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Sample records for underwent premature chromosome

  1. Study on biological dosimetry of premature chromosome condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo

    2005-01-01

    The premature chromosome condensation technique has been applied for biological dosimetry purpose. Premature chromo-some condensation was induced by incubating unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of okadaic acid or calyculin A (a phosphatase inhibitor) which eliminated the need for fusion with mitotic cells. It is now possible to examine the early damage induced by radiation. It is simple, exact when it combines with fluorecence in situ hybridization. (authors)

  2. Identification of Chromosomes Alterations in Primary Breast Cancer Using Premature Chromosome Condensation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffin, Constance

    2000-01-01

    .... We are developing a new method, premature chromosome condensation (PCC),using mitotic Xenopus extracts that will allow us to obtain G-banded karyotypes from primary, uncultured breast cancer specimens...

  3. Drug-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) protocols: cytogenetic approaches in mitotic chromosome and interphase chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome analysis is a fundamental technique which is used in wide areas of cytogenetic study including karyotyping species, hereditary diseases diagnosis, or chromosome biology study. Chromosomes are usually prepared from mitotic cells arrested by colcemid block protocol. However, obtaining mitotic chromosomes is often hampered under several circumstances. As a result, cytogenetic analysis will be sometimes difficult or even impossible in such cases. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) (see Note 1) is an alternative method that has proved to be a unique and useful way in chromosome analysis. Former, PCC has been achieved following cell fusion method (cell-fusion PCC) mediated either by fusogenic viruses (e.g., Sendai virus) or cell fusion chemicals (e.g., polyethylene glycol), but the cell fusion PCC has several drawbacks. The novel drug-induced PCC using protein phosphatase inhibitors was introduced about 20 years ago. This method is much simpler and easier even than the conventional mitotic chromosome preparation protocol use with colcemid block and furthermore obtained PCC index (equivalent to mitotic index for metaphase chromosome) is usually much higher than colcemid block method. Moreover, this method allows the interphase chromatin to be condensed to visualize like mitotic chromosomes. Therefore drug-induced PCC has opened the way for chromosome analysis not only in metaphase chromosomes but also in interphase chromatin. The drug-induced PCC has thus proven the usefulness in cytogenetics and other cell biology fields. For this second edition version, updated modifications/changes are supplemented in Subheadings 2, 3, and 4, and a new section describing the application of PCC in chromosome science fields is added with citation of updated references.

  4. Premature chromosome condensation studies in human leukemia. I. Pretreatment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittelman, W N; Broussard, L C; McCredie, K

    1979-11-01

    The phenomenon of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was used to compare the bone marrow proliferation characteristics of 163 patients with various forms of leukemia prior to the initiation of new therapy. The proliferative potential index (PPI, or fraction of G1 cells in late G1 phase) and the fraction of cells in S phase was determined and compared to the type of disease and the bone marrow blast infiltrate for each patient. Previously untreated patients with acute leukemia exhibited an average PPI value three times that of normal bone marrow (37.5% for acute myeloblastic leukemia [AML], acute monomyeloblastic leukemia [AMML], or acute promyelocytic leukemia [APML] and 42% for acute lymphocytic leukemia [ALL] or acute undifferentiated leukemia [AUL]). Untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients showed intermediate PPI values (25.2%), whereas CML patients with controlled disease exhibited nearly normal PPI values (14.6%). On the other hand, blastic-phase CML patients exhibited PPI values closer to that observed in patients with acute leukemia (35.4%). Seven patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exhibited even higher PPI values. No correlations were observed between PPI values, fraction of cells in S phase, and marrow blast infiltrate. For untreated acute disease patients, PPI values were prognostic for response only at low and high PPI values. These results suggest that the PCC-determined proliferative potential is a biologic reflection of the degree of malignancy within the bone marrow.

  5. Induction of premature chromosome condensation by calyculin A for bio dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, S.; Mozdarani, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Premature chromosome condensation is a method for interphase chromosome analysis in bio dosimetry. This study was performed to verify the usefulness of premature chromosome condensation induced by calyculin A in human peripheral blood lymphocytes for biological dosimetry and possible construction of dose-response curve. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood was obtained from a healthy donor and exposed to various doses(0.25- 4 Gy) of γ-rays. The frequency of simple breaks and dicentrics were scored in G 2/M chromosomes of Giemsa stained cells. Results:Results show that the frequency of simple chromosome breaks appears to increase linearly with dose; while the frequency of dicentrics apparently increases linear-quadratically with the dose. Conclusion: Induction of chromosome condensation by calyculin A is a powerful biodisimetric method, which provides a high number of spreads for analysis. With the use of this method, it is possible to overcome problems related to low mitotic index or cell-cycle alterations in routine metaphase analysis and low fusion rate in conventional Premature chromosome condensation technique

  6. Chromosome condensation and radiation-induced G2 arrest studied by the induction of premature chromosome condensation following cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; Bedford, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    When mitotic and interphase cells are fused together, the chromosomes of the interphase cell sometimes condense prematurely. The phenomenon of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was utilized in investigating the problem of whether the chromosomes of cells suffering a radiation-induced G 2 delay are capable of condensation. Colcemide-arrested mitotic cells were fused with synchronized G 2 cells, and with irradiated cells suffering a G 2 delay. The frequency of PCC in mitotic X G 2 binucleate cells was determined. This was compared to the PCC frequency in an unirradiated synchronized population rich in G 2 cells after fusion with mitotic cells. Flash-labelling with 3 HTdR and autoradiography allowed S-phase cells to be eliminated. The frequency of G 2 PCCs was not significantly different for the irradiated G 2 -delayed or unirradiated cells. From these results it was concluded that the chromosomes of cells suffering a G 2 arrest are capable of condensation, although the involvement of the condensation process in radiation-induced G 2 delay could not be ruled out. (author)

  7. Detection and Automated Scoring of Dicentric Chromosomes in Nonstimulated Lymphocyte Prematurely Condensed Chromosomes After Telomere and Centromere Staining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' kacher, Radhia [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); El Maalouf, Elie [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Laboratoire Modélisation Intelligence Processus Systèmes (MIPS)–Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, Mulhouse (France); Terzoudi, Georgia [Laboratory of Radiobiology & Biodosimetry, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Ricoul, Michelle [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heidingsfelder, Leonhard [MetaSystems, Altlussheim (Germany); Karachristou, Ionna [Laboratory of Radiobiology & Biodosimetry, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Laplagne, Eric [Pole Concept, Paris (France); Hempel, William M. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Colicchio, Bruno; Dieterlen, Alain [Laboratoire Modélisation Intelligence Processus Systèmes (MIPS)–Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, Mulhouse (France); Pantelias, Gabriel [Laboratory of Radiobiology & Biodosimetry, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Sabatier, Laure, E-mail: laure.sabatier@cea.fr [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To combine telomere and centromere (TC) staining of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) fusions to identify dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes, making possible the realization of a dose–response curve and automation of the process. Methods and Materials: Blood samples from healthy donors were exposed to {sup 60}Co irradiation at varying doses up to 8 Gy, followed by a repair period of 8 hours. Premature chromosome condensation fusions were carried out, and TC staining using peptide nucleic acid probes was performed. Chromosomal aberration (CA) scoring was carried out manually and automatically using PCC-TCScore software, developed in our laboratory. Results: We successfully optimized the hybridization conditions and image capture parameters, to increase the sensitivity and effectiveness of CA scoring. Dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes were rapidly and accurately detected, leading to a linear-quadratic dose–response curve by manual scoring at up to 8 Gy. Using PCC-TCScore software for automatic scoring, we were able to detect 95% of dicentrics and centric rings. Conclusion: The introduction of TC staining to the PCC fusion technique has made possible the rapid scoring of unstable CAs, including dicentrics, with a level of accuracy and ease not previously possible. This new approach can be used for biological dosimetry in radiation emergency medicine, where the rapid and accurate detection of dicentrics is a high priority using automated scoring. Because there is no culture time, this new approach can also be used for the follow-up of patients treated by genotoxic therapy, creating the possibility to perform the estimation of induced chromosomal aberrations immediately after the blood draw.

  8. Next generation sequencing identifies abnormal Y chromosome and candidate causal variants in premature ovarian failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujung; Kim, Changshin; Park, YoungJoon; Pyun, Jung-A; Kwack, KyuBum

    2016-12-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by heterogeneous genetic causes such as chromosomal abnormalities and variants in causal genes. Recently, development of techniques made next generation sequencing (NGS) possible to detect genome wide variants including chromosomal abnormalities. Among 37 Korean POF patients, XY karyotype with distal part deletions of Y chromosome, Yp11.32-31 and Yp12 end part, was observed in two patients through NGS. Six deleterious variants in POF genes were also detected which might explain the pathogenesis of POF with abnormalities in the sex chromosomes. Additionally, the two POF patients had no mutation in SRY but three non-synonymous variants were detected in genes regarding sex reversal. These findings suggest candidate causes of POF and sex reversal and show the propriety of NGS to approach the heterogeneous pathogenesis of POF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrastructural organization of premature condensed chromosomes at S-phase as observed by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yihui; Zhang Xiaohong; Bai Jing; Mao Renfang; Zhang Chunyu; Lei Qingquan; Fu Songbin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we used calyculin A to induce premature condensed chromosomes (PCC). S-phase PCC is as 'pulverized' appearance when viewed by light microscopy. Then, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the ultrastructual organization of S-phase PCC. S-phase PCC shows ridges and grooves as observed by AFM. After trypsin treatment, chromosome surface roughness is increased and chromosome thickness is decreased. At high magnification, the ridges are composed of densely packed 30 nm chromatin fibers which form chromosome axis. Around the ridges, many 30 nm chromatin fibers radiate from center. Some of the 30 nm chromatin fibers are free ends. The grooves are not real 'gap', but several 30 nm chromatin fibers which connect two ridges and form 'grid' structure. There are four chromatin fibers detached from chromosome: two free straight 30 nm chromatin fibers, one loop chromatin fiber and one straight combining with loop chromatin fiber. These results suggested that the S-phase PCC was high-order organization of 30 nm chromatin fibers and the 30 nm chromatin fibers could exist as loops and free ends

  10. Biodosimetry of ionizing radiation by selective painting of prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Painting of interphase chromosomes can be useful for biodosimetric purposes in particular cases such as radiation therapy, accidental exposure to very high radiation doses and exposure to densely ionizing radiation, for example during space missions. Biodosimetry of charged-particle radiation is analyzed in the present paper. Target cells were human peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with gamma rays, protons and iron ions. After exposure, lymphocytes were incubated for different times to allow repair of radiation-induced damage and then fused to mitotic hamster cells to promote premature condensation in the interphase chromosomes. Chromosome spreads were then hybridized with whole-chromosome DNA probes labeled with fluorescent stains. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromatin fragments shortly after exposure, as well as the kinetics of rejoining and misrejoining, were not markedly dependent on linear energy transfer. However, after exposure to heavy ions, more aberrations were scored in the interphase cells after incubation for repair than in metaphase samples harvested at the first postirradiation mitosis. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the two samples after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation. These results suggest that interphase chromosome painting can be a useful tool for biodosimetry of particle radiation.

  11. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry by drug-induced prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C. M.; Chung, H. C.; Cho, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    To develop the cytogenetic tool to detect chromosome damages after high dose exposure with 60 Coγ- rays, dose-response curves were measured for induction of prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) in peripheral lymphocytes. Blood was obtained from 10 different healthy donors, and given okadaic acid (OA) 500nM in cultured lymphocytes 1h after radiation exposure. Cells were analyzed by the frequencies of OA-induced PCC rings because it is difficult to obtain mitotic chromosomes using a conventional chromosome aberration (CA). PCC-rings were scored in cells exposed in the dose range of 0.2-16Gy. The frequency of the cells with PCC and the dose-response relationship for the yield of PCC rings were examined in the irradiated lymphocytes. The yield of PCC-rings increased with dose dependent-manner up to 16Gy. The observed dose-effect relationship for the percentage of cells with PCC-rings was calculated by linear-quadratic model. This technique can be applied to biological dosimetry of radiation exposures involving whole body irradiation to allow damaged chromosomes to be detected with great sensitivity. Detection of okadaic acid-induced PCC rings is a useful method up to 16Gy or more doses in estimating the absorbed doses of victims after high dose exposure. Calibration curves described in this paper will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry by PCC-ring after a high dose exposure

  12. Investigating the role of X chromosome breakpoints in premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baronchelli Simona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of the genetic factor in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF is emphasized by the high percentage of familial cases and X chromosome abnormalities account for 10% of chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we report the detailed analysis of 4 chromosomal abnormalities involving the X chromosome and associated with POF that were detected during a screening of 269 affected women. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics were valuable tools for locating the breakpoint regions and thus the following karyotypes were defined: 46,X,der(Xt(X;19(p21.1;q13.42mat, 46,X,t(X;2(q21.33;q14.3dn, 46,X,der(Xt(X;Y(q26.2;q11.223mat and 46,X,t(X;13(q13.3;q31dn. A bioinformatic analysis of the breakpoint regions identified putative candidate genes for ovarian failure near the breakpoint regions on the X chromosome or on autosomes that were involved in the translocation event. HS6ST1, HS6ST2 and MATER genes were identified and their functions and a literature review revealed an interesting connection to the POF phenotype. Moreover, the 19q13.32 locus is associated with the age of onset of the natural menopause. These results support the position effect of the breakpoint on flanking genes, and cytogenetic techniques, in combination with bioinformatic analysis, may help to improve what is known about this puzzling disorder and its diagnostic potential.

  13. Dose response curve for prematurely condensed chromosome fragments of human lymphocytes after 60Co-γ ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jinsheng; Zheng Siying; Bao Hong

    1992-06-01

    The dose-effect relationship of premature condensed chromosome fragments in human lymphocytes irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray was studied by PCC method (premature condensed chromosomes). In addition, The conventional cellular genetics method was also used in the study. The response curve of both methods can represented by two linear equations. The ratio of two slopes, K PCC /K M1 , is about 28. Comparing with conventional method, the PCC method has many advantages such as faster, simpler, more sensitive and accurate. The PCC method used in the studying of radiation damage is also discussed

  14. Okadaic acid for radiation dose estimation using drug-induced premature chromosome condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunyan; Zhang Wei; Su Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish simple biological method for high irradiation dose estimation using drug-induced prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) aberrations. Methods: Peripheral blood was taken from healthy adults and irradiated by 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. Then the blood samples were cultured for 48 hrs. One hr before the end of culture , okadaic acid was added into culture medium to induce PCC rings, which were counted for each dose point. Results: The yield of PCC rings was increased with the dose of radiation until 20 Gy. Within the range of 1 to 20 Gy, there was a good dose-response relationship between the yield of PCC rings and radiation dose. Conclusion: Compared with the analysis of frequency of dicentrics, the yield of PCC rings could be a good biodosimetry indicator for estimation of high dose irradiation. (authors)

  15. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and premature centromere division in persons exposed to radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Rakic, B.; Vukov, T.; Pajic, J.; Milacic, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Stevanovic, M.; Drakulic, D.; Bukvic, N.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the presence of correlation between the frequency of premature centromere division (PCD) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in metaphases in persons professionally exposed to radionuclides. Biological dosimetry was performed by conventional cytogenetic technique. The presence of PCD was confirmed by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The L1.84 probe (specific for centromeric region of chromosome 18) was used. The analysis included 50 subjects employed in the Clinical Center of Serbia (C) (the average age of 45.24 ± 1.18 and the average exposition time 17.96 ± 1.15) and 40 subjects in control group (K) (the average age of 44.40 ± 0.98 and the average years of employment 19.67 ± 0.98 years) which were not exposed to genotoxic agents in their workplaces. The results showed that frequencies of CA and PCD were statistically significantly higher in subjects exposed to radionuclides than in the control group (Mann-Whitney U test, P [sr

  16. 125IdUrd-induced chromosome fragments, assayed by premature chromosome condensation, and DNA double-strand breaks have similar repair kinetics in G1-phase CHO-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, George; Pantelias, G.E.; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Seaner, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The effect of 125 I-decay on cell lethality, and induction of chromosome and DNA damage, was studied in synchronous non-cycling, G 1 -phase CHO-cells. Neutral filter elution was used to assay repair of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs), and premature chromosome condensation was used to assay repair of chromosome fragments and induction of ring chromosomes. The results indicate very little repair at the cell survival level (repair of PLD). At the DNA level an efficient repair of DNA dsbs was observed, with kinetics similar to those observed after exposure to X-rays. At the chromosome level a fast repair of prematurely condensed chromosome fragments was observed, with a concomitant increase in the number of ring chromosomes induced. The repair kinetics of chromosome fragments and DNA dsbs were very similar, suggesting that DNA dsbs may underlie chromosome fragmentation. (author)

  17. Premature chromosome condensation following x irradiation of mammalian cells: expression time and dose-response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, T.D.; Carpenter, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells following exposure to 300-kVp x rays was first detected in the mitosis that followed the second postirradiation S phase. Thus, cells irradiated in G1 first expressed PCC at the second postirradiation mitosis while cells irradiated in G2 did not express PCC until the third postirradiation mitosis. Cells irradiated in the S phase expressed PCC at the second postirradiation mitosis with a frequency that was related to the position of the cells in the S phase at the time of exposure, cells in the first half of the S phase (at the time of exposure) showing a higher frequency than cells positioned in the second half. Thus, DNA replication during the first postirradiation S phase may be involved in the processing of lesions that eventually give rise to PCC. For cells in G1 at the time of exposure, the D/sub o/ for PCC expression at the second postirradiation mitosis was around 825 rad, indicating that PCC may play only a minor role in x-ray-induced cell killing. Autoradiographic analysis indicated approximately 50% of the PCC patches scored were replicating DNA at the time condensation was attempted. Daughter cells derived from such cells would suffer loss of genetic material

  18. Reprogramming suppresses premature senescence phenotypes of Werner syndrome cells and maintains chromosomal stability over long-term culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shimamoto

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and cancer predisposition. Mutations in WRN are responsible for the disease and cause telomere dysfunction, resulting in accelerated aging. Recent studies have revealed that cells from WS patients can be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. In the present study, we describe the effects of long-term culture on WS iPSCs, which acquired and maintained infinite proliferative potential for self-renewal over 2 years. After long-term cultures, WS iPSCs exhibited stable undifferentiated states and differentiation capacity, and premature upregulation of senescence-associated genes in WS cells was completely suppressed in WS iPSCs despite WRN deficiency. WS iPSCs also showed recapitulation of the phenotypes during differentiation. Furthermore, karyotype analysis indicated that WS iPSCs were stable, and half of the descendant clones had chromosomal profiles that were similar to those of parental cells. These unexpected properties might be achieved by induced expression of endogenous telomerase gene during reprogramming, which trigger telomerase reactivation leading to suppression of both replicative senescence and telomere dysfunction in WS cells. These findings demonstrated that reprogramming suppressed premature senescence phenotypes in WS cells and WS iPSCs could lead to chromosomal stability over the long term. WS iPSCs will provide opportunities to identify affected lineages in WS and to develop a new strategy for the treatment of WS.

  19. Reprogramming suppresses premature senescence phenotypes of Werner syndrome cells and maintains chromosomal stability over long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Akira; Kagawa, Harunobu; Zensho, Kazumasa; Sera, Yukihiro; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Hamasaki, Kanya; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Fukuda, Keiichi; Hirashima, Kyotaro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Takahiko; Takemoto, Minoru; Yokote, Koutaro; Goto, Makoto; Tahara, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and cancer predisposition. Mutations in WRN are responsible for the disease and cause telomere dysfunction, resulting in accelerated aging. Recent studies have revealed that cells from WS patients can be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In the present study, we describe the effects of long-term culture on WS iPSCs, which acquired and maintained infinite proliferative potential for self-renewal over 2 years. After long-term cultures, WS iPSCs exhibited stable undifferentiated states and differentiation capacity, and premature upregulation of senescence-associated genes in WS cells was completely suppressed in WS iPSCs despite WRN deficiency. WS iPSCs also showed recapitulation of the phenotypes during differentiation. Furthermore, karyotype analysis indicated that WS iPSCs were stable, and half of the descendant clones had chromosomal profiles that were similar to those of parental cells. These unexpected properties might be achieved by induced expression of endogenous telomerase gene during reprogramming, which trigger telomerase reactivation leading to suppression of both replicative senescence and telomere dysfunction in WS cells. These findings demonstrated that reprogramming suppressed premature senescence phenotypes in WS cells and WS iPSCs could lead to chromosomal stability over the long term. WS iPSCs will provide opportunities to identify affected lineages in WS and to develop a new strategy for the treatment of WS.

  20. The use of premature chromosome condensation to study in interphase cells the influence of environmental factors on human genetic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki I. Hatzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a constantly increasing concern regarding the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a variety of harmful environmental factors to which humans are exposed in their natural and anthropogenic environment. These factors exert their hazardous potential in humans' personal (diet, smoking, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and occupational environment that constitute part of the anthropogenic environment. It is well known that genetic damage due to these factors has dramatic implications for human health. Since most of the environmental genotoxic factors induce arrest or delay in cell cycle progression, the conventional analysis of chromosomes at metaphase may underestimate their genotoxic potential. Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC induced either by means of cell fusion or specific chemicals, enables the microscopic visualization of interphase chromosomes whose morphology depends on the cell cycle stage, as well as the analysis of structural and numerical aberrations at the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. The PCC has been successfully used in problems involving cell cycle analysis, diagnosis and prognosis of human leukaemia, assessment of interphase chromosome malformations resulting from exposure to radiation or chemicals, as well as elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the conversion of DNA damage into chromosomal damage. In this report, particular emphasis is given to the advantages of the PCC methodology used as an alternative to conventional metaphase analysis in answering questions in the fields of radiobiology, biological dosimetry, toxicogenetics, clinical cytogenetics and experimental therapeutics.

  1. Stress induced by premature chromatin condensation triggers chromosome shattering and chromothripsis at DNA sites still replicating in micronuclei or multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzoudi, Georgia I; Karakosta, Maria; Pantelias, Antonio; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Karachristou, Ioanna; Pantelias, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Combination of next-generation DNA sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and bioinformatics has revealed the striking phenomenon of chromothripsis, described as complex genomic rearrangements acquired in a single catastrophic event affecting one or a few chromosomes. Via an unproven mechanism, it is postulated that mechanical stress causes chromosome shattering into small lengths of DNA, which are then randomly reassembled by DNA repair machinery. Chromothripsis is currently examined as an alternative mechanism of oncogenesis, in contrast to the present paradigm that considers a stepwise development of cancer. While evidence for the mechanism(s) underlying chromosome shattering during cancer development remains elusive, a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain chromothripsis, including ionizing radiation, DNA replication stress, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, micronuclei formation and premature chromosome compaction. In the present work, we provide experimental evidence on the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis and on how chromosomes can get locally shattered in a single catastrophic event. Considering the dynamic nature of chromatin nucleoprotein complex, capable of rapid unfolding, disassembling, assembling and refolding, we first show that chromatin condensation at repairing or replicating DNA sites induces the mechanical stress needed for chromosome shattering to ensue. Premature chromosome condensation is then used to visualize the dynamic nature of interphase chromatin and demonstrate that such mechanical stress and chromosome shattering can also occur in chromosomes within micronuclei or asynchronous multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis. Following an aberrant mitosis, chromosomes could find themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time so that they may undergo massive DNA breakage and rearrangement in a single catastrophic event. Specifically, our results support the hypothesis that premature chromosome

  2. Visualization of chromatin events associated with repair of ultraviolet light-induced damage by premature chromosome condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittelman, W.N.; Pollard, M.

    1984-01-01

    Quiescent normal human fibroblasts were irradiated with u.v. and the ensuing chromatin events were visualised by inducing premature chromosome condensation in the treated cells. Treatment with u.v. induced 1) a generalised elongation of the Gl premature condensed chromosomes (PCC) and 2) regions of localized elongation or gaps. The degree of chromatin change was dose dependent and could be seen immediately after irradiation. The generalised elongation process continued to increase for 24 h after irradiation, suggesting it represented a cellular reaction to the u.v.-induced damage, rather than a direct physical distortion. The localized decondensation reaction was associated with the site of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Post-treatment incubation of cells in the presence of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea resulted in an accumulation of gaps. The inhibitor novobiocin predominantly inhibited the formation of gap regions, suggesting that a topoisomerase-like reaction might be important in their formation. The presence of cycloheximide after u.v. irradiation had no effect on the chromatin changes, suggesting that no new protein synthesis is required for these chromatin processes associated with repair. These results suggest that the PCC technique is useful in elucidating chromatin changes associated with DNA repair after u.v. treatment. (author)

  3. Premature chromosome condensation and cell separation studies in biopsies from head and neck tumors for radiosensitivity prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begg, Adrian C.; Sprong, Debbie; Balm, Alfons; Coco Martin, Jose M.

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: Intrinsic radiosensitivity of tumor cells from biopsies, assayed by colony formation after in vitro irradiation, has shown significant correlations with outcome after radiotherapy. Alternatives to the colony assay have been sought due to its long and cumbersome nature. We have previously shown good correlations between colony formation and radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human tumor cell lines. In addition, we and others have shown on cell lines that premature chromosome condensation (PCC) induced with phosphatase inhibitors can be used to aid rapid assessment of aberrations in interphase cells, reducing the selection problem with metaphases. The purpose of this study was to translate the in vitro results to human cancer, with the aim of developing a rapid assay for intrinsic radiosensitivity. Methods and results: The problem of admixtures of normal and malignant cells in biopsies was addressed using magnetic bead separation (MACS) employing antibodies to human fibroblasts. This proved to be a reliable and efficient method, enriching mean tumor cell fractions from 20 to almost 80%. PCC could be induced in human normal and tumor cell lines, and in sorted or unsorted suspensions from biopsies, with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A. Maximum PCCs were achieved after 1-week culture of biopsy-derived cells. Mean fractions of aneuploid tumor cell PCCs were, however, less than 1%. PCCs were predominantly from S and G2 phase, of which only G2 were scorable for aberrations. Almost no G1 PCCs were found. More scorable PCCs were found after 1 h of calyculin A than metaphases after 5 h of colcemid, but these were calculated to be too few to yield reliable estimates of chromosome damage after radiation. Conlcusions: Tumor cells can be satisfactorily separated from fibroblasts in fresh suspensions from cancer biopsies, but poor growth of tumor cells in short term culture and low yields of PCCs combine to prevent the routine use of such

  4. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 69. Taber's Medical Dictionary Online. Chromosome. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/753321/all/chromosome?q=Chromosome&ti=0 . Accessed June 11, 2017.

  5. New MCM8 mutation associated with premature ovarian insufficiency and chromosomal instability in a highly consanguineous Tunisian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Nouha; Francou, Bruno; Bouligand, Jérôme; Imanci, Dilek; Dimassi, Sarra; Tosca, Lucie; Zaouali, Monia; Mougou, Soumaya; Young, Jacques; Saad, Ali; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne

    2017-10-01

    To identify the gene(s) involved in the etiology of premature ovarian insufficiency in a highly consanguineous Tunisian family. Genetic analysis of a large consanguineous family with several affected siblings. University hospital-based cytogenetics and molecular genetics laboratories. A highly consanguineous Tunisian family with several affected siblings born to healthy second-degree cousins. None. Targeted exome sequencing was performed by next-generation sequencing for affected family members. Mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. Functional experiments were performed to explore the deleterious effects of the identified mutation. DNA damage was induced by increasing mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations on cultured peripheral lymphocytes. Analysis of the next-generation sequencing data revealed a new homozygous missense mutation in the minichromosome maintenance 8 gene (MCM8).This homozygous mutation (c. 482A>C; p.His161Pro) was predicted to be deleterious and segregated with the disease in the family. MCM8 participates in homologous recombination during meiosis and DNA double-stranded break repair by dimerizing with MCM9. Mcm8 knock out results in an early block in follicle development and small gonads. Given this, we tested the chromosomal breakage repair capacity of homozygous and heterozygous MCM8 p.His161Pro mutation on cultured peripheral lymphocytes exposed to increasing MMC concentrations. We found that chromosomal breakage after MMC exposure was significantly higher in cells from homozygously affected individuals than in those from a healthy control. Our findings provide additional support to the view that MCM8 mutations are involved in the primary ovarian insufficiency phenotype. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Utility of Lymphocyte Premature Chromosome Condensation Analysis for Biological Dosimetry Following Accidental Overexposure to Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambrette, V.; Laval, F.; Voisin, P.

