with an introduction to PBXs (Private Branch Exchanges) and the scene, statistics and involved actors. This book discusses confidentiality, integrity and availability threats in PBXs. The author examines the threats and the technical background as well as security and Forensics involving PBXs. The purpose of this book is to raise user awareness in regards to security and privacy threats present in PBXs, helping both users and administrators safeguard their systems.

  9. Portunes: analyzing multi-domain insider threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    The insider threat is an important problem in securing information systems. Skilful insiders use attack vectors that yield the greatest chance of success, and thus do not limit themselves to a restricted set of attacks. They may use access rights to the facility where the system of interest resides,

  10. Implementing an Information Security Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Lenaeus, Joseph D.; Landine, Guy P.; O' Neil, Lori Ross; Leitch, Rosalyn; Johnson, Christopher; Lewis, John G.; Rodger, Robert M.

    2017-11-01

    The threats to information security have dramatically increased with the proliferation of information systems and the internet. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNe) facilities need to address these threats in order to protect themselves from the loss of intellectual property, theft of valuable or hazardous materials, and sabotage. Project 19 of the European Union CBRN Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Initiative is designed to help CBRN security managers, information technology/cybersecurity managers, and other decision-makers deal with these threats through the application of cost-effective information security programs. Project 19 has developed three guidance documents that are publically available to cover information security best practices, planning for an information security management system, and implementing security controls for information security.

  11. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  12. 77 FR 27208 - Renewal of Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Threat Reduction Agency mission- related matters. The Committee shall be composed of not more than 30... security affairs, weapons of mass destruction, nuclear physics, chemistry, and biology. The Committee...

  13. Preparedness and response to cyber threats require a CSIRT

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The military’s decision to move from proprietary software to commercially available software leaves the military’s Information Technology security vulnerable and potentially unprotected. To be sufficiently prepared to these threats, the military...

  14. Teaching RFID Information Systems Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dale R.; Di, Jia; Daugherty, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    The future cyber security workforce needs radio frequency identification (RFID) information systems security (INFOSEC) and threat modeling educational materials. A complete RFID security course with new learning materials and teaching strategies is presented here. A new RFID Reference Model is used in the course to organize discussion of RFID,…

  15. Towards Formal Analysis of Insider Threats for Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammueller, Florian; Kerber, Manfred; Probst, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    is meaningful to prove correctness and scrutinize vulnerability to security and privacy attacks. Surveying the threats in auctions and insider collusions, we present an approach to model and analyze auction protocols for insider threats using the interactive theorem prover Isabelle. As a case study, we use...

  16. An Intelligent Threat Prevention Framework with Heterogeneous Information

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, WenJun; Liu, Weiru

    2014-01-01

    Three issues usually are associated with threat prevention intelligent surveillance systems. First, the fusion and interpretation of large scale incomplete heterogeneous information; second, the demand of effectively predicting suspects’ intention and ranking the potential threats posed by each suspect; third, strategies of allocating limited security resources (e.g., the dispatch of security team) to prevent a suspect’s further actions towards critical assets. However, in the literature, the...

  17. COOPERATIVE THREAT REDUCTION: DOD Has Adequate Oversight of Assistance, but Procedural Limitations Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... more than $3 billion for the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program to help Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Moldova, and Georgia secure and eliminate weapons of mass destruction...

  18. Insider threat data sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Sellen, Jeremey J.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Insider threat is a significant problem for both governmental and private organizations. Individuals can do immense harm with their trusted accesses. To combat this threat, organizations have created departments with trained analysts whose sole purpose is to deter, detect, and mitigate the insider threat. These analysts monitor employees and analyze activities to detect dangerous practices, whether witting or unwitting, and report thes...

  19. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  20. Strategic information security: facing the cyber impact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategic information security is becoming a more prominent aspect of modern day living. With the strong digital component that forms part of modern day business, the multiplicity of security risks and the emergence of increasingly complex threats...

  1. Security in Computer Applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Computer security has been an increasing concern for IT professionals for a number of years, yet despite all the efforts, computer systems and networks remain highly vulnerable to attacks of different kinds. Design flaws and security bugs in the underlying software are among the main reasons for this. This lecture addresses the following question: how to create secure software? The lecture starts with a definition of computer security and an explanation of why it is so difficult to achieve. It then introduces the main security principles (like least-privilege, or defense-in-depth) and discusses security in different phases of the software development cycle. The emphasis is put on the implementation part: most common pitfalls and security bugs are listed, followed by advice on best practice for security development. The last part of the lecture covers some miscellaneous issues like the use of cryptography, rules for networking applications, and social engineering threats. This lecture was first given on Thursd...

  2. Preparing the Virtual Battlefield for War: A Cyber Threat "Survival Kit" for Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Carol

    2004-01-01

    .... The process presented in this paper merges the structured approach of the IPB with the software/network security community's "Security Threat Modeling" approach into a new process called Intelligence...

  3. Countering Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    threat, and to develop a common vision of how an insider can be categorized as well as an integrated approach that allows a qualitative reasoning about the threat and the possibilities of attacks. This report gives an overview of the discussions and presentations during the week, as well as the outcome...

  4. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  5. An Overview of Computer Network security and Research Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development in the field of computer networks and systems brings both convenience and security threats for users. Security threats include network security and data security. Network security refers to the reliability, confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information in the system. The main objective of network security is to maintain the authenticity, integrity, confidentiality, availability of the network. This paper introduces the details of the technologies used in...

  6. Classification of Security Operation Centers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Security Operation Centers (SOCs) are a necessary service for organisations that want to address compliance and threat management. While there are frameworks in existence that addresses the technology aspects of these services, a holistic framework...

  7. Distance Measurement Methods for Improved Insider Threat Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Lo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insider threats are a considerable problem within cyber security and it is often difficult to detect these threats using signature detection. Increasing machine learning can provide a solution, but these methods often fail to take into account changes of behaviour of users. This work builds on a published method of detecting insider threats and applies Hidden Markov method on a CERT data set (CERT r4.2 and analyses a number of distance vector methods (Damerau–Levenshtein Distance, Cosine Distance, and Jaccard Distance in order to detect changes of behaviour, which are shown to have success in determining different insider threats.

  8. Modeling and simulation of botnet based cyber-threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Rafał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of cyber-threats, with particular emphasis on the threats resulting from botnet activity. Botnets are the most common types of threats and often perceived as crucial in terms of national security. Their classification and methods of spreading are the basis for creating cyberspace model including the presence of different types of cyber-threats. A well-designed cyberspace model enables to construct an experimental environment that allows for the analysis of botnet characteristics, testing its resistance to various events and simulation of the spread and evolution. For this purpose, dedicated platforms with capabilities and functional characteristics to meet these requirements have been proposed.

  9. Core software security security at the source

    CERN Document Server

    Ransome, James

    2013-01-01

    First and foremost, Ransome and Misra have made an engaging book that will empower readers in both large and small software development and engineering organizations to build security into their products. This book clarifies to executives the decisions to be made on software security and then provides guidance to managers and developers on process and procedure. Readers are armed with firm solutions for the fight against cyber threats.-Dr. Dena Haritos Tsamitis. Carnegie Mellon UniversityIn the wake of cloud computing and mobile apps, the issue of software security has never been more importan

  10. Security in Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cempírek, Václav; Nachtigall, Petr; Široký, Jaromír

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with security of logistic chains according to incorrect declaration of transported goods, fraudulent transport and forwarding companies and possible threats caused by political influences. The main goal of this paper is to highlight possible logistic costs increase due to these fraudulent threats. An analysis of technological processes will beis provided, and an increase of these transport times considering the possible threatswhich will beis evaluated economic costs-wise. In the conclusion, possible threat of companies'` efficiency in logistics due to the costs`, means of transport and increase in human resources` increase will beare pointed out.