    1999-01-01

    Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) appears to have a possible utility for biological dosimetry purposes. The PCC technique may be adapted for cases of suspicion of overexposure where sampling is performed at least one day after an accident. For this purpose, human blood samples were exposed in vitro to 60 Co (0.5 Gy.min -1 ) up to 4 Gy and the PCC technique was performed after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of DNA repair at 37 deg. C. Analysis of excess PCC fragments distribution showed an overdispersion and the dose-effect relationship was best characterised by linear regression. Radiation-induced damage was reduced to 32% between the first and the second day of repair and to 42% the following day. Statistical precision of the dose was found to be dependent on the irradiation dose and on the number of cells examined. The necessity to establish dose-response relationships after different periods of DNA repair is demonstrated, and the use of PCC excess fragments yield as a bioindicator should take this fact into account. (author)

  7. Techniques for induction of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) by Calyculin-A and micronucleus assay for biodosimetry in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Duy; Tran Que; Hoang Hung Tien; Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organization are interested in biological dosimetry method for radiation emergency medicine currently. Some cytogenetic techniques such as premature chromosome condensation (PCC) induced by Calyculin-A and micronucleus (MN) assay are necessary to develop biodosimetry in Vietnam. In this study, we optimized the condition for MN assay with 6 µg/ml Cytochalasin-B concentration and 72.5 hours for peripheral lymphocyte blood culture. The optimization for PCC method is 50 nM Calyculin-A concentration for 45 minutes peripheral lymphocyte blood treatment. For samples exposed to 3.0 Gy gamma 60 Co (dose rate 0.0916 Gy/s), the frequency of MN is 19.02 ± 0.38%, NBP is 1.95 ± 0.28%, dicentric and ring is 41.43 ± 8.12% and frag and min is 63.33 ± 5.16%. For samples exposed to 6.0 Gy gamma 60 Co (dose rate 0.0916 Gy/s), the frequency of ring-PCC is 17.73 ± 2.46%, extra unite is 218.91± 7.58%, dicentric is 83.81 ± 1.09%, ring is 10.75 ± 1.74%, fragment and minute is 193.17 ± 13.10%. MN and ring-PCC are specific marker applying for biodosimetry. (author)

  8. A novel parameter, cell-cycle progression index, for radiation dose absorbed estimation in the premature chromosome condensation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Tomisato; Kasai, Kosuke; Nakano, Manabu; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A.; Abe, Yu; Tsushima, Eiki; Ossetrova, Natalia I.; Blakely, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The calyculin A-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay is a simple and useful method for assessing the cell-cycle distribution in cells, since calyculin A induces chromosome condensation in various phases of the cell cycle. In this study, a novel parameter, the cell-cycle progression index (CPI), in the PCC assay was validated as a novel bio-marker for bio-dosimetry. Peripheral blood was drawn from healthy donors after informed consent was obtained. CPI was investigated using a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) ex vivo irradiation ( 60 Co-gamma rays: ∼0.6 Gy min -1 , or X ray: 1.0 Gy min -1 ; 0-10 Gy) model. The calyculin A-induced PCC assay was performed for chromosome preparation. PCC cells were divided into the following five categories according to cell-cycle stage: non-PCC, G1-PCC, S-PCC, G2/M-PCC and M/A-PCC cells. CPI was calculated as the ratio of G2/M-PCC cells to G1-PCC cells. The PCC-stage distribution varied markedly with irradiation doses. The G1-PCC cell fraction was significantly reduced, and the G2/M-PCC cell fraction increased, in 10-Gy-irradiated PBL after 48 h of culture. CPI levels were fitted to an exponential dose-response curve with gamma-ray irradiation [y = 0.6729 + 0.3934 exp(0.5685D), r = 1.0000, p < 0.0001] and X-ray irradiation [y = -0.3743 + 0.9744 exp(0.3321D), r = 0.9999, p < 0.0001]. There were no significant individual (p = 0.853) or gender effects (p = 0.951) on the CPI in the human peripheral blood ex vivo irradiation model. Furthermore, CPI measurements are rapid (< 15 min per case). These results suggest that the CPI is a useful screening tool for the assessment of radiation doses received ranging from 0 to 10 Gy in radiation exposure early after a radiation event, especially after a mass-casualty radiological incident. (authors)

  9. Effects of different premature chromosome condensation method on dose-curve of 60Co γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yicao; Yang Haoxian; Yang Yuhua; Li Xi'na; Huang Weixu; Zheng Qiaoling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of traditional method and improved method of the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) on the dose-effect curve of 60 Co γ ray, for choosing the rapid and accurate biological dose estimating method for the accident emergency. Methods: Collected 3 healthy male cubits venous blood (23 to 28 years old), and irradiated by 0, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 Gy 60 Co γ ray (absorbed dose rate: 0.635 Gy/min). Observed the relation of dose-effect curve in the 2 incubation time (50 hours and 60 hours) of the traditional method and improved method. Used the dose-effect curve to verify the exposure of 10.0 Gy (absorbed dose rate: 0.670 Gy/min). Results: (1) In the traditional method of 50-hour culture, the PCC cell count in 15.0 Gy and 20.0 Gy was of no statistical significance. But there were statistical significance in the traditional method of 60-hours culture and improved method (50-hour culture and 60-hour culture). Used the last 3 culture methods to make dose curve. (2) In the above 3 culture methods, the related coefficient between PCC ring and exposure dose was quite close (all of more than 0.996, P 0.05), the morphology of regression straight lines almost overlap. (3) Used the above 3 dose-effect curves to estimate the irradiation results (10.0 Gy), the error was less than or equal to 8%, all of them were within the allowable range of the biological experiment (15%). Conclusion: The 3 dose-effect curves of the above 3 culture methods can apply to biological dose estimating of large doses of ionizing radiation damage. Especially the improved method of 50-hour culture,it is much faster to estimate and it should be regarded as the first choice in accident emergency. (authors)

  10. Production and repair of chromosome damage in an X-ray sensitive CHO mutant visualized and analysed in interphase using the technique of premature chromosome condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.E.; Pantelias, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Production of chromosome damage per unit of absorbed radiation dose was in xrs-5 cells larger by a factor of 2.6 than in CHO cells (5.2 breaks per cell per Gy). Changes in chromatin structure, associated with the radiation-sensitive pheno-type of xrs-5 cells, that increase the probability of conversion of a DNA double-strand break (dsb) to a chromosome break are invoked to explain this. Repair of chromosome breaks as measured in plateau-phase G 1 cells was deficient in xrs-5 cells and the number of residual chromosome breaks practically identical to the number of lethal lesions calculated from survival data, suggesting that non-repaired chromosome breaks are likely to be manifestations of lethal events in the cell. The yield of ring chromosomes scored after a few hours of repair was higher by a factor of three in xrs-5 compared with CHO cells. (author)

  11. A dose-effect curve of premature condensation chromosome ring in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood exposed to high dose of 60Co γ-rays in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Bo; Li Yufang; Liu Guangxian; Huang Shan; Jiang Benrong; Ai Huisheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish a dose-effect curve of premature condensation chromosome ring (PCC-R) in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood after exposed to high doses of γ-rays. Methods: Peripheral blood samples was drawn from three healthy individuals, and exposed to 60 Co γ-rays with doses between 0 and 30 Gy. The frequencies of PCC-R in premature condensation chromosome (PCC) cells obtained by Okadaic acid (OA) induction were calculated, and a dose-effect curve was fitted. Results: PCC index tapered with dose. Frequencies of PCC-R per cell increased until 20 Gy, and then saturation was observed. The results were fitted to a lineal model up to 20 Gy: y=-0.020 + 0.052D, where y was the frequencies of PCC-R per cell, D was the radiation dose(Gy). Conclusions: The highest dose could be estimated is 20 Gy by the dose-effect curve established with PCC-R method. Its utility and validity will be verified in the future application of radiation accident. (authors)

  12. Genome-wide linkage in a highly consanguineous pedigree reveals two novel loci on chromosome 7 for non-syndromic familial Premature Ovarian Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Caburet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human condition known as Premature Ovarian Failure (POF is characterized by loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. A majority of POF cases are sporadic, but 10-15% are familial, suggesting a genetic origin of the disease. Although several causal mutations have been identified, the etiology of POF is still unknown for about 90% of the patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a genome-wide linkage and homozygosity analysis in one large consanguineous Middle-Eastern POF-affected family presenting an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We identified two regions with a LOD(max of 3.26 on chromosome 7p21.1-15.3 and 7q21.3-22.2, which are supported as candidate regions by homozygosity mapping. Sequencing of the coding exons and known regulatory sequences of three candidate genes (DLX5, DLX6 and DSS1 included within the largest region did not reveal any causal mutations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We detect two novel POF-associated loci on human chromosome 7, opening the way to the identification of new genes involved in the control of ovarian development and function.

  13. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  14. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  15. Kinetics of the formation of chromosome aberrations in x-irradiated human lymphocytes: Analysis by premature chromosome condensation with delayed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinert, R.; Detzler, E.; Volkmer, B.

    1995-01-01

    Human lymphocytes irradiated with graded doses of up to 5 Gy of 150 kV X rays were fused with mitotic CHO cells after delay times ranging from 0 to 14 h after irradiation. The yields of dicentrics seen under PCC conditions, using C-banding for centromere detection, and of excess acentric fragments observed in the PCC experiment were determined by image analysis. At 4 Gy the time course of the yield of dicentrics shows an early plateau for delay times up to 2 h, then an S-shaped rise and a final plateau which is reached after a delay time of about 8 to 10 h. Whereas the dose-yield curve measured at zero delay time is strictly linear, the shape of the curve obtained for 8 h delay time is linear-quadratic. The linear yield component, αD is formed entirely in the fast process manifested in the early plateau, while component βD 2 is developed slowly in the subsequent hours. Analysis of the kinetics of the rise of the S-shaped curve for yield as a function of time leads to the postulate of an open-quotes intermediate productclose quotes of pairwise DNA lesion interaction, still fragile when subjected to the stress of PCC, but gradually processed into a stable dicentric chromosome. It is concluded that the observed difference in the kinetics of the α and β components explains a number of earlier results, especially the disappearance of the β component at high LET, and opens possibilities for chemical and physical modification of the β component during the extended formation process after irradiation observed here. 22 refs., 4 figs

  16. Kinetics of the formation of chromosome aberrations in X-irradiated human lymphocytes: analysis by premature chromosome condensation with delayed fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, R; Detzler, E; Volkmer, B; Harder, D

    1995-11-01

    Human lymphocytes irradiated with graded doses of up to 5 Gy of 150 kV X rays were fused with mitotic CHO cells after delay times ranging from 0 to 14 h after irradiation. The yields of dicentrics seen under PCC conditions, using C-banding for centromere detection, and of excess acentric fragments observed in the PCC experiment were determined by image analysis. At 4 Gy the time course of the yield of dicentrics shows an early plateau for delay times up to 2 h, then an S-shaped rise and a final plateau which is reached after a delay time of about 8 to 10 h. Whereas the dose-yield curve measured at zero delay time is strictly linear, the shape of the curve obtained for 8 h delay time is linear-quadratic. The linear yield component, alpha D, is formed entirely in the fast process manifested in the early plateau, while component beta D2 is developed slowly in the subsequent hours. Analysis of the kinetics of the rise of the S-shaped curve for yield as a function of time leads to the postulate of an "intermediate product" of pairwise DNA lesion interaction, still fragile when subjected to the stress of PCC, but gradually processed into a stable dicentric chromosome. It is concluded that the observed difference in the kinetics of the alpha and beta components explains a number of earlier results, especially the disappearance of the beta component at high LET, and opens possibilities for chemical and physical modification of the beta component during the extended formation process after irradiation observed here.

  17. Premature menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Ub; Ezenyeaku, Cc

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk.

  18. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  19. Premature Menopause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] Sex chromosome anomalies predominate as a cause. ... 10‑20% of cases involving X sex chromosomes.[3]. Genetic .... to symptoms of dysuria, urethral discomfort and stress ... Currently, oocyte donation is widely used and it is a successful option in ... of cancer in children, adolescents and reproductive‑age women.

  20. Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include the following: Anxiety about performance Guilty feelings Depression Stress Relationship problems Men who have a low amount of a special ... on your favorite sports team. Psychological assistance Anxiety, depression ... may help men who have premature ejaculation. Some antidepressants seem to ...

  1. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  2. Premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  3. [Genetic aspects of premature ovarian failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Słopień, Radosław

    2005-01-01

    Among the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) two groups of factors are reported: factors which lead to decrease of follicular number and factors which stimulate follicular atresia. In the first group genetic factors are the most important whereas in the second: enzymatic autoimmunological, iatrogenic, toxins and infections are reported. In 1986 familiar POF on the background of long arm of chromosome X deletion was reported. Other chromosomes which are important for normal ovarian function are: chromosome 21 (AIRE gene), chromosome 11 (gene of beta FSH, ATM gene), chromosome 3 (gene responsible for BEPS syndrome) and chromosome 2 (genes of FSH and LH receptors). In this review the role of these genes and results of several epidemiological studies are reported.

  4. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out ... 3 weeks after a premature birth. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) . This is an abnormal growth of blood ...

  5. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  6. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  7. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  8. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  9. Falência ovariana precoce associada a deleção no braço longo do cromossomo: relato de dois casos e revisão da literatura Premature ovarian failure with a deletion in the long arm of chromosome: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Badalotti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Falência ovariana prematura pode ser idiopática ou estar associada a várias distúrbios auto-imunes ou genéticos, como as deleções do cromossomo X. Relatamos dois novos casos de deleções do braço longo do cromossomo X, em pacientes nuligrávidas apresentando amenorréia secundária e infertilidade. Nenhuma paciente referia história familiar de falência ovariana prematura e relatavam desenvolvimento puberal normal. A avaliação genética mostrou deleção distal no braço longo do cromossomo X, sendo os resultados 46,X,del(Xq22 e 46,X,del(Xq13q28, respectivamente. Após o diagnóstico as pacientes optaram por fertilização in vitro com óvulos doados.Premature ovarian failure may be idiopathic or associated with several autoimmune and genetic disorders as X chromosome deletions. We report two cases of preamture ovarian failure associated with a deletion in the long arm of X chromosome. Both patients were nulligravidas presenting secondary amenorrhea and complaints of infertility, without family history of premature ovarian failure and reporting normal puberal development. Their karyotypes showed deletions of the distal long arm of all X chromosomes and were 46,X, del(Xq22 and 46,X, del(Xq13q28, respectively. After the diagnosis the patients decided to be submitted to an in vitro fertilization with egg donation.

  10. Apnea of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007227.htm Apnea of prematurity To use the sharing features on this page, ... down or stops from any cause. Apnea of prematurity refers to short episodes of stopped breathing in ...

  11. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature

  12. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  13. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, Joop; Drexhage, Hemmo; Hoek, Annemieke

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heterogeneous disorder with a multicausal pathogenesis involving chromosomal, genetic, enzymatic, infectious, and iatrogenic causes. There remains, however, a group of POF patients without a known etiology, the so-called "idiopathic...

  15. Cytogenetics of Premature Ovarian Failure: An Investigation on 269 Affected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baronchelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF is well-known but in many cases POF still remains idiopathic. Chromosome aneuploidy increase is a physiological phenomenon related to aging, but the role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian function is still undiscovered. Standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 269 patients affected by POF: 27 chromosomal abnormalities were identified, including X chromosome and autosomal structural and numerical abnormalities. In 47 patients with 46,XX karyotype we performed interphase FISH using X alpha-satellite probe in order to identify X chromosome mosaicism rate. Aneuploidy rate in the patient group was significantly higher than the general population group. These findings underline the importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of POF and highlight the potential role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian aging that may lead to a premature onset of menopause.

  16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization: an improved method of quantitating chromosome damage and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.M.; Evans, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors combined fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific full-length chromosome probes using the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique chromosome condensation (PCC) technique to simplify scoring chromosome damage and its repair. They have shown the technique works well and enables breaks and exchanges to be readily detected and scored in individual chromosomes. A chromosome 4 full-length specific library has been used in initial studies. (UK)

  17. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  18. Premature ovarian failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, José

    2011-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure is characterized by secondary amenorrhea affecting a woman before the age of 40, leading to hypoestrogenism, infertility, and consequences of premature menopause, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurovegetative alterations, and others. Follicular exhaustion is due to either follicles shortage or oocytes accelerated destruction. Main causes are genetic, autoimmune and iatrogenic. Among genetic causes Xq and Xp deletions, translocations, numeric aberratio...

  19. Computational simulation of chromosome breaks in human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianshe; Li Wenjian; Jin Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    An easy method was established for computing chromosome breaks in cells exposed to heavily charged particles. The cell chromosome break value by 12 C +6 ions was theoretically calculated, and was tested with experimental data of chromosome breaks by using a premature chromosome condensation technique. The theoretical chromosome break value agreed well with the experimental data. The higher relative biological effectiveness of the heavy ions was closely correlated to its physical characteristics. In addition, the chromosome break value can be predicted off line. (authors)

  20. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  1. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developing severe ROP, especially those in underserved or remote areas. Currently in the U.S., evaluation of premature ... files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office ...

  2. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  3. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Komorowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF, also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system.

  4. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  5. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  6. Chromosome Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome territories (CTs) constitute a major feature of nuclear architecture. In a brief statement, the possible contribution of nuclear architecture studies to the field of epigenomics is considered, followed by a historical account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date. Present knowledge of nonrandom CT arrangements, of the internal CT architecture, and of structural interactions wit...

  7. Chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yutaka

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G 2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G 2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G 2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G 1 phase. (author)

  8. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out ... to remove damaged parts of intestine. Retinopathy of prematurity (also called ROP) . ROP affects blood vessels in ...

  9. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...

  10. Myopia in premature babies with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Yassur, Y; Mashkowski, D; Sherf, I; Ben-Sira, I

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five premature infants weighing 600-2000 g were followed up during 1974-80 for the presence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and for the existence of myopia. 50% of the premature infants who had ROP were myopic, while only 16% myopic premature infants were found among those who did not have ROP. There was a positive correlation between the degree of myopia and the severity of cicatricial ROP. No difference existed in the frequency and degree of myopia between prematur...

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides Vargas, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity has been the leading cause of childhood blindness. Early and effective screening has helped to diagnose the visual target of an infant by the difference between growing up with a disability or not. A joint effort between ophthalmologists and neonatologists is proposed to control this disease, ensuring success. An appropriate, early, effective and timely treatment has been the laser and cryotherapy like good choices for the neonate to prevent disease progression. Evaluation of screening program, to determine the incidence, compare statistics variables have been measures as other medical pathologies should be encouraged as research topics. A decrease in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is expected, controlling the risk factors during the child's stay in intrahospital neonatal unit [es

  12. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disabilities in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beligere, Nagamani; Perumalswamy, Vijayalaksmi; Tandon, Manish; Mittal, Amit; Floora, Jayasheele; Vijayakumar, B; Miller, Marilyn T

    2015-10-01

    Prematurity is a major global health issue leading to high mortality and morbidity among the survivors. Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are the most common complications of prematurity. In fact, ROP is the second leading cause of childhood blindness in the world. Although there is much information regarding the occurrence of ROP and of NDD in premature infants, there have been few studies on ROP and its association with NDD. The objectives of this article are to review the current literature on the subject and to publish our own findings concerning the association between ROP and NDD in premature infants. The review suggests that although NDDs are related to degree of prematurity, NDD could also be the result of visual impairments resulting from ROP. Our own study shows a close association between NDD and zonal involvement of ROP: higher NDD if zone 1 is involved and less if zone 3 is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Premature emphysema in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Knowles, M.

    1988-01-01

    The CT scans of 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary emphysema. While the average age of patients in this series was 38 years, 25 of the 55 patients, or 45%, demonstrated CT evidence of emphysema. CT findings suggestive of emphysema included areas of low-attenuation, blebs and/or vascular disruption. The authors conclude there is an increased incidence of CT-detectable pulmonary emphysema that is premature for age in patients with AIDS. Destruction of pulmonary parenchyma may represent the response of the lung to repeated pulmonary infections or may be a direct result of the human immunodeficiency virus

  15. Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Altered Gluconeogenic Pathway in Premature Baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill-Vargas, Lisa; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Liang, Hanyu; Anzueto Guerra, Diana; Johnson-Pais, Teresa; Seidner, Steven; McCurnin, Donald; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; DeFronzo, Ralph; Musi, Nicolas; Blanco, Cynthia

    2017-05-01

    Premature infants have altered glucose regulation early in life and increased risk for diabetes in adulthood. Although prematurity leads to an increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult life, the role of hepatic glucose regulation and adaptation to an early extrauterine environment in preterm infants remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental differences in glucose metabolism, hepatic protein content, and gene expression of key insulin-signaling/gluconeogenic molecules. Fetal baboons were delivered at 67%, 75%, and term gestational age and euthanized at birth. Neonatal baboons were delivered prematurely (67% gestation), survived for two weeks, and compared with similar postnatal term animals and underwent serial hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Premature baboons had decreased endogenous glucose production (EGP) compared with term animals. Consistent with these results, the gluconeogenic molecule, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase messenger RNA, was decreased in preterm baboons compared with terms. Hepatic insulin signaling was altered by preterm birth as evidenced by decreased insulin receptor-β, p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, and Akt-1 under insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, preterm baboons failed to have the normal increase in glycogen synthase kinase-α from fetal to postnatal life. The blunted responses in hepatic insulin signaling may contribute to the hyperglycemia of prematurity, while impaired EGP leads to hypoglycemia of prematurity. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  16. Premature ejaculation. 3. Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I

    2004-12-01

    Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.

  17. [Retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promelle, V; Milazzo, S

    2017-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affecting extremely preterm infants exposed to high concentrations of oxygen therapy. Infants born before 32 post-menstrual weeks or with a birth weight of less than 1500g should systematically have a dilated fundus examination. The time of screening and schedule for follow-up are guided by the various risk factors. This disease results from immaturity of the peripheral retinal vessels at the time of premature birth. The classification of ROP depends on the anteroposterior extent of involvement (from center to periphery: zone I, II and III), its extension in 30° sectors (clock hours) and its stage (stage 1 to 5). "Plus" disease is defined as dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels in the posterior pole of the eye and represents a major risk factor for rapid unfavorable progression. A majority of patients will spontaneously recover, but patients with a high risk of progression will require treatment to prevent retinal detachment and blindness. The indications for treatment are threshold disease and type 1 pre-threshold disease. The current treatment of choice is peripheral retinal ablation with transpupillary laser, but ab externo cryotherapy may be used instead. Intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be an attractive therapeutic option and is currently under investigation. After laser treatment, unfavorable outcomes occur in only 9 to 14 % of eyes, but at the price of peripheral retinal destruction. For all patients, whether treated or not, a regular fundus examination should be insured until complete retinal vascularization has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of CDK7 bypasses spindle assembly checkpoint via premature cyclin B degradation during oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HaiYang; Jo, Yu-Jin; Sun, Tian-Yi; Namgoong, Suk; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-12-01

    To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase onset by preventing the premature activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until all kinetochores are attached to the spindle. Although an escape from mitosis in the presence of unsatisfied SAC has been shown in several cancer cells, it has not been reported in oocyte meiosis. Here, we show that CDK7 activity is required to prevent a bypass of SAC during meiosis I in mouse oocytes. Inhibition of CDK7 using THZ1 accelerated the first meiosis, leading to chromosome misalignment, lag of chromosomes during chromosome segregation, and a high incidence of aneuploidy. Notably, this acceleration occurred in the presence of SAC proteins including Mad2 and Bub3 at the kinetochores. However, inhibition of APC/C-mediated cyclin B degradation blocked the THZ1-induced premature polar body extrusion. Moreover, chromosomal defects mediated by THZ1 were rescued when anaphase onset was delayed. Collectively, our results show that CDK7 activity is required to prevent premature anaphase onset by suppressing the bypass of SAC, thus ensuring chromosome alignment and proper segregation. These findings reveal new roles of CDK7 in the regulation of meiosis in mammalian oocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impact action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, C.; Gomez del Valle, M.; Caraballo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Seven patients with megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impaction,reviewing clinical diagnosis, aetiology and medical and surgical management.It is suggested medical management of chronic faecal impaction trying to achieve elective surgery.The curative surgery should include the resection of all pathologic bowel, but in Duhamel procedure and its modifications distal rectal tran section should be at the peritoneal reflection.Habr-Gama modification has shown to be technically easier and it has been communicated good functional results.Local unfavourable conditions may be resolve by staged surgery,which allows outline definitive bowel reconstruction after functional assessment

  20. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10 5 copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G 0 , the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes

  1. Radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in relation to changes in interphase chromosome conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelias, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to study several factors that determine the yield of chromosome fragments as observed in interphase cells after irradiation. In addition to absorbed dose and the extent of chromosome condensation at the time of irradiation, changes in chromosome conformation as cells progressed through the cell cycle after irradiation affected dramatically the yield of chromosome fragments observed. As a test of the effect of chromosome decondensation, irradiated metaphase Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were allowed to divide, and the prematurely condensed chromosomes in the daughter cells were analyzed in their G1 phase. The yield of chromosome fragments increased as the daughter cells progressed toward S phase and chromosome decondensation occurred. When early G1 CHO cells were irradiated and analyzed at later times in G1 phase, an increase in chromosome fragmentation again followed the gradual increase in chromosome decondensation. As a test of the effect of chromosome condensation, G0 human lymphocytes were irradiated and analyzed at various times after fusion with mitotic CHO cells, i.e., as condensation proceeded. The yield of fragments observed was directly related to the amount of chromosome condensation allowed to take place after irradiation and inversely related to the extent of chromosome condensation at the time of irradiation. It can be concluded that changes in chromosome conformation interfered with rejoining processes. In contrast, resting chromosomes (as in G0 lymphocytes irradiated before fusion) showed efficient rejoining. These results support the hypothesis that cytogenetic lesions become observable chromosome breaks when chromosome condensation or decondensation occurs during the cell cycle

  2. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  3. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  4. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mature enough to allow nonstop breathing. This causes large bursts of breath followed by periods of shallow breathing or stopped breathing. Apnea of prematurity usually ends on its own after a few ...

  5. Premature pubarche is niet altijd onschuldig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Manouk; Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Kamp, Gerdine A.

    2012-01-01

    Premature pubarche is defined as growth of pubic hair before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys. In most cases, it is caused by premature adrenarche, which is a premature increased synthesis of androgens in the adrenal gland and is considered to be relatively harmless. Premature

  6. Intraoperative seizures and seizures outcome in patients underwent awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Peizhi, Zhou; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Shu, Jiang; Qing, Mao

    2016-11-25

    Awake craniotomies (AC) could reduce neurological deficits compared with patients under general anesthesia, however, intraoperative seizure is a major reason causing awake surgery failure. The purpose of the study was to give a comprehensive overview the published articles focused on seizure incidence in awake craniotomy. Bibliographic searches of the EMBASE, MEDLINE,were performed to identify articles and conference abstracts that investigated the intraoperative seizure frequency of patients underwent AC. Twenty-five studies were included in this meta-analysis. Among the 25 included studies, one was randomized controlled trials and 5 of them were comparable studies. The pooled data suggested the general intraoperative seizure(IOS) rate for patients with AC was 8%(fixed effect model), sub-group analysis identified IOS rate for glioma patients was 8% and low grade patients was 10%. The pooled data showed early seizure rates of AC patients was 11% and late seizure rates was 35%. This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that awake craniotomy is a safe technique with relatively low intraoperative seizure occurrence. However, few RCTs were available, and the acquisition of further evidence through high-quality RCTs is highly recommended.

  7. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  8. Mitotic chromosome structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  9. Mitotic chromosome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heermann, Dieter W., E-mail: heermann@tphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2012-07-15

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  10. Educational paper: Retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteels, Ingele; Cassiman, Catherine; Van Calster, Joachim; Allegaert, Karel

    2012-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease affecting the premature infant with an incompletely vascularized retina. The spectrum of ophthalmological findings in ROP exists from minimal sequelae, which do not affect vision, to bilateral retinal detachment and total blindness. With the increased survival of very small infants, retinopathy of prematurity has become one of the leading causes of childhood blindness. Over the past two decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ROP, to a large extent as a result of changes in clinical risk factors (oxygen and non-oxygen related) and characteristics observed in ROP cases. This article provides a literature review on the evolution in clinical characteristics, classification and treatment modalities and indications of ROP. Special attention is hereby paid to the neonatal factors influencing the development of ROP and to the necessity for everyone caring for premature babies to have a well-defined screening and treatment protocol for ROP. Such screening protocol needs to be based on a unit-specific ROP risk profile and, consequently, may vary between different European regions. Retinopathy of prematurity is an important cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in children. With better understanding of the pathogenesis, screening and treatment guidelines have changed over time and are unit specific.

  11. Cytogenetic Analysis of 65 Women with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ates

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI is characterized as amenorrhea for more than 6 months, occurring before the age of 40, with an increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. The aim of our study is to determine the types and distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities among women with POI. Material and Method: The study is based on the retrospective karyotype analysis of 65 women with idiopathic POI referred to the Medical Genetics Department at the Bezmialem Vakif University Hospital. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were present in 12 of 65 cases (18.4%. All of them had numerical abnormalities of the X chromosome. The most frequently detected abnormalities were X chromosome mosaicisms. Two cases had fragile X premutation carriers. Eight (12.3% women were considered as familial POI. Discussion: Our results underline the essential role of the X chromosome in the etiology of POI. Therefore, regardless of clinical features and woman%u2019s age, cytogenetic investigations should be routinely performed in cases with POI.

  12. Telomeres, telomerase and premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Košir Pogačnik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of chromosomes, consisting of six repeated nucleotides in TTAGGG sequence. Genome stability is partly maintained by the architecture of telomeres and is gradually lost as telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication. Critically shortened telomeres are recognized by DNA repair mechanisms as DNA damage and the cell replication cycle stops. The cell eventually dies or undergoes cell apoptosis. Telomere represents a cellular marker of biological age and are therefore also called cell mitotic clock. The enzyme that counteracts telomere shortening by adding nucleotides to the 3’ end of DNA strand is called telomerase. It is composed of the RNA subunit (TR, which is special type of messenger RNA (mRNA, the catalytic protein subunit (TERT, which works as a reverse transcriptase and numerous additional proteins. Telomerase is active in some germline, epithelial and haemopoietic cells, but in most somatic cells the activity is undetectable. In literature, the length of telomeres is closely connected with premature ovarian failure (POF. POF is generally defined as the onset of menopause before the age of 40. The causes of disease are genetical, autoimmune, iatrogenic or if we cannot establish the cause – idiopathic. A lot of studies examined correlation between idiopathic POF, length of telomeres and telomerase activity. The studies mostly show that women with POF have shortened telomeres and decreased activity of telomerase as compared to healthy women.

  13. PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.

  14. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  15. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  16. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  17. Complications of Prematurity - An Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Rawat, Munmun; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2017-01-01

    Infographics or information graphics are easy-to-understand visual representation of knowledge. An infographic outlining the course of an extremely preterm infant and various potential complications encountered during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was developed. This infographic can be used to discuss outcomes of prematurity during prenatal counseling and while the infant is in the NICU. PMID:29138522

  18. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  19. Chromosomal aberrations in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Altok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the chromosomal changes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients diagnosed with clinical BPH underwent transurethral prostate resection to address their primary urological problem. All patients were evaluated by use of a comprehensive medical history and rectal digital examination. The preoperative evaluation also included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA measurement and ultrasonographic measurement of prostate volume. Prostate cancer was detected in one patient, who was then excluded from the study. We performed conventional cytogenetic analyses of short-term cultures of 53 peripheral blood samples obtained from the BPH patients. Results: The mean (±standard deviation age of the 53 patients was 67.8±9.4 years. The mean PSA value of the patients was 5.8±7.0 ng/mL. The mean prostate volume was 53.6±22.9 mL. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 5 of the 53 cases (9.4%. Loss of the Y chromosome was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality and was observed in three patients (5.7%. There was no statistically significant relationship among age, PSA, prostate volume, and chromosomal changes. Conclusions: Loss of the Y chromosome was the main chromosomal abnormality found in our study. However, this coexistence did not reach a significant level. Our study concluded that loss of the Y chromosome cannot be considered relevant for the diagnosis of BPH as it is for prostate cancer. Because BPH usually occurs in aging men, loss of the Y chromosome in BPH patients may instead be related to the aging process.

  20. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  1. Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Premature Male Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A premature male infant was born at 30 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 1,700 g in a rural hospital. He was diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and received continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 26 days. At 26 days after birth, the patient was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and management. A comprehensive eye examination revealed a stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involving zone 2 in both eyes. The patient was recommended to a provincial-level eye hospital for emergency laser therapy. Five months after birth, the feedback from the eye hospital showed that the patient had a high risk of blindness in both eyes. Our case report shows that delaying first screening examination increases the possibility of developing aggressive posterior ROP in infants with ROP. Doctors in rural hospitals should be aware of this possibility and trained for early screening and treatment in high-risk infants.

  2. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  3. Giant Retinal Tear With Retinal Detachment in Regressed Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Treated by Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Parijat; Tewari, Ruchir; Salunkhe, Nitesh; Kumawat, Devesh; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-06-29

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after successfully regressed retinopathy of prematurity is a rare occurrence. Late onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment has been reported infrequently. The authors report a case of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity that underwent uneventful regression after laser photocoagulation and later developed an inoperable closed funnel retinal detachment due to a giant retinal tear. This case represents the earliest development of such complications in regressed aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity treated by laser. Development of a giant retinal tear has also not been previously reported after laser treatment. This case highlights that successful regression of severe retinopathy of prematurity does not safeguard against future complications and requires frequent long-term follow-up. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e34-e36.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Premature Infants With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Guamán, Milenka; Akinkuotu, Adesola C; Cruz, Stephanie M; Griffiths, Pamela A; Welty, Stephen E; Lee, Timothy C; Olutoye, Oluyinka O

    2017-11-14

    Prematurity and low birth weight have been exclusion criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); however, these criteria are not evidence based. With advances in anticoagulation, improved technology, and surgical expertise, it is difficult to deny a potential therapy based on these criteria alone. We report the outcome of three neonates who were ineligible based on traditional criteria but were offered ECMO as a life-saving measure. We highlight the interdisciplinary nature of modern decision-making. All three neonates had severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia diagnosed prenatally, had normal fetal karyotypes, were born prematurely, and weighed less than 2 kg. All three neonates underwent cervical venoarterial cannulation, stabilization on ECMO, and repair of their congenital diaphragmatic hernia early in their ECMO courses. All three infants had long courses of respiratory support attributable to lung hypoplasia, but there were no short- or long-term complications attributable to ECMO support directly. All three are alive at 2 years of age and were making progress developmentally. In conclusion, with interdisciplinary collaboration and clinical guidelines uniformly implemented, low birth weight infants may benefit from ECMO and should not be denied the therapy arbitrarily based on gestational age or size alone. Further research is essential to determine appropriate patient selection in premature infants.

  5. Cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniery, Carmel M; Bolton, Charlotte E; Fawke, Joseph; Hennessy, Enid; Stocks, Janet; Wilkinson, Ian B; Cockcroft, John R; Marlow, Neil

    2011-07-01

    The long-term consequences of extreme prematurity are becoming increasingly important, given recent improvements in neonatal intensive care. The aim of the current study was to examine the cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity in 11-year-olds born at or before 25 completed weeks of gestation. Age and sex-matched classmates were recruited as controls. Information concerning perinatal and maternal history was collected, and current anthropometric characteristics were measured in 219 children born extremely preterm and 153 classmates. A subset of the extremely preterm children (n = 68) and classmates (n = 90) then underwent detailed haemodynamic investigations, including measurement of supine blood pressure (BP), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, a measure of aortic stiffness) and augmentation index (AIx, a measure of arterial pressure wave reflections). Seated brachial systolic and diastolic BP were not different between extremely preterm children and classmates (P = 0.3 for both), although there was a small, significant elevation in supine mean and diastolic BP in the extremely preterm children (P prematurity is associated with altered arterial haemodynamics in children, not evident from the examination of brachial BP alone. Moreover, the smaller, preresistance and resistance vessels rather than large elastic arteries appear to be most affected. Children born extremely preterm may be at increased future cardiovascular risk.

  6. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-10-13

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  7. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele G. Sotero-Caio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  8. xidative Stress and Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Ümeyye Taka Aydın; Hatip Aydın; Osman Çekiç

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between ox...