  11. Nuclear and radiological Security: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, James Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear security includes the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer, or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The presentation begins by discussing the concept and its importance, then moves on to consider threats--insider threat, sabotage, diversion of materials--with considerable emphasis on the former. The intrusion at Pelindaba, South Africa, is described as a case study. The distinction between nuclear security and security of radiological and portable sources is clarified, and the international legal framework is touched upon. The paper concludes by discussing the responsibilities of the various entities involved in nuclear security.

  12. Nuclear and radiological Security: Introduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Nuclear security includes the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer, or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The presentation begins by discussing the concept and its importance, then moves on to consider threats--insider threat, sabotage, diversion of materials--with considerable emphasis on the former. The intrusion at Pelindaba, South Africa, is described as a case study. The distinction between nuclear security and security of radiological and portable sources is clarified, and the international legal framework is touched upon. The paper concludes by discussing the responsibilities of the various entities involved in nuclear security.

  13. VoIP Security

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanini, Piero

    2008-01-01

    VOIP or Voice Over Internet Protocol is a common term for phone service over IP based networks. There are much information about VoIP and some of how VoIP can be secured. There is however no standard for VoIP and no general solution for VoIP Security. The security in VoIP systems today are often non existing or in best case weak and often based on proprietary solutions. This master thesis investigates threats to VoIP system and describes existing alternatives for securing Vo...

  14. Climate Change and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. a. REPORT Climate Change and National...Security 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Does climate change constitute a national security threat to the United States? What is climate ...resources for an in-depth discussion on national security and climate change . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  15. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR... INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must be... information. The facility may obtain defensive security, threat awareness, and other education and training...

  16. Information Security Issues in Higher Education and Institutional Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Information security threats to educational institutions and their data assets have worsened significantly over the past few years. The rich data stores of institutional research are especially vulnerable, and threats from security breaches represent no small risk. New genres of threat require new kinds of controls if the institution is to prevent…

  17. Web threat and its implication for E-business in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Web threat is any threat that uses the internet to facilitate identity theft , fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering. Web -based vulnerabilities now outnumber traditional computer security concerns. Such threats use multiple types of malware and fraud, all of which utilize HTTP or HTTPS protocols, but may also employ ...

  18. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  19. Enterprise Mac Security Mac OS X Snow Leopard Security

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Stephen Charles; Hunter, Beau; Sullivan, Gene; LeBlanc, Dee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception in the Mac community is that Mac's operating system is more secure than others. While this might be true in certain cases, security on the Mac is still a crucial issue. When sharing is enabled or remote control applications are installed, Mac OS X faces a variety of security threats. Enterprise Mac Security: Mac OS X Snow Leopard is a definitive, expert-driven update of the popular, slash-dotted first edition and was written in part as a companion to the SANS Institute course for Mac OS X. It contains detailed Mac OS X security information, and walkthroughs on securing s

  20. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U...... to be addressed in order to successfully conduct IW. As result of researching the issues associated with developing a JIIM approach to IW, the paper makes the following recommendations: • Establishing universally accepted concepts and doctrines for IW, UW, Foreign Internal Defense (FID), Counter Insurgency (COIN......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  1. Network Intrusion Detection with Threat Agent Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Bajtoš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in usage of computer systems and computer networks, the problem of intrusion detection in network security has become an important issue. In this paper, we discuss approaches that simplify network administrator’s work. We applied clustering methods for security incident profiling. We consider K-means, PAM, and CLARA clustering algorithms. For this purpose, we used data collected in Warden system from various security tools. We do not aim to differentiate between normal and abnormal network traffic, but we focus on grouping similar threat agents based on attributes of security events. We suggest a case of a fine classification and a case of a coarse classification and discuss advantages of both cases.

  2. Examining the Relationship of Business Operations and the Information Security Culture in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Cynthia L.

    2017-01-01

    An increase in information technology has caused and increased in threats towards information security. Threats are malware, viruses, sabotage from employees, and hacking into computer systems. Organizations have to find new ways to combat vulnerabilities and threats of internal and external threats to protect their information security and…

  3. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  5. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  6. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  7. Security, insecurity and health

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, Robin

    2007-01-01

    An examination of the nexus of security, insecurity and health shows that security is a prerequisite for health. The many and varied ways that armed violence — including threats of armed violence — can affect people’s health can be documented by formal studies; however, valuable data also exist in other reports, such as media reports. The health community needs to recognize that people’s insecurity is a massive global health issue. The foreign policies of donor governments should incorporate ...

  8. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    adaptation (learning). The increasingly complex demands facing analysts evaluating activity threatening to the security of the United States make the family of agent-based data collection (fusion) a promising area. This paper will discuss a system to support the collection and evaluation of potential threat activity as well as an approach fro presentation of the information.

  9. Water Privatization: A Threat to Human Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelich, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, women often have responsibilities that are water dependent, such as collecting water and tending to the sick (Sewpaul, 2008: 45) As unpolluted water supplies diminish, these tasks become increasingly difficult to accomplish. Women face greater threats to their security as they are forced to walk farther, occasionally into dangerous areas, and lose several hours of their day, potentially reducing the household income and resulting in missed economic opportunities (Sewp...

  10. 17 CFR 210.12-18 - Supplemental information (for property-casualty insurance underwriters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 Information included in audited financial statements, including other schedules, need not be...%-or-less-owned equity investors that file this information as registrants in their own right exceeds... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental information (for...

  11. Securing Failed Inner-City Communities: The Military's Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Oral

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the threat to internal security posed by violent gangs. This threat was found to be particularly acute in inner-city communities that have over time devolved to a status that the author classified as failed communities...

  12. Threats Management Throughout the Software Service Life-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlend Andreas Gjære

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Software services are inevitably exposed to a fluctuating threat picture. Unfortunately, not all threats can be handled only with preventive measures during design and development, but also require adaptive mitigations at runtime. In this paper we describe an approach where we model composite services and threats together, which allows us to create preventive measures at design-time. At runtime, our specification also allows the service runtime environment (SRE to receive alerts about active threats that we have not handled, and react to these automatically through adaptation of the composite service. A goal-oriented security requirements modelling tool is used to model business-level threats and analyse how they may impact goals. A process flow modelling tool, utilising Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN and standard error boundary events, allows us to define how threats should be responded to during service execution on a technical level. Throughout the software life-cycle, we maintain threats in a centralised threat repository. Re-use of these threats extends further into monitoring alerts being distributed through a cloud-based messaging service. To demonstrate our approach in practice, we have developed a proof-of-concept service for the Air Traffic Management (ATM domain. In addition to the design-time activities, we show how this composite service duly adapts itself when a service component is exposed to a threat at runtime.