  9. Ventriculosubgaleal shunts for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian K; Kumar, Cherukuri Ravi; Wylen, Esther L; Nanda, Anil

    2005-01-01

    The early management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants is challenging and controversial. These infants need a temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure until they gain adequate weight, and the blood and protein levels in CSF are reasonably low before permanent shunt can be placed. Various options are available with their associated advantages and disadvantages. Ventriculosubgaleal shunts have been recommended as a more physiologic and less invasive means of achieving this goal. We have performed this procedure in 6 premature infants to evaluate their effectiveness and complications. Six consecutive premature infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus underwent placement of ventriculosubgaleal shunts over a 1-year period of time. We reviewed their clinical and imaging progress to assess the ability of the shunt to control hydrocephalus and the complication rates. In all 6 patients, the ventriculosubgaleal shunt controlled the progression of hydrocephalus as assessed by clinical and imaging parameters. A permanent shunt was avoided in 1 patient (16.6%). However, 4 patients developed shunt infections, 1 involving the ventriculosubgaleal shunt itself, and 3 immediately after conversion to ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The total infection rate of the series was 66.6%. All infections were caused by staphylococcus species. There was only a 1% shunt infection rate in our institution for all nonventriculosubgaleal shunts during the same period of time. Placement of ventriculosubgaleal shunts for interim CSF diversion in neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is effective as a temporary method of CSF diversion. However, our experience has shown that it is associated with a unacceptably high CSF infection rate. A potential cause for infection is CSF stasis just beneath the extremely thin skin of the premature infants, promoting colonization by skin flora. CSF sampling before conversion to a permanent shunt and replacement of the proximal

  10. [Laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care units. Premature Eye Rescue Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maka, Erika; Imre, László; Somogyvári, Zsolt; Németh, János

    2015-02-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness around the world. The Department of Ophthalmology at the Semmelweis University and the Peter Cerny Neonatal Emergency and Ambulance Service started an innovative Premature Eye Rescue Program to reduce the non-essential transport of premature babies suffering from retinopathy of prematurity. During the first 5 years 186 eyes of 93 premature babies were treated at the bedside with stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity in the primary hospitals. In this first 5-years period the authors reduced the number of transports of premature babies for laser treatment; 93 children avoided the unnecessary transport, saving altogether a distance of 21,930 kilometers for children, as well as the ambulance service. The Premature Eye Rescue Program offers a good and effective alternative for treatment of retinopathy in the primary hospitals. The authors propose the national extension of this program.

  11. Discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Masanori

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography. In this method, the difference in DNA synthetic phase between each chromosome was used as a standard, and the used chromosome was in metaphase, as morphological characteristics were markedly in this phase. Cell cycle and autoradiography with 3 H-thymidine were also examined. In order to discriminate chromosome by autoradiography, it was effective to utilize the labelled pattern in late DNA synthetic phase, where asynchronous replication of chromosome appeared most obviously. DNA synthesis in chromosome was examined in each DNA synthetic phase by culturing the chromosome after the treatment with 3 H-thymidine and altering the time to prepare chromosome specimen. Discrimination of chromosome in plants and animals by autoradiography was also mentioned. It was noticed as a structural and functional discrimination of chromosome to observe amino acid uptake into chromosome protein and to utilize the difference in labelled pattern between the sites of chromosome. (K. Serizawa)

  12. Fetal chromosome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, A; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  13. Successful Surgical Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity Showing Rapid Progression despite Extensive Retinal Photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Salil S; Kulkarni, Sucheta R; Kamdar, Rushita R; Deshpande, Madan

    2015-01-01

    The management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can be challenging in preterm babies with a gestational age premature infant presented with "hybrid" zone 1 disease in the right eye and aggressive posterior ROP in the left eye. Both eyes were adequately treated with laser photocoagulation; however, the eyes deteriorated and progressed to stage 4 ROP. Both eyes eventually underwent intravitreal bevacizumab followed by lens sparing vitrectomy with good anatomical and visual outcome. Anticipation of progression despite laser photocoagulation in certain clinical scenarios, frequent follow-up and timely surgical intervention is paramount.

  14. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaeva, Galina V; Sidorenko, Evgenyj I; Iosifovna, Amkhanitskaya Lyubov

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g), and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g). Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g). The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05). Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05). The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns' somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  15. A cytogenetic study of hospital workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides in Serbia. Premature centromere division as novel biomarker of exposure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajic, Jelena; Rakic, Boban [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Jovicic, Dubravka [Univ. ' ' Singidunum' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Genotoxicology Dept.; Milovanovic, Aleksandar [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Occupational Health Dept.

    2016-04-15

    The health risk of chronic exposure to radionuclides includes changes in the genome (e.g., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) that increase chromosomal instability. There are also other phenomena, which seem to appear more frequently in metaphases of exposed persons (such as premature centromere division). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not there is correlation between incidence of named cytogenetic changes in persons occupationally exposed to radionuclides in comparison with unexposed control group, and if significant correlation is determined, can premature centromere division be consider as a biomarker of radiation exposure? The exposed group comprised 50 individuals occupationally exposed to radionuclides. The reference control group consisted of 40 unexposed individuals. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and premature centromere division were analyzed according to a standard International Atomic Energy Agency protocol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistics.The means for analyzed cytogenetic changes were significantly higher in the exposed group. Positive correlation between them was found in exposed group. Premature centromere division parameter PCD5-10 was selected as particularly suitable for separating groups (exposed/unexposed). Identification of other phenomena related to radionuclide exposure, beside well known, may clarify recent problems in radiobiology concerning the biological response to low doses of ionizing radiation and its consequences.

  16. A cytogenetic study of hospital workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides in Serbia. Premature centromere division as novel biomarker of exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajic, Jelena; Rakic, Boban; Jovicic, Dubravka; Milovanovic, Aleksandar; Belgrade Univ.

    2016-01-01

    The health risk of chronic exposure to radionuclides includes changes in the genome (e.g., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) that increase chromosomal instability. There are also other phenomena, which seem to appear more frequently in metaphases of exposed persons (such as premature centromere division). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not there is correlation between incidence of named cytogenetic changes in persons occupationally exposed to radionuclides in comparison with unexposed control group, and if significant correlation is determined, can premature centromere division be consider as a biomarker of radiation exposure? The exposed group comprised 50 individuals occupationally exposed to radionuclides. The reference control group consisted of 40 unexposed individuals. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and premature centromere division were analyzed according to a standard International Atomic Energy Agency protocol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistics.The means for analyzed cytogenetic changes were significantly higher in the exposed group. Positive correlation between them was found in exposed group. Premature centromere division parameter PCD5-10 was selected as particularly suitable for separating groups (exposed/unexposed). Identification of other phenomena related to radionuclide exposure, beside well known, may clarify recent problems in radiobiology concerning the biological response to low doses of ionizing radiation and its consequences.

  17. Risk of Gonadoblastoma Development in Patients with Turner Syndrome with Cryptic Y Chromosome Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahreum; Hyun, Sei Eun; Jung, Mo Kyung; Chae, Hyun Wook; Lee, Woo Jung; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2017-06-01

    Current guidelines recommend that testing for Y chromosome material should be performed only in patients with Turner syndrome harboring a marker chromosome and exhibiting virilization in order to detect individuals who are at high risk of gonadoblastoma. However, cryptic Y chromosome material is suggested to be a risk factor for gonadoblastoma in patients with Turner syndrome. Here, we aimed to estimate the frequency of cryptic Y chromosome material in patients with Turner syndrome and determine whether Y chromosome material increased the risk for development of gonadoblastoma. A total of 124 patients who were diagnosed with Turner syndrome by conventional cytogenetic techniques underwent additional molecular analysis to detect cryptic Y chromosome material. In addition, patients with Turner syndrome harboring Y chromosome cell lines had their ovaries removed prophylactically. Finally, we assessed the occurrence of gonadoblastoma in patients with Turner syndrome. Molecular analysis demonstrated that 10 patients had Y chromosome material among 118 patients without overt Y chromosome (8.5%). Six patients with overt Y chromosome and four patients with cryptic Y chromosome material underwent oophorectomy. Histopathological analysis revealed that the occurrence of gonadoblastoma in the total group was 2.4%, and gonadoblastoma occurred in one of six patients with an overt Y chromosome (16.7%) and 2 of 10 patients with cryptic Y chromosome material (20.0%). The risk of developing gonadoblastoma in patients with cryptic Y chromosome material was similar to that in patients with overt Y chromosome. Therefore, molecular screening for Y chromosome material should be recommended for all patients with Turner syndrome to detect individuals at a high risk of gonadoblastoma and to facilitate proper management of the disease.

  18. Phenotypic consequences of a mosaic marker chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as being derived from chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Pletcher, B.A. [Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes are detected in 1 in 2500 amniotic fluid samples and are associated with a 10-15% risk for phenotypic abnormality. FISH can be utilized as a research tool to identify the origins of marker chromosomes. The phenotypic consequences of a marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 are described. A 26-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks gestation because of a prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot. Follow-up ultrasounds also showed ventriculomegaly and cleft lip and palate. 32 of 45 cells had the karyotype 47,XY,+mar; the remaining cells were 46,XY. The de novo marker chromosome was C-band positive and non-satellited and failed to stain with distamycin A/DAPI. At birth the ultrasound findings were confirmed and dysmorphic features and cryptorchidism were noted. Although a newborn blood sample contained only normal cells, mosaicism was confirmed in 2 skin biopsies. FISH using whole-chromosome painting and alpha-satellite DNA probes showed that the marker chromosome had originated from chromosome 16. As proximal 16q is distamycin A/DAPI positive, the marker is apparently derived from proximal 16p. At 15 months of age, this child is hypotonic, globally delayed and is gavage-fed. His physical examination is significant for microbrachycephaly, a round face, sparse scalp hair, ocular hypertelorism, exotropia, a flat, wide nasal bridge and tip, mild micrognathia, and tapered fingers with lymphedema of hands and feet. Inguinal hernias have been repaired. His features are consistent with those described for patients trisomic for most or all of the short arm of chromosome 16. Marker chromosomes derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 appear to have phenotypic consequences. As the origin of more marker chromosomes are identified using FISH, their karyotype/phenotype correlations will become more apparent, which will permit more accurate genetic counseling.

  19. Nuclear renaissance or premature try

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderch, M.

    2008-01-01

    After the economic failure of the 70's and not having been able to solve for decades its multiple problems, the nuclear industry was suffering a slow but inescapable agony. However, the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the likely arrival of the worldwide peak of oil production have infused new life to the nuclear option, and it has again become one of the main topics of discussion in the worldwide energy debate. But in this debate we tend to forget that the causes of the abrupt end of the first nuclear era have not disappeared, and that for this reason it may well be that we are lead to a repetition of the events that induced its first demise. The much talked nuclear renaissance is thus likely to end up as a premature miscarriage. (Author)

  20. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Şekeroğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in triplets. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive premature triplets who had been screened for ROP in a single maternity hospital were analyzed and presence and severity of ROP; birth weight, gender, gestational age of the infant; route of delivery and the mode of conception were recorded. Results: A total of 54 triplets (40 males, 14 females who were screened for ROP between March 2010 and February 2013 were recruited for the study. All triplets were delivered by Caesarean section and 36 (66.7% were born following an assisted conception. During follow-up, seven (13% of the infants developed ROP of any stage and two (3.7% required laser photocoagulation. The mean gestational age of triplets with ROP was 27.6±1.5 (27-31 weeks whereas it was 32.0±1.5 (30-34 weeks in those without ROP (p=0.002. The mean birth weights of triplets with and without ROP were 1290.0±295.2 (970-1600 g and 1667.5±222.2 (1130-1960 g, respectively (p<0.001. The presence of ROP was not associated with gender (p=0.358 or mode of conception (p=0.674. Conclusion: ROP in triplets seems to be mainly related to low gestational age and low birth weight. Further prospective randomized studies are necessary to demonstrate risk factors of ROP in triplets and to determine if and how gemelarity plays a role in the development of ROP.

  1. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  2. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prematurity. 29.1050 Section 29.1050 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1050 Prematurity. A condition of growth and development characteristic of the lower...

  3. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  4. Heavy ion-induced chromosomal aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, M.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Pugliese, M.; Cella, L.; Greco, O.; George, K.; Yang, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the effectiveness of heavy ions in the induction of chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells by the recent technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes. FISH-painting was used both in metaphase and interphase (prematurely condensed) chromosomes. The purpose of our experiments was to address the following problems: (a) the ratio of different types of aberrations as a function of radiation quality (search for biomarkers); (b) the ratio between aberrations scored in interphase and metaphase as a function of radiation quality (role of apoptosis); (c) differences between cytogenetic effects produced by different ions at the same LET (role of track structure). (orig./MG)

  5. Heavy ion-induced chromosomal aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Pugliese, M [Univ. ` ` Federico II` ` , Naples (Italy). Dept. of Physics; [INFN, Naples (Italy); Cella, L; Greco, O [Univ. ` ` Federico II` ` , Naples (Italy). Dept. of Physics; Furusawa, Y [NIRS, Chiba (Japan); George, K; Yang, T C [NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated the effectiveness of heavy ions in the induction of chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells by the recent technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes. FISH-painting was used both in metaphase and interphase (prematurely condensed) chromosomes. The purpose of our experiments was to address the following problems: (a) the ratio of different types of aberrations as a function of radiation quality (search for biomarkers); (b) the ratio between aberrations scored in interphase and metaphase as a function of radiation quality (role of apoptosis); (c) differences between cytogenetic effects produced by different ions at the same LET (role of track structure). (orig./MG)

  6. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  7. CHROMOSOMES OF WOODY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R Daviña

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of nine subtropical woody species collected in Argentina and Paraguay are reported. The counts tor Coutarea hexandra (2n=52, Inga vera subsp. affinis 2n=26 (Fabaceae and Chorisia speciosa 2n=86 (Bombacaceae are reported for the first time. The chromosome number given for Inga semialata 2n=52 is a new cytotype different from the previously reported. Somatic chromosome numbers of the other taxa studied are: Sesbania punicea 2n=12, S. virgata 2n=12 and Pilocarpus pennatifolius 2n=44 from Argentina

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  9. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  10. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  11. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...

  12. Serum Zn levels in dysphagic patients who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy for long term enteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Santos, Carla; Fonseca, Jorge; Brito, José; Fernandes, Tânia; Gonçalves, Luísa; Sousa Guerreiro, António

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Dysphagic patients who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) usually present protein-energy malnutrition, but little is known about micronutrient malnutrition. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of serum zinc in patients who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy and its relationship with serum proteins, whole blood zinc, and the nature of underlying disorder. Methods: From patients that underwent gastrostomy a blood sample was obtained minutes before the procedur...

  13. Biological dosimetry of absorbed radiation by C-banding of interphase chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelias, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    In the present report a C-banding procedure, refined to avoid swelling and chromosome distortion of freshly prepared prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCCs) spreads, is used to identify aberrations in non-stimulated human lymphocytes. The method allows immediate banding of the centromeric regions and enables scoring of aberrations within a time interval (3-4h after blood sample withdrawal) that is only a fraction of that normally required when cells stimulated to proliferate are analysed at metaphase. The dose-response for dicentrics and centric rings measured in interphase lymphocytes was found to be similar to that obtained at metaphase. Measurement of dicentrics and centric rings in prematurely condensed chromosomes of human lymphocytes would provide valuable information on radiation dose estimates, especially in cases of extreme urgency. (Author)

  14. Study of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfring, E.

    2004-06-01

    A method for determining chromosomal aberrations was established for the purpose of examining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of photon radiation with respect to mammary epithelium cells. Cells were exposed to 25 kV X-radiation and to 200 kV X-radiation for comparison and the resulting concentrations of chromosomal aberrations were compared. The RBE M value for radiation-induced fragmentation was found to be 4.2 ± 2.4, while the RBE M value for radiation-induced generation of dicentric chromosomes was found to be 0.5 ± 0.5. In addition to the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations the number of cell cycles undergone by the cells was monitored by means of BrDU staining. As expected, the proportion of cells which underwent more than one cell cycle following exposure to 5 Gy was very low in both cases, amounting to 1.9% (25 kV) and 3.2 (200 kV). Non-radiated cells yielded control values of 26.0% and 12.6%, suggesting variations in external conditions from day to day

  15. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed

  16. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  17. Social support for parents of premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skurzak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is still an actual medical problem. Significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies is observed due to the progress in perinatal care .Usually, parents are not prepared for a premature birth, for the majority of them the hospitalization of a child in neonatal intensive care unit is a source of fear,  moreover parents often blame themselves for the situation. Appearing emotions and questions require a compatible response from the therapeutic team. The most important activity in the practice of the team is emotional, informative, evaluative support.

  18. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  19. [Psychologic management of extreme prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granboulan, V; Danan, C; Dassieu, G; Janaud, J C; Durand, B

    1995-05-01

    The ongoing progress in neonatal intensive care is modifying the psychic context of prematurity for all the partners, infants as well as parents and physicians. Comfort and prognosis of preterm infants have much improved. Since newborns under 24 weeks of gestational age are now surviving, they spend approximately half the duration of pregnancy out of the maternal uterus. All the psychological issues of such an early separation have to be considered, including the developmental outcome of a sensorial environment which is quite different from the intra-uterine one. Research has been developing in this field. The cooperation between neonatalogists and psychologists has been profitable to parents. Problems linked to the separation, such as difficulty in representing the infant, are no more frequent owing to the attention paid to the mother-child bond and subsequent early contacts. What is forward now is the impact of an hyper technical world of intensive care on the parents, and of the strange aspect of the tiny baby surrounded by engines and tubes. Such an overpresence of reality often results in a reaction of traumatic daziness among parents. The cooperation of the whole staff is necessary for the resumption of an imaginary process of psychic functioning. Finally, the survival of very-low-birth-weight infants confronts the neonatalogists with some delicate ethical questions. Psychiatrists and psychologists might have an important part to play in aiding the profession in its sorting out of these ethical issues.

  20. Chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes complicating in utero myelomeningocele repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Shelly; Moldenhauer, Julie S; Spinner, Susan S; Rendon, Norma; Khalek, Nahla; Martinez-Poyer, Juan; Johnson, Mark P; Adzick, N Scott

    2016-05-01

    Since the results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study were published, maternal-fetal surgery for the in utero treatment of spina bifida has become accepted as a standard of care alternative. Despite promise with fetal management of myelomeningocele repair, there are significant complications to consider. Chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes are known complications of invasive fetal procedures. Despite their relative frequency associated with fetal procedures, few data exist regarding risk factors that may be attributed to their occurrence or the natural history of pregnancies that are affected with chorionic membrane separation or preterm premature rupture of membranes related to the procedure. The objective of this study was to review chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes in a cohort of patients undergoing fetal management of myelomeningocele repair including identification of risk factors and outcomes. This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing fetal management of myelomeningocele repair and subsequent delivery from January 2011 through December 2013 at 1 institution. Patients were identified through the institutional fetal management of myelomeningocele repair database and chart review was performed. Perioperative factors and outcomes among patients with chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes were compared to those without. Risk factors associated with the development of chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes were determined. A total of 88 patients underwent fetal management of myelomeningocele repair and subsequently delivered during the study period. In all, 21 patients (23.9%) were diagnosed with chorioamniotic membrane separation by ultrasound and preterm premature rupture of membranes occurred in 27 (30.7%). Among the chorioamniotic membrane separation patients, 10 (47.6%) were

  1. The effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (<1500 grams or ≥1500 grams. Design This is a retrospective chart review. Methods We reviewed the charts of 137 patients who underwent open fetal/fetoscopic surgery from 1996–2004. Surgical indications included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, myelomeningocele (MMC, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH, sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT, cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM, and twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP. Of these, 17 patients had local ROP examination data. Binomial tests were performed to assess whether rates of ROP in our fetal/fetoscopic surgery cohort were significantly different from published rates. Results There were 5 patients each with an underlying diagnosis of TTTS and MMC, 2 patients each with CDH and TRAP, and 1 patient each with SCT, CCAM, and mediastinal teratoma. The mean gestational age at surgery was 23 4 / 7 ± 2 3 / 7 weeks, mean gestational age at birth was 30 ± 2 5 / 7 weeks, and mean birth weight was 1449 ± 510 grams (610–2485. Compared to published rates of ROP and threshold ROP, our fetal surgery patients had significantly higher rates of ROP and threshold ROP in both the <1500 grams and the ≥1500 grams group (all p-values <0.05. Conclusions Fetal/fetoscopic surgery appears to significantly increase the rate of ROP and threshold ROP development. Greater numbers are needed to confirm these observations.

  2. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  3. Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in an Infant with Adenoviral Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP has been a major problematic disorder during childhood. Laser photocoagulation (LPC has been proven to be effective in most of the ROP cases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis (AVC is responsible for epidemics among adult and pediatric population. It has also been reported to be a cause of outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICU several times. We herein demonstrate a case with AVC who underwent LPC for ROP. And we discuss the treatment methodology in such cases.

  4. Excision of an intrapericardial immature teratoma in a 26-week premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hawkins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 26-week premature newborn with an immature intrapericardial teratoma. The patient was transferred from an outside hospital for management of a large mediastinal mass causing respiratory insufficiency. The newborn was supported with the help of a large interdisciplinary team until day of life 22 when he underwent surgical excision. On follow up the infant is doing very well and is one of the youngest survivors to date.

  5. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Brown, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The general consensus has been that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). We reviewed new observational studies that challenge this simple conclusion. Methods This was a review of observational studies of the association of premature or early menopause with stroke or IS published in English from 2006 through 2010. Results Three cohort studies showed an increased risk of all stroke in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy compared with women who conserved their ovaries before age 50 years. The increased risk of stroke was reduced by hormonal therapy (HT) in one of the studies, suggesting that estrogen deprivation is involved in the association. Four additional observational studies showed an association of all stroke or IS with the early onset of menopause or with a shorter lifespan of ovarian activity. In three of the seven studies, the association was restricted to IS. Age at menopause was more important than type of menopause (natural vs induced). Conclusions The findings from seven recent observational studies challenge the consensus that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for IS and can be reconciled by a unifying timing hypothesis. We hypothesize that estrogen is protective for IS before age 50 years and may become a risk factor for IS after age 50 years or, possibly, after age 60 years. These findings are relevant to women who experienced premature or early menopause, or to women considering prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of natural menopause. PMID:21993082

  6. Retinal vascular speed prematurity requiring treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans Pérez de Larraya, Ana M; Ortega Molina, José M; Fernández, José Uberos; Escudero Gómez, Júlia; Salgado Miranda, Andrés D; Chaves Samaniego, Maria J; García Serrano, José L

    2018-03-01

    To analyse the speed of temporal retinal vascularisation in preterm infants included in the screening programme for retinopathy of prematurity. A total of 185 premature infants were studied retrospectively between 2000 and 2017 in San Cecilio University Hospital of Granada, Spain. The method of binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy with indentation was used for the examination. The horizontal disc diameter was used as a unit of length. Speed of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) was calculated as the ratio between the extent of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter) and the time in weeks. The weekly temporal retinal vascularisation (0-1.25 disc diameter/week, confidence interval) was significantly higher in no retinopathy of prematurity (0.73 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week) than in stage 1 retinopathy of prematurity (0.58 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week). It was also higher in stage 1 than in stages 2 (0.46 ± 0.14 disc diameter/week) and 3 of retinopathy of prematurity (0.36 ± 0.18 disc diameter/week). The rate of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) decreases when retinopathy of prematurity stage increases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.91) for retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment versus not requiring treatment. The best discriminative cut-off point was a speed of retinal vascularisation prematurity may be required. However, before becoming a new standard of care for treatment, it requires careful documentation, with agreement between several ophthalmologists.

  7. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  8. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  9. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...... chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein...... families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different "Molecular Function" GO categories were found for chromosome 1...

  10. Unprecedented large inverted repeats at the replication terminus of circular bacterial chromosomes suggest a novel mode of chromosome rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Loux, Valentin; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Blin, Camille; Chiapello, Hélène; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    The first Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus genome sequence revealed the presence of a very large inverted repeat (IR), a DNA sequence arrangement which thus far seemed inconceivable in a non-manipulated circular bacterial chromosome, at the replication terminus. This intriguing observation prompted us to investigate if similar IRs could be found in other bacteria. IRs with sizes varying from 38 to 76 kbp were found at the replication terminus of all 5 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus chromosomes analysed, but in none of 1373 other chromosomes. They represent the first naturally occurring very large IRs detected in circular bacterial genomes. A comparison of the L. bulgaricus replication terminus regions and the corresponding regions without IR in 5 L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis genomes leads us to propose a model for the formation and evolution of the IRs. The DNA sequence data are consistent with a novel model of chromosome rescue after premature replication termination or irreversible chromosome damage near the replication terminus, involving mechanisms analogous to those proposed in the formation of very large IRs in human cancer cells. We postulate that the L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus-specific IRs in different strains derive from a single ancestral IR of at least 93 kbp. PMID:28281695

  11. Treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants with subcutaneous reservoir drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Li, Shasha; Lin, Zhenlang; Zhang, Nu

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of subcutaneous reservoir drainage as a treatment for the different types of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants. 11 premature infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus underwent subcutaneous reservoir embedment surgery, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained via the reservoir intermittently for 8 weeks. During the period of drainage, ultrasound and computerized tomography were used to measure ventricle size. CSF examinations were performed routinely to assess the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and/or infection. (1) Five infants were diagnosed as having obstructive hydrocephalus; 2 had nearly normal ventricle sizes with treatment and drainage was stopped after 8 weeks, 2 had nearly normal ventricle sizes after 4 more weeks of drainage, and 1 underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt (V-P shunt) surgery due to failure of ventricle size reduction. (2) Six infants were diagnosed as having communicating hydrocephalus; 4 had further enlarged ventricle size after 8 weeks and underwent V-P shunt surgery, 1 had treatment aborted at week 8 of drainage, and only 1 had moderate reduction of ventricle size after 8 weeks. (3) None of the 11 infants had progressive IVH and/or intracranial infection during drainage. Subcutaneous reservoir drainage is a suitable and safe treatment for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants. It is more effective for obstructive hydrocephalus than for communicating hydrocephalus. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: X chromosome defects and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persani, Luca; Rossetti, Raffaella; Cacciatore, Chiara; Bonomi, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years. However, in several instances the distinction between definitive or intermittent POF may be difficult on clinical bases, therefore the more appropriate term Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) has been recently proposed and will be used in this review. POI is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women disappearance of menstrual cycles (secondary amenorrhea) associated with a defective folliculogenesis. POI is generally characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and high levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea). Heterogeneity of POI is reflected by the variety of possible causes, including autoimmunity, toxics, drugs, as well as genetic defects. Several data indicate that POI has a strong genetic component. In this manuscript we discuss the X chromosome abnormalities that are associated with POI.

  13. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  14. New insights into sex chromosome evolution in anole lizards (Reptilia, Dactyloidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannotti, M; Trifonov, V A; Paoletti, A; Kichigin, I G; O'Brien, P C M; Kasai, F; Giovagnoli, G; Ng, B L; Ruggeri, P; Cerioni, P Nisi; Splendiani, A; Pereira, J C; Olmo, E; Rens, W; Caputo Barucchi, V; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    2017-03-01

    Anoles are a clade of iguanian lizards that underwent an extensive radiation between 125 and 65 million years ago. Their karyotypes show wide variation in diploid number spanning from 26 (Anolis evermanni) to 44 (A. insolitus). This chromosomal variation involves their sex chromosomes, ranging from simple systems (XX/XY), with heterochromosomes represented by either micro- or macrochromosomes, to multiple systems (X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 /X 1 X 2 Y). Here, for the first time, the homology relationships of sex chromosomes have been investigated in nine anole lizards at the whole chromosome level. Cross-species chromosome painting using sex chromosome paints from A. carolinensis, Ctenonotus pogus and Norops sagrei and gene mapping of X-linked genes demonstrated that the anole ancestral sex chromosome system constituted by microchromosomes is retained in all the species with the ancestral karyotype (2n = 36, 12 macro- and 24 microchromosomes). On the contrary, species with a derived karyotype, namely those belonging to genera Ctenonotus and Norops, show a series of rearrangements (fusions/fissions) involving autosomes/microchromosomes that led to the formation of their current sex chromosome systems. These results demonstrate that different autosomes were involved in translocations with sex chromosomes in closely related lineages of anole lizards and that several sequential microautosome/sex chromosome fusions lead to a remarkable increase in size of Norops sagrei sex chromosomes.

  15. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  16. Mutations and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlman, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    The genetic changes of mutations and chromosomal aberrations are discussed. The consequences of both depend not only on the type of genetic change produced but also on the type of cell that is affected and on the development stage of the organism. (C.F.)

  17. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-01-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available

  18. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Know Your Chromosomes The Strong Holds of Family Trees. Vani Brahmachari. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 30-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  20. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Nicolaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in extremely premature infants.Methods:Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g, and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g. Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g. The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results:The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05.Conclusion:The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns’ somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  1. In vitro fertilization surrogate pregnancy in a patient who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by ovarian transposition, lower abdominal wall radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigrad, Stephen; Hacker, Neville F; Kolb, Bradford

    2005-05-01

    To describe an IVF surrogate pregnancy from a patient who had a radical hysterectomy followed by excision of a laparoscopic port site implantation with ovarian transposition followed by abdominal wall irradiation and chemotherapy, which resulted in premature ovarian failure from which there was partial recovery. Case report. Tertiary referral university women's hospital in Sydney, Australia and private reproductive medicine clinic in California. A 34-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopy for pelvic pain, shortly afterward followed by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, who subsequently developed a laparoscopic port site recurrence, which was excised in association with ovarian transposition before abdominal wall irradiation and chemotherapy. Modified IVF treatment, transabdominal oocyte retrieval, embryo cryopreservation in Australia, and transfer to a surrogate mother in the United States. Pregnancy. Miscarriage in the second cycle and a twin pregnancy in the fourth cycle. This is the first case report of ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval performed on transposed ovaries after a patient developed premature ovarian failure after radiotherapy and chemotherapy with subsequent partial ovarian recovery.

  2. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  3. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  4. Manipulating chromosome structure and metaphase status with ultraviolet light and repair synthesis inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullinger, A.M.; Johnson, R.T. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Zoology)

    1985-02-01

    DNA repair occurs in metaphase-arrested cells in response to ultraviolet irradiation. In the presence of the repair synthesis inhibitors, hydroxyurea and 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, the chromosomes of such cells are decondensed. The dose response of chromosome decondensation varies between different cell types. In human cells defective in excision repair there is much less chromosome decondensation in response to the same ultraviolet dose and time of repair inhibition. However, a simian virus 40-transformed muntjac cell displays pronounced chromosome decondensation but has limited incision ability. Both chromosome decondensation and single-strand break accumulation in the presence of inhibitors are reversed when DNA precursors are provided, but reversal after higher ultraviolet doses and longer period of incubation leads to recondensed chromosomes that are fragmented. Although the chromosomes of repair-inhibited metaphase cells are decondensed in fixed preparations, their morphology appears normal in intact cells. The cells also retain a capacity to induce prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) when fused with interphase cells: compared with control mitotic cells, the speed of induction is sometimes reduced but the final amount of PCC produced is similar.

  5. A comparison of the DNA and chromosome repair kinetics after #betta# irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittelman, W.N.; Pollard, M.