  13. BASIC CONCEPTS OF TAX SECURITY AS PART OF THE FINANCIAL SECURITY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Golikov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to examine the essence of the term «tax security», its fundamental characteristics, such as threats, risks, interests and protection, defined how the state could provide them. The paper analyses economic, social and legal nature of the term. Key indicators of tax security of Ukraine identified and analyzed. In addition, the paper studies an integrated approach of tax security threats. In case of a big amount of threats, they divided to four main sources of threats: the state of the national economy, the state of the public finances, social features of the society and institutional environment. For each source, there have been identified and analyzed the most important factors of threats of tax security of Ukraine. Methodology. The survey based on an analysis of existing studies of Ukrainian and foreign scientists about the essence and nature of "tax security" for the last 10 years. In addition, to determine the essence and the concept, goals and objectives, methods and principles of the economic nature of the tax security, main risks, threats, expectations and results of efficient tax security identified. To build an integrated approach it is necessary to analyse all existing and potential factors of threats. There data used from reports of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine, PWC and World Bank. Results of the survey showed that tax security is such a condition of tax security, when the process of harmonization of taxation provided under effective management of risks and threats that arise in tax area, by taking the necessary measures by the executive bodies to meet the interests of the state, society and taxpayers (business entities, organizations, people. Integrated approach of threats analysis of tax security shows that the most dangerous threats are those that are associated with poor economic development, considerable socio-economic stratification of

  14. Materialism and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  15. PRIVATE SECURITY IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  16. Human rights and internal security in Malaysia rhetoric and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, Noor Hishmuddian

    2006-01-01

    Since 1957, Malaysia has faced external and internal security threats. Over time, Malaysia has succeeded in solving the external threats but internal threats remained. The internal threats have come in many forms, including ethnic conflict, religious extremism and deviationism, and terrorism. Since the safety of the public lies in the hands of the government, measures have been taken to ensure the nation's stability and security, including restriction on civil and political liberties. This th...

  17. Security and Network Operations [video

    OpenAIRE

    Myrick, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Senior Security Engineer, Matthew Myrick discusses the current cyber threats that we are all facing, the five W's (who, what, when, where, and how) of cyber security, past and present cyber-attack trends, and ways you can help protect yourself and your enterprise from cyber-attack.

  18. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  19. Co-opting human security and deductions for security policy-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its conceptual basis derives from the inadequacy of the state-centric conception of security to comprehensively address threats to people, particularly those of a non-military nature. Despite agreement over the importance of making the individual the referent object of security, specific threats that should be considered under ...

  20. Cloud Computing Security: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa M. Khalil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an emerging technology paradigm that migrates current technological and computing concepts into utility-like solutions similar to electricity and water systems. Clouds bring out a wide range of benefits including configurable computing resources, economic savings, and service flexibility. However, security and privacy concerns are shown to be the primary obstacles to a wide adoption of clouds. The new concepts that clouds introduce, such as multi-tenancy, resource sharing and outsourcing, create new challenges to the security community. Addressing these challenges requires, in addition to the ability to cultivate and tune the security measures developed for traditional computing systems, proposing new security policies, models, and protocols to address the unique cloud security challenges. In this work, we provide a comprehensive study of cloud computing security and privacy concerns. We identify cloud vulnerabilities, classify known security threats and attacks, and present the state-of-the-art practices to control the vulnerabilities, neutralize the threats, and calibrate the attacks. Additionally, we investigate and identify the limitations of the current solutions and provide insights of the future security perspectives. Finally, we provide a cloud security framework in which we present the various lines of defense and identify the dependency levels among them. We identify 28 cloud security threats which we classify into five categories. We also present nine general cloud attacks along with various attack incidents, and provide effectiveness analysis of the proposed countermeasures.

  1. Computer Security: Security operations at CERN (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Stefan Lueders, PhD, graduated from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and joined CERN in 2002. Being initially developer of a common safety system used in all four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, he gathered expertise in cyber-security issues of control systems. Consequently in 2004, he took over responsibilities in securing CERN's accelerator and infrastructure control systems against cyber-threats. Subsequently, he joined the CERN Computer Security Incident Response Team and is today heading this team as CERN's Computer Security Officer with the mandate to coordinate all aspects of CERN's computer security --- office computing security, computer centre security, GRID computing security and control system security --- whilst taking into account CERN's operational needs. Dr. Lueders has presented on these topics at many different occasions to international bodies, governments, and companies, and published several articles. With the prevalence of modern information technologies and...

  2. Argumentation-Based Security Requirements Elicitation: The Next Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan; Bullee, Jan-Willem; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2014-01-01

    Information Security Risk Assessment can be viewed as part of requirements engineering because it is used to translate security goals into security requirements, where security requirements are the desired system properties that mitigate threats to security goals. To improve the defensibility of

  3. Reassessing biological threats: Implications for cooperative mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Grace Young

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapons threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a deeper appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm, as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation.

  4. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  5. Web security a whitehat perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    MY VIEW OF THE SECURITY WORLDView of the IT Security WorldBrief History of Web SecurityBrief History of Chinese HackersDevelopment Process of Hacking TechniquesRise of Web SecurityBlack Hat, White HatBack to Nature: The Essence of Secret SecuritySuperstition: There Is No Silver BulletSecurity Is an Ongoing ProcessSecurity ElementsHow to Implement Safety AssessmentAsset ClassificationThreat AnalysisRisk AnalysisDesign of Security ProgramsArt of War of White HatPrinciples of Secure by DefaultBlacklist, WhitelistPrinciple of Least PrivilegePrinciple of Defense in DepthPrinciples of Data and Code

  6. Wireless network security theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zihong

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Network Security Theories and Applications discusses the relevant security technologies, vulnerabilities, and potential threats, and introduces the corresponding security standards and protocols, as well as provides solutions to security concerns. Authors of each chapter in this book, mostly top researchers in relevant research fields in the U.S. and China, presented their research findings and results about the security of the following types of wireless networks: Wireless Cellular Networks, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs), Bluetooth

  7. Building an intelligence-led security program

    CERN Document Server

    Liska, Allan

    2014-01-01

    As recently as five years ago, securing a network meant putting in a firewall, intrusion detection system, and installing antivirus software on the desktop. Unfortunately, attackers have grown more nimble and effective, meaning that traditional security programs are no longer effective. Today's effective cyber security programs take these best practices and overlay them with intelligence. Adding cyber threat intelligence can help security teams uncover events not detected by traditional security platforms and correlate seemingly disparate events across the network. Properly-implemented inte

  8. Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2013-01-01

    In late August 2012 the Government Forum of Incident Response and Cyber security Teams (GFIRST) gathered in Atlanta to discuss cyber threats and how new realities are emerging and how new forms of regulation are needed. At the same time Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism was published. This comprehensive book brings together a divergent problem and tackles each with a candid exploration. The book has ten chapters and covers aspects such as extortion via the internet, the ps...

  9. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  10. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  11. Proactive approach to Corporate Security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Security Dr Marthie Grobler Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.zaSlide 2 Introduction "The success of the Internet has not only changed how the world does business... and safety © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.zaSlide 6 What is Corporate Security? • Modern day businesses… • strong digital component • multiplicity of security risks • emergence of increasingly complex threats … necessitate an integrated...

  12. European Security in the Wider Black Sea Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinga, Aurelian

    2007-01-01

    ...; these tactics are jeopardizing the international security environment. This project examines geopolitical, geo-economical, and geostrategic tendencies, vulnerabilities, risks, and threats in the wider Black Sea area...