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of repair at the chromosome and DNA levels were compared after #betta# irradiation of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). Induction and repair of DNA damage were measured by the alkaline and neutral elution techniques, while chromosome damage and repair were determined by the technique of premature chromosome condensation. During and after #betta# irradiation, significant DNA repair occurred within 2 min. This fast repair could be inhibited by EDTA and pyrophosphate and probably reflected polynucleotide ligase activity. A slower component of DNA repair was detected between 15 and 60 min after irradiation, by which time most of the DNA had been repaired. In contrast, chromosome repair was not detectable until 45 min after irradiation, and nearly half of the chromatid breaks were repaired by 60 min. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, prevented chromosome break repair, yet had no effect on the immediate formation of chromatid exchanges or DNA repair. These results suggest the following: (1) the rapidly repairing DNA lesions are not important in the repair of chromosomes; (2) chromosome damage involves only a minority of the DNA lesions measured by alkaline and neutral DNA elution; and (3) chromosome repair may involve more than simply the repair of damaged DNA that can be detected by the alkaline and neutral elution assays

  6. Carotid body size measured by computed tomographic angiography in individuals born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Melissa L; Welch, Brian T; Randall, Jess T; Petersen-Jones, Humphrey G; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2018-05-24

    We tested the hypothesis that the carotid bodies would be smaller in individuals born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared individuals born full term that did not receive oxygen therapy. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients who underwent head/neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) at the Mayo Clinic between 10 and 40 years of age (n = 2503). Patients were identified as premature ( body images captured during the CTA were performed. Carotid body visualization was possible in 43% of patients and 52% of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls but only 17% of juvenile preterm subjects (p = 0.07). Of the carotid bodies that could be visualized, widest axial measurements of the carotid bodies in individuals born prematurely (n = 7, 34 ± 4 weeks gestation, birth weight: 2460 ± 454 g; average size: 2.5 ± 0.2 cm) or individuals exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy (n = 3, 38 ± 2 weeks gestation, Average size: 2.2 ± 0.1 cm) were not different when compared to controls (2.3 ± 0.2 cm and 2.3 ± 0.2 cm, respectively, p > 0.05). Carotid body size, as measured using CTA, is not smaller in adults born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared to sex, age, and BMI-matched controls. However, carotid body visualization was lower in juvenile premature patients. The decreased ability to visualize the carotid bodies in these individuals may be a result of their prematurity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Predictors of premature clopidogrel discontinuation within 30 days of successful coronary artery stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çayan Cakir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors, and mortality rate of premature clopidogrel discontinuation within 30 days of successful coronary stenting. Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent successful coronary stent implantation at our hospital between December 2006 and December 2007 were prospectively included in this study. Patients were interviewed by telephone 30 days after stent implantation. Premature clopidogrel discontinuation was defined as follows: patients who did not continue clopidogrel after discharge were defined as “never used” and patients who received clopidogrel for <20 days or interrupted therapy for at least 5 successive days within the first 30 days were defined as “partially used.” Results: Follow-up data were available for 381 patients and 58 (15.2% patients reported premature clopidogrel discontinuation. No mortality and only 1 (0.3% stent thrombosis occurred in adherent patients, whereas there were 2 (3.4% mortalities and 6 (10.3% stent thrombosis in the patients who prematurely discontinued clopidogrel. Those who discontinued clopidogrel therapy were older (P = 0.02, more likely to be female (P = 0.02, single (P = 0.03, of lower economic (P < 0.05 and educational status (P < 0.01, more likely to have chronic disease (P = 0.04, less likely to have undergone previous stenting (P = 0.01, and were more likely to be receiving a larger number of drugs (P < 0.05. In multivariate analysis, low- or intermediate-economic status, no history of previous stent implantation, and total number of prescribed drugs using were factors independently associated with premature clopidogrel discontinuation. Conclusion: This study demonstrates several predictors of premature clopidogrel discontinuation. This data may help clinicians pay particular attention to these patients in an attempt to improve the outcomes of coronary stenting.

  8. Is the ABC pain scale reliable for premature babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Cv; Maffei, M; Ancora, G; Cordelli, D; Mastrocola, M; Faldella, G; Ferretti, E; Buonocore, G

    2007-07-01

    We recently developed the ABC scale to assess pain in term newborns. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of the scale in preterm babies. The scale consists of three cry parameters: (a) pitch of the first cry, (b) rhythmicity of the bout of crying and (c) cry constancy. Changes in these parameters were previously found to distinguish medium and high levels of pain as evaluated by spectral analysis of crying. We enrolled 72 babies to perform the steps usually requested to validate a scale, namely the study of the concurrent validity, specificity and sensibility. Moreover, we assessed the interjudge reliability and the clinical utility and ease of the scale. A good correlation (r = 0.68; r(2)= 0.45; p babies who underwent pain and babies who underwent non-painful stimulus.) Interobserver reliability was good: Cohen's kappa = 0.7. The good correlation between the two scales shows that the ABC scale is also reliable for premature babies.

  9. Radiation-induced premature menopause: a misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Berit L.; Giudice, Linda; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To disprove the common view that women who have undergone irradiation to fields excluding the pelvis are at risk for radiation-induced premature menopause, we reviewed menstrual function and fertility among women treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. Methods and Materials: Treatment and follow-up records of all women less than age 50 at the time of diagnosis of Stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease, treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation alone and enrolled in radiotherapy trials from 1967 to 1985, were reviewed. In addition, patients were surveyed regarding their menstrual status and fertility history. Results: Thirty-six women, aged 10 to 40 years, with normal menstrual function at the time of Hodgkin's diagnosis, were identified. Mean follow-up was 14 years, with a range of 1.25-22.75 years. The average radiation dose to mantle and paraaortic fields was 40-44 Gy; the calculated scatter radiation dose to the pelvis at the ovaries was 3.2 Gy. There were 38 pregnancies in 18 women; all offspring are normal. One of 36 women (2.7%) experienced premature menopause. The reported rate of premature menopause in women who have not undergone irradiation is 1-3%; not significantly different than the rate in our study. There is a syndrome whereby antibodies to several endocrine organs occur (including the ovary), which is associated with premature ovarian failure. This syndrome may be associated with prior radiation to the thyroid, such as that given by mantle-irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. We report such a case. Conclusion: There is little risk of premature menopause in women treated with radiation fields that exclude the pelvis. Women with presumed radiation-induced premature menopause warrant an evaluation to exclude other causes of ovarian failure, such as autoimmune disorders

  10. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 47-52

  11. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  12. The X chromosome in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégu, Teddy; Aeby, Eric; Lee, Jeannie T

    2017-06-01

    Extensive 3D folding is required to package a genome into the tiny nuclear space, and this packaging must be compatible with proper gene expression. Thus, in the well-hierarchized nucleus, chromosomes occupy discrete territories and adopt specific 3D organizational structures that facilitate interactions between regulatory elements for gene expression. The mammalian X chromosome exemplifies this structure-function relationship. Recent studies have shown that, upon X-chromosome inactivation, active and inactive X chromosomes localize to different subnuclear positions and adopt distinct chromosomal architectures that reflect their activity states. Here, we review the roles of long non-coding RNAs, chromosomal organizational structures and the subnuclear localization of chromosomes as they relate to X-linked gene expression.

  13. Meiosis I chromosome segregation is established through regulation of microtubule–kinetochore interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P; Ünal, Elçin; Brar, Gloria A; Amon, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    During meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two consecutive rounds of nuclear divisions called meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes segregate, while sister chromatids remain together. Determining how this unusual chromosome segregation behavior is established is central to understanding germ cell development. Here we show that preventing microtubule–kinetochore interactions during premeiotic S phase and prophase I is essential for establishing the meiosis I chromosome segregation pattern. Premature interactions of kinetochores with microtubules transform meiosis I into a mitosis-like division by disrupting two key meiosis I events: coorientation of sister kinetochores and protection of centromeric cohesin removal from chromosomes. Furthermore we find that restricting outer kinetochore assembly contributes to preventing premature engagement of microtubules with kinetochores. We propose that inhibition of microtubule–kinetochore interactions during premeiotic S phase and prophase I is central to establishing the unique meiosis I chromosome segregation pattern. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00117.001 PMID:23275833

  14. Prognosis of psychomotor and mental development in premature infants by early cranial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yang; Sun, Fu-qiang; Li, Yue-qin; Que, Sheng-shun; Yang, Su-yan; Xu, Wen-jing; Yu, Wen-hong; Chen, Jun-hua; Lu, Ya-jie; Li, Xin

    2015-04-09

    It is of high incidence of brain injuries in premature infants, so it is necessary to diagnose and treat the brain injury early for neonatal clinical practice. We are aimed to investigate the relationship between early postnatal cranial ultrasonography and psychomotor and mental development in prematrue infants at the age of 12 months. Two-hundred and eight premature infants were selected and underwent follow-up from January, 2007 to November, 2012. Cranial ultrasonography was performed on them. The developmental outcomes of these premature infants at the age of 12 months were assessed by the psychomotor developmental index (PDI) scale and mental development index (MDI). The relationship between ultrasonic gray-scale value and PDI and MDI was analyzed. The worse prognosis for psychomotor and mental development was associated with the gestational age, Apgar score(1 min), gender, chorioamnionitis, duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of mechanic ventilation. The differences between the prognosis of psychomotor and mental development, and peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) and periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), were statistically significant (Ppsychomotor development and mental development (Ppsychomotor and mental development for premature infants. The higher grade of PIVH and PWMD was associated with the worse prognosis of psychomotor and mental development.

  15. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with severe semen abnormalities and its correlation with successful sperm retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5% men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9% men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133 of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133. Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87. Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  16. Follow-up study on premature infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, R; O'Keefe, M

    1993-01-01

    The ocular complications in population of 131 premature infants, with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are reported. An increased incidence of strabismus (20% with ROP and 25% without ROP) and myopia (27.5% with ROP and 8.8% without ROP) was shown. Significant visual loss occurred in 10.7% overall, increasing to 35% with stage 3 disease and 100% with stage 4. With the increased survival rate of premature infants, the relevance to future management of this expanding group of young ...

  17. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  18. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  19. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  20. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  1. Psychological and Educational Sequelae of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Psychological and educational correlates of prematurity in children during four periods, the last at 7 years of age, were assessed as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 241 infants classified by birth weight, gestational age, and sex to determine later functioning in school. (Author/MC)

  2. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  3. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-05

    Dec 5, 2015 ... Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a challenging complication of ... PROM (P < 0.000), latency period (P < 0.000), and birth weight (P < 0.001). ..... J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:271‑6. 25. Mercer ...

  4. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  5. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely

  6. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G. [Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Johnson, V.P. [Univ. of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Okubo, Tomoharu; Yasuo, Tadahiro; Mori, Taisuke; Iwasa, Koichi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Molecular fundamentals of chromosomal mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganassi, E.Eh.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Malakhova, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Precise quantitative correlation between the yield of chromosome structure damages and the yield of DNA damages is shown when comparing data on molecular and cytogenetic investigations carried out in cultural Mammalia cells. As the chromosome structure damage is to be connected with the damage of its carcass structure, then it is natural that DNA damage in loop regions is not to affect considerably the structure, while DNA damage lying on the loop base and connected with the chromosome carcass is to play a determining role in chromosomal mutagenesis. This DNA constitutes 1-2% from the total quantity of nuclear DNA. If one accepts that damages of these regions of DNA are ''hot'' points of chromosomal mutagenesis, then it becomes clear why 1-2% of preparation damages in a cell are realized in chromosome structural damages

  9. Premature graying of hair: An independent risk marker for coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with 3.24 times the risk of CAD on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with an increased risk of CAD in young smokers. Premature graying of hair can be used as preliminary evidence by ...

  10. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  11. [A Distal Bile Duct Carcinoma Patient Who Underwent Surgical Resection for Liver Metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Sosuke; Izumiya, Yasuhito; Kimura, Yu; Nakashima, Shingo; Kin, Syuichi; Kawakami, Sadao

    2018-03-01

    A 70-year-old man with distal bile duct carcinoma underwent a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy without adjuvant chemotherapy. One and a half years after the surgery, elevated levels of serum SPan-1(38.1 U/mL)were observed and CT scans demonstrated a solitary metastasis, 25mm in size, in segment 8 of the liver. The patient received 2 courses of gemcitabine-cisplatin combination chemotherapy. No new lesions were detected after chemotherapy and the patient underwent a partial liver resection of segment 8. The pathological examination revealed a metachronous distant metastasis originating from the bile duct carcinoma. Subsequently, the patient received S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months. Following completion of all therapies, the patient survived without tumor recurrence for 3 years and 10 months after the initial operation. Thus, surgical interventions might be effective in improving prognosis among selected patients with postoperative liver metastasis of bile duct carcinoma.

  12. Dysphagia among Adult Patients who Underwent Surgery for Esophageal Atresia at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Huynh-Trudeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and/or anatomical anomalies.

  13. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özülkü

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results: The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump as compared to Group 2 (off-pump. But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893, P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006. Conclusion: Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  14. Incidence of Bradycardia and Outcomes of Patients Who Underwent Orbital Atherectomy Without a Temporary Pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Nguyen, Heajung; Shlofmitz, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed the incidence of bradycardia and the safety of patients with severely calcified coronary lesions who underwent orbital atherectomy without the insertion of a temporary pacemaker. The presence of severely calcified coronary lesions can increase the complexity of percutaneous coronary intervention due to the difficulty in advancing and optimally expanding the stent. High-pressure inflations to predilate calcified lesions may cause angiographic complications like perforation and dissection. Suboptimal stent expansion is associated with stent thrombosis and restenosis. Orbital atherectomy safely and effectively modifies calcified plaque to facilitate optimal stent expansion. The incidence of bradycardia in orbital atherectomy is unknown. Fifty consecutive patients underwent orbital atherectomy from February 2014 to September 2016 at our institution, none of whom underwent insertion of a temporary pacemaker. The final analysis included 47 patients in this retrospective study as 3 patients were excluded because of permanent pacemaker implantation. The primary endpoint was significant bradycardia, defined as bradycardia requiring emergent pacemaker placement or a heart rate pacemaker appears to be safe.

  15. Comparison of Voice Quality Between Patients Who Underwent Inferior Turbinoplasty or Radiofrequency Cauterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göker, Ayşe Enise; Aydoğdu, İmran; Saltürk, Ziya; Berkiten, Güler; Atar, Yavuz; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Uyar, Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the vocal quality in patients who underwent either submucosal turbinectomy or radiofrequency cauterization. In this study, we enrolled 60 patients diagnosed with inferior concha hypertrophy. These patients were divided into two groups by using computer program "Research Randomizer." Of the 60 patients, 30 underwent submucosal inferior turbinoplasty and 30 underwent radiofrequency cauterization. The control group was composed of 30 healthy adults with no nasal or upper aerodigestive system pathology. The patients were checked at weeks 1, 2, and 4. Voice records were taken before the procedure and at week 4 postprocedure. The mean age of patients in the inferior turbinoplasty group was 29.4 years (range: 19-42 years); in the radiofrequency group, it was 30.30 years (range: 18-50 years). There was no statistical difference in age between groups. In the inferior turbinoplasty group, there were 16 male and 14 female patients, and in the radiofrequency group, there were 13 male and 17 female patients. There was no significant difference in the number of males and females between groups. Voice professionals, especially singers, actors, and actresses, should be informed about possible voice changes before undergoing endonasal surgery because these individuals are more sensitive to changes in resonance organs. We believe that voice quality should be regarded as a highly important parameter when measuring the success of endonasal surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moré Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a steady increase in the number of elderly patients with severe cardiovascular diseases who require a surgical procedure to recover some quality of life that allows them a socially meaningful existence, despite the risks.Objectives: To analyze the behavior of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Method: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with patients over 65 years of age who underwent surgery at the Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara, in Santa Clara, from January 2013 to March 2014.Results: In the study, 73.1% of patients were men; and there was a predominance of subjects between 65 and 70 years of age, accounting for 67.3%. Coronary artery bypass graft was the most prevalent type of surgery and had the longest cardiopulmonary bypass times. Hypertension was present in 98.1% of patients. The most frequent postoperative complications were renal dysfunction and severe low cardiac output, with 44.2% and 34.6% respectively.Conclusions: There was a predominance of men, the age group of 65 to 70 years, hypertension, and patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft with prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. Renal dysfunction was the most frequent complication.

  17. Acute myocardial infarctation in patients with critical ischemia underwent lower limb revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdras Marques Lins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD of the lower limbs. Patients with PAOD often also have obstructive atherosclerosis in other arterial sites, mainly the coronary arteries. This means that patients who undergo infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia have a higher risk of AMI. There are, however, few reports in the literature that have assessed this risk properly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia of the lower limbs caused by PAOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent 82 infrainguinal bypass operations, from February 2011 to July 2012 were studied. All patients had electrocardiograms and troponin I blood assays during the postoperative period (within 72 hours. RESULTS: There were abnormal ECG findings and elevated blood troponin I levels suggestive of AMI in five (6% of the 82 operations performed. All five had conventional surgery. The incidence of AMI as a proportion of the 52 conventional surgery cases was 9.6%. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: There was a 6% AMI incidence among patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass due to PAOD. Considering only cases operated using conventional surgery, the incidence of AMI was 9.6%.

  18. X chromosome and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, L M; Zouk, H; Himmelman, C; Turecki, G

    2011-02-01

    Suicide completion rates are significantly higher in males than females in most societies. Although gender differences in suicide rates have been partially explained by environmental and behavioral factors, it is possible that genetic factors, through differential expression between genders, may also help explain gender moderation of suicide risk. This study investigated X-linked genes in suicide completers using a two-step strategy. We first took advantage of the genetic structure of the French-Canadian population and genotyped 722 unrelated French-Canadian male subjects, of whom 333 were suicide completers and 389 were non-suicide controls, using a panel of 37 microsatellite markers spanning the entire X chromosome. Nine haplotype windows and several individual markers were associated with suicide. Significant results aggregated primarily in two regions, one in the long arm and another in the short arm of chromosome X, limited by markers DXS8051 and DXS8102, and DXS1001 and DXS8106, respectively. The second stage of the study investigated differential brain expression of genes mapping to associated regions in Brodmann areas 8/9, 11, 44 and 46, in an independent sample of suicide completers and controls. Six genes within these regions, Rho GTPase-activating protein 6, adaptor-related protein complex 1 sigma 2 subunit, glycoprotein M6B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 90  kDa polypeptide 3, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 and THO complex 2, were found to be differentially expressed in suicide completers.

  19. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  20. New Y chromosomes and early stages of sex chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... chromosomes are evolutionary consequences of that func- tion. Given sufficient ... (for a review, see Charlesworth et al. 2005). ... In the present paper, I review sex deter- mination .... part had apparently been exchanged against the homologous ... age group III-Y chromosomes were successful while in well-.

  1. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDevanter, D. R.; Choongkittaworn, N. M.; Dyer, K. A.; Aten, J. A.; Otto, P.; Behler, C.; Bryant, E. M.; Rabinovitch, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted

  2. Conceptualizing pathways linking women's empowerment and prematurity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Altman, Molly; Musana, Joseph; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-11-08

    Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings. We propose a conceptual model that shows pathways by which women's empowerment can affect prematurity and review and summarize the literature supporting the relationships we posit. We also suggest future directions for research on women's empowerment and prematurity. The key words we used for empowerment in the search were "empowerment," "women's status," "autonomy," and "decision-making," and for prematurity we used "preterm," "premature," and "prematurity." We did not use date, language, and regional restrictions. The search was done in PubMed, Population Information Online (POPLINE), and Web of Science. We selected intervening factors-factors that could potentially mediate the relationship between empowerment and prematurity-based on reviews of the risk factors and interventions to address prematurity and the determinants of those factors. There is limited evidence supporting a direct link between women's empowerment and prematurity. However, there is evidence linking several dimensions of empowerment to factors known to be associated with prematurity and outcomes for premature babies. Our review of the literature shows that women's empowerment may reduce prematurity by (1) preventing early marriage and promoting family planning, which will delay age at first pregnancy and increase interpregnancy intervals; (2) improving women's nutritional status; (3) reducing domestic violence and other stressors to improve psychological health; and (4) improving

  3. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA); Emil ANTON; Sorana Caterina ANTON

    2016-01-01

    The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amn...

  4. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Raffael; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2016-01-01

    More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess) as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1) and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. PMID:28539804

  5. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132

  6. Open bite in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harila, V; Heikkinen, T; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: examine the expression of open bite in prematurely born children and discuss the etiological factors that may lead to bite it. The subjects were 328 prematurely born (cross-sectional study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in the 1960s and 1970s. Dental documents, including casts and photographs, were taken once at the age of 6-12 years in the mixed dentition. The occlusion was recorded by examining and measuring the hard stone casts. Vertical open bite was recorded only for full erupted teeth. The statistical method used was chi-square analysis. Significant differences in the incidence of anterior open bite (from left to right canine) was found between the preterm and control groups and between gender and ethnic groups. The prevalence of anterior open bite was nearly 9% in the preterm group and almost 7% in the control group. African Americans (9%) had a significantly greater incidence of open bite than Caucasians (3%; Pbite than boys (8% vs 6%; Pbite was increased--especially in preterm African American boys compared to controls (11% vs 8%). The results show differences in the development of anterior open bite between ethnic and gender groups. Premature birth may also influence dental occlusal development. Of importance are the patient's: general health condition; respiratory infections; inadequate nasal- and mouth-breathing; oral habits; and other medical problems. Preterm children may be relatively more predisposed to etiological factors for the development of anterior open bite.

  7. [Peribulbar block combined with general anesthesia in babies undergoing laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity: a retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Daniela Filipa Rodrigues; Real, Cátia; Ferreira, Leónia; Pina, Pedro

    2018-03-12

    Currently there is no agreement regarding which one is the most adequate anesthetic technique for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Peribulbar block may reduce the incidence of oculocardiac reflex and postoperative apnea. The goal of this study was to report the outcomes of peribulbar block, when combined with general anesthesia, for the laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, in premature babies. A retrospective analysis of anesthetic records of all babies who underwent laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity from January 2008 through December 2015 in a tertiary hospital was performed. During that period a total of six babies was submitted to laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, all under peribulbar block combined with general anesthesia. A single infratemporal injection of 0.15mL.kg -1 per eye ropivacaine 1% or 0.75% was performed. At the end of the procedure, all babies resumed spontaneous ventilation. No perioperative complications were reported. Peribulbar block was a safe anesthetic technique in our sample considered. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Prematurity Affects Age of Presentation of Pyloric Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Caitlyn M; Vinocur, Charles; Berman, Loren

    2017-02-01

    Term infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) typically present between 4 and 6 weeks. There is limited consensus, however, regarding age of presentation of premature infants. We aim to determine if there is an association between the degree of prematurity and chronological age of presentation of HPS. A total of 2988 infants who had undergone a pyloromyotomy for HPS were identified from the 2012 and 2013 NSQIP-P Participant Use Files. Two hundred seventeen infants (7.3%) were born prematurely. A greater degree of prematurity was associated with an older chronological age of presentation ( P Prematurity was significantly associated with an increase in overall postoperative morbidity, reintubation, readmission, and postoperative length of stay. When clinicians evaluate an infant with nonbilious emesis with a history of prematurity, they should consider pyloric stenosis if the calculated postconceptional age is between 44 and 50 weeks. When counseling families of premature infants, surgeons should discuss the increased incidence of postpyloromyotomy morbidity.

  9. Factors related to postoperative pain among patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-C.; Yap, Y.-S.; Hung, C.-H.; Chen, C.-H.; Lu, S.-N.; Wang, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of postoperative intense pain and haemodynamic changes during radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and methods: A total of 123 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation were prospectively recruited. Patient factors, tumour characteristics, procedural factors, intraoperative haemodynamic changes, complications, postoperative events, laboratory values before and after ablation, and postoperative pain were evaluated. Postoperative pain was scored using a visual analogue scale after the procedure. Results: The mean age of the patients was 65.6 ± 9.6 years. In multiple logistic regression analysis, patients who underwent general anaesthesia [odds ratio (95% CI): 2.68 (1.23–5.81); p = 0.013] and had more postoperative nausea and vomiting episodes [3.10 (1.11–8.63); p = 0.036] were associated with intense pain. These findings remain robust after propensity score matching. For mean difference values between before and after RFA, higher in change in aspartate transaminase (p = 0.026), alanine transaminase (p = 0.016) and white blood cell count (p = 0.015), and lower in change in haemoglobin (p = 0.009) were also correlated with intense pain. There was no significant difference in haemodynamic changes between the general anaesthesia and local anaesthesia group during ablation. Conclusion: General anaesthesia, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and laboratory factors were associated with postoperative intense pain in patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation. Counselling and modification of analgesics should be considered in patients with related factors for intense pain

  10. Safety and Tolerability of Transitioning from Cangrelor to Ticagrelor in Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreldin, Hisham A; Carter, Danielle; Cook, Bryan M; Qamar, Arman; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-08-01

    The 3 phase 3 CHAMPION (Cangrelor vs Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition) trials collectively demonstrated the safety of transitioning from cangrelor, a potent, parenteral rapidly-acting P2Y 12 inhibitor, to clopidogrel in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, variation in timing of therapy, site-specific binding, and drug half-lives may theoretically complicate switching to other oral P2Y 12 inhibitors. Since regulatory approval, limited data are available regarding the "real-world" safety and tolerability of transitioning to these more potent oral P2Y 12 antagonists. From November 2015 to January 2017, we evaluated the clinical profiles and efficacy and safety outcomes in cangrelor-treated patients who underwent PCI transitioned to clopidogrel (n = 42) or ticagrelor (n = 82) at a large, tertiary care center. Most patients receiving cangrelor underwent PCI with a drug-eluting stent for acute coronary syndrome via a radial approach in the background of unfractionated heparin. Stent thrombosis within 48 hours was rare and occurred in 1 patient treated with ticagrelor. Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries-defined bleeding occurred in 20% of patients switched to ticagrelor and 29% of patients switched to clopidogrel, but none were severe or life-threatening. In conclusion, rates of stent thrombosis and severe/life-threatening bleeding were low and comparable with those identified in the CHAMPION program, despite use of more potent oral P2Y 12 inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surrogate pregnancy in a patient who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral transposition of ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azem, Foad; Yovel, Israel; Wagman, Israel; Kapostiansky, Rita; Lessing, Joseph B; Amit, Ami

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate IVF-surrogate pregnancy in a patient with ovarian transposition after radical hysterectomy for carcinoma of the cervix. Case report. A maternity hospital in Tel Aviv that is a major tertiary care and referral center. A 29-year-old woman who underwent Wertheim's hysterectomy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix and ovarian transposition before total pelvic irradiation. Standard IVF treatment, transabdominal oocyte retrieval, and transfer to surrogate mother. Outcome of IVF cycle. A twin pregnancy in the first cycle. This is the second reported case of controlled ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval performed on a transposed ovary.

  12. [A Case of Ascending Colon Cancer with Lynch Syndrome Who Underwent XELOX Adjuvant Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Koki; Murata, Kohei; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Nose, Yohei; Kawai, Kenji; Sakamoto, Takuya; Naito, Atsushi; Murakami, Kohei; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Omura, Yoshiaki; Takeno, Atsushi; Nakatsuka, Shinichi; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an inherited syndrome with the development of the colorectal and various other cancers. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair genes. A 33 year-old male underwent XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy for ascending colon cancer with Lynch syndrome. Although efficacy of 5-FU is not demonstrated in Lynch syndrome, MOSAIC trial had suggested a benefit from FOLFOX compared with 5-FU in patients who have colorectal cancer with Lynch syndrome. Oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy can be a therapeutic option for colorectal cancer in lynch syndrome patients.

  13. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  14. Sex chromosomes in Ephestia kuehniella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Sahara, K.; Traut, W.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2001), s. 131 ISSN 0003-3995. [European Cytogenetics Conference /3./. 07.07.2001-10.07.2001, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Telomere * sex chromosomes * chromosome fragments Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Slit scan flow cytometry of isolated chromosomes following fluorescence hybridization: an approach of online screening for specific chromosomes and chromosome translocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, M.; Dudin, G.; Aten, J. A.; Heilig, R.; Diaz, E.; Cremer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The recently developed methods of non radioactive in situ hybridization of chromosomes offer new aspects for chromosome analysis. Fluorescent labelling of hybridized chromosomes or chromosomal subregions allows to facilitate considerably the detection of specific chromosomal abnormalities. For many

  16. Transabdominal amnioinfusion in preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Anshuja; Yadav, Poonam; Vaid, Neelam B; Suneja, Amita; Faridi, Mohammad M A

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of transabdominal amnioinfusion on prolongation of pregnancy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes in preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study of women with pPROM during singleton live pregnancy-between 26 and 33+6weeks-whose amniotic fluid index (AFI) was less than the 5th percentile. The study group underwent transabdominal amnioinfusion at admission and then weekly if their AFI fell below the 5th percentile again. The control group received expectant management. The difference in the mean interval from pPROM to delivery between the groups was not statistically significant. Neonatal and maternal outcomes were significantly improved in the study group compared with the control group (fetal distress [10% vs 37%]; early neonatal sepsis [17% vs 63%]; neonatal mortality [17% vs 63%]; spontaneous delivery [83% vs 53%]; and postpartum sepsis [7% vs 33%]). Transabdominal amnioinfusion reduced fetal distress, early neonatal sepsis, and neonatal mortality. In the study group, more participants delivered spontaneously and there were fewer cases of postpartum sepsis, although the pPROM-delivery interval was not increased.

  17. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah [Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  18. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  19. Fluorescein angiography and retinal vascular development in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Velia; Velia, Purcaro; Baldascino, Antonio; Antonio, Baldascino; Papacci, Patrizia; Patrizia, Papacci; Giannantonio, Carmen; Carmen, Giannantonio; Molisso, Anna; Anna, Molisso; Molle, Fernando; Fernando, Molle; Lepore, Domenico; Domenico, Lepore; Romagnoli, Costantino; Costantino, Romagnoli

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of fluorescein angiography (FA) in the management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm newborns. An observational case series of 13 extremely low birth weight infants. From September 2009 to March 2010, 13 newborn infants with a gestational age <29 weeks end/or birth weight <1000 g underwent serial fluorescein angiography with RetCam (Clarity, Pleasanton, CA) every 2 weeks. The fluorescein angiograms were examined to optimize the timing of diagnosis of ROP and to investigate development of retinal and choroidal vascularization. There were no side effects related to FA. Variable features of retinal and choroidal circulation in preterm infants with a high risk of developing ROP were noted. FA allows vessels branching at the junction between vascular and avascular retina (V-Av junction) to be viewed easily and shows the ROP findings that sometimes cannot be seen by indirect ophthalmoscopy. Dye leakage is the most significant sign of progression to severe ROP or the need for surgery in newborn babies with ROP. RetCam-assisted intravenous FA is safe and allows a more objective assessment of the ROP stage and zone.

  20. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  1. HLA-G regulatory haplotypes and implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Vargas, Rafael Gustavo; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    2012-09-01

    The role of HLA-G in several clinical conditions related to reproduction has been investigated. Important polymorphisms have been found within the 5'URR and 3'UTR regions of the HLA-G promoter. The aim of the present study was to investigate 16 SNPs in the 5'URR and 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism located in the 3'UTR region of the HLA-G gene and its possible association with the implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatments (ART). The case group was composed of 25 ART couples. Ninety-four couples with two or more term pregnancies composed the control group. Polymorphism haplotype frequencies of the HLA-G were determined for both groups. The Haplotype 5, Haplotype 8 and Haplotype 11 were absolute absence in ART couples. The HLA-G*01:01:02a, HLA-G*01:01:02b alleles and the 14-bp ins polymorphism, Haplotype 2, showed an increased frequency in case women and similar distribution between case and control men. However, this susceptibility haplotype is significantly presented in case women and in couple with failure implantation after treatment, which led us to suggest a maternal effect, associated with this haplotype, once their presence in women is related to a higher number of couples who underwent ART. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sarcopenia: a new predictor of postoperative complications for elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Min; Zhang, Fei-Yu; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Shen, Xian; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Chen, Xiao-Xi

    2017-05-01

    A geriatric assessment is needed to identify high-risk elderly patients with gastric cancer. However, the current geriatric assessment has been considered to be either time-consuming or subjective. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of sarcopenia on the postoperative complications for elderly patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. We conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from August 2014 to December 2015. Computed tomography-assessed lumbar skeletal muscle, handgrip strength, and gait speed were measured to define sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was present in 69 of 240 patients (28.8%) and was associated with lower body mass index, lower serum albumin, lower hemoglobin, and higher nutritional risk screening 2002 scores. Postoperative complications significantly increased in the sarcopenic patients (49.3% versus 24.6%, P sarcopenia (odds ratio: 2.959, 95% CI: 1.629-5.373, P Sarcopenia, presented as a new geriatric assessment factor, was a strong and independent risk factor for postoperative complications of elderly patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of different pneumoperitoneum pressure on stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Yun Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of different CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure on the stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy. Methods: A total of 90 patients who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2015 to October, 2015 for gynecological laparoscopy were included in the study and divided into groups A, B, and C according to different CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure. The changes of HR, BP, and PetCO2 during the operation process in the three groups were recorded. The changes of stress indicators before operation (T0, 30 min during operation (T1, and 12 h after operation (T2 were compared. Results: The difference of HR, BP, and PetCO2 levels before operation among the three groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05. HR, BP, and PetCO2 levels 30 min after pneumoperitoneum were significantly elevated when compared with before operation (P0.05. PetCO2 level 30 min after pneumoperitoneum in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P0.05. Conclusions: Low pneumoperitoneum pressure has a small effect on the stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy, will not affect the surgical operation, and can obtain a preferable muscular relaxation and vision field; therefore, it can be selected in preference.

  4. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Varrica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P0.05 have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations.

  5. DNA damage and chromosome aberration induced by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kahoru; Funada, Aya; Aoki, Mizuho; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the relation between cell death and chromosomal aberration in cultured human cells (human salivary gland (HSG) tumor cells and GM05389 human normal fibroblasts) irradiated with heavy ion beams on the basis of linear energy transfer (LET) values. The LET dependences of cell death were observed for the both cells by the method of colony assay. The LET dependences of the chromosomal aberrations, breaks and gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges were also observed for the both cells using the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) method. From these results it is suggested that exchange formation is essential for the cell death caused by heavy ion beam irradiation. It is suspected that the densely ionizing track structure of hight LET heavy ions inhibits the effective repair in the chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks and finally induce much exchange in the cells, which should be essential cause of cell death. (author)

  6. Chromosomal instability in women with primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katari, Sunita; Aarabi, Mahmoud; Kintigh, Angela; Mann, Susan; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Zeleznik, Anthony J; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2018-02-07

    What is the prevalence of somatic chromosomal instability among women with idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? A subset of women with idiopathic POI may have functional impairment in DNA repair leading to chromosomal instability in their soma. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks during meiotic recombination are fundamental processes of gametogenesis. Oocytes with compromised DNA integrity are susceptible to apoptosis which could trigger premature ovarian aging and accelerated wastage of the human follicle reserve. Genomewide association studies, as well as whole exome sequencing, have implicated multiple genes involved in DNA damage repair. However, the prevalence of defective DNA damage repair in the soma of women with POI is unknown. In total, 46 women with POI and 15 family members were evaluated for excessive mitomycin-C (MMC)-induced chromosome breakage. Healthy fertile females (n = 20) and two lymphoblastoid cell lines served as negative and as positive controls, respectively. We performed a pilot functional study utilizing MMC to assess chromosomal instability in the peripheral blood of participants. A high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was performed on 16 POI patients to identify copy number variations (CNVs) for a set of 341 targeted genes implicated in DNA repair. Array CGH revealed three POI patients (3/16, 18.8%) with pathogenic CNVs. Excessive chromosomal breakage suggestive of a constitutional deficiency in DNA repair was detected in one POI patient with the 16p12.3 duplication. In two patients with negative chromosome breakage analysis, aCGH detected a Xq28 deletion comprising the Centrin EF-hand Protein 2 (CETN2) and HAUS Augmin Like Complex Subunit 7 (HAUS7) genes essential for meiotic DNA repair, and a duplication in the 3p22.2 region comprising a part of the ATPase domain of the MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1) gene. Peripheral lymphocytes, used as a surrogate tissue to quantify induced chromosome

  7. Unique Case Reports Associated with Ovarian Failure: Necessity of Two Intact X Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rao Kandukuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure is defined as the loss of functional follicles below the age of 40 years and the incidence of this abnormality is 0.1% among the 30–40 years age group. Unexplained POF is clinically recognized as amenorrhoea (>6 months with low level of oestrogen and raised level of Luteinizing Hormone (LH and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH > 20 IU/l occurring before the age of 40. It has been studied earlier that chromosomal defects can impair ovarian development and its function. Since there is paucity of data on chromosomal defects in Indian women, an attempt is made to carry out cytogenetic evaluation in patients with ovarian failure. Cytogenetic analysis of women with ovarian defects revealed the chromosome abnormalities to be associated with 14% of the cases analyzed. Interestingly, majority of the abnormalities involved the X-chromosome and we report two unique abnormalities, (46,XXdel(Xq21-22 and q28 and (mos,45XO/46,X+ringX involving X chromosome in association with ovarian failure. This study revealed novel X chromosome abnormalities associated with ovarian defects and these observations would be helpful in genetic counseling and apart from, infertility clinics using the information to decide suitable strategies to help such patients.

  8. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and cell killing in normal human fibroblasts and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, T.; Saito, M.; Uno, T.; Ito, H.; Shigematsu, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: When cells are held in a non-dividing state (G0) after irradiation, an enhanced survival can be observed compared to that of immediate plating. A change of survival depending on post irradiation condition is known to be repair of potentially lethal damage (RPLD). The effects of confluent holding recovery (24-h incubation following irradiation) on chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts (AG1522) and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts (GM02052C) were examined. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to study chromosome aberrations in G2 and M-phase. Results from cell survival showed that the capacity for potentially lethal damage repair was normal in AG1522 cells but very little in GM02052C cells. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in AG1522 cells decreased when cells were allowed to repair for 24-h. Especially complex type exchanges were found to decrease markedly at high doses (4Gy and 6Gy). However, the frequency of chromosome aberrations including complex type exchanges showed little decrease in GM02052C cells. Confluent holding can effectively reduce chromosome aberrations, especially complex type exchanges in normal cells

  9. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  10. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  11. Assessment of hormonal activity in patients with premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfi Canat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014 was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies.

  12. A new way of thinking about complications of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tiffany A; Berger, Ann M; Wilson, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of preterm infants are impacted by their ability to maintain physiologic homeostasis using metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic mechanisms independent of the mother's placenta. Exploring McEwen's allostatic load model in preterm infants provides a new way to understand the altered physiologic processes associated with frequently occurring complications of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. The purpose of this article is to present a new model to enhance understanding of the altered physiologic processes associated with complications of prematurity. The model of allostatic load and complications of prematurity was derived to explore the relationship between general stress of prematurity and complications of prematurity. The proposed model uses the concepts of general stress of prematurity, allostasis, physiologic response patterns (adaptive-maladaptive), allostatic load, and complications of prematurity. These concepts are defined and theoretical relationships in the proposed model are interpreted using the four maladaptive response patterns of repeated hits, lack of adaptation, prolonged response, and inadequate response. Empirical evidence for cortisol, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses are used to support the theoretical relationships. The proposed model provides a new way of thinking about physiologic dysregulation in preterm infants. The ability to describe and understand complex physiologic mechanisms involved in complications of prematurity is essential for research. Advancing the knowledge of complications of prematurity will advance clinical practice and research and lead to testing of interventions to reduce negative outcomes in preterm infants.

  13. Outcome of Patients Underwent Emergency Department Thoracotomy and Its Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Paydar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency department thoracotomy (EDT may serve as the last survival chance for patients who arrive at hospital in extremis. It is considered as an effective tool for improvement of traumatic patients’ outcome. The present study was done with the goal of assessing the outcome of patients who underwent EDT and its predictive factors. Methods: In the present study, medical charts of 50 retrospective and 8 prospective cases underwent emergency department thoracotomy (EDT were reviewed during November 2011 to June 2013. Comparisons between survived and died patients were performed by Mann-Whitney U test and the predictive factors of EDT outcome were measured using multivariate logistic regression analysis. P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty eight cases of EDT were enrolled (86.2% male. The mean age of patients was 43.27±19.85 years with the range of 18-85. The mean time duration of CPR was recorded as 37.12±12.49 minutes. Eleven cases (19% were alive to be transported to OR (defined as ED survived. The mean time of survival in ED survived patients was 223.5±450.8 hours. More than 24 hours survival rate (late survived was 6.9% (4 cases. Only one case (1.7% survived to discharge from hospital (mortality rate=98.3%. There were only a significant relation between ED survival and SBP, GCS, CPR duration, and chest trauma (p=0.04. The results demonstrated that initial SBP lower than 80 mmHg (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.001-1.05, p=0.04 and presence of chest trauma (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.75-3.16, p=0.02 were independent predictive factors of EDT mortality. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the survival rate of trauma patients underwent EDT was 1.7%. In addition, it was defined that falling systolic blood pressure below 80 mmHg and blunt trauma of chest are independent factors that along with poor outcome.

  14. Correlation between location of transposed ovary and function in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Aera; Lee, Yoo-Young; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2015-05-01

    The study investigated the association between the location of transposed ovaries and posttreatment ovarian function in patients with early cervical cancer (IB1-IIA) who underwent radical hysterectomy and ovarian transposition with or without adjuvant therapies. Retrospective medical records were reviewed to enroll the patients with early cervical cancer who underwent ovarian transposition during radical hysterectomy at Samsung Medical Center between July 1995 and July 2012. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level was used as a surrogate marker for ovarian function. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The median age and body mass index (BMI) were 31 years (range, 24-39 years) and 21.3 kg/m² (range, 17.7-31.2 kg/m²), respectively. The median serum FSH level after treatment was 7.9 mIU/mL (range, 2.4-143.4 mIU/mL). The median distance from the iliac crest to transposed ovaries on erect plain abdominal x-ray was 0.5 cm (range, -2.7 to 5.2 cm). In multivariate analysis, posttreatment serum FSH levels were significantly associated with the location of transposed ovaries (β = -8.1, P = 0.032), concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) as an adjuvant therapy (β = 71.08, P = 0.006), and BMI before treatment (underweight: β = -59.93, P = 0.05; overweight: β = -40.62, P = 0.041). Location of transposed ovaries, adjuvant CCRT, and BMI before treatment may be associated with ovarian function after treatment. We suggest that ovaries should be transposed as highly as possible during radical hysterectomy to preserve ovarian function in young patients with early cervical cancer who might be a candidate for adjuvant CCRT and who have low BMI before treatment.

  15. Clinical outcomes for 14 consecutive patients with solid pseudopapillary neoplasms who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Sumiyoshi, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-02-01

    The postoperative results of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), including the effects of spleen-preserving resection, are still to be elucidated. Of the 139 patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatectomy for non-cancerous tumors, 14 consecutive patients (average age, 29.6 years; 1 man, 13 women) with solitary SPN who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy between March 2004 and June 2015 were enrolled. The tumors had a mean diameter of 4.8 cm. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in eight patients (spleen-preserving group), including two cases involving pancreatic tail preservation, and laparoscopic spleno-distal pancreatectomy was performed in six patients (standard resection group). The median operating time was 317 min, and the median blood loss was 50 mL. Postoperatively, grade B pancreatic fistulas appeared in two patients (14.3%) but resolved with conservative treatment. No patients had postoperative complications, other than pancreatic fistulas, or required reoperation. The median postoperative hospital stay was 11 days, and the postoperative mortality was zero.None of the patients had positive surgical margins or lymph nodes with metastasis. The median follow-up period did not significantly differ between the two groups (20 vs 39 months, P = 0.1368). All of the patients are alive and free from recurrent tumors without major late-phase complications. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy might be a suitable treatment for patients with SPN. A spleen-preserving operation is preferable for younger patients with SPN, and this study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the procedure compared to spleno-distal pancreatectomy. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Beneficial Effect of the Nutritional Support in Children Who Underwent Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Nevra; Gündüz, Mehmet; Tavil, Betül; Azik, M Fatih; Coşkun, Zeynep; Yardımcı, Hülya; Uçkan, Duygu; Tunç, Bahattin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status in children who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant compared with a healthy control group. A secondary aim was to utilize mid-upper arm circumference as a measure of nutritional status in these groups of children. Our study group included 40 children (18 girls, 22 boys) with mean age of 9.2 ± 4.6 years (range, 2-17 y) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Our control group consisted of 20 healthy children (9 girls, 11 boys). The children were evaluated at admission to the hospital and followed regularly 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after discharge from the hospital. In the study group, 27 of 40 patients (67.5%) received nutritional support during hematopoietic stem cell transplant, with 15 patients (56%) receiving enteral nutrition, 6 (22%) receiving total parenteral nutrition, and 6 (22%) receiving enteral and total parenteral nutrition. Chronic malnutrition rate in the study group was 47.5% on admission to the hospital, with the control group having a rate of 20%. One year after transplant, the rate decreased to 20% in the study group and 5% in the control group. The mid-upper arm circumference was lower in children in the study group versus the control group at the beginning of the study (P groups at follow-up examinations (P > .05). During follow-up, all anthropometric measurements increased significantly in both groups. Monitoring nutritional status and initiating appropriate nutritional support improved the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplant and provided a more comfortable process during the transplant period. Furthermore, mid-upper arm circumference is a more sensitive, useful, and safer parameter that can be used to measure nutritional status of children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

  17. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  18. Abnormal cortical development after premature birth shown by altered allometric scaling of brain growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kapellou

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent manner, providing a neural substrate for functional impairment.We analyzed 274 magnetic resonance images that recorded brain growth from 23 to 48 wk of gestation in 113 extremely preterm infants born at 22 to 29 wk of gestation, 63 of whom underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at a median age of 2 y. Cortical surface area was related to cerebral volume by a scaling law with an exponent of 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.33, which was proportional to later neurodevelopmental impairment. Increasing prematurity and male gender were associated with a lower scaling exponent (p < 0.0001 independent of intrauterine or postnatal somatic growth.Human brain growth obeys an allometric scaling relation that is disrupted by preterm birth in a dose-dependent, sexually dimorphic fashion that directly parallels the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. This result focuses attention on brain growth and cortical development during the weeks following preterm delivery as a neural substrate for neurodevelopmental impairment after premature delivery.

  19. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Ying; Wang Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T 1 and T 2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P 2 =0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  20. Radiation doses received by premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Chef, I.; Maccia, C.; Thierry-Chef, I.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Costil, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Because of frequent radiological investigations performed in 1 neonatal intensive care unit, a dosimetry study was carried out to assess the level of doses received by premature babies. Materials and methods. In vivo measurements were performed and effective doses were evaluated for single radiographs. Individual cumulative doses received over the period of stay were then estimated, for each premature baby entering the intensive care unit in 2002, taking into account the number of radiographs they underwent. Results. On average, babies stayed for a week and more than one radio-graph was taken per day. Results showed that, even if average doses per radiograph were relatively low (25μSv), cumulative doses strongly depended on the length of stay, and can reach a few mSv. Conclusion. Even if doses per radiograph are in agreement with European recommendations, optimisation of doses is particularly important because premature babies are more sensitive to radiation than adults and because they usually undergo further radiological examinations in other services. On the basis of the results of this dosimetry study, the implementation of a larger study is being discussed. (author)

  1. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  2. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  3. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  4. Premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononetz, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications

  5. Human milk: medicine for premature babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sioned

    2011-12-01

    Following years of research there have been some significant developments in the understanding and subsequent support being offered to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) families. In addition, ground breaking advances in the treatment of premature infants, with specific interest in the role of human milk, are now available. New information was presented by leading international researcher, Professor Meier, at an international symposium earlier this year. This article seeks to share this insightful information and provide support to those working in or around the NICU.

  6. The economic burden of prematurity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karissa M; Gooch, Katherine; Korol, Ellen; Vo, Pamela; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Bradt, Pamela; Levy, Adrian

    2014-04-05

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality among infants worldwide, and imposes considerable burden on health, education and social services, as well as on families and caregivers. Morbidity and mortality resulting from preterm birth is highest among early (prematurity due to the larger number of late preterm infants relative to early and moderate preterm infants. The aim in this study was to characterize the burden of premature birth in Canada for early, moderate, and late premature infants, including resource utilization, direct medical costs, parental out-of-pocket costs, education costs, and mortality, using a validated and published decision model from the UK, and adapting it to a Canadian setting based on analysis of administrative, population-based data from Québec. Two-year survival was estimated at 56.0% for early preterm infants, 92.8% for moderate preterm infants, and 98.4% for late preterm infants. Per infant resource utilization consistently decreased with age. For moderately preterm infants, hospital days ranged from 1.6 at age two to 0.09 at age ten. Cost per infant over the first ten years of life was estimated to be $67,467 for early preterm infants, $52,796 for moderate preterm infants, and $10,010 for late preterm infants. Based on population sizes this corresponds to total national costs of $123.3 million for early preterm infants, $255.6 million for moderate preterm infants, $208.2 million for late preterm infants, and $587.1 million for all infants. Premature birth results in significant infant morbidity, mortality, healthcare utilization and costs in Canada. A comprehensive decision-model based on analysis of a Canadian population-based administrative data source suggested that the greatest national-level burden is associated with moderate preterm infants due to both a large cost per infant and population size while the highest individual-level burden is in early preterm infants and the largest total population size is

  7. Lactoferrin and prematurity: a promising milk protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.

  8. Path analysis of risk factors leading to premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S J; Livshits, G; Sirotta, L; Merlob, P

    1996-01-01

    The present study tested whether various sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and medical/physiological factors act in a direct or indirect manner on the risk of prematurity using path analysis on a sample of Israeli births. The path model shows that medical complications, primarily toxemia, chorioammionitis, and a previous low birth weight delivery directly and significantly act on the risk of prematurity as do low maternal pregnancy weight gain and ethnicity. Other medical complications, including chronic hypertension, preclampsia, and placental abruption, although significantly correlated with prematurity, act indirectly on prematurity through toxemia. The model further shows that the commonly accepted sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral risk factors act by modifying the development of medical complications that lead to prematurity as opposed to having a direct effect on premature delivery. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method: Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted, resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  10. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF)failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method:Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted,resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  11. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE REDUCTION OF PREMATURITY THROUGH PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES IN 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOLOTA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from literature, especially from the US, has provided data on prediction, prevention and treatment of premature membrane rupture (RPM. RPM is a significant cause of premature birth and can cause complications of a term task. Considerable research on RPM has led to a better understanding of the mechanism of spontaneous breakage of membranes, risk factors, and good results for newborns resulting from such obstetrical events. Spontaneous rupture of the membranes increases the risk of intrauterine infection and umbilical cord compression as well as the risk of premature detachment of placenta. Newborn babies resulting from RPM have an increased risk of morbidity compared to gestational age, and the risk of infection is increased compared with other premature babies due to ancillary causes. If RPM occurs in the second trimester, there is an additional risk of pulmonary hypoplasia and hip dysplasia. Pre-term conservative treatment prolongs latency to birth. Antibiotics reduce the risk of infection while corticosteroid treatment (dexamethasone reduces respiratory complications and interventricular haemorrhage without increasing the risk of infection. Birth is necessary or unavoidable in many cases by RPMs and because conservative treatment often results in no results; That is why studies are needed to identify all risk factors and the need to treat pregnant women at risk of RPM; 17-hydroxy-progesterone is a specific treatment for preventing recurrent membrane rupture. (http://www.ginecologultau.ro/ruptura-prematura-a-membranelor, 2013.

  12. Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome: a well-defined congenital ichthyosis subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Westermark, Per; Brandrup, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of premature birth, thick caseous desquamating epidermis, and neonatal asphyxia. We describe two siblings with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. The index patient was born at gestational week 34. Immediately aft...... in the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum. Diagnosing this syndrome is important to reassure parents, obstetricians, and pediatricians about its benign course after complications in the perinatal period....

  13. 'Rush' type retinopathy of prematurity: report of three cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Kremer, I; Gilad, E; Cohen, S; Ben-Sira, I

    1987-01-01

    Three premature infants observed to develop severe stage III retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3 to 5 weeks of age received immediate treatment by cryoablation and photocoagulation, with good results. The critical importance of the ophthalmic examination of premature babies from the age of 2 weeks, so as not to overlook such cases of 'rush' type ROP is stressed and the difficulty involved in treating such small neonates is discussed.

  14. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change.

  15. Dysphagia among adult patients who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh Trudeau, Valérie; Maynard, Stéphanie; Terzic, Tatjana; Soucy, Geneviève; Bouin, Mickeal

    2015-03-01

    Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and⁄or anatomical anomalies. To determine the motor and anatomical causes of dysphagia. A total of 41 adults, followed at the Esophageal Atresia Clinic at Hôpital Saint-Luc (Montreal, Quebec), were approached to particpate in the present prospective study. Evaluation was completed using upper endoscopy, manometry and barium swallow for the participants who consented. The medical charts of respondents were systematically reviewed from the neonatal period to 18 years of age to assess medical and surgical history. All 41 patients followed at the clinic consented and were included in the study. Dysphagia was present in 73% of patients. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in 32 patients: hiatal hernia was present in 62% (n=20); esophageal diverticulum in 13% (n=4); macroscopic Barrett esophagus in 31% (n=10); and esophagitis in 19% (n=6). Histological esophagitis was present in 20% and intestinal metaplasia in 10%. There were no cases of dysplagia or adenocarcinoma. Esophageal manometry was performed on 56% of the patients (n=23). Manometry revealed hypomotility in 100% of patients and included an insufficient number of peristaltic waves in 96%, nonpropagating peristalsis in 78% and low-wave amplitude in 95%. Complete aperistalsis was present in 78%. The lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in 12 (52%) patients, with incomplete relaxation the most common anomaly. Of the 41 patients, 29 (71%) consented to a barium swallow, which was abnormal in 13 (45%). The anomalies found were short esophageal dilation in 28%, delay in esophageal emptying in 14%, diverticula in 14% and stenosis in 7

  16. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change

  17. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  18. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  19. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  20. The Neural Retina in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Akula, James D.; Fulton, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP. PMID:27671171

  1. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  2. Are There Knots in Chromosomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. Siebert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments have for the first time allowed the determination of three-dimensional structures of individual chromosomes and genomes in nuclei of single haploid mouse embryonic stem (ES cells based on Hi–C chromosome conformation contact data. Although these first structures have a relatively low resolution, they provide the first experimental data that can be used to study chromosome and intact genome folding. Here we further analyze these structures and provide the first evidence that G1 phase chromosomes are knotted, consistent with the fact that plots of contact probability vs sequence separation show a power law dependence that is intermediate between that of a fractal globule and an equilibrium structure.

  3. Flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, L S

    1990-06-01

    This review of flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting provides an overview of general information in the field and describes recent developments in more detail. From the early developments of chromosome analysis involving single parameter or one color analysis to the latest developments in slit scanning of single chromosomes in a flow stream, the field has progressed rapidly and most importantly has served as an important enabling technology for the human genome project. Technological innovations that advanced flow cytogenetics are described and referenced. Applications in basic cell biology, molecular biology, and clinical investigations are presented. The necessary characteristics for large number chromosome sorting are highlighted. References to recent review articles are provided as a starting point for locating individual references that provide more detail. Specific references are provided for recent developments.

  4. Computed tomography of the head of new born premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tsutomu; Mizobe, Naoki; Takehiro, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of the extracerebral space on CT resulted as follows: The existence of the etracerebral space in the parieto-occipital region (PO-ECS) was physiological findings characteristic to premature infants. Its incidence was higher and the width of the space was greater, in those of premature infants. Generally PO-ECS disappeared around 40 weeks of gestation, while it tended to remaine beyond 40 weeks in premature infants born after less than 30 weeks of pregnancy. The appearance and disappearance of the PO-ECS may present some approach to learning the development of the brain in premature infants. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Association between human breast milk and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Teixeira; Senna, Denise C; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Silveira, Rita de Cássia; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of breast milk against retinopathy of prematurity by comparing the amount of breast milk received by patients who developed retinopathy of prematurity and those who did not and to determine both the required minimum amount of breast milk and the time of life during which neonates need to receive breast milk for this effect to be significant. Cohort study of newborns with a birth weight of prematurity of any degree was 31% (100 of 323 patients) and that of severe retinopathy of prematurity was of 9% (29 of 323 patients). The median amounts of breast milk received daily by patients with and without retinopathy of prematurity were 4.9 mL/kg (interquartile range, 0.3-15.4) and 10.2 mL/kg (1.5-25.5), respectively. The amount of breast milk received in the first 6 weeks of life was inversely associated with the incidence of both retinopathy of prematurity of any degree and severe retinopathy of prematurity in the univariate analyses. However, the statistical significance was maintained only during the sixth week of life in a per-period multivariate analysis controlling for confounding factors. Small amounts of breast milk are inadequate to prevent retinopathy of prematurity in premature newborns at risk for the disease.

  6. Algorithm for sorting chromosomal aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Lund, Najaaraq; Rasmussen, Steen

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal diagnostic methods and screening procedures change rapidly in these years. Years ago only karyotyping was performed prenatally, and we monitored only Down syndrome(1) . Since then the diagnostic possibilities have increased to QF-PCR, FISH, MLPA and chromosomal microarray.......Prenatal diagnostic methods and screening procedures change rapidly in these years. Years ago only karyotyping was performed prenatally, and we monitored only Down syndrome(1) . Since then the diagnostic possibilities have increased to QF-PCR, FISH, MLPA and chromosomal microarray....

  7. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of astigmatism was significantly different between ROP (37.29%, 22/59) and controls (17.86%, 15/84). The corneal refractive power in ROP and non-ROP was more potent compared with controls (PPremature babies with or without ROP are susceptible to myopia and astigmatism. ROP, prematurity and low birth-weight synergistically influence the development of refractive status and optical components, of which the prematurity and low birth-weight are more important.

  8. Chromosome condensation may enhance X-ray-related cell lethality in a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsBN2) of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishimoto, T.

    1987-01-01

    In the tsBN2 cell line, which has a temperature-sensitive defect in the regulatory mechanism for chromosome condensation, the lethal effect of X rays was enhanced by incubating the cells at a nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C) following X irradiation. This enhancement was suppressed in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibits induction of premature chromosome condensation. The findings obtained in the case of delayed incubation at 40 degrees C and in synchronized cells indicate that X-ray-related potentially lethal damage, which can be expressed by chromosome condensation, is produced in the cells at any stage of the cell cycle, but it is repairable for all cells except those at around the late G2-M phase, where chromosome condensation occurs at a permissive temperature (33.5 degrees C). These observations suggest that the high sensitivity of late G2-M cells to X rays is caused by the events associated with chromosome condensation

  9. Refractive errors in premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanović Milena S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vasoproliferative retinopathy which affects the blood vessels of the retina during its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and the degree of refractive errors in premature infants with severe ROP treated with antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF (bevacizumab. Methods. This prospective study included 21 patients (42 eyes nine months old who received intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF therapy. The control group consisted of 45 patients (90 eyes who were subjected to laser treatment. In cycloplegia each patient underwent retinoscopy, keratorefractometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Results. Myopia was present in 47.62% of the eyes in the study group and in 33.33% of the eyes in the control group, but there were no statistically significant differences between these groups. Seven (16.67% eyes in the study group and 17 (18.89% eyes in the control group were discovered to have high myopia (SE– spherical equivalents < -3.0 D – dioptre. Clinically significant hypermetropia was higher in the study group (47.62% than in the control group (34.44%, but with no statistically significant difference. In addition, high hypermetropia was significantly greater in the control group (15.56% than in the study group (11.90% (p < 0.001. Astigmatism was more common in the control group than in the study group (81.11% vs 71.43%, respectively, especially high astigmatism (56% vs 43%, respectively. Also the more common form of astigmatism was with the rule (WTR both in the study and the control group (42.86% vs 55.56%, respectively. Anisometropia was significantly greater in the control group (24.44% than in the study group (9.52% (p < 0.05. The children from the study group had significantly greater lens thickness, and a shorter anterior chamber depth than children from the control group (p < 0.01. There was no significant difference in the axial length of the eye between

  10. Comparative analysis of pain in patients who underwent total knee replacement regarding the tourniquet pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate through the visual analog scale (VAS the pain in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR with different pressures of the pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: An observational, randomized, descriptive study on an analytical basis, with 60 patients who underwent TKR, divided into two groups, which were matched: a group where TKR was performed with tourniquet pressures of 350 mmHg (standard and the other with systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg (P + 100. These patients had their pain assessed by VAS at 48 h, and at the 5th and 15th days after procedure. Secondarily, the following were also measured: range of motion (ROM, complications, and blood drainage volume in each group; the data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: After data analysis, there was no statistical difference regarding the incidence of complications (p = 0.612, ROM (p = 0.202, bleeding after 24 and 48 h (p = 0.432 and p = 0.254 or in relation to VAS. No correlation was observed between time of ischemia compared to VAS and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the pneumatic tourniquet pressure at 350 mmHg or systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg did not influence the pain, blood loss, ROM, and complications. Therefore the pressures at these levels are safe and do not change the surgery outcomes; the time of ischemia must be closely observed to avoid major complications.

  11. Association of PTP1B with Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients Who Underwent Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Franco, Monica M; Leon Rodriguez, Eucario; Martinez Benitez, Braulio; Villanueva Rodriguez, Luisa G; de la Luz Sevilla Gonzalez, Maria; Armengol Alonso, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    PTP1B is involved in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy has been widely used in breast cancer; thus, a measurement to assess survival improvement could be pathological complete response (pCR). Our objective was to associate PTP1B overexpression with outcomes of breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-six specimens were included. Diagnostic biopsies were immunostained using anti-PTP1B antibody. Expression was categorized as negative (<5%) and overexpression (≥5%). Patients' responses were graded according to the Miller-Payne system. Sixty-three percent of patients overexpressed PTP1B. There was no significant association between PTP1B overexpression and pCR ( P = 0.2). However, when associated with intrinsic subtypes, overexpression was higher in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive-enriched specimens ( P = 0.02). Ten-year progression-free survival showed no differences. Our preliminary results do not show an association between PTP1B over-expression and pCR; however, given the limited sample and heterogeneous treatment in our cohort, this hypothesis cannot be excluded.

  12. Association of PTP1B with Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients who Underwent Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. Rivera Franco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PTP1B is involved in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy has been widely used in breast cancer; thus, a measurement to assess survival improvement could be pathological complete response (pCR. Our objective was to associate PTP1B overexpression with outcomes of breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-six specimens were included. Diagnostic biopsies were immunostained using anti-PTP1B antibody. Expression was categorized as negative (<5% and overexpression (≥5%. Patients' responses were graded according to the Miller-Payne system. Sixty-three percent of patients overexpressed PTP1B. There was no significant association between PTP1B overexpression and pCR (P = 0.2. However, when associated with intrinsic subtypes, overexpression was higher in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive-enriched specimens (P = 0.02. Ten-year progression-free survival showed no differences. Our preliminary results do not show an association between PTP1B overexpression and pCR; however, given the limited sample and heterogeneous treatment in our cohort, this hypothesis cannot be excluded.

  13. [A survey of perioperative asthmatic attack among patients with bronchial asthma underwent general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Yoshizawa, Atsuto; Hirano, Satoru; Izumi, Sinyuu; Hojo, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayasi, Nobuyuki; Kudou, Kouichirou; Maehara, Yasuhiro; Kawachi, Masaharu; Miyakoshi, Kouichi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the risk factor of perioperative asthmatic attack and effectiveness of preventing treatment for asthmatic attack before operation. We performed retrospective chart review of one hundred eleven patients with asthma underwent general anesthesia and surgical intervention from January 2006 to October 2007 in our hospital. The rate of perioperative asthmatic attack were as follows; 10.2% (5 in 49 cases) in no pretreatment group, 7.5% (3 in 40 cases) in any pretreatments except for systemic steroid, and 4.5% (1 in 22 cases) in systemic steroid pretreatment group. Neither preoperative asthma severity nor duration from the last attack had significant relevancy to perioperative attack rate. The otolaryngological surgery, especially those have nasal polyp and oral surgery had high perioperative asthma attack rate, although there was no significant difference. We recommend the systemic steroid pretreatment for asthmatic patients, especially when they have known risk factor such as administration of the systemic steroid within 6 months, or possibly new risk factor such as nasal polyp, otolaryngological and oral surgery.

  14. Stress and Quality of Life for Taiwanese Women Who Underwent Infertility Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Stevenson, Eleanor Lowndes; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2018-04-28

    To describe the psychological stress and quality of life experienced by women who underwent fertility treatment in Taiwan. Cross-sectional, correlational study. Recruitment was conducted and questionnaires administered at a reproductive medicine center in Chiayi City, Taiwan. Informed consent to participate was obtained from 126 women who sought fertility treatment at the center. The Chinese Fertility Problem Inventory and Fertility Quality of Life scale were used to measure participants' levels of fertility-related stress and fertility-related quality of life. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis were used. Overall, participants reported low levels of fertility-related stress and fertility-related quality of life; however, they had relatively high levels of stress related to need for parenthood. Women who were older, had greater body mass indexes, and consumed coffee regularly had lower fertility-related quality of life. Social and relationship concerns and stress related to need for parenthood were significant predictors of low fertility-related quality of life. In a culture in which childbearing is generally an expectation and an important part of family life, women who experience infertility are at risk to experience fertility-related stress. Social support and family consultation might be offered to improve women's fertility-related quality of life. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  16. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, S R; Hecht, F [Dept. of Pediatrics, Child Development and Rehabilitation Center, Univ. of Oregon Health Sciences Center, Portland, Oregon (USA); Lubs, H A; Kimberling, W; Brown, J; Gerald, P S; Summitt, R L

    1977-01-15

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, so radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant.

  17. Designing of plant artificial chromosome (PAC) by using the Chlorella smallest chromosome as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Y; Arai, R; Fujie, M; Yamada, T

    1997-01-01

    As a model for plant-type chromosomes, we have been characterizing molecular organization of the Chlorella vulgaris C-169 chromosome I. To identify chromosome structural elements including the centromeric region and replication origins, we constructed a chromosome I specific cosmid library and aligned each cosmid clones to generate contigs. So far, more than 80% of the entire chromosome I has been covered. A complete clonal physical reconstitution of chromosome I provides information on the structure and genomic organization of plant genome. We propose our strategy to construct an artificial chromosome by assembling the functional chromosome structural elements identified on Chrorella chromosome I.