  13. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Vulnerability Assessment and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kessel, Adam; Goodwin, Shane

    2005-01-01

    The proliferation of wireless computer equipment and Local Area Networks (LANs) create an increasingly common and growing threat to Marine Corps Network infrastructure and communication security (COMSEC...

  14. A Secure Communication Framework for ECUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shuja Siddiqui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Control Units (ECUs generate diagnostic and telemetric data that is communicated over the internal vehicular network. ECUs are resource constraint devices and have limited resources to devote for data security. In recent times, threats against vehicular networks have emerged that require attention of the research community. In this paper, we demonstrate data security threats in automobile, and present a hardware based security framework that provides real time secure communication using lightweight cryptographic primitives and propose hardware based authentication protocol. Implementation details, performance and security analysis of proposed framework are presented.

  15. Security Issues in E-learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiantis, L. E.; Stergiou, E.; Margariti, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    With increasing threats to e-software, security will become a high priority in the systems of the future. What is debatable, however, is how that security will be approached. Current security methods manage potential risks with restrictive, autocratic mechanisms that ignore users, their tasks and the organisational setting. The result is a dramatic decrease in the usability of online programs. Another approach, proposed by this paper, is to develop security and its mechanisms for and with its users. Whichever approach is taken, security is set to be the burning issue of the future as users trust the global online world less and the threats from unauthorised access increase.

  16. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo

  17. Modeling and Verification of Insider Threats Using Logical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    and use a common trick from the formal verification of security protocols, showing that it is applicable to insider threats. We introduce briefly a three-step process of social explanation, illustrating that it can be applied fruitfully to the characterization of insider threats. We introduce the insider......In this paper, we combine formal modeling and analysis of infrastructures of organizations with sociological explanation to provide a framework for insider threat analysis. We use the higher order logic (HOL) proof assistant Isabelle/HOL to support this framework. In the formal model, we exhibit...... theory constructed in Isabelle that implements this process of social explanation. To validate that the social explanation is generally useful for the analysis of insider threats and to demonstrate our framework, we model and verify the insider threat patterns of entitled independent and Ambitious Leader...

  18. Overview of security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulanya, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear Security culture concept has been aggressively promoted over the past several years as a tool to improve the physical protection of the nuclear and radioactive materials due to growing threats of catastrophic terrorism and other new security challenges. It is obvious that, the scope of nuclear security and the associated cultures need to be extended beyond the traditional task of protecting weapons-usable materials. The role of IAEA is to strengthen the nuclear security framework globally and in leading the coordination of international activities in this field. Therefore all governments should work closely with the IAEA to take stronger measures to ensure the physical protection, the safety and security of the nuclear and radioactive materials. In the effort to reflect this new realities and concerns, the IAEA in 2008 came up with the document, the Nuclear Security Culture, Nuclear Security Series No. 7, Implementing Guide to the member states which urged every member state to take appropriate measures to promote security culture with respect to nuclear and radioactive materials. The document depicted this cultural approach as the way to protect individual, society and the environment. Among other things, the document defined nuclear security culture as characteristics and attitudes in organizations and of individuals which establishes that, nuclear security issues receives attention warranted by their significance. (au)

  19. Assessing and managing security risk in IT systems a structured methodology

    CERN Document Server

    McCumber, John

    2004-01-01

    SECURITY CONCEPTSUsing ModelsIntroduction: Understanding, Selecting, and Applying Models Understanding AssetsLayered Security Using Models in Security Security Models for Information Systems Shortcomings of Models in SecuritySecurity in Context Reference Defining Information SecurityConfidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Information AttributesIntrinsic versus Imputed Value Information as an Asset The Elements of Security Security Is Security Only in Context Information as an Asset Introduction Determining Value Managing Information Resources ReferencesUnderstanding Threat and Its Relatio

  20. Animal Botulism Outcomes in the AniBioThreat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Skarin, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter animal...... bioterrorism threats. A detection portfolio with screening methods for botulism agents and incidents was needed to improve tracking and tracing of accidental and deliberate contamination of the feed and food chain with botulinum neurotoxins and other Clostridia. The complexity of this threat required acquiring...

  1. Security Assistance in Nigeria: Shaping the International Environment to Meet U.S. National Security Objectives in the Global Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prendergast, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... While American interests in Sub-Saharan Africa are significant and growing, there are also important transnational security threats, infectious diseases, organized international criminal activities...

  2. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  3. Network systems security analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  4. Making Technology Work for Campus Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreno, Jeff; Keil, Brad

    2010-01-01

    The challenges associated with securing schools from both on- and off-campus threats create constant pressure for law enforcement, campus security professionals, and administrators. And while security technology choices are plentiful, many colleges and universities are operating with limited dollars and information needed to select and integrate…

  5. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  6. Improving Insider Threat Training Awareness and Mitigation Programs at Nuclear Facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Shannon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, insider threat programs have become an important aspect of nuclear security, and nuclear security training courses. However, many nuclear security insider threat programs fail to address the insider threat attack and monitoring potential that exists on information technology (IT) systems. This failure is critical because of the importance of information technology and networks in today’s world. IT systems offer an opportunity to perpetrate dangerous insider attacks, but they also present an opportunity to monitor for them and prevent them. This paper suggests a number of best practices for monitoring and preventing insider attacks on IT systems, and proposes the development of a new IT insider threat tabletop that can be used to help train nuclear security practitioners on how best to implement IT insider threat prevention best practices. The development of IT insider threat best practices and a practical tabletop exercise will allow nuclear security practitioners to improve nuclear security trainings as it integrates a critical part of insider threat prevention into the broader nuclear security system.

  7. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  8. AP1000 Design for Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, L.B.; Cummins, W.E.; Winters, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are protected from potential security threats through a combination of robust structures around the primary system and other vital equipment, security systems and equipment, and defensive strategy. The overall objective for nuclear power plant security is to protect public health and safety by ensuring that attacks or sabotage do not challenge the ability to safely shutdown the plant or protect from radiological releases. In addition, plants have systems, features and operational strategies to cope with external conditions, such as loss of offsite power, which could be created as part of an attack. Westinghouse considered potential security threats during design of the AP1000 PWR. The differences in plant configuration, safety system design, and safe shutdown equipment between existing plants and AP1000 affect potential vulnerabilities. This paper provides an evaluation of AP1000 with respect to vulnerabilities to security threats. The AP1000 design differs from the design of operating PWRs in the US in the configuration and the functional requirements for safety systems. These differences are intentional departures from conventional PWR designs which simplify plant design and enhance overall safety. The differences between the AP1000 PWR and conventional PWRs can impact vulnerabilities to security threats. The NRC addressed security concerns as part of their reviews for AP1000 Design Certification, and did not identify any security issues of concern. However, much of the detailed security design information for the AP1000 was deferred to the combined Construction and Operating License (COL) phase as many of the security issues are site-specific. Therefore, NRC review of security issues related to the AP1000 is not necessarily complete. Further, since the AP1000 plant design differs from existing PWRs, it is not obvious that the analyses and assessments prepared for existing plants also apply to the AP1000. We conclude that, overall, the AP1000