  18. Chromosome abnormalities in the acute phase of CML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J D

    1978-01-01

    Additional chromosome changes are superimposed on the Ph/sup 1/ positive cell line in approximately 80% of patients in the acute phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). These changes may precede the onset of blast crisis by several months. They are nonrandom and frequently involve an extra No. 8, an isochromosome for the long arm of No. 17, an extra No. 19, and a second Ph/sup 1/ chromosome. Since such changes may occur in combination, modal numbers frequently range between 47 and 57 chromosomes. Although present evidence suggests that abnormal clones originate, or at least proliferate, in the spleen, similar changes have been observed in patients who underwent splenectomy during the chronic phase of their disease. The question of particular clinical-chromosomal correlations has been discussed in only one study. It appeared that patients whose karyotype did not change might have a longer median survival than those whose karyotype showed additional abnormalities. Tests for levels of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) and response to anti-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) serum suggest that some, but not all patients react as do patients with ALL. Those who are similar to ALL have high levels of TDT and are anti-ALL serum-positive; the others have low levels of TDT and are anti-ALL serum-negative. In the future, correlations of these more sophisticated tests with the blast morphology, clinical course, and karyotype pattern should provide significant new insights into the acute phase of CML.

  19. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Association between ambient air pollution and pregnancy rate in women who underwent IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, S A; Jun, Y B; Lee, W S; Yoon, T K; Kim, S Y

    2018-04-05

    Are the concentrations of five criteria air pollutants associated with probabilities of biochemical pregnancy loss and intrauterine pregnancy in women? Increased concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and after embryo transfer were associated with a decreased probability of intrauterine pregnancy. Exposure to high ambient air pollution was suggested to be associated with low fertility and high early pregnancy loss in women. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we analysed 6621 cycles of 4581 patients who underwent one or more fresh IVF cycles at a fertility centre from January 2006 to December 2014, and lived in Seoul at the time of IVF treatment. To estimate patients' individual exposure to air pollution, we computed averages of hourly concentrations of five air pollutants including PM10, NO2, CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) measured at 40 regulatory monitoring sites in Seoul for each of the four exposure periods: period 1 (start of COS to oocyte retrieval), period 2 (oocyte retrieval to embryo transfer), period 3 (embryo transfer to hCG test), and period 4 (start of COS to hCG test). Hazard ratios (HRs) from the time-varying Cox-proportional hazards model were used to estimate probabilities of biochemical pregnancy loss and intrauterine pregnancy for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each air pollutant concentration during each period, after adjusting for individual characteristics. We tested the robustness of the result using generalised linear mixed model, accounting for within-woman correlation. Mean age of the women was 35 years. Average BMI was 20.9 kg/m2 and the study population underwent 1.4 IVF cycles on average. Cumulative pregnancy rate in multiple IVF cycles was 51.3% per person. Survival analysis showed that air pollution during periods 1 and 3 was generally associated with IVF outcomes. Increased NO2 (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI

  1. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of weight regain in patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantavasinkul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai; Omotosho, Philip; Corsino, Leonor; Portenier, Dana; Torquati, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a highly effective treatment for obesity and results in long-term weight loss and resolution of co-morbidities. However, weight regain may occur as soon as 1-2 years after surgery. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of weight regain and possible preoperative predictors of this phenomenon after RYGB. An academic medical center in the United States. A total of 1426 obese patients (15.8% male) who underwent RYGB during January 2000 to 2012 and had at least a 2-year follow-up were reviewed. We included only patients who were initially successful, having achieved at least 50% excess weight loss at 1 year postoperatively. Patients were then categorized into either the weight regain group (WR) or sustained weight loss (SWL) group based upon whether they gained≥15% of their 1-year postoperative weight. Weight regain was observed in 244 patients (17.1%). Preoperative body mass index was similar between groups. Body mass index was significantly higher and percent excess weight loss was significantly lower in the WR group (Pweight regain was 19.5±9.3 kg and-.8±8.5 in the WR and SWL groups, respectively (Pweight loss. Moreover, a longer duration after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The present study confirmed that a longer interval after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The findings of this study underscore the complexity of the mechanisms underlying weight loss and regain after RYGB. Future prospective studies are needed to further explore the prevalence, predictors, and mechanisms of weight regain after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  4. Microtubule Binding and Disruption and Induction of Premature Senescence by Disorazole C1S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, Marni Brisson; Kitchens, Carolyn A.; Petrik, Bethany; Graham, Thomas H.; Wipf, Peter; Xu, Fengfeng L.; Saunders, William S.; Raccor, Brianne S.; Balachandran, Raghavan; Day, Billy W.; Stout, Jane R.; Walczak, Claire E.; Ducruet, Alexander P.; Reese, Celeste E.; Lazo, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Disorazoles comprise a family of 29 macrocyclic polyketides isolated from the fermentation broth of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. The major fermentation product, disorazole A1, was found previously to irreversibly bind to tubulin and to have potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, possibly because of its highly electrophilic epoxide moiety. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized the epoxide-free disorazole C1 and found it retained potent antiproliferative activity against tumor cells, causing prominent G2/M phase arrest and inhibition of in vitro tubulin polymerization. Furthermore, disorazole C1 produced disorganized microtubules at interphase, misaligned chromosomes during mitosis, apoptosis, and premature senescence in the surviving cell populations. Using a tubulin polymerization assay, we found disorazole C1 inhibited purified bovine tubulin polymerization, with an IC50 of 11.8 ± 0.4 μM, and inhibited [3H]vinblastine binding noncompetitively, with a Ki of 4.5 ± 0.6 μM. We also found noncompetitive inhibition of [3H]dolastatin 10 binding by disorazole C1, with a Ki of 10.6 ± 1.5 μM, indicating that disorazole C1 bound tubulin uniquely among known antimitotic agents. Disorazole C1 could be a valuable chemical probe for studying the process of mitotic spindle disruption and its relationship to premature senescence. PMID:19066338

  5. Establishment of a mouse model with misregulated chromosome condensation due to defective Mcph1 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Trimborn

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human gene MCPH1 cause primary microcephaly associated with a unique cellular phenotype with premature chromosome condensation (PCC in early G2 phase and delayed decondensation post-mitosis (PCC syndrome. The gene encodes the BRCT-domain containing protein microcephalin/BRIT1. Apart from its role in the regulation of chromosome condensation, the protein is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. We report here on the first mouse model of impaired Mcph1-function. The model was established based on an embryonic stem cell line from BayGenomics (RR0608 containing a gene trap in intron 12 of the Mcph1 gene deleting the C-terminal BRCT-domain of the protein. Although residual wild type allele can be detected by quantitative real-time PCR cell cultures generated from mouse tissues bearing the homozygous gene trap mutation display the cellular phenotype of misregulated chromosome condensation that is characteristic for the human disorder, confirming defective Mcph1 function due to the gene trap mutation. While surprisingly the DNA damage response (formation of repair foci, chromosomal breakage, and G2/M checkpoint function after irradiation appears to be largely normal in cell cultures derived from Mcph1(gt/gt mice, the overall survival rates of the Mcph1(gt/gt animals are significantly reduced compared to wild type and heterozygous mice. However, we could not detect clear signs of premature malignant disease development due to the perturbed Mcph1 function. Moreover, the animals show no obvious physical phenotype and no reduced fertility. Body and brain size are within the range of wild type controls. Gene expression on RNA and protein level did not reveal any specific pattern of differentially regulated genes. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first mammalian transgenic model displaying a defect in mitotic chromosome condensation and is also the first mouse model for impaired Mcph1-function.

  6. Establishment of a mouse model with misregulated chromosome condensation due to defective Mcph1 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimborn, Marc; Ghani, Mahdi; Walther, Diego J; Dopatka, Monika; Dutrannoy, Véronique; Busche, Andreas; Meyer, Franziska; Nowak, Stefanie; Nowak, Jean; Zabel, Claus; Klose, Joachim; Esquitino, Veronica; Garshasbi, Masoud; Kuss, Andreas W; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Mueller, Susanne; Poehlmann, Charlotte; Gavvovidis, Ioannis; Schindler, Detlev; Sperling, Karl; Neitzel, Heidemarie

    2010-02-16

    Mutations in the human gene MCPH1 cause primary microcephaly associated with a unique cellular phenotype with premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in early G2 phase and delayed decondensation post-mitosis (PCC syndrome). The gene encodes the BRCT-domain containing protein microcephalin/BRIT1. Apart from its role in the regulation of chromosome condensation, the protein is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. We report here on the first mouse model of impaired Mcph1-function. The model was established based on an embryonic stem cell line from BayGenomics (RR0608) containing a gene trap in intron 12 of the Mcph1 gene deleting the C-terminal BRCT-domain of the protein. Although residual wild type allele can be detected by quantitative real-time PCR cell cultures generated from mouse tissues bearing the homozygous gene trap mutation display the cellular phenotype of misregulated chromosome condensation that is characteristic for the human disorder, confirming defective Mcph1 function due to the gene trap mutation. While surprisingly the DNA damage response (formation of repair foci, chromosomal breakage, and G2/M checkpoint function after irradiation) appears to be largely normal in cell cultures derived from Mcph1(gt/gt) mice, the overall survival rates of the Mcph1(gt/gt) animals are significantly reduced compared to wild type and heterozygous mice. However, we could not detect clear signs of premature malignant disease development due to the perturbed Mcph1 function. Moreover, the animals show no obvious physical phenotype and no reduced fertility. Body and brain size are within the range of wild type controls. Gene expression on RNA and protein level did not reveal any specific pattern of differentially regulated genes. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first mammalian transgenic model displaying a defect in mitotic chromosome condensation and is also the first mouse model for impaired Mcph1-function.

  7. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  8. Prematurity Stereotype: Effects of Labeling on Adults' Perceptions of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Hildebrandt, Katherine A.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in which college students and mothers were asked to rate unfamiliar infants shown on videotapes. Infants were described as either full-term or premature and as either male or female. Infants labeled premature were rated more negatively than those labeled full-term, but infants labeled male and female were rated…

  9. Histological Chorioamnionitis: Effects on Premature Delivery and Neonatal Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Erdemir

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis not only causes premature deliveries, but is also associated with neonatal complications and increased mortality. Clinical findings and infectious markers in mother or infant do not predict the diagnosis of histological chorioamnionitis. Therefore, placental histopathology may have a role in predicting neonatal outcome in premature deliveries, especially those below 30 weeks.

  10. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  11. Impact of Prematurity on Language Skills at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…

  12. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite

  13. Bartter syndrome: presentation in an extremely premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F X; Ojeda, F J; Calhoun, D A

    2013-08-01

    Reports of Bartter syndrome in premature neonates are rare. We describe the presentation and clinical course of a neonate born at 25.6 weeks estimated gestational age with polyuria, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria ,who was diagnosed with neonatal Bartter syndrome. The evaluation, diagnosis and management of neonatal Bartter syndrome in this premature neonate are discussed.

  14. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  15. Meiotic inheritance of a fungal supernumerary chromosome and its effect on sexual fertility in Nectria haematococca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaroodi, Hamid S; Taga, Masatoki

    2015-10-01

    PDA1-conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC) of Nectria haematococca MP VI has long served as a model of supernumerary chromosomes in plant pathogenic fungi because of pathogenicity-related genes located on it. In our previous study, we showed the dosage effects of PDA1-CDC on pathogenicity and homoserine utilization by exploiting tagged PDA1-CDC with a marker gene. CDC content of mating partners and progenies analyzed by PCR, PFGE combined with Southern analysis and chromosome painting via FISH. In this study, we analyzed mode of meiotic inheritance of PDA1-CDC in several mating patterns with regard to CDC content and found a correlation between CDC content of parental strains with fertility of crosses. The results showed non-Mendelian inheritance of this chromosome followed by duplication or loss of the CDC in haploid genome through meiosis that probably were due to premature centromere division, not by nondisjunction as reported for the supernumerary chromosomes in other species. Correlation of CDC with fertility is the first time to be examined in fungi in this study. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life in locally advanced prostate cancer patients who underwent hormonal treatment combined with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Hirofumi; Naito, Seiji; Fukui, Iwao; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Matsuoka, Naoki; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the feasibility of quality of life (QOL) research and to evaluate the QOL prospectively in locally advanced prostate cancer patients treated with hormonal treatment combined with radiotherapy. The treatment schedule was that patients with decreasing prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels below 10 ng/ml after receiving 6 months of neoadjuvant hormonal treatment were randomly divided into two groups; one group was the continuous hormonal treatment group and the other was the intermittent hormonal treatment group. Both groups received a total dose of 72 Gy external beam radiotherapy with concomitant hormonal treatment followed by 6 months of adjuvant hormonal treatment following radiotherapy. At 14 months, patients either underwent continuous or intermittent hormonal treatment according to the random allocation. QOL was assessed at baseline, and at 6, 8, 14, and 20 months after treatment using functional assessment of cancer treatment-general (FACT-G), P with the other 3 items comprising bother of urination, bother of bowel movement, and bother of sexual activity. Between January 2000 and June 2003, a total of 188 patients were enrolled in this study. The rate of collection of baseline QOL sheets was 98.0%. The rate of answer to questions of QOL sheets was 99.0%. At baseline, the average score of FACT-G, P was 120.7 and the maximum score was more than twice the minimum score. Dysfunction of urination and bowel movement was correlated with the bother of urination and bowel movement, respectively. On the other hand, dysfunction of sexual activity was not correlated with the bother of sexual activity. In June 2003, all of the QOL sheets at baseline, and at 6, 8, and 14 months were completely collected from a total of 72 patients. Although QOL at 8 months was significantly affected compared with QOL at baseline and at 6 months, QOL at 14 months was significantly improved compared with that at 8 months and there was no significant

  17. Transmission of chromosomal and instability via a chromosome irradiated with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji; Tanabe, Masateru; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the stability of the transferred chromosome in 5 and 12 microcell hybrids including unirradiated human chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively, and 6 and 19 microcell hybrids including 4 Gy-irradiated human chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. The transferred chromosome was structurally stable in most microcell hybrids transferred with the unirradiated chromosomes 6 and 8. In contrast, the 4 Gy-irradiated human chromosomes were unstable in 3 out of 6 hybrids (50%) with chromosome 6 and 3 out of 19 hybrids (16%) with chromosome 8, showing multiple aberrations in high frequencies (35∼98%). To know the cause of delayed chromosomal instability, intrachromosomal rearrangements of the human chromosome is investigated by subtelomere FISH in 17 microcell hybrids transferred with chromosomes 6 and 8. We found frequent intrachromosomal in 7 microcell hybrids (41%). However, no clear correlation was observed between the intrachromosomal rearrangements and the induction of delayed chromosomal instability by ionizing radiation

  18. Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.B.; Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co 60 γ-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we

  19. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  20. Adequacy of published screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, Deepa A; Oh, Dickson D-S; Keane, Miriam C; Fabel, Helen; Marshall, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Criteria for screening preterm infants for retinopathy of prematurity vary around the world. We aimed to analyse the efficacy of alternative screening criteria. We collected retrospective data at a tertiary level neonatal nursery. Our participants were 1007 babies, born between 1997 and 2011, at prematurity. We determined whether disease would be detected using an alternative Australian screening model (gestational age prematurity is our main outcome. Using several of the alternative criteria, two neonates with clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity, one of whom required laser treatment to preserve sight, would not have been screened, and their disease may have gone undetected. Use of prematurity may risk clinically significant cases being missed and others may screen babies unnecessarily. Alternative criteria should be considered and '<30 weeks gestational age and/or <1500 g birth weight' appears a viable option. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Long-term impact of prematurity on postnatal neurohormonal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ziborova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the psychophysiological and neuroendocrine differences characteristic of premature children, which are as a result of long-term perinatal consequences. Particular emphasis is laid on the effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress system, the performance of which is reprogramed during complicated pregnancy, labor, and postnatal period under pain stress due to medical manipulations. Being extremely sensitive to all these exposures, the brain of a premature infant develops during activation of the stress system and takes on a few distinctive properties in addition to independent neuroanatomical distinctions due to premature birth. The altered neurohormonal patterns revealed in very prematurely born children and adolescents involve the regulation of mental processes, behavior, metabolism, and circadian rhythms (sleep-wake regulation, which differ from those in their maturely born peers. These cases allow learning and behavior problems and lower cognitive estimates to be considered in normally developing children born extremely prematurely who have also hormonal dysregulation.

  2. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  3. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eZamariola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved.

  4. Radiation exposure and chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome damage is discussed as a means of biologically measuring radiation exposure to the body. Human lymphocytes are commonly used for this test since the extent of chromosome damage induced is related to the exposure dose. Several hundred lymphocytes are analysed in metaphase for chromosome damage, particularly dicentrics. The dose estimate is made by comparing the observed dicentric yield against calibration curves, previously produced by in vitro irradiation of blood samples to known doses of different types of radiation. This test is useful when there is doubt that the film badge has recorded a reasonable whole body dose and also when there is an absence of any physical data. A case of deliberate exposure is described where the chromosome damage test estimated an exposure of 152 rads. The life span of cell aberrations is also considered. Regular checks on radiotherapy patients and some accidental overdose cases have shown little reduction in the aberration levels over the first six weeks after which the damage disappears slowly with a half-life of about three years. In conclusion, chromosome studies have been shown to be of value in resolving practical problems in radiological protection. (U.K.)

  5. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, David; Ivánek, Robert; Čapková, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2007), s. 1431-1437 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GA301/06/1334; GA ČR GA301/07/1383 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI 55000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : chromosomal translocations * meiotic X chromosome inactivation * spermatogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  6. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P prematurity, because prematurity is an outcome of preeclampsia.

  7. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhomberg, W.; Schuster, A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria

  8. Initial damage in human interphase chromosomes from alpha particles with linear energy transfers relevant to radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loucas, B.D.; Geard, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    To determine the efficiency at which α particles at LETs chosen to simulate exposure to radon progeny break chromosomes, the premature chromosome condensation technique was used to measure breaks soon after irradiation. Noncycling human fibroblasts were irradiated with graded doses of monoenergetic α particles accelerated to produce LETs of 90, 120, 150, 180 and 200 keV/pm at the midpoint of the cell nuclei. Premature chromosome condensation was initiated immediately after irradiation and cells were scored for the total number of prematurely condensed chromosomes and fragments per cell. Similar experiments were conducted with 250 kVp X rays for comparison. Irradiation with α particles produced 8.6 to 13.1 excess fragments per gray, while X rays produced 5.8 excess fragments, resulting in RBEs around 2. Calculations of the number of breaks produced on average by a single particle traversal of a cell nucleus indicated that at the LETs tested more than one break was produced by each traversal, the maximum being that produced by 180 keV/μm α particles. When chromosome aberrations are scored at metaphase after high-LET irradiation, RBEs considerably greater than those recorded here have been reported. These results showing relatively small differences in initial break levels for α particles in the LET range of the radon progeny relative to X rays indicate that the great aberration frequencies are not due principally to an increase in breakage efficiency, but interactions between breaks along the same particle track are important. 16 refs., 4 figs

  9. Sildenafil and retinopathy of prematurity risk in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; J.N. van den Anker (John); M. Laughon (Matthew); R.H. Clark; P.B. Smith; C.P. Hornik

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine the effect of sildenafil therapy on development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring surgical intervention in premature infants. Study Design: We identified premature infants who were discharged from Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care

  10. Macronuclear genome structure of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis: Single-gene chromosomes and tiny introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landweber Laura F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nyctotherus ovalis is a single-celled eukaryote that has hydrogen-producing mitochondria and lives in the hindgut of cockroaches. Like all members of the ciliate taxon, it has two types of nuclei, a micronucleus and a macronucleus. N. ovalis generates its macronuclear chromosomes by forming polytene chromosomes that subsequently develop into macronuclear chromosomes by DNA elimination and rearrangement. Results We examined the structure of these gene-sized macronuclear chromosomes in N. ovalis. We determined the telomeres, subtelomeric regions, UTRs, coding regions and introns by sequencing a large set of macronuclear DNA sequences (4,242 and cDNAs (5,484 and comparing them with each other. The telomeres consist of repeats CCC(AAAACCCCn, similar to those in spirotrichous ciliates such as Euplotes, Sterkiella (Oxytricha and Stylonychia. Per sequenced chromosome we found evidence for either a single protein-coding gene, a single tRNA, or the complete ribosomal RNAs cluster. Hence the chromosomes appear to encode single transcripts. In the short subtelomeric regions we identified a few overrepresented motifs that could be involved in gene regulation, but there is no consensus polyadenylation site. The introns are short (21–29 nucleotides, and a significant fraction (1/3 of the tiny introns is conserved in the distantly related ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. As has been observed in P. tetraurelia, the N. ovalis introns tend to contain in-frame stop codons or have a length that is not dividable by three. This pattern causes premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and potentially degradation of unspliced mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Conclusion The combination of short leaders, tiny introns and single genes leads to very minimal macronuclear chromosomes. The smallest we identified contained only 150 nucleotides.

  11. Induction of chromosome aberrations and mitotic arrest by cytomegalovirus in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbuBakar, S.; Au, W.W.; Legator, M.S.; Albrecht, T.

    1988-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is potentially an effective but often overlooked genotoxic agent in humans. We report here evidence that indicates that infection by CMV can induce chromosome alterations and mitotic inhibition. The frequency of chromosome aberrations induced was dependent on the input multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) for human lung fibroblasts (LU), but not for human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) when both cell types were infected at the GO phase of the cell cycle. The aberrations induced by CMV were mostly chromatid breaks and chromosome pulverizations that resembled prematurely condensed S-phase chromatin. Pulverized chromosomes were not observed in LU cells infected with virus stocks that had been rendered nonlytic by UV-irradiation at 24,000 ergs/mm2 or from infection of human lymphocytes. In LU cells infected with UV-irradiated CMV, the frequency of aberrations induced was inversely dependent on the extent of the exposure of the CMV stock to the UV-light. In permissive CMV infection of proliferating LU cells at 24 hr after subculture, a high percentage (greater than 40%) of the metaphase cells were arrested at their first metaphase and displayed severely condensed chromosomes when harvested 48 hr later. A significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the chromosome aberration frequency was also observed. Our study shows that CMV infection is genotoxic to host cells. The types and extent of damage are dependent on the viral genome expression and on the cell cycle stage of the cells at the time of infection. The possible mechanisms for induction of chromosome damage by CMV are discussed

  12. Tonic Pupil and Corneal Anesthesia after Vitrectomy and Encircling Band for Retinal Detachment in an Ex-Premature Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old boy presented with a total retinal detachment in his right eye. He had a bilateral 360° argon laser treatment for an active retinopathy of prematurity performed after his birth. He underwent an uneventful pars plana vitrectomy, encircling band, 810-nm diode endolaser and heavy silicone oil (Densiron® endotamponade. A tonic pupil and abolition of corneal sensitivity, with a large epithelial defect, were observed during the postoperative period. We discuss the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms of the long and short ciliary nerves damage, and the role that retinopathy of prematurity and retinal detachment laser treatment and the encircling band placement might have played in the development of the tonic pupil and the corneal anesthesia.

  13. Chromosomal rearrangements in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Debes, Nanette Mol; Hjermind, Lena E

    2013-01-01

    , and identification of susceptibility genes through linkage and association studies has been complicated due to inherent difficulties such as no clear mode of inheritance, genetic heterogeneity, and apparently incomplete penetrance. Positional cloning through mapping of disease-related chromosome rearrangements has...... been an efficient tool for the cloning of disease genes in several Mendelian disorders and in a number of complex disorders. Through cytogenetic investigation of 205 TS patients, we identified three possibly disease-associated chromosome rearrangements rendering this approach relevant in chasing TS...

  14. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanton, C.; Nicke, B.; Schuett, M.

    2009-01-01

    chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival'' genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor......-positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane...

  15. Balance in children born prematurely currently aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziuba Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children born at term achieved better results in the majority of tests. The comparison of girls and boys born pre­maturely and at term showed no statistically significant difference between them in terms of dynamic balance, static balance or total balance control. The comparison of the tests performed on the right and left lower limb in prematurely born children showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Premature birth affects the ability to maintain body balance. The results of the study indicate the need to develop coordination skills that shape body balance in prematurely born children.

  16. HEARING FUNCTION IN PREMATURE CHILDREN WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rakhmanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial audiological test was performed in 136 premature children with various gestational age born from single fetation. The children were divided into 2 groups: prematures with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and prematures with normal weight for their gestational age (normotrophy. The study showed that the rate of passing the initial audiological test using the method of DPOAE was lower in both ears in children with IUGR, than in children with normotrophy. The correlation between the results of initial audiological test and birth weight was found: the lower was weight, the higher was risk of absence of acoustic response registration on initial examination.

  17. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death below...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners...... in early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....

  18. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Yu Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. [Birth weight distribution among premature infants and related social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-jun; Ye, Rong-wei; Wang, Gui-xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-wen; Ren, Ai-guo

    2009-12-01

    To understand the distribution of birth weight among premature infants and the associated social factors. The study population consisted of 97 537 women who delivered singleton live birth of 20 to 41 gestational weeks in 4 counties/cities, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China from 1995 to 2000. Chi-square test was employed to test the difference of proportions between respective groups. One- way ANOVA was used to test the differences regarding the mean of gestational weeks at the first prenatal visit and the mean of prenatal visits between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors associated with premature birth. Women aged 35 years had higher (8.8%) premature incidence than those aged less than 24 years (5.6%), 25 - 29 years (4.6%), or 30 - 34 years (4.5%, P premature incidence than those with height taller than 150 cm (5.0%). Women whose BMI were at least 28 and 24 - 28 had higher (5.5%, 5.5%) premature incidences than those whose BMI were 18.5 - 24.0 (5.0%), premature birth was 6.0% among women without previous pregnancy, higher than that among those women with 4 times of pregnancies (5.7%), 2 times of pregnancies (4.3%), and 3 times of pregnancies (4.0%). Parous women with at least two deliveries had higher (9.3%) premature incidence than the primiparous women (5.2%) and whose women with only one delivery (4.5%, P premature incidence than those who did not receive the service (6.1%). The mean times of prenatal visits among women with premature births was 8.53, less than that of those with full term delivery (10.97). Women with less than four times of prenatal visit had higher (18.9%) premature incidence than those with at least five prenatal visits (4.9%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that premature delivery risk was associated with age, height, BMI, gravidity, parity, early prenatal care, the mean of gestational weeks at first prenatal visit and the mean number of prenatal visits etc. Premature delivery

  20. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.

  1. Control practices contribute to premature transformer failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, E.T. [Beckwith Electric Company Inc., Largo, FL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Studies of premature load tap changer (LTC) transformer failures on utility systems have shown the tap changers to be the primary contributing factor. Some of the LTC factors that lead to transformer failures include oil quality and particulate contamination; LTC contact temperature rise; contact coking; carbon film build-up; short circuit mechanical forces; and contact wear and arcing. These factors create increasing contact resistance thereby increasing voltage drop, localized heating, contact pitting, oil contamination and general deterioration. This paper discussed utility tapchanger control practices and methods of determining control functions to be activated as well as the determination of optimum settings contributing to excessive or untimely tap change operations. The transformer applications that were considered included transmission tie transformers as well as transmission distribution interface transformers. The paper discussed the circulating current paralleling method and the circulating reactive current or var sharing paralleling method. Several common practices were discussed, including basic voltage control ranges and setting effects; timing options available; LDC misapplications; first house protection methods; and various paralleling techniques. It was concluded that although there are several other methods of paralleling power transformers, many are not applicable under certain system configurations. In these applications, improper use of a paralleling method or improper setting and commissioning may cause hunting for appropriate tap positions and dramatically increase the number of tap changes, causing wear and degradation of the tap changer contacts. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. An overview of pharmacotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    With increasing interest and clinical research in male sexual disorders, it has become clear that not only psychological but also organic, neurobiological, and genetic factors may play an important role in premature ejaculation (PE). This article provides an overview of the different treatment options both for lifelong (primary, "congenital") and acquired (secondary) PE. Review of the literature. Currently used treatment options for PE. Treatments reviewed include psychological/behavioral/sexual counseling therapy, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Before starting any therapy for PE, correct diagnosis has to be made considering the patient's reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the duration and type of PE. Concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) should be either ruled out or proven by appropriate means. In uncomplicated cases of PE with stable partnerships, medical treatment represents the first-choice option with a high likelihood of success. Dapoxetine, where available, or other SSRIs provide suitable therapeutic options with a good risk/benefit profile for patients. In complicated ("difficult-to-treat") PE patients, a combination of medication and sexual counseling should be considered the first treatment option. Combination therapies of PDE-5 inhibitors and PE-related medications should be offered to patients suffering from comorbid PE and ED, with ED treatment starting first. In those patients with severe PE-IELTs of IELT, compared with either monotherapy. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Retinopathy of prematurity: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500

  4. Apnea of prematurity--perfect storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Juliann M; Martin, Richard J; Gauda, Estelle B

    2013-11-01

    With increased survival of preterm infants as young as 23 weeks gestation, maintaining adequate respiration and corresponding oxygenation represents a clinical challenge in this unique patient cohort. Respiratory instability characterized by apnea and periodic breathing occurs in premature infants because of immature development of the respiratory network. While short respiratory pauses and apnea may be of minimal consequence if oxygenation is maintained, they can be problematic if accompanied by chronic intermittent hypoxemia. Underdevelopment of the lung and the resultant lung injury that occurs in this population concurrent with respiratory instability creates the perfect storm leading to frequent episodes of profound and recurrent hypoxemia. Chronic intermittent hypoxemia contributes to the immediate and long term co-morbidities that occur in this population. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology leading to the perfect storm, diagnostic assessment of breathing instability in this unique population and therapeutic interventions that aim to stabilize breathing without contributing to tissue injury. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs. Prolonged seizure episodes known as non-convulsive status epilepticus also appear to be characteristic of ring chromosome ... K, Takahashi Y. Ring chromosome 20 and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. A new epileptic syndrome. Brain. 1997 Jun;120 ( ...

  6. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  7. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  8. CHROMOSOMAL MULTIPLICITY IN BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used CHEF gel electrophoresis to screen preparations of large DNA from different Burkholderia cepacia isolates for the presence of DNA species corresponding to the linearized forms of the three chromosomes of 3.4,2.5, and 0.9 Mb identified in B. cepacia strain 17616. DNA ...

  9. Sister chromatid cohesion defects are associated with chromosome instability in Hodgkin lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajesh, Babu V; Lichtensztejn, Zelda; McManus, Kirk J

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome instability manifests as an abnormal chromosome complement and is a pathogenic event in cancer. Although a correlation between abnormal chromosome numbers and cancer exist, the underlying mechanisms that cause chromosome instability are poorly understood. Recent data suggests that aberrant sister chromatid cohesion causes chromosome instability and thus contributes to the development of cancer. Cohesion normally functions by tethering nascently synthesized chromatids together to prevent premature segregation and thus chromosome instability. Although the prevalence of aberrant cohesion has been reported for some solid tumors, its prevalence within liquid tumors is unknown. Consequently, the current study was undertaken to evaluate aberrant cohesion within Hodgkin lymphoma, a lymphoid malignancy that frequently exhibits chromosome instability. Using established cytogenetic techniques, the prevalence of chromosome instability and aberrant cohesion was examined within mitotic spreads generated from five commonly employed Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (L-1236, KM-H2, L-428, L-540 and HDLM-2) and a lymphocyte control. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in the regulation of sister chromatid cohesion. We first confirmed that all five Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines exhibited chromosome instability relative to the lymphocyte control. We then determined that each Hodgkin lymphoma cell line exhibited cohesion defects that were subsequently classified into mild, moderate or severe categories. Surprisingly, ~50% of the mitotic spreads generated from L-540 and HDLM-2 harbored cohesion defects. To gain mechanistic insight into the underlying cause of the aberrant cohesion we examined the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in cohesion. Although all proteins produced the expected nuclear localization pattern, striking differences in RAD21

  10. Validation of WINROP for detecting retinopathy of prematurity in a North American cohort of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jennifer L; Wagner, Brandie D; McCourt, Emily A; Palestine, Alan G; Cerda, Ashlee; Cao, Jennifer H; Enzenauer, Robert W; Singh, Jasleen K; Braverman, Rebecca S; Wymore, Erica; Lynch, Anne M

    2017-06-01

    WINROP (weight, insulin-like growth factor 1, neonatal, retinopathy of prematurity) is a web-based retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) risk algorithm that uses postnatal weight gain as a surrogate of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to predict the risk of severe ROP in premature infants. The purpose of this study was to validate the web-based algorithm WINROP in detecting severe (type 1 or type 2) ROP in a North American cohort of infants. The records of consecutive infants who underwent ROP examinations between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Infants were classified into categories of "alarm" (at risk for developing severe ROP) and "no alarm" (minimal risk for severe ROP). A total of 483 were included. Alarm occurred in 241 neonates (50%), with the median time from birth to alarm of 2 weeks. WINROP had a sensitivity of 81.8% (95% CI, 67.3%-91.8%) and specificity of 53.3% (95% CI, 48.5%-58.0%) for identifying infants with severe ROP. Eight of the 44 infants with severe ROP were not detected (5 with type 1 and 3 with type 2). Of these 8 infants, 7 (88%) had birth weight in excess of the 70 th pecentile. With additional weight data entry, sensitivity of WINROP rose to 88.6%. Very preterm infants (gestational age of ≤27 weeks) with relatively high birth weight for gestational age may not be detected by WINROP as high risk for developing severe ROP. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPLETE RESOLUTION OF LARGE RETINAL FOLD AFTER TRANSECTION OF RETROLENTAL MEMBRANE DURING LENS-SPARING VITRECTOMY FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY: A 15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Trese, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    To describe the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of a patient with retinopathy of prematurity characterized by a prominent retinal fold adherent to the posterior lens capsule, treated by lens-sparing vitrectomy with surgical transection of the retrolental membrane. A premature infant was born at a gestational age of 25 weeks and birthweight of 636 g. She developed threshold retinopathy of prematurity bilaterally and was subsequently treated with laser ablative therapy. The left eye responded favorably, with regression of neovascularization; however, the right eye progressed to Stage 4A with a prominent retinal fold adherent to the posterior lens capsule. The patient underwent lens-sparing vitrectomy with dissection of the retrolental membrane at postmenstrual age of 44 weeks. At 15-year follow-up, the patient has maintained a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/60 and, of note, demonstrated complete resolution of the previous retinal fold. Surgical treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was considerably advanced by the introduction of lens-sparing vitrectomy techniques; however, cases developing retrolental membranes often persisted with poor visual outcomes, and lensectomy is conventionally performed. However, in select cases of Stage 4A retinopathy of prematurity, careful transection of retrolental membranes during lens-sparing vitrectomy using the appropriate technique may provide very good anatomical and visual outcomes.