  9. Securing Chinese nuclear power development: further strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    Chinese President Xi Jinping addresses China's new concept of nuclear security with four 'equal emphasis' at the third Nuclear Security Summit, and makes four commitments to strengthen nuclear security in the future. To convert President Xi's political commitments into practical, sustainable reality, China should take further steps to install a complete, reliable, and effective security system to ensure that all its nuclear materials and nuclear facilities are effectively protected against the full spectrum of plausible terrorist and criminal threats. This paper suggests the following measures be taken to improve China's existing nuclear security system, including updating and clarifying the requirements for a national level DBT; updating and enforcing existing regulations; further promoting nuclear security culture; balancing the costs of nuclear security, and further strengthening international cooperation on nuclear security. (author)

  10. The Threat Among Us: Insiders Intensify Aviation Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Katie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Aviation terrorism is powerful and symbolic, and will likely remain a staple target for terrorists aiming to inflict chaos and cause mass casualties similar to the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. The majority of international and domestic aviation terrorist attacks involves outsiders, or people who do not have direct access to or affiliation with a target through employment. However, several significant attacks and plots against the industry involved malicious employees motivated by suicide or devotion to a terrorist organization. Malicious insiders’ access and knowledge of aviation security, systems, networks, and infrastructure is valuable to terrorists, providing a different pathway for attacking the industry through the insider threat. Indicators and warnings of insider threats in these cases exist, providing insight into how security agencies, such as the Transportation Security Administration, can better predict and identify insider involvement. Understanding previous aviation insider threat events will likely aid in stimulating proactive security measures, rather than reactive responses. However, similar to traditional airport security measures, there are social, political, and economic challenges in protecting against the insider threat, including privacy concerns and cost-benefit analysis.

  11. Cyber Intelligence Threat Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    actors resources. Money People Tools Training Motive Why do threat actors attack? Determining an actor’s motive provides insight into the...possible direction of their behavior. and determines their interest in targeting the organization. t Intrinsic (personally rewarding) Extrinsic (receive...Prioritization October 1, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Relevance From leadership to rank-and-file employees . the Internet offers a communication

  12. Your employees: the front line in cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenden, D

    2016-01-01

    First published in The Chemical Engineer and reproduced by Crest - Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats, 26/01/2016 (https://crestresearch.ac.uk/comment/employees-front-line-cyber-security/)

  13. Mac Security Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Your essential, no-holds-barred guide to Mac security threats and solutions. Myth number one: Macs are safer than PCs. Not really, says author Joe Kissell, named one of MacTech's "25 Most Influential People" in the Mac community for 2008. In this timely guide, he not only takes you beyond the myths, he also delves into the nitty-gritty of each potential threat, helping you weigh the pros and cons of the solutions you might choose. Learn to measure risk versus inconvenience, make informed decisions, and protect your Mac computers, your privacy, and your data with this essential guide.

  14. Cyberspace security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ferragut, Erik M

    2014-06-24

    A system evaluates reliability, performance and/or safety by automatically assessing the targeted system's requirements. A cost metric quantifies the impact of failures as a function of failure cost per unit of time. The metrics or measurements may render real-time (or near real-time) outcomes by initiating active response against one or more high ranked threats. The system may support or may be executed in many domains including physical domains, cyber security domains, cyber-physical domains, infrastructure domains, etc. or any other domains that are subject to a threat or a loss.

  15. Extreme hydrological events and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security – the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  16. Machine-assisted Cyber Threat Analysis using Conceptual Knowledge Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Barrere Cambrun, M; BETARTE, G; CODOCEDO, V; RODRIGUEZ, M; ASTUDILLO, H; ALIQUINTUY, M; BALIOSIAN, J; BADONNEL, R; FESTOR, O; RANIERY PAULA DOS SANTOS, C; CAMPOS NOBRE, J; ZAMBENEDETTI GRANVILLE, L; NAPOLI, A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, computer networks have evolved into highly dynamic and interconnected environments, involving multiple heterogeneous devices and providing a myriad of services on top of them. This complex landscape has made it extremely difficult for security administrators to keep accurate and be effective in protecting their systems against cyber threats. In this paper, we describe our vision and scientific posture on how artificial intelligence techniques and a smart use of security k...

  17. Threats to NATO external borders in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the current security dilemma in Syria with the focus on production, use, and the process of disposal of chemical weapons and its impacts. Specifically, the thesis addresses the issue of Syria's chemical weapons in the context of threats to NATO external borders. Degree of Security in the region and Resistance effort are measured according to RAND. Consequently, phases of Chemical weapons Program implementation in Syria are analyzed according to ACWA model....

  18. Analysis of the Rising Threat of Subverting Privacy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Privacy technologies have become extremely prevalent in recent years from secure communication channels to the Tor network. These technologies were designed to provide privacy and security for users, but these ideals have also led to increased criminal use of the technologies. Privacy and anonymity are always sought after by criminals, making these technologies the perfect vehicles for committing crimes on the Internet. This paper will analyze the rising threat of subverting privacy technolog...

  19. Security model for VM in cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaparti, Venkataramana; Naveen K., R.; Rajani, S.; Padmvathamma, M.; Anitha, C.

    2013-03-01

    Cloud computing is a new approach emerged to meet ever-increasing demand for computing resources and to reduce operational costs and Capital Expenditure for IT services. As this new way of computation allows data and applications to be stored away from own corporate server, it brings more issues in security such as virtualization security, distributed computing, application security, identity management, access control and authentication. Even though Virtualization forms the basis for cloud computing it poses many threats in securing cloud. As most of Security threats lies at Virtualization layer in cloud we proposed this new Security Model for Virtual Machine in Cloud (SMVC) in which every process is authenticated by Trusted-Agent (TA) in Hypervisor as well as in VM. Our proposed model is designed to with-stand attacks by unauthorized process that pose threat to applications related to Data Mining, OLAP systems, Image processing which requires huge resources in cloud deployed on one or more VM's.

  20. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  1. Secure Java For Web Application Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bhargav, Abhay

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet has evolved, so have the various vulnerabilities, which largely stem from the fact that developers are unaware of the importance of a robust application security program. This book aims to educate readers on application security and building secure web applications using the new Java Platform. The text details a secure web application development process from the risk assessment phase to the proof of concept phase. The authors detail such concepts as application risk assessment, secure SDLC, security compliance requirements, web application vulnerabilities and threats, security

  2. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  3. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    World Airport NSAS National Strategy for Aviation Security OIS Office of Intelligence SIDA Security Identification Display Area STA Security...extortion to aid an individual or organization intent on doing harm to an aircraft. D. CONCERNS, CONSEQUENCES, AND COUNTERMEASURES The consequences...Security of the secured area”, 1542.205, “Security of the security identification display area ( SIDA )”, and 1542.209, “Fingerprint-based criminal

  4. Big data, little security: Addressing security issues in your platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Thomas; Mathews, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes some patterns for information security problems that consistently emerge among traditional enterprise networks and applications, both with respect to cyber threats and data sensitivity. We draw upon cases from qualitative studies and interviews of system developers, network operators, and certifiers of military applications. Specifically, the problems discussed involve sensitivity of data aggregates, training efficacy, and security decision support in the human machine interface. While proven techniques can address many enterprise security challenges, we provide additional recommendations on how to further improve overall security posture, and suggest additional research thrusts to address areas where known gaps remain.

  5. Managing threats from emerging technologies: can safeguards show the way?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffer, Teri N.

    2014-01-01

    The system of international nuclear safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is primarily a means of verification of states’ commitments under various legal instruments, principally the Nuclear Non‑Proliferation Treaty (NPT), to utilize controlled nuclear fission for peaceful purposes only. However, the safeguards system can also be seen as a mechanism through which states acted to reduce the threat posed by a new technology that had a transformative impact on existing national security paradigms when it emerged in the twentieth century. In the twenty‑first century, new technologies with equally profound national security implications are emerging. These include biotechnology and synthetic biology, nano technology, information technology, cognitive science, robotics and artificial intelligence. Throughout its history, the safeguards system has evolved to accommodate new technologies, new undertakings and new threats. Because multiple emerging technologies now constitute potential national security threats, it is appropriate to consider whether and how the lessons and successes of the safeguards system, including its capacity to evolve in response to changing requirements, could be leveraged to mitigate the threat posed by these new technologies. This paper addresses the possibility of re‑imagining safeguards in a way that makes them applicable to a broader range of technology‑based threats without compromising their effectiveness for their original purpose.

  6. Terrorism: Global Threat Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three significant developments will characterize the global threat landscape in 2017. First, it is likely that the so-called Islamic State (IS will transform itself from a caliphate-building entity into a global terrorist movement in a similar manner as Al Qaeda (AQ. Second, the death of either the IS leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi or AQ leader Ayman al Zawahiri, may lead to collaboration or possible unification of the most powerful terrorist groups. IS, AQ and their associates will compensate for their losses in the physical space by expanding further into cyber space

  7. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  8. Future consumer mobile phone security : a case study using the data centric security model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the interconnected world that we live in, traditional security barriers are broken down. Developments such as outsourcing, increased usage of mobile devices and wireless networks each cause new security problems. To address the new security threats, a number of solutions have been suggested,

  9. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  10. Securing social media in the enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Securing Social Media in the Enterprise is a concise overview of the security threats posed by the use of social media sites and apps in enterprise network environments. Social media sites and apps are now a ubiquitous presence within enterprise systems and networks, and are vulnerable to a wide range of digital systems attacks. This brief volume provides security professionals and network systems administrators a much-needed dive into the most current threats, detection techniques, and defenses for these attacks, and provides a roadmap for best practices to secure and manage social media wi

  11. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  12. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  13. As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Scientists doing research on primates are increasingly being subjected to threats and acts of violence from animal rights groups. The intimidation has resulted in many laboratories taking extensive security measures. Some scientists claim, however, that there is no surrogate for animal research in understanding human diseases. There are fears that…

  14. No Dark Corners: Defending Against Insider Threats to Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Delphi survey on the insider threat. The next round will focus on telltale signs or indicators (aka traplines). The final round will focus on...control systems, and to places or assets equipped with surveillance cameras, alarms, or access control devices. Corporate sentinels are the...Chief of detectives. Former military policeman. Expert 5 Critical infrastructure security director. Former undercover agent of federal law

  15. New and emerging threats of cyber crime and terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in information and communication technologies (ICT) inextricably bring new threats to the end-users and society. However, the last 40 years have shown that many of the same cyber security design and programming failures occur over and over again when a new ICT innovation and development

  16. Hydrological extremes and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  17. Security Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?......What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?...

  18. Nuclear energy technology transfer: the security barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The problems presented by security considerations to the transfer of nuclear energy technology are examined. In the case of fusion, the national security barrier associated with the laser and E-beam approaches is discussed; for fission, the international security requirements, due to the possibility of the theft or diversion of special nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facilities, are highlighted. The paper outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and terrorist threat, examples of security barriers, and the current approaches to transferring technology. (auth)

  19. Modeling behavioral considerations related to information security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F. (Decision and Information Sciences); (SNL); (Univ. at Albany)

    2011-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model for the identification of threats to security systems. This model integrates judgment, decision-making, and learning theories to provide a unified framework for the behavioral study of upcoming threats.

  20. Information Technology and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Dorothy E.

    2003-01-01

    in Grave New World: Global Dangers in the 21st Century (Michael Brown ed.), Georgetown Press, 2003. (.pdf of prepublication version) This paper examines key trends and developments in information technology, and the implications of those developments on stability and security. Focus is on cyber threats to computer networks, including information theft and sabotage, and acts that disrupt or deny services. Seven trend areas are examined: ubiquity, mobility, hacking tools, perform...

  1. Threat, prejudice and the impact of the riots in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Eline A; Goodwin, Matthew J; Pickup, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how a major outbreak of rioting in England in 2011 impacted on prejudice toward three minority groups in Britain: Muslims, Black British and East Europeans. We test whether the riots mobilized individuals by increasing feelings of realistic and symbolic threat and ultimately prejudice, or whether the riots galvanized those already concerned about minorities, thus strengthening the relationship between threat and prejudice. We conducted three national surveys - before, after and one year on from the riots - and show that after the riots individuals were more likely to perceive threats to society's security and culture, and by extension express increased prejudice toward Black British and East European minorities. We find little evidence of a galvanizing impact. One year later, threat and prejudice had returned to pre-riots levels; however, results from a survey experiment show that priming memories of the riots can raise levels of prejudice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  3. Information fusion: telling the story (or threat narrative)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2014-06-01

    Today's operators face a "double whammy" - the need to process increasing amounts of information, including "Twitter-INT"1 (social information such as Facebook, You-Tube videos, blogs, Twitter) as well as the need to discern threat signatures in new security environments, including those in which the airspace is contested. To do this will require the Air Force to "fuse and leverage its vast capabilities in new ways."2 For starters, the integration of quantitative and qualitative information must be done in a way that preserves important contextual information since the goal increasingly is to identify and mitigate violence before it occurs. To do so requires a more nuanced understanding of the environment being sensed, including the human environment, ideally from the "emic" perspective; that is, from the perspective of that individual or group. This requires not only data and information that informs the understanding of how the individuals and/or groups see themselves and others (social identity) but also information on how that identity filters information in their environment which, in turn, shapes their behaviors.3 The goal is to piece together the individual and/or collective narratives regarding threat, the threat narrative, from various sources of information. Is there a threat? If so, what is it? What is motivating the threat? What is the intent of those who pose the threat and what are their capabilities and their vulnerabilities?4 This paper will describe preliminary investigations regarding the application of prototype hybrid information fusion method based on the threat narrative framework.

  4. Insider Threat Indicator Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Figure 12 shows a key with the symbols used to visualize the ontology. Figure 12: Diagram Key CMU/SEI-2016-TR-007 | SOFTWARE ENGINEERING...security guard is defined as an employee who guards, patrols, or monitors a premises to prevent theft, violence , or infractions of rules...malicious actions of an insider. Event Organization isVictimOrganizationOf hasWife hasSpouse This relates a married woman to her spouse. Person Person

  5. Threats to Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-01

    subjects and objects of attacks contribute to the uniqueness of computer-related crime. For example, as the cashless , checkless society approaches...advancing computer tech- nology and security methods, and proliferation of computers in bringing about the paperless society . The universal use of...organizations do to society . Jerry Schneider, one of the known perpetrators, said that he was motivated to perform his acts to make money, for the

  6. The 2015 Transition of Wartime Operational Control: A Threat or Opportunity for the ROK /US Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    threats ( SWOT ) analysis . The findings of this study include recommendations regarding the future of the ROK / U.S. security alliance after wartime... SWOT ) Analysis , Combined Forces Command (CFC), United Nations Command (UNC), ROK Joint Chief of Staff (JCS), Security Consultative Meeting (SCM...lenses, and applied a critical factor analysis using an ends, ways, means, as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats ( SWOT ) analysis . The

  7. Threats, protests greet conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-04

    In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate.