  12. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and premature birth, including: Connective tissue disorders, like Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (also called EDS) and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (also called vEDS). Connective tissue is tissue that ...

  13. Premature cardiovascular disease in young women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial

  14. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  15. Prolactin, cortisol and thyroxine levels and the premature infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-16

    Apr 16, 1983 ... and the premature infant ... values in cord and maternal plasma to fetal age and weight and to the incidence of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was .... thyroxine and prolactin values with an increase in weight has also.

  16. [Family participation in premature care in neonatal ICU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaíva, Maria Aparecida Munhoz; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the family participation in the premature assistance in a university hospital neonatal ICU. Data were collected from the participant observation. Results showed that despite of the mother's presence in the daily life of their premature children placed in a hospital, family isn't inserted in the work process and mothers are the only ones who take part of the cares. This participation basically happens in the execution of maternity care, especially at the medium risk unity, the mother and premature family are less welcomed and there isn't any partnership between the care team and the family, there aren't team interventions in order to turn premature family in autonomous subject to promote health and life quality to baby's life.

  17. Probiotics in premature infants: focus on necrotising enterocolitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is predominantly seen in premature infants and is the leading .... Because neonates are often intolerant to large enteral volumes, the ... of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics. 2005 ...

  18. Posterior Pole Sparing Laser Photocoagulation Combined with Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the results of the posterior pole sparing laser photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Methods. A retrospective chart review of premature babies with ROP, all of whom received laser photocoagulation with IVB. Eleven eyes of 6 infants with advanced zone I ROP underwent laser ablation sparing posterior pole with concurrent IVB. The results were compared with those of full-laser treatment combined with IVB to 8 eyes of 5 infants with advanced ROP without involvement of the posterior pole. Results. The posterior pole sparing laser with IVB was performed with zone I, stage 3+ ROP at the mean postmenstrual age of 36 weeks and 5 days. The plus sign decreased significantly at postoperative day 1, the neovascular proliferation regressed by postoperative week 1, and the normal vascularization started at postoperative day 32 on the average. Two months after treatment, vascularization of the spared avascular area was completed. There was no macular dragging, tractional retinal detachment, foveal destruction by laser scars, or any other adverse event. No significant anatomical differences were identified from those of full-laser ablation combined with IVB. Conclusions. Posterior pole sparing laser with IVB can give favorable results without destruction of posterior pole retina.

  19. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Fernandes RIBEIRO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively.

  20. The Severity of Retinopathy in the Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Trivli, Alexandra; Polychronaki, Maria; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Papadimas, Michail; Patelarou, Athina E.; Dermitzaki, Niki; Matalliotakis, Michail

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of extremely premature infants and to evaluate the risk factors and outcome of the cases. Materials and Methods. Out of 200 premature births, we retrospectively reviewed 9 cases that developed ROP. We excluded cases where ROP developed in newborns > 30 weeks of gestational age and cases where medical notes were unavailable or incomplete. Topical drops of cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 5% were instilled and f...

  1. Efficacy of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Stage 3+ Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz-Hittner, Helen A.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Chuang, Alice Z.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Peripheral retinal ablation with conventional (confluent) laser therapy is destructive, causes complications, and does not prevent all vision loss, especially in cases of retinopathy of prematurity affecting zone I of the eye. Case series in which patients were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors suggest that these agents may be useful in treating retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, stratified, multicenter trial to assess intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for zone I or zone II posterior stage 3+ (i.e., stage 3 with plus disease) retinopathy of prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal bevacizumab (0.625 mg in 0.025 ml of solution) or conventional laser therapy, bilaterally. The primary ocular outcome was recurrence of retinopathy of prematurity in one or both eyes requiring retreatment before 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age. RESULTS We enrolled 150 infants (total sample of 300 eyes); 143 infants survived to 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age, and the 7 infants who died were not included in the primary-outcome analyses. Retinopathy of prematurity recurred in 4 infants in the bevacizumab group (6 of 140 eyes [4%]) and 19 infants in the laser-therapy group (32 of 146 eyes [22%], P = 0.002). A significant treatment effect was found for zone I retinopathy of prematurity (P = 0.003) but not for zone II disease (P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy, as compared with conventional laser therapy, in infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity showed a significant benefit for zone I but not zone II disease. Development of peripheral retinal vessels continued after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, but conventional laser therapy led to permanent destruction of the peripheral retina. This trial was too small to assess safety. PMID:21323540

  2. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing

  3. Damage of fuel assembly premature changing in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudik, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Material balance, including energy recovery and nuclear fuel flow rate, under conditions of premature FA extraction from power reactor is considered. It is shown that in cases when before and after FA extraction reactor operates not under optimal conditions damage of FA premature changing is proportional to the first degree of fuel incomplete burning. If normal operating conditions of reactor or its operation after FA changing is optimal, the damage is proportional to the square of fuel incomplete burning

  4. Anemia of prematurity: time for a change in transfusion management?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite the use of a national transfusion guideline, we observed significant differences concerning the total amount of administered transfusions. A liberal transfusion strategy and a higher transfusion volu...

  5. Premature Growth Plate Closure in a Ballet Dancer en Pointe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Selina

    2017-09-01

    A 13-year-old ballet dancer who had been dancing en pointe (on the tips of the toes) since 10 years presented to the clinic with a shortened right second toe. She had no previous history of pain or trauma. She was diagnosed with premature growth arrest of the second metatarsal head physes resulting in a shortened metatarsal. This is the first reported case of premature growth arrest in a ballet dancer as a result of dancing en pointe.

  6. Acute Associations Between Outdoor Temperature and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15,381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to 2 control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1°C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone, and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1°C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI, 3%, 6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI, 3%, 5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1°C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI, 1%, 3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI, 1%, 3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B312.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ENDOCERVIX IN PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Elizebeth V. Issac; Sareena Gilvaz; Neetha B. George

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) is defined as premature rupture of membrane before 37 completed weeks. It is associated with 40% preterm deliveries and results in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Present study is an attempt to find the association between infection and PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women between 29 weeks and 34 weeks of gestation who were admitted in our labour room during a period from November 2012 to Nove...

  8. Chromosomal Evolution in Lower Vertebrates: Sex Chromosomes in Neotropical Fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cioffi, M. de B.; Yano, C. F.; Sember, Alexandr; Bertollo, L.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 258. ISSN 2073-4425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : alternative evolutionary models * simple and multiple sex chromosomes * independent and common origins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2016

  9. [Disinfectants for the skin of premature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurachi, G; Tuoto, M G

    2010-06-01

    Nosocomial infections are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections is based on strategies that aim to limit susceptibility to infections by enhancing host defences, interrupting trasmission of organisms by healthcare workers and by promoting the judicious use of antimicrobials. Strategies for the prevention of nosocomial infections include hand hygiene practices, prevention of central venous (cvc)-related bloodstream infections, judicious use of antimicrobials for therapy, enhancement of host defences, skin care and early enteral feeding with human milk. Major concerns about the use of alcoholic chlorhexidine are for the high risk of skin burns in extremely premature infants during the first days of life, when the skin is thin and not fully keratinesed. Aqueous chlorhexidine could be less irritant when used in very low birthweigth infants and thus could represent a good option. A recent prospective trial of adult patients showed similar effectiveness of alcoholic and aqueos solutions of chlorexidine. However, to date no study evaluated whether the aqueos formulation is less harmful and as effective as the alcoholic formulation in neonatal infants. The lack of evidence for neonatal patients prompts urgent need for large randomised controlled trials comparing effectiveness and safety of different skin disinfectants before CVC placement in neonates and particulary in very low birth-weight infants. Nosocomial infections are still of the most serious problems for the neonatal intensive care unit. Therefore every effort must be implemented to reduce the incidence of these infections, can not be considered a toll required hospitalization, as it may not be acceptable for a place of shelter and care as the hospital may itself be a source of disease.

  10. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  11. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R; Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal treatment strategies and algorithms as

  12. Microdissection and Chromosome Painting of the Alien Chromosome in an Addition Line of Wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th . intermedium . Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th . intermedium , 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th . intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a Js genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (Js, J and St) in Th . intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th . bessarabicum . Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the Js genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th . intermedium . Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different

  13. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  14. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  15. [Macronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bi-Zi; Sun, Xiu-Jing; Quan, Mei-Ying; Wang, Dan-Hua

    2014-07-01

    To study the dynamic changes in macronutrients and energy in human milk from mothers of premature infants. A total of 339 human milk samples were collected from 170 women who delivered preterm or full-term infants in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital between November 2012 and January 2014. Macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates and energy were measured using a MIRIS human milk analyzer and compared between groups. In milk samples from premature infants' mothers, the protein levels were the highest in colostrum (2.22±0.49 g/dL), less in transitional milk (1.83±0.39 g/dL), and the least in mature milk (1.40±0.28 g/dL) (Pmacronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants vary significantly between colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk. Protein levels are significantly higher in colostrum from premature infants' mothers than in colostrum from term infants' mothers, but the significant difference is not seen for mature milk. Macronutrient and energy levels show significant differences between milk samples from mothers of premature infants with different gestational ages, so as to meet different needs of premature infants.

  16. Adverse respiratory outcome after premature rupture of membranes before viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dynamics of chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960’es the conformation and segregation of the chromosome in Escherichia coli has been a subject of interest for many scientists. However, after 40 years of research, we still know incredibly little about how the chromosome is organized inside the cell, how it manages to duplicate...... this incredibly big molecule and separate the two daughter chromosomes and how it makes sure that the daughter cells receives one copy each. The fully extended chromosome is two orders of magnitude larger than the cell in which it is contained. Hence the chromosome is heavily compacted in the cell...

  18. Association Between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Premature Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Shadi; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Saedi, Sedigheh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elaborately studied. Objectives: In the present study, we sought whether such a relationship between EFT and CAD exists. Patients and Methods: Sixty two consecutive subjects, under 50 years of age, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) with the aspect of CAD, were included in this case control study. They were divided into two groups of 31 subjects, namely CAD (cases) and non-CAD (controls) group, according to CAG data. Presence of conventional coronary risk factors, drug history, and anthropometric data were recorded. Then, each subject underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography for measuring EFT in the proximal part of right ventricular outflow tract in the parasternal long axis view at end diastole, as well as other parameters of systolic and diastolic function, and left ventricle (LV) mass. Images were stored for offline analysis when the echocardiocardiographers were blind to CAG data. Results: Among baseline characteristics, waist circumference, triglyceride levels, cigarette smoking and history of statin use were significantly higher in the CAD group. The body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in the non-CAD group. According to echocardiographic data, the EFT with a cut off value of 2.95 mm could well differentiate subjects in each group. The LV mass and E/e were significantly higher in CAD group, in addition to EFT. Also, there was a significant correlation between EFT and waist circumference, as well as LV mass. However, no significant relation was between EFT and LV systolic and diastolic function. Conclusions: The EFT, as measured by echocardiography, with a cut off value 2.95 mm has a strong association with premature CAD. PMID:26380819

  19. Cell killing and chromosomal aberration induced by heavy-ion beams in cultured human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, K.; Funada, A.; Mohri, M.; Lee, R.; Aoki, M.; Furusawa, Y.; Gotoh, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To clarify the relation between cell death and chromosomal aberration in cultured human tumor cells irradaited with heavy-ion beams. The analyses were carried out on the basis of the linear energy transfer (LET) values of heavy ion beams as radiation source. Exponentially growing human tumor cells, Human Salivary Gland Tumor cells (HSG cells), were irradiated with various high energy heavy ions, such as 13 keV/micrometer carbon (C) ions as low LET charged particle radiation source, 120 keV/ micrometer carbon (C) ions and 440 keV/micrometer iron (Fe) ions as high LET charged particle radiation sources.The cell death was analysed by the colony formation method, and the chromosomal aberration and its repairing kinetics was analysed by prematurely chromosome condensation method (PCC method) using calyculin A. Chromatid-type breaks, isochromatid breaks and exchanges were scored for the samples from the cells keeping with various incubation time after irradiation. The LET dependence of the cell death was similar to that of the chromosome exchange formation after 12 hours incubation. A maximum peak was around 120 keV/micrometer. However it was not similar to the LET dependence of isochromatid breaks or chromatid breaks after 12 hours incubation. These results suggest that the exchanges formed in chromosome after irradiation should be one of essential causes to lead the cell death. The different quality of induced chromosome damage between high-LET and low-LET radiation was also shown. About 89 % and 88 % chromatid breaks induced by X rays and 13 keV/micrometer C ions were rejoined within 12 hours of post-irradiation, though only 71% and 58 % of chromatid breaks induced by 120 keV/micrometer C ions and 440 keV/micrometer Fe ions were rejoined within 12 hours of post-irradiation

  20. Frequencies of chromosome aberration on radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti Lusiyanti; Zubaidah Alatas

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure of the body can cause damage to the genetic material in cells (cytogenetic) in the form of changes in the structure or chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Chromosomal aberrations can be unstable as dicentric and ring chromosomes, and is stable as translocation. Dicentric chromosome is the gold standard biomarker due to radiation exposure, and chromosome translocation is a biomarker for retrospective biodosimetry. The aim of this studi is to conduct examination of chromosomal aberrations in the radiation worker to determine the potential damage of cell that may arise due to occupational radiation exposure. The examination have been carried out on blood samples from 55 radiation workers in the range of 5-30 year of service. Chromosome aberration frequency measurement starts with blood sampling, culturing, harvesting, slide preparations, and lymphocyte chromosome staining with Giemsa and painting with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique. The results showed that chromosomal translocations are not found in blood samples radiation workers and dicentric chromosomes found only on 2 blood samples of radiation workers with a frequency of 0.001/cell. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the blood cells such workers within normal limits and this means that the workers have been implemented a radiation safety aspects very well. (author)

  1. [Findings from Total Colonoscopy in Obstructive Colorectal Cancer Patients Who Underwent Stent Placement as a Bridge to Surgery(BTS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Tsuyuki, Hajime; Kojima, Tadahiro; Koreyasu, Ryohei; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Kota; Ikeda, Takashi; Takayanagi, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    We clinically investigated 34 patients with obstructive colorectal cancer who underwent placement of a colonic stent as a bridge to surgery(BTS), focusing on endoscopic findings after stent placement.Twenty -nine patients(85.3%)underwent colonoscopy after stent placement, and the entire large intestine could be observed in 28(96.6%).Coexisting lesions were observed in 22(78.6%)of these 28 patients.The lesions comprised adenomatous polyps in 17 patients(60.7%), synchronous colon cancers in 5 patients(17.9%), and obstructive colitis in 3 patients(10.7%), with some overlapping cases.All patients with multiple cancers underwent one-stage surgery, and all lesions were excised at the same time.Colonoscopy after colonic stent placement is important for preoperative diagnosis of coexisting lesions and planning the extent of resection. These considerations support the utility of colonic stenting for BTS.

  2. Chromosomal instability induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents. For instance, some cells surviving exposure to ionizing radiations show delayed reproductive cell death, delayed mutation and / or delayed chromosomal instability. Such instability, especially chromosome destabilization has been implicated in mutation, gene amplification, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosomal instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells. The relationship between delayed chromosomal destabilization and other endpoints of genomic instability, namely; delayed mutation and gene amplification will be discussed, as will the potential cytogenetic and molecular mechanisms contributing to delayed chromosomal instability

  3. Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents rapidly results in a dose dependent increase in chromosomal breakage and gross structural chromosomal rearrangements. Over recent years, evidence has been accumulating indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to physical and chemical DNA damaging agents. Genomic instability manifests in the progeny of surviving cells, and has been implicated in mutation, gene application, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosome instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells surviving X-irradiation many generations after exposure. At higher radiation doses, chromosomal instability was observed in a relatively high frequency of surviving clones and, in general, those clones showed delayed chromosome instability also showed reduced survival as measured by colony forming ability

  4. Genome Organization Drives Chromosome Fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andres; Maman, Yaakov; Jung, Seolkyoung; Wong, Nancy; Callen, Elsa; Day, Amanda; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Zhang, Hongliang; Rao, Suhas S P; Huang, Su-Chen; Mckinnon, Peter J; Aplan, Peter D; Pommier, Yves; Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Casellas, Rafael; Nussenzweig, André

    2017-07-27

    In this study, we show that evolutionarily conserved chromosome loop anchors bound by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin are vulnerable to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) mediated by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B). Polymorphisms in the genome that redistribute CTCF/cohesin occupancy rewire DNA cleavage sites to novel loop anchors. While transcription- and replication-coupled genomic rearrangements have been well documented, we demonstrate that DSBs formed at loop anchors are largely transcription-, replication-, and cell-type-independent. DSBs are continuously formed throughout interphase, are enriched on both sides of strong topological domain borders, and frequently occur at breakpoint clusters commonly translocated in cancer. Thus, loop anchors serve as fragile sites that generate DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Chromosomes aberations and enviromental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Srđan Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanation the topic: Changes in genetic material can lead to aberrant cell in the direction of disorders of cellular regulation, malignant transformation, cell death, or if the adjustment was made at the level of the reproductive cells, to genetic changes in some of the consequent off spring. The topic position in scientific/professional public: Breaking of chromosomes can occur spontaneously or can be induced. Chromatid/chromosome breakings can be induced by different environmental factors: chemicals, biological clastogenic agents, accidentally or intentionally. Conclusions: The authors suggest: - making conditions for strong respect of environmental regulations; - to use higher plants for the early detection of environmental mutagens; - create and orderly update National radionuclide database.

  6. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...

  7. GSK-3 inhibitors induce chromosome instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Oliver D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanisms operate during mitosis to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, during tumour evolution these mechanisms go awry resulting in chromosome instability. While several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC may promote chromosome instability, at least in colon cancer, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we turn our attention to GSK-3 – a protein kinase, which in concert with APC, targets β-catenin for proteolysis – and ask whether GSK-3 is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Results To probe the role of GSK-3 in mitosis, we inhibited GSK-3 kinase activity in cells using a panel of small molecule inhibitors, including SB-415286, AR-A014418, 1-Azakenpaullone and CHIR99021. Analysis of synchronised HeLa cells shows that GSK-3 inhibitors do not prevent G1/S progression or cell division. They do, however, significantly delay mitotic exit, largely because inhibitor-treated cells have difficulty aligning all their chromosomes. Although bipolar spindles form and the majority of chromosomes biorient, one or more chromosomes often remain mono-oriented near the spindle poles. Despite a prolonged mitotic delay, anaphase frequently initiates without the last chromosome aligning, resulting in chromosome non-disjunction. To rule out the possibility of "off-target" effects, we also used RNA interference to selectively repress GSK-3β. Cells deficient for GSK-3β exhibit a similar chromosome alignment defect, with chromosomes clustered near the spindle poles. GSK-3β repression also results in cells accumulating micronuclei, a hallmark of chromosome missegregation. Conclusion Thus, not only do our observations indicate a role for GSK-3 in accurate chromosome segregation, but they also raise the possibility that, if used as therapeutic agents, GSK-3 inhibitors may induce unwanted side effects by inducing chromosome instability.

  8. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  9. Amnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Essilfie-Appiah, George; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2011-12-07

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Amnioinfusion aims to restore amniotic fluid volume by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for PPROM on perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2011). Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared to no amnioinfusion in women with PPROM. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five trials but we only analysed data from four studies (with a total of 241 participants). One trial did not contribute any data to the review.Transcervical amnioinfusion improved fetal umbilical artery pH at delivery (mean difference 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.14; one trial, 61 participants) and reduced persistent variable decelerations during labour (risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91; one trial, 86 participants).Transabdominal amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in neonatal death (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.66; two trials, 94 participants), neonatal sepsis (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.61; one trial, 60 participants), pulmonary hypoplasia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.88; one trial, 34 participants) and puerperal sepsis (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; one trial, 60 participants). Women in the amnioinfusion group were also less likely to deliver within seven days of membrane rupture (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.70; one trial, 34 participants). These results should be treated with circumspection as the positive findings were mainly due to one trial with unclear allocation concealment. These results are encouraging but are limited by the sparse data and unclear methodological robustness, therefore further evidence is required before amnioinfusion for

  10. Premature rupture of the membranes at amnioinfusion in the management of oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Patrizia; Locatelli, Anna; Verderio, Maria; Assi, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    We sought to evaluate whether serial amnioinfusions for persistent oligohydramnios can affect the perinatal and long-term outcomes in extreme cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes. All singleton pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 4 days between January 1991 and December 2001 were included. Amniotic fluid volume was assessed as the maximum cord-free pocket with serial ultrasonographic examinations. Consenting women with persistent (>4 days) oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid=2 cm) received serial transabdominal amnioinfusions to maintain an amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm. The pregnancy, neonatal, and long-term neurologic outcomes of the cases that spontaneously maintained a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm were compared with those of women with oligohydramnios who underwent amnioinfusion but continued to have persistent oligohydramnios and with those of women in whom oligohydramnios was alleviated. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Fisher exact test with a 2-tailed Pamnioinfusions, which successfully restored a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm for =48 hours in 11 (30%) patients. This successful amnioinfusion group was comparable with the persistent oligohydramnios group (n=25) in gestational age at first amnioinfusion (median, 20.2 weeks; range, 16-25.6 weeks; vs median, 20.3 weeks; range, 16.5-24.2 weeks; P=.4), number of amnioinfusions (median, 3; range, 1-9; vs median, 3; range, 1-5; P=.4), and interval between amnioinfusions (median, 6 days; range, 4-14 days; vs median, 8 days; range, 6-43 days; P=.1). However, patients in the persistent oligohydramnios group had a significantly shorter interval to delivery, lower neonatal survival (20%), and higher rates of pulmonary hypoplasia (62%) and abnormal neurologic outcomes (60%) than the patients in the groups in which amnioinfusion was not necessary or was successful (all P=.01). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that after taking into

  11. Role of amnioinfusion in the management of premature rupture of the membranes at <26 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, A; Vergani, P; Di Pirro, G; Doria, V; Biffi, A; Ghidini, A

    2000-10-01

    We sought to evaluate whether serial amnioinfusions for persistent oligohydramnios can affect the perinatal and long-term outcomes in extreme cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes. All singleton pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 4 days between January 1991 and June 1998 were included. Amniotic fluid volume was assessed as the maximum cord-free pocket with serial ultrasonographic examinations. Consenting women with persistent (>4 days) oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid amnioinfusions to maintain an amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm. The pregnancy, neonatal, and long-term neurologic outcomes of the cases that spontaneously maintained a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm (amnioinfusion-not-necessary group) were compared with those of women with oligohydramnios who underwent amnioinfusion but continued to have a median amniotic fluid pocket after preterm premature rupture of membranes amnioinfusion group). Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Fisher exact test, with a 2-tailed P amnioinfusions, which successfully restored a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm for >/=48 hours in 11 (30%) patients. This successful amnioinfusion group was comparable with the persistent oligohydramnios group (n = 25) in gestational age at first amnioinfusion (median, 20.2 weeks; range, 16-25.6 weeks; vs median, 20.3 weeks; range, 16.5-24.2 weeks; P =.4), number of amnioinfusions (median, 3; range, 1-9; vs median, 3; range, 1-5; P =.4), and interval between amnioinfusions (median, 6 days; range, 4-14 days; vs median, 8 days; range, 6-43 days; P =. 1). However, patients in the persistent oligohydramnios group had a significantly shorter interval to delivery, lower neonatal survival (20%), and higher rates of pulmonary hypoplasia (62%) and abnormal neurologic outcomes (60%) than the patients in the groups in which amnioinfusion was not necessary or was successful (all P amnioinfusions successfully alleviate oligohydramnios have a perinatal

  12. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Naud

    Full Text Available Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at term equivalent age (TEA is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted, were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area. Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0 and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477. MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5% were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231-14.368]; p = 0.017, surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01-21.89]; p = 0.036, early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004-21.889]; p = 0.036 and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093-9.497]; p = 0.03. There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429 vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449; p = 0,019; BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As' variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions. These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants.

  13. Inter-chromosomal heterogeneity in the formation of radiation induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Vermeulen, S.; Boei, J.J.W.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that radiation induced chromosomal lesions are distributed randomly and repaired randomly among the genome. Recent studies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome specific DNA libraries indicate that some chromosomes are more sensitive for radiation induced aberration formation than others. Chromosome No. 4 in human and chromosome No. 8 in Chinese hamster have been found to involve more in exchange aberrations than others, when calculated on the basis of their DNA content. Painting with arm specific chromosome libraries indicate that the frequencies of radiation induced intra-chromosome exchanges (i.e., between the arms of a chromosome, such as centric rings and inversions) are far in excess than one would expect on the basis of the frequencies of observed inter-chromosomal exchanges. The possible factors leading to the observed heterogeneity will be discussed

  14. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

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    Sebastian Pita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae. The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes. This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

  15. Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very-low-birth-weight Premature Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Ko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported our experience of bedside patent ductus arteriosus (PDA ligation for prematurity in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Between April 1992 and March 2006, 41 very-low-birth-weight premature infants underwent PDA ligation in the NICU. There were 18 male and 23 female infants. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 26.9 weeks and 900.9 g, respectively. Preoperatively, 25 infants were ventilator-dependent. After operation, there were five deaths caused by complications of prematurity. Surgical complications occurred in four and all recovered well after treatment. Twenty preoperatively intubated babies survived and were extubated at 21.6 ± 12.7 days postoperatively. In conclusion, bedside PDA ligation in the NICU is safe and effective. It can avoid transportation of critically ill, very small infants. We suggest surgical closure as the primary treatment in very-low-birth-weight infants who are ventilator-dependent to avoid the possible complications of indomethacin and prolonged intubation.

  16. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O’Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L.; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. Methods We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. Results We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. Conclusion This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes. PMID:29389312

  17. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes.

  18. Impact of Polypharmacy on Adherence to Evidence-Based Medication in Patients who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shaban; Arabi, Abdulrahaman; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdulkarim, Sabir; AlJundi, Amer; Alqahtani, Awad; Arafa, Salah; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of polypharmacy on primary and secondary adherence to evidence-based medication (EBM) and to measure factors associated with non-adherence among patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We conducted a retrospective analysis for patients who underwent PCI at a tertiary cardiac care hospital in Qatar. Patients who had polypharmacy (defined as ≥6 medications) were compared with those who had no polypharmacy at hospital discharge in terms of primary and secondary adherence to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and statins. A total of 557 patients (mean age: 53±10 years; 85%; males) who underwent PCI were included. The majority of patients (84.6%) received ≥6 medications (polypharmacy group) while only 15.4% patients received ≥5 medications (nonpolypharmacy group). The two groups were comparable in term of gender, nationality, socioeconomic status and medical insurance. The non-polypharmacy patients had significantly higher adherence to first refill of DAPT compared with patients in the polypharmacy group (100 vs. 76.9%; p=0.001). Similarly, the non-polypharmacy patients were significantly more adherent to secondary preventive medications (BB, ACEI and statins) than the polypharmacy group. In patients who underwent PCI, polypharmacy at discharge could play a negative role in the adherence to the first refill of EBM. Further studies should investigate other parameters that contribute to long term non-adherence.

  19. Transcatheter closure of hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus in 32 premature infants by amplatzer ductal occluder additional size-ADOIIAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Patrice; Akhavi, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The advent of Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional Size (ADOIIAS) provided the potential to close hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSPDA) and to analyze the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the device. Treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very premature neonates is still a dilemma for the neonatalogist who has to consider its significance and has to choose among different treatment options. Because surgical ligation and medical therapy both have their drawbacks, interventional catheterization might provide an alternative means of closing HSPDA. Between September 2013 and June 2015, 32 premature infants with complications related to HSPDA defined by ultrasound (US) underwent transcatheter closure. The procedure was performed in the catheterization laboratory by venous cannulation without angiography. The position of the occluder was directed by X-ray and US. In particular we looked at procedural details, device size selection, complications, and short and mid-term outcomes. Thirty two premature infants, all of whom had clinical complications related to HSPDA, born at gestational ages ranging between 23.6 and 36 weeks (mean ± standard deviation 28 ± 3 weeks) underwent attempted transcatheter PDA closure using the ADOIIAS. Their mean age and weight at the time of procedure was 25 days (range 8-70 days) and 1373 g (range 680-2480 g), respectively. Ten infants weighed ≤1,000g. All ducts were tubular. The mean PDA and device waist diameters were 3.2 ± 0.6mm (range 2.2-4) and 4.4 ± 0.6 mm, respectively, and the mean PDA and device lengths 5.2 ± 2.0 mm (range 2-10) and 3.4 ± 1.3 mm. Median fluoroscopy and procedural times were 11 min (range 3-24) and 28 min (range 10-90), respectively. Complete closure was achieved in all but one patient. There was no device migration. A left pulmonary artery (LPA) obstruction developed in one patient. Five infants died. Four deaths were related to complications of

  20. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

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    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  1. [Evaluation of maternal parameters as risk factors for premature birth (individual and combined effects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, M; Briese, V; Pietzner, V; Kirchengast, S; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S; Jorch, G

    2009-08-01

    We aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of nine maternal parameters (biological, medical, and social) on rates of prematurity. Our objective was to provide obstetricians with a way of screening women for likely premature deliveries. We conducted a retrospective analysis on the data of about 2.3 million pregnancies taken from the German perinatal statistics of 1995-2000. Rates of prematurity were calculated with single and multi-dimensional analyses on the basis of nine maternal parameters (age, weight, height, number of previous live births, stillbirths, miscarriages and terminations of pregnancy, smoking status, previous premature delivery). The following combinations of parameters were investigated in particular: rates of prematurity according to the number of previous stillbirths, miscarriages, and terminations; rates of prematurity according to the number of previous live births and maternal age, height and weight. We also included daily cigarette consumption and previous premature deliveries in our analyses. The rate of prematurity (premature deliveries (32-36 weeks) was 5.9%, and the rate of very early premature deliveries (prematurity (prematurity of 27.5% in women with the following combination of parameters: > or =1 stillbirth, > or =2 terminations of pregnancy and > or =2 miscarriages. A rather high risk of premature delivery (>11%) was also found for elderly (> or =40 years) grand multiparous women as well as small (premature deliveries (>10%). The risk table that we present here may assist in predicting premature delivery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  2. Conservative treatment of premature rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The largest radical resections in rectal cancer with significant morbidity and mortality (Urinary dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, permanent colostomy, etc.), on certain occasions and with high selectivity, they can be avoided with the implementation of local resections. Our intention is to assess the results of conservative treatment of rectal cancer early. Material and Methods: Between 01.01.89 and 31.12.09 14 consecutive patients were treated carriers rectal adenocarcinoma who had never received prior cancer treatment and a second simultaneous showed no neoplasia. The age of the patients presented a range between 44 and 72 years with a mean of 60.4 years; sex similarly partitioned and according to ECOG performance status was 0≤2. All patients were operated through a anal resection of which 4 were performed a submucosal tumor excision (T1) and 10 excision was entire rectal wall and tumor invaded the muscularis propria (T2). For this one type of surgery patients were selected the following criteria: tumor ≤6 cm. the anal verge, size ≤3 cm., GH I-II, vegetative, mobile, and T1-2, N0 by EER. After intervention, the pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed that 4 patients GH III, lymphovascular invasion and / or peri neural, or close surgical margins (+) (≤3 mm.) And T3, so underwent Miles operation (March 1 T1 and T2). Subsequently the rest of the patients (10) underwent concomitant radio chemotherapy. Radiation therapy was similar all using megavoltage photons (CO-60, 18mV) to the entire pelvic volume in a normofraccionamiento to complete 50.40 Gy (1.8 Gy / 28) using multiple fields (box technique). Chemotherapy was prepared 5FU + LV in the first patient (4), in following (4) was used 5FU continuous infusion (1st and 5th week) and the remaining (2) Capecitabine. Follow up was complete. Results: In our sample we extract local failure was 4 (29%), distant failure 3 (20%) and two local and distant failures (14%) so it follows that

  3. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara

    2013-01-01

    To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.