  8. Intelligent Model for Video Survillance Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidhya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance system senses and trails out all the threatening issues in the real time environment. It prevents from security threats with the help of visual devices which gather the information related to videos like CCTV’S and IP (Internet Protocol cameras. Video surveillance system has become a key for addressing problems in the public security. They are mostly deployed on the IP based network. So, all the possible security threats exist in the IP based application might also be the threats available for the reliable application which is available for video surveillance. In result, it may increase cybercrime, illegal video access, mishandling videos and so on. Hence, in this paper an intelligent model is used to propose security for video surveillance system which ensures safety and it provides secured access on video.

  9. 77 FR 64533 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... submission of biometric and biographic information for TSA's security threat assessment in order to obtain... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration [Docket No. TSA-2003-14610] Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security Threat...

  10. 75 FR 52961 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... submission of biometric and biographic information for TSA's security threat assessment in order to obtain... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration [Docket No. TSA-2003-14610] Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security Threat...

  11. Biospheric Changes are Threat Multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    A threat multiplier is defined as another agent that impacts a current situation, creating an additional set of problems while also making existing problems worse. Sometimes a seemingly innocent change in the biosphere can cause major alterations and become a threat multiplier. Because the biosphere is a highly interactive system, damage to a single component, like the ocean for example, will produce a ripple effect throughout the entire system. In order for humans to eliminate threat multip...

  12. Securing Cloud - The Quantum Way

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Marmik

    2015-01-01

    Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability are basic goals of security architecture. To ensure CIA, many authentication scheme has been introduced in several years. Currently deployment of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a most significant solution. PKI involving exchange key using certificates via a public channel to a authenticate users in the cloud infrastructure. It is exposed to widespread security threats such as eavesdropping, the man in the middle attack, masquerade et al. Quantu...

  13. Security sonar for water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenbuhler, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility

  14. Cyber security of critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros A. Maglaras

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems are essential for monitoring and managing electric power generation, transmission and distribution. In the age of the Internet of Things, SCADA has evolved into big, complex and distributed systems that are prone to be conventional in addition to new threats. Many security methods can be applied to such systems, having in mind that both high efficiency, real time intrusion identification and low overhead are required. Keywords: SCADA systems, Security

  15. Threat Barometer. Ten Years of Terrorist Threat Assessment Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, which was commissioned by the NCTV to mark the occasion of the conference “Threat Barometer. Ten years of Terrorist Threat Assessments for the Netherlands 2005-2015”, we address this and other aspects of the DTN and consider how this instrument has developed over the past decade. We

  16. Thinking about threats: Memory and prospection in human threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Adam; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans. For instance, mental time travel empowers people to contemplate and learn from threats experienced long ago, as well as to plan for dangers that might arise in the distant future. However, despite their functional benefits, these thought processes are also central to contemporary anxiety disorders and may be a potent source of distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. To the Question on the Nature of Military Threats and Non-Military Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambu R. Tsyrendorzhjyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of "military danger, military threats, military and non-military measures to Parry, and other definitions from the policy of the State to ensure the military security of the now widely used in journalism, conceptual, other documents and research. The attentive reader it is not difficult to notice the ambiguity in the interpretation of these concepts. This makes it difficult to not only the perception of the relevant topics for ensuring military security publications, but also the development of the theory and practice of ensuring the defence and security of the State. The author's view on the essence of the reasoning logic of non-military measures to counter military threats, as the ultimate goal of the article is the following.First the task of analyzing the concept of "national security", "object of national security" and understand the functions of the State, society and the individual to ensure national security. Decomposition of an object of national security, which is "national property" (the content of the concepts described in the article has made it possible to substantiate the basis for classification of national security threats and with better understanding of the nature, variety, Genesis. This provided a rationale for the role and the place of the tasks ensuring military security in the common task of ensuring national security, the correlation of military and non-military threats.The final phase of the research, the results of which are set out in the article is devoted to analysis of military threats, which made it possible to identify their main structural elements: source, media, military-political and strategic nature, install the main factors defining the content of these elements and their interaction. Based on these results, the proposed definition of the essence of non-military measures for counteracting of military threats, as well as guidelines for developing these measures.

  18. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  19. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  20. Dying for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  1. Technology Empowerment: Security Challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skocypec, Russell D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    “Technology empowerment” means that innovation is increasingly accessible to ordinary people of limited means. As powerful technologies become more affordable and accessible, and as people are increasingly connected around the world, ordinary people are empowered to participate in the process of innovation and share the fruits of collaborative innovation. This annotated briefing describes technology empowerment and focuses on how empowerment may create challenges to U.S. national security. U.S. defense research as a share of global innovation has dwindled in recent years. With technology empowerment, the role of U.S. defense research is likely to shrink even further while technology empowerment will continue to increase the speed of innovation. To avoid falling too far behind potential technology threats to U.S. national security, U.S. national security institutions will need to adopt many of the tools of technology empowerment.

  2. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Understanding Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Inglehart, Ronald F.; Norris, Pippa

    2011-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, security studies have broadened to take into account a wide range of non-military threats ranging from poverty to environmental concerns rather than just national defense. Security scholars, backed by international organizations and a growing number of national governments, have developed the concept of Human Security, focusing on the welfare of ordinary people against a broad range of threats. This has aroused vigorous debate. Part I of this paper proposes an a...

  3. Redefining National Security. Worldwatch Paper 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    This paper, an adaption from the author's forthcoming book "The Twenty-Ninth Day: Accomodating Human Needs and Numbers to the Earth's Resources," deals with non-military threats to national security. Since World War II the concept of national security has acquired an overwhelmingly military character. The policy of continual preparedness has led…

  4. Ten national cyber security strategies: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Besseling, K. van; Spoelstra, M.; Graaf, P. de

    2013-01-01

    A number of nations developed and published a national cyber security strategy (NCSS). Most of them were published in the period 2009 - 2011. Despite the fact that each of these NCSS intends to address the cyber security threat, large differences exist between the NCSS approaches. This paper

  5. Social Networks and Corporate Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gennadievna Kondratova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is defined in the article social networks as a tool in the hands of cyber-criminals to compromise the organization’s data. The author focuses on a list of threats to information security caused by social networks usage, which should be considered in the set up of information security management system of the company.

  6. Promoting Economic Security through Information Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of economic insecurity is a global threat to national security. In Nigeria today, we have witness a lot of national security issues that risks the continued existence of the country as one indivisible political entity with many calling for disintegration. Hitherto, many terrorist networks have sprang up in many parts of ...

  7. Promoting Economic Security through Information Technology Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... Abstract. The problem of economic insecurity is a global threat to national security. In Nigeria today, we have witness a lot of national security issues that risks the continued existence of the country as one indivisible political entity with many calling for disintegration. Hitherto, many terrorist networks have ...