  4. Intraocular Hemorrhages and Retinopathy of Prematurity in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Siatkowski, R Michael; Pan, Wei; Smith, Eli; Quinn, Graham E

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of intraocular hemorrhages (IOHs) in infants in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study and to evaluate their potential use for prediction of disease severity. Secondary data analysis from a prospective study. Preterm infants with birth weight (BW) ≤1250 g. Infants underwent serial digital retinal imaging in both eyes starting at 32 weeks' postmenstrual age. Nonphysician trained readers (TRs) evaluated all image sets from eyes that ever had IOHs documented on image evaluation or eye examination for the presence, location, type, area, and relation of the IOH to the junction between vascularized and avascular retina. Associations of IOH with demographic and neonatal factors, and with the presence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Sensitivity and specificity of the telemedicine system for detecting referral-warranted ROP (RW-ROP) were calculated with and without incorporating hemorrhage into the standardized grading protocol. Retinal and vitreous hemorrhage. Among 1239 infants (mean [standard deviation] BW = 864 [212] g; gestational age [GA] = 27 [2.2] weeks) who underwent an average of 3.2 imaging sessions, 22% had an IOH in an eye on at least 1 of the e-ROP visits. Classification of IOH was preretinal (57%), blot (57%), dot (38%), flame-shaped (16%), and vitreous (8%); most IOHs were unilateral (70%). The IOH resolved in 35% of eyes by the next imaging session and in the majority (76%) of cases by 8 weeks after initial detection. Presence of IOH was inversely associated with BW and GA and significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the presence and severity of ROP (BW and GA adjusted odds ratios [ORs] of 2.46 for any ROP, 2.88 for stage 3, and 3.19 for RW-ROP). Incorporating IOH into the grading protocol minimally altered the sensitivity of the system (94% vs. 95%). Approximately 1 in 5 preterm

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities in human glioblastomas: gain in chromosome 7p correlating with loss in chromosome 10q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María del Mar; Fan, Xing; Muñoz, Jorge; Perot, Christine; Fauvet, Didier; Danglot, Giselle; Palacio, Ana; Madero, Pilar; Zazpe, Idoya; Portillo, Eduardo; Tuñón, Teresa; Martínez-Peñuela, José María; Alfaro, Jorge; Eiras, José; Bernheim, Alain; Castresana, Javier S

    2003-01-01

    Various genomic alterations have been detected in glioblastoma. Chromosome 7p, with the epidermal growth factor receptor locus, together with chromosome 10q, with the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10 and deleted in malignant brain tumors-1 loci, and chromosome 9p, with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A locus, are among the most frequently damaged chromosomal regions in glioblastoma. In this study, we evaluated the genetic status of 32 glioblastomas by comparative genomic hybridization; the sensitivity of comparative genomic hybridization versus differential polymerase chain reaction to detect deletions at the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10, deleted in malignant brain tumors-1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A loci and amplifications at the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 locus; the frequency of genetic lesions (gain or loss) at 16 different selected loci (including oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and proliferation markers) mapping on 13 different chromosomes; and the possible existence of a statistical association between any pair of molecular markers studied, to subdivide the glioblastoma entity molecularly. Comparative genomic hybridization showed that the most frequent region of gain was chromosome 7p, whereas the most frequent losses occurred on chromosomes 10q and 13q. The only statistically significant association was found for 7p gain and 10q loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Persistence of chromosomal abnormalities additional to the Philadelphia chromosome after Philadelphia chromosome disappearance during imatinib therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Alfonso; Valenti, Anna Maria; Donti, Emilio; Gozzetti, Alessandro; Ronconi, Sonia; Spedicato, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    Five Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with additional chromosome abnormalities at diagnosis have been followed during Imatinib therapy. In all, the Ph chromosome disappeared, while the 5 cases, additional abnormalities [dup(1); del(5), +8 (2 patients) and +14] persisted in the subsequent studies, performed over a period of 11 to 49 months, either alone or together with a karyotypically normal cell population. This finding is consistent with a secondary origin of the Ph chromosome in these patients. It is still to early to evaluate the possible prognostic value of these additional abnormalities.

  7. Prophylactic transabdominal amnioinfusion in oligohydramnios for preterm premature rupture of membranes: increase of amniotic fluid index during latency period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzetti, G G; Ciavattini, A; De Cristofaro, F; La Marca, N; Arduini, D

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to: (i) evaluate the effect of amnioinfusion on the latency period in patients with oligohydramnios for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and (ii) to investigate the relationship between changes in the amniotic fluid index and fetal heart rate short-term variability by computerized Hewlett-Packard cardiotocography, longitudinally estimated before and after prophylactic amnioinfusion. All singleton pregnancies with prolonged premature rupture of membranes after 25 weeks of gestation and seen at the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ancona (Italy), between January 1994 and June 1995 were included in the study. Transabdominal amnioinfusion with 150-350 ml warmed normal saline (25-50 ml/min) was performed at weekly intervals. Amniotic fluid volume was assessed ultrasonographically by means of the four-quadrant technique on a weekly basis before and after each amnioinfusion, as well as the short-term variability by a Hewlett-Packard computerized cardiotocographic system. 18 women were enrolled and underwent prophylactic transabdominal amnioinfusion at weekly intervals until delivery. Eighteen controls, who did not undergo prophylactic amnioinfusion, were recruited from our 1992-1993 series and included in the study. The median interval between premature rupture of membranes and delivery was 3.0 weeks (range 1-8 weeks), with an average delivery age of 33.0 weeks (range 27-36 weeks). The latency period was significantly longer in patients who underwent prophylactic amnioinfusion (mean +/- SD, 4.1 +/- 1.7 weeks) than in controls(1.7 +/- 1.0 weeks; p amnioinfusion. A direct relationship was observed between the amniotic fluid index and short-term variability (linear regression analysis r = 0.54, p = 0.04). The mean values of fetal movements recorded by computerized tomography during the 20 min of observation significantly increased after amnioinfusion in comparison with those before it (2.6 +/- 0.9 and 0.9 +/- 0

  8. Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  9. Chromosome engineering: power tools for plant genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Simon W L

    2010-12-01

    The term "chromosome engineering" describes technologies in which chromosomes are manipulated to change their mode of genetic inheritance. This review examines recent innovations in chromosome engineering that promise to greatly increase the efficiency of plant breeding. Haploid Arabidopsis thaliana have been produced by altering the kinetochore protein CENH3, yielding instant homozygous lines. Haploid production will facilitate reverse breeding, a method that downregulates recombination to ensure progeny contain intact parental chromosomes. Another chromosome engineering success is the conversion of meiosis into mitosis, which produces diploid gametes that are clones of the parent plant. This is a key step in apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) and could help to preserve hybrid vigor in the future. New homologous recombination methods in plants will potentiate many chromosome engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies: spectrum of disease and outcome after laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Gaurav; Dogra, Mangat R; Das, Pranab; Vinekar, Anand; Gupta, Amod; Dutta, Saurabh

    2009-10-01

    To analyze the spectrum of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity and outcome after laser treatment. This is a retrospective review of 81 eyes of 44 consecutive infants diagnosed to have aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity and treated between September 2005 and March 2007 from a large tertiary care center in North India. Qualitative variables were tested for statistical significance using the chi-square test and independent samples with the student's t-test. Mean birth weight and gestational age were 1,259.66 +/- 310.51 g (range, 660-2,000 g) and 29.75 +/- 2.35 weeks (range, 26-36 weeks), respectively. Twenty-one infants (47.72%) had a birth weight > 1,250 g. Thirty-three (40.74%) eyes had Zone 1, and 48 (59.26%) had posterior Zone 2 disease. All eyes underwent confluent laser photocoagulation at a mean postconceptional age of 34.58 +/- 2.19 weeks (range, 31-40.5 weeks). Mean follow-up was 12.8 months (range, 6-24 months). At the last follow-up visit, 55 (71.4%) of 77 eyes had a favorable outcome. Eighteen eyes (23.4%) had a localized (1-3 clock hours) partial peripheral tractional detachment (Stage 4a), which remained stable at last follow-up. Two eyes (2.6%) developed falciform fold involving the macular area, and 2 (2.6%) developed Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is encountered not only in low birth weight infants, but also in heavier and more mature Asian Indian infants. Early, aggressive confluent laser photocoagulation is necessary to maximize outcomes in these eyes.

  11. Stratus optical coherence tomography findings in patients with retinopathy of prematurity Tomografia de coerência óptica em pacientes com retinopatia da prematuridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline do Lago

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe morphological features of the macula in patients with retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS: Twelve premature babies with retinopathy of prematurity grades I, II and III underwent dilated fundus examination and optical coherence tomography evaluation. RESULTS: In all thirteen eyes of the twelve premature patients optical coherence tomography revealed a condensed retinal pigmented epithelial layer in the macular-foveal area shown by increased reflectivity. In these eyes the retinal layers were not well differentiated. Foveal depression was clearly evident in 23%. CONCLUSIONS: In premature patients with retinopathy of prematurity, optical coherence tomography revealed poorly differentiated layers in the macular region with increased reflectivity in retinal pigmented epithelial-choriocapillaris zone.OBJETIVO: Descrever os aspectos morfológicos da mácula em pacientes com retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP. MÉTODOS: Doze pacientes com retinopatia da prematuridade graus I, II and III foram submetidos a mapeamento de retina e avaliação por tomografia de coerência óptica. RESULTADOS: Em todos os treze olhos de 12 pacientes a tomografia de coerência óptica mostrou a camada do epitélio pigmentar hiperrefletiva, sendo a área macular com maior intensidade. Nesses olhos as camadas da retina não estavam totalmente diferenciadas. A depressão foveal ficou claramente evidente pela tomografia de coerência óptica em 23%. CONCLUSÃO: Nos pacientes prematuros com retinopatia da prematuridade, a tomografia de coerência óptica mostrou as camadas da retina pouco diferenciadas com aumento da refletividade na área macular do complexo epitélio retiniano pigmentar-coriocapilar.

  12. The mutational spectrum in Treacher Collins syndrome reveals a predominance of mutations that create a premature-termination codon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.J.; Gladwin, A.J.; Dixon, M.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. The TCS locus has been mapped to human chromosome 5q31.3-32 and the mutated gene identified. In the current investigation, 25 previously undescribed mutations, which are spread throughout the gene, are presented. This brings the total reported to date to 35, which represents a detection rate of 60%. Of the mutations that have been reported to date, all but one result in the introduction of a premature-termination codon into the predicted protein, treacle. Moreover, the mutations are largely family specific, although a common 5-bp deletion in exon 24 (seven different families) and a recurrent splicing mutation in intron 3 (two different families) have been identified. This mutational spectrum supports the hypothesis that TCS results from haploin-sufficiency. 49 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Advances in plant chromosome genomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Šimková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2014), s. 122-136 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740; GA ČR GAP501/10/1778; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BAC library * Chromosome sorting * Cytogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.015, year: 2014

  14. How best to capture the respiratory consequences of prematurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G

    2018-03-31

    Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  15. Transcervical intrapartum amnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, Alberto; Tirado, Pilar; Pérez, Isabel; López, María S; Montoya, Francisco; Cañizares, José M; Miranda, José A

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the effect of transcervical amnioinfusion on the management of labour and neonatal outcomes in preterm premature rupture of the membranes. This clinical trial included 86 patients with premature rupture of the membranes between weeks 27 and 35 of gestation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amnioinfusion via a two-way catheter or to the control group. Clinical management was otherwise the same in both groups. Amnioinfusion decreased the frequency of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate (27.9% versus 53.5%, pamnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of the membranes reduced the number of interventions needed because of nonreassuring fetal status, and improved neonatal gasometric values without increasing maternal or fetal morbidity.

  16. Premature saturation in backpropagation networks: Mechanism and necessary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitela, J.E.; Reifman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented and a new method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. Validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Three case studies are presented. The first two came from a training session for classification of three component failures in a nuclear power plant. The last case, comes from a training session for classification of welded fuel elements

  17. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  18. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  19. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho Bonan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.

  20. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  1. Specific features of physical development in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alyamovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review deals with the specilic features of physical development in extremely premature infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. It describes the regularities of an increment in basic physical development parameters (weight, height, and head circumference within the first year of life. Genetic factors, the specific features of a neonatal period, comorbidity, and different feeding types are shown to affect the increment rates of the physical development parameters. Emphasis is placed on the early initiation of enteral feeding and on the long-term use of fortified foods in low birthweight premature babies for the correction of energy deficiency resulting from preterm birth. The review shows that there is a relationship of the long-term outcomes of physical and psychomotor developments in low birthweight premature babies.

  2. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four...... homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  3. APACHE II SCORING SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CHILDREN WHO UNDERWENT POLYCHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term disease prognosis should be considered for the appropriate treatment policy based on the assessment of disease severity in patients with acute disease. The adequate assessment of disease severity and prognosis allows the indications for transferring patients to the resuscitation and intensive care department to be defined more precisely. Disease severity of patients who underwent polychemotherapy was assessed using APACHE II scoring system.

  4. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannie Kartapradja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband’s mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband’s mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother’s and grandmother’s CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations.

  5. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  6. Reflections and meditations upon complex chromosomal exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, John R K

    2002-12-01

    The application of FISH chromosome painting techniques, especially the recent mFISH (and its equivalents) where all 23 human chromosome pairs can be distinguished, has demonstrated that many chromosome-type structural exchanges are much more complicated (involving more "break-rejoins" and arms) than has hitherto been assumed. It is clear that we have been greatly under-estimating the damage produced in chromatin by such agents as ionising radiation. This article gives a brief historical summary of observations leading up to this conclusion, and after outlining some of the problems surrounding the formation of complex chromosomes exchanges, speculates about possible solutions currently being proposed.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  8. Chromosome heteromorphisms in the Japanese, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofuni, Toshio; Awa, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    The type and frequency of chromosome variants detected by the C-staining method were ascertained in 1,857 individuals residing in Hiroshima. The most frequent heteromorphic variant was the total inversion of the C-band in chromosome 9 found in 27 individuals (1.45%). The total inversion of the C-band in chromosome 1 was not seen in this sample, but the partial inversion of the C-band in chromosome 1 was found in 18 persons (0.97%). Partial inversion was also detected in the C-band in chromosome 9 in 22 individuals (1.18%). In chromosome 16, neither total nor partial inversion of the C-band was observed in the present study. The frequencies of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 with a very large C-band were 0.70%, 0.22%, and 0.54%, respectively. Aside from these (1, 9, and 16) a very large C-band was found occasionally in chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 14, and 15, and an unusual insertion of the Y chromosome was observed. A total of 128 C-band variants (6.89%) was found in the 1,857 Hiroshima residents. (author)

  9. The Demographics of Patients with Skin Cancer who Underwent Surgery in Diyarbakır and Performed Surgical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Özalp

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The major factor for developing malignant skin cancers is sunlight exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the demographics of patients with skin cancers who underwent surgery in Diyarbakır where the population is exposed to more sunlight than most other Turkish cities. Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for malignant skin cancer excision between 2011 and 2016 were searched using University Hospital’s patient database program. Data about patients’ demographics, cancer features, and the surgical techniques performed were collected. Results: Over a 5-year period, 190 patients underwent surgical excision. The male to female ratio was 1.56, and the mean age was 65.8 ± 15.7 (range, 20-94 years. The most common skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma (n=138, 72.7%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n=45, 23.7% and malignant melanoma (n=5, 2.6%. The most common surgery was primary excision, which was performed in 90 of 190 patients (47.36%; tissue reconstruction with a skin graft or flap surgery was required for the remaining 100 (52.63%, showing a significant difference (p<0.001. Conclusion: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, and less than half of the patients sought treatment immediately after they recognized the lesion. The public should be educated about skin cancers to increase early diagnosis and encourage timely treatment, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality from skin cancer.

  10. Microdose flare-up vs. flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocols for poor responder patients who underwent ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esinler, I

    2014-01-01

    To compare the performance of microdose flare-up (MF) and flexible-multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols in poor responder patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). One hundred and 12 consecutive patients (217 cycles) suspected to have poor ovarian response were enrolled. Group 1 (MF GnRH agonist group) constituted 64 patients (135 cycles) who underwent MF GnRH agonist protocol. Group 2 (flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist group) constituted 48 patients (82 cycles) who underwent flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol. The duration of stimulation (d) (11.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 10.4 +/- 2.7, p or = seven blastomeres and < 10% fragmentation at day 3 (35.9% vs. 65.1%, p < 0.05) were significantly lower in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. The number of embryos transferred (2.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.9), the clinical pregnancy per embryo transfer (16.3% vs. 25.8%), and the implantation rate (8.6% vs. 12.2%) were comparable between groups. Although the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol produced better oocyte and embryo parameters, the clinical pregnancy rate and the implantation rates were comparable between the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist and MF protocols in poor responder patients.

  11. Chromosomal instability can be induced by the formation of breakage-prone chromosome rearrangement junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.N.; Ritter, L.; Moore, S.R.; Grosovsky, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Studies in our lab have led to the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements can generate novel breakage-prone sites, resulting in chromosomal instability acting predominantly in cis. For example, specific breakage of large blocks of centromeric region heterochromatin on chromosome 16q by treatment with 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) is associated with repeated rearrangement of chromosome 16q during outgrowth of DAP-treated clones, thereby establishing a link between the initial site of damage and the occurrence of persistent chromosomal instability. Similarly, karyotypic analysis of gamma ray induced instability demonstrated that chromosomal rearrangements in sub-clones were significantly clustered near the site of previously identified chromosomal rearrangement junctions in unstable parental clones. This study investigates the hypothesis that integration of transfected sequences into host chromosomes could create breakage-prone junction regions and persistent genomic instability without exposure to DNA-damage agents. These junctions may mimic the unstable chromosomal rearrangements induced by DAP or radiation, and thus provide a test of the broader hypothesis that instability can to some extent be attributed to the formation of novel chromosomal breakage hot spots. These experiments were performed using human-hamster hybrid AL cells containing a single human chromosome 11, which was used to monitor instability in a chromosomal painting assay. AL cells were transfected with a 2.5 Kb fragment containing multiple copies of the 180 bp human alpha heterochromatic repeat, which resulted in chromosomal instability in 41% of the transfected clones. Parallel exposure to gamma-radiation resulted in a similar level of chromosomal instability, although control transfections with plasmid alone did not lead to karyotypic instability. Chromosomal instability induced by integration of alpha heterochromatic repeats was also frequently associated with delayed reproductive

  12. DNA-Related Pathways Defective in Human Premature Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major issues in studies on aging is the choice of biological model system. The human premature aging disorders represent excellent model systems for the study of the normal aging process, which occurs at a much earlier stage in life in these individuals than in normals. The patients with premature aging also get the age associated diseases at an early stage in life, and thus age associated disease can be studied as well. It is thus of great interest to understand the molecular path...

  13. Immunology of Addison's disease and premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian

    2009-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease and autoimmune ovarian insufficiency are caused by selective targeting by T and B lymphocytes to the steroidogenic apparatus in these organs. Autoantibodies toward 21-hydroxylase are a clinically useful marker for autoimmune Addison's disease. Autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase are found in premature ovarian insufficiency, but others also can be present, notably antibodies against side-chain cleavage enzyme. The autoimmune response primarily targets the theca cells, yielding elevated concentrations of inhibin, which is emerging as a useful diagnostic marker for autoimmune etiology of ovarian insufficiency. Little is known about its immunogenetics, but in contrast to Addison's disease, several experimental models of autoimmune premature ovarian insufficiency are available for study.

  14. The Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis Among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Improved recognition of modifiable risk factors and antifungal prophylaxis have contributed to the recent decline in the incidence of this infection among infants. Invasive candidiasis typically occurs in the first six weeks of life and presents with non-specific signs of sepsis. Definitive diagnosis relies on growth of Candida in blood culture or cultures from other normally sterile sites, but this may identify fewer than half of cases. Improved diagnostics are needed to guide initiation of antifungal therapy in premature infants. PMID:25677999

  15. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  16. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...... of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 2.0 mm, placed between first molars either on the left or the right side, and compared with the level of activity with undistrubed occlusion. Unilateral premature contact caused a significant asymmetry of action in all muscles under study with stronger activity ipsilaterally...

  17. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark....... DESIGN: A retrospective, register-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. METHODS: The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration...

  18. Radiation-induced life-shortening and premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Data from a number of studies on irradiated laboratory animals showed that almost none of the characteristic lesions associated with senescence that were studied adequately reflects a radiation effect analogous to premature aging. In fact, most of the age-related changes showed no effect of radiation at all, and many of those that did (for example, graying of hair, sterility, cataract formation) did not appear to be due to similar mechanisms. It is concluded that, in the light of more recent information, the hypothesis of radiation-induced premature aging requires reassessment. (80 references) (CH)

  19. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karat, C; Madhivanan, P; Krupp, K; Poornima, S; Jayanthi, N V; Suguna, J S; Mathai, E

    2006-10-01

    Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  20. Postnatal Infections and Immunology Affecting Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhuber, Gloria S

    2015-12-01

    Premature infants suffer significant respiratory morbidity during infancy with long-term negative consequences on health, quality of life, and health care costs. Enhanced susceptibility to a variety of infections and inflammation play a large role in early and prolonged lung disease following premature birth, although the mechanisms of susceptibility and immune dysregulation are active areas of research. This article reviews aspects of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses that are altered by preterm birth and that impact chronic respiratory morbidity in these children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity: an epidemic in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Graham E; Gilbert, Clare; Darlow, Brian A; Zin, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    To explore the etiology, incidence and methods to prevent and treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is rapidly becoming a threat to the vision of babies in areas of the world where increasing numbers of premature babies are surviving. The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English. The search term was "retinopathy of prematurity and premature birth". We discuss the historical perspectives, prevalence and incidence, classification and treatment methods of ROP in premature babies. Peripheral retinal ablation for eyes with severe ROP can help prevent progression to blindness and several large clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of this treatment in high risk eyes. As a greater proportion of VLBW and ELBW babies survive, the population of babies at risk increases. In various regions of the world, different identification criteria are used to determine which babies are at risk of blindness in order to provide timely diagnostic examinations and treatment as needed. Methods for preventing ROP include better ante-natal and obstetric care leading to a reduction in the rate of prematurity, the use of ante-natal corticosteroids, and better neonatal care practices. Recent developments have indicated that management of oxygen supplementation is important for the prevention of severe ROP; however, there is not yet known what oxygen saturation target should be adopted. Sepsis increases severe ROP in very preterm infants. Genetic associations and a telemedicine approach may be explored to detect ROP. Treatment of anti-VEGF therapy are potentially useful in eyes with severe ROP, but long term effects are not yet known and such treatment should be used with great caution. ROP is a potentially binding disease for premature babies which is becoming more prevalent with the development improving neonatal services in many countries in recent years. High priority should be placed on developing approaches to prevent ROP

  2. Premature Infant Care in the Early 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C

    The complex early history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the early 20th century. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-01-01

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs

  4. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions

  5. Selfish X chromosomes and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Manus M

    2017-12-27

    In two papers published at about the same time almost thirty years ago, Frank (Evolution, 45, 1991a, 262) and Hurst and Pomiankowski (Genetics, 128, 1991, 841) independently suggested that divergence of meiotic drive systems-comprising genes that cheat meiosis and genes that suppress this cheating-might provide a general explanation for Haldane's rule and the large X-effect in interspecific hybrids. Although at the time, the idea was met with skepticism and a conspicuous absence of empirical support, the tide has since turned. Some of the clearest mechanistic explanations we have for hybrid male sterility involve meiotic drive systems, and several other cases of hybrid sterility are suggestive of a role for meiotic drive. In this article, I review these ideas and their descendants and catalog the current evidence for the meiotic drive model of speciation. In addition, I suggest that meiotic drive is not the only intragenomic conflict to involve the X chromosome and contribute to hybrid incompatibility. Sexually and parentally antagonistic selection pressures can also pit the X chromosome and autosomes against each other. The resulting intragenomic conflicts should lead to co-evolution within populations and divergence between them, thus increasing the likelihood of incompatibilities in hybrids. I provide a sketch of these ideas and interpret some empirical patterns in the light of these additional X-autosome conflicts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Exchange of core chromosomes and horizontal transfer of lineage-specific chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, I.; Beerens, B.; Rose, L.; Fokkens, L.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Rep, M.

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of supernumerary or lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes has been described in a number of plant pathogenic filamentous fungi. So far it was not known whether transfer is restricted to chromosomes of certain size or properties, or whether 'core' chromosomes can also undergo

  7. Stabilization of chromosomes by DNA intercalators for flow karyotyping and identification by banding of isolated chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, J. A.; Buys, C. H.; van der Veen, A. Y.; Mesa, J. R.; Yu, L. C.; Gray, J. W.; Osinga, J.; Stap, J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of structurally unrelated DNA intercalators have been studied as stabilizers of mitotic chromosomes during isolation from rodent and human metaphase cells. Seven out of the nine intercalators tested were found to be useful as chromosome stabilizing agents. Chromosome suspensions prepared in

  8. Predictors for the development of referral-warranted retinopathy of prematurity in the telemedicine approaches to evaluating acute-phase retinopathy of prematurity (e-ROP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-Shuang; Quinn, Graham E; Wade, Kelly C; Repka, Michael X; Baumritter, Agnieshka; Daniel, Ebenezer

    2015-03-01

    Detection of treatment-requiring retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) involves serial eye examinations. An ROP prediction model using predictive factors could identify high-risk infants and reduce required eye examinations. To determine predictive factors for the development of referral-warranted (RW) ROP. This multicenter observational cohort study included secondary analysis of data from the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. Infants included in the study had a birth weight (BW) of less than 1251 g. Serial ROP examinations of premature infants who had 2 or more ROP examinations. Incidence of RW-ROP (defined as the presence of plus disease, zone I ROP, or ROP stage 3 or greater in either eye) and associations with predictive factors. Among 979 infants without RW-ROP at first study-related eye examination (median postmenstrual age, 33 weeks; range, 29-40 weeks) who underwent at least 2 eye examinations, 149 (15.2%) developed RW-ROP. In a multivariate model, significant predictors for RW-ROP were male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.13-2.86 vs female), nonblack race (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.50-5.08 for white vs black race and OR, 4.81; 95% CI, 2.19-10.6 for other vs black race), low BW (OR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.12-7.20 for ≤500 g vs >1100 g), younger gestational age (OR, 9.79; 95% CI, 3.49-27.5 for ≤24 weeks vs ≥28 weeks), number of quadrants with preplus disease (OR, 7.12; 95% CI, 2.53-20.1 for 1-2 quadrants and OR, 18.4; 95% CI, 4.28-79.4 for 3-4 quadrants vs no preplus disease), stage 2 ROP (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 2.13-8.00 vs no ROP), the presence of retinal hemorrhage (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.57-12.1 vs absence), the need for respiratory support (OR, 4.99; 95% CI, 1.89-13.2 for the need for controlled mechanical ventilator; OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 2.26-53.8 for the need for high-frequency oscillatory ventilation vs no respiratory support), and slow weight gain (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.22-4.89 for weight gain ≤12 g/d vs >18 g

  9. Patients with 47, XXX karyotype who experienced premature ovarian failure (POF): two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Nobuo; Maeda, Machiko; Manome, Tomomi; Nagai, Rie; Araki, Yasuhisa

    2013-10-01

    Pubertal onset and sexual development are usually normal in 47, XXX individuals; however, we report two cases of premature ovarian failure (POF) in infertile women with trisomy X. Chromosome analysis was conducted with G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization using X- and Y-bearing probe. Hormonal administration was primarily Kaufmann's treatment or long-term estradiol treatment, followed by withdrawal bleeding from estrogen and progesterone. Two patients with trisomy X, aged 31 (patient 1) and 27 years (patient 2), were diagnosed with POF due to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Their ovaries were small. Patient 1 had a FSH level of 44.6 mIU/ml and patient 2 had a FSH level of 74.6 mIU/ml. In patient 1, with Kaufmann's treatment, the FSH decreased to 13.5 mIU/ml; however, follicle growth did not occur following HMG stimulation. In patient 2, FSH did not decrease despite Kaufmann's treatment; therefore, she was given a GnRH agonist and her FSH level decreased to 7.1 mIU/ml. However, her ovaries never responded to HMG stimulation. We report on two patients with a 47, XXX karyotype who became infertile due to POF. We recommend that when a patient is diagnosed with trisomy X, the possibility of POF must be strongly considered.

  10. The distribution of patients who seek treatment for the complaint of ejaculating prematurely according to the four premature ejaculation syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, M Derya

    2010-02-01

    In addition to "lifelong" and "acquired" premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes, two more PE syndromes have recently been proposed: "Natural variable PE" and "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of the four PE syndromes among patients who were admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with the complaint of ejaculating prematurely. Between July 2008 and March 2009, patients admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were enrolled into the study. After taking a careful medical and sexual history, patients were classified as "lifelong,"acquired,"natural variable," PE or "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." In addition to medical and sexual history, self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) of patients were used in the classification of patients. A total of 261 potent men with a mean age of 36.39 +/- 10.45 years (range 20-70) were recruited into the study. The majority of the men was diagnosed as having lifelong PE (62.5%); the remaining men were diagnosed as having acquired (16.1%), natural variable PE (14.5%), or premature-like ejaculatory disorder (6.9%). The mean age of patients with acquired PE was significantly higher than the other groups (P = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for educational status or income level of patients in the different PE groups (P = 0.983 and P = 0.151, respectively). The mean self-estimated IELT for all subjects was 65.16 +/- 83.75 seconds (2-420 seconds). Patients with lifelong PE had significantly lower mean self-reported IELT, whereas the patients with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction had the highest mean IELT (P = 0.001): (i) life-long PE: 20.47 +/- 28.90 seconds (2-120 seconds); (ii) aquired PE: 57.91 +/- 38.72 seconds (90-180 seconds); (iii) natural variable PE: 144.17 +/- 22.47 seconds (120-180 seconds); and (iv) premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction: 286.67 +/- 69.96 seconds (180-420 seconds

  11. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Mondaini, Nicola; Cantiello, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Cai, Tommaso

    2016-10-05

    The management of patient affected by premature ejaculation (PE) is nowadays not highly satisfactory. Here, we aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in order to improve sexual quality of life in patients with premature ejaculation. All patients attending to 5 urological centers from January 2015 to March 2015, due to premature ejaculation were enrolled in this study. At the enrolment visit, all subjects underwent self-administered IIEF-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculation Disorder (MSHQEjD), PEDT and IELTS (calculated as mean from that perceived by partner and that perceived by patient) and underwent urological visit and laboratory examinations. All patients received one tablet per day of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts for 3 months (Group A). After 3 months all patients underwent follow-up visit with the same investigations that have been carried out in the enrolment visit. The results were compared with a cohort of patients enrolled in the same period in another urological center and considered as a control group (Group B). All patients in the control group underwent counseling and sexual behavioral treatment without any pharmacological compound. At the follow-up analysis, significant changes in terms of IELT in the Group A (mean difference: 31.90; p < 0.05) at 3 months and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: 30.30; p < 0.05) were reported. In the group A, significant differences from baseline to last follow- up were observed relative to IIEF-5 (mean difference: 1.04; p < 0.05), PEDT (mean difference: -2.57; p < 0.05) and FSH (mean difference: -16.46; p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients affected by PE may significantly benefit from oral therapy with a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in terms of

  12. Flow Analysis and Sorting of Plant Chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Šimková, Hana; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Čížková, Jana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 78, Oct 10 (2016), 5.3.1-5.3.43 ISSN 1934-9300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cell cycle synchronization * chromosome genomics * chromosome isolation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Chromosome studies in Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increased cultivation of cashew as a commodity crop in sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and South America there are few chromosome studies on it. The present study investigates number, structure and behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these populations ...

  14. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...

  15. Statistics for X-chromosome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Umut; Lin, Hui-Min; Lin, Yan