  8. Physical security of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, H.

    1987-01-01

    A serious problem with present security systems at nuclear facilities is that the threats and standards prepared by the NRC and DOE are general, and the field offices are required to develop their own local threats and, on that basis, to prepared detailed specifications for security systems at sites in their jurisdiction. As a result, the capabilities of the systems vary across facilities. Five steps in particular are strongly recommended as corrective measures: 1. Those agencies responsible for civil nuclear facilities should jointly prepare detailed threat definitions, operational requirements, and equipment specifications to protect generic nuclear facilities, and these matters should be issued as policy. The agencies should provide sufficient detail to guide the design of specific security systems and to identify candidate components. 2. The DOE, NRC, and DOD should explain to Congress why government-developed security and other military equipment are not used to upgrade existing security systems and to stock future ones. 3. Each DOE and NRC facility should be assessed to determine the impact on the size of the guard force and on warning time when personnel-detecting radars and ground point sensors are installed. 4. All security guards and technicians should be investigated for the highest security clearance, with reinvestigations every four years. 5. The processes and vehicles used in intrafacility transport of nuclear materials should be evaluated against a range of threats and attack scenarios, including violent air and vehicle assaults. All of these recommendations are feasible and cost-effective. The appropriate congressional subcommittees should direct that they be implemented as soon as possible

  9. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  10. Consideration on Measures against Insiders Threats in ROK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungmin; Yim, Hobin; Hong, Yunjeong

    2015-01-01

    They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. Because of these reasons, IAEA published 'The Implementing Guide Preventive and Protective Measures against Insider Threats, IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 8' to help understanding of the Member States. This paper focus on the current status of the measures to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in Republic of KOREA. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of facilities where they are working or have worked to bypass dedicated security measures. Therefore, insiders can be the most dangerous threats to cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy of nuclear facilities. Preventive and protective measures against the potential insiders in the nuclear facilities are yet insufficient according to the security inspection results. Especially, preventive and protective measures for unauthorized removal of nuclear material by insiders are the weakest area of whole security systems and should be further strengthened

  11. The changing proliferation threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopko, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Technological advances and new adversaries with new motives have reduced the relevancy and effectiveness of the American nonproliferation strategy that was developed during the Cold War. The Cold War`s end and the breakup of the Soviet Union have created new proliferation dangers even as they have reduced others. The familiar balance of nuclear terror that linked the superpowers and their client states for nearly 50 years in a choreographed series of confrontations has given way to a much less predictable situation, where weapons of unthinkable power appear within the grasp of those more willing to use them. Rogue nations and {open_quotes}clientless{close_quotes} states, terrorist groups, religious cults, ethnic minorities, disaffected political groups, and even individuals appear to have jointed a new arms race toward mass destruction. The author describes recent events that suggest the new trends and a serious challenge to US national security.

  12. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  13. Radon transform based automatic metal artefacts generation for 3D threat image projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megherbi, Najla; Breckon, Toby P.; Flitton, Greg T.; Mouton, Andre

    2013-10-01

    Threat Image Projection (TIP) plays an important role in aviation security. In order to evaluate human security screeners in determining threats, TIP systems project images of realistic threat items into the images of the passenger baggage being scanned. In this proof of concept paper, we propose a 3D TIP method which can be integrated within new 3D Computed Tomography (CT) screening systems. In order to make the threat items appear as if they were genuinely located in the scanned bag, appropriate CT metal artefacts are generated in the resulting TIP images according to the scan orientation, the passenger bag content and the material of the inserted threat items. This process is performed in the projection domain using a novel methodology based on the Radon Transform. The obtained results using challenging 3D CT baggage images are very promising in terms of plausibility and realism.

  14. Threat driven modeling framework using petri nets for e-learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities at various levels are main cause of security risks in e-learning system. This paper presents a modified threat driven modeling framework, to identify the threats after risk assessment which requires mitigation and how to mitigate those threats. To model those threat mitigations aspects oriented stochastic petri nets are used. This paper included security metrics based on vulnerabilities present in e-learning system. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System designed to provide a normalized method for rating vulnerabilities which will be used as basis in metric definitions and calculations. A case study has been also proposed which shows the need and feasibility of using aspect oriented stochastic petri net models for threat modeling which improves reliability, consistency and robustness of the e-learning system.

  15. Mobile device security for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Campagna, Rich; Krishnan, Ashwin

    2011-01-01

    The information you need to avoid security threats on corporate mobile devices Mobile devices have essentially replaced computers for corporate users who are on the go and there are millions of networks that have little to no security. This essential guide walks you through the steps for securing a network and building a bulletproof framework that will protect and support mobile devices in the enterprise. Featuring real-world case scenarios, this straightforward guide shares invaluable advice for protecting mobile devices from the loss of sensitive and confidential corporate informati

  16. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  17. Security management of next generation telecommunications networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    This book will cover network management security issues and currently available security mechanisms by discussing how network architectures have evolved into the contemporary NGNs which support converged services (voice, video, TV, interactive information exchange, and classic data communications). It will also analyze existing security standards and their applicability to securing network management. This book will review 21st century security concepts of authentication, authorization, confidentiality, integrity, nonrepudiation, vulnerabilities, threats, risks, and effective approaches to enc

  18. The Extended Concept of Security and the Czech Security Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Stejskal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the extended concept of security, the nation state is no longer the sole privileged reference object of security. The traditional model of national security is developing from military terms to a broader concept which embraces the international, economic, social, environmental, and human rights dimensions of security. The meaning and relevance of the concept is being extended “upwards”, to international organisations, and “downwards”, to regional and local authorities, non-governmental organisations, communities, and individual citizens. This has immediate bearing on the everyday security reality of the Czech Republic. In international context, the “security frontier” of the Czech Republic is expanding, e.g. through the country’s involvement in UN and NATO security missions in conflict-ridden regions of Europe and the world. The country also helps enhance the internal security of the European Union, whose strength depends on its Member States’ willingness to “harmonise” the pursuit of their respective national security interests. This approach is especially important with regard to the principal security threats Europe faces and will continue to face in the future: terrorism and organised crime. It is vital that the Czech Republic have a well-working security system capable of responding effectively to a broad range of threats. This requirement applies first and foremost to the Police, the Fire and Rescue Service, and intelligence services. Unfortunately, with the present effectiveness of the Czech security system, much remains wishful thinking and, due to the lack of a comprehensive framework, a comparatively low level of protection against emergencies exists. Fight against crime is hampered by inefficient operation of the Police and judiciary. A thorough analysis of the aforementioned problems could provide basis for a broader public debate over the priorities and goals of Czech security policy, which should

  19. EVOLUTION OF SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TO THE ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslav Maksymiuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the article analyzed the history of origin, evolution of the concept “economic security” and shown that forming of the scientific meaning of economic category passed a few stages. By means of historical method are distinguished basic events and periods of development of scientific thought about economic security, their reasons, pre-conditions and consequences. Analyzed the scientific developments sanctified to research of economic security on the different levels of economic system. Confirmed that economic security of national economy are the fundamental category in the system of economic security. Keywords: security, economic security, globalization, economic security of national economy, threat to economic security. JEL: H 56

  20. Survey of network and information security technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; Wang Xiaozhen

    2007-01-01

    With the rapidly development of the computer network technology and informationize working of our Country, Network and Information Security issues becomes the focal point problem that people shows solicitude for. On the basis analysing security threat and challenge of network information and their developing trend. This paper briefly analyses and discusses the main relatively study direction and content about the theory, technology and practice of Network and Information Security. (authors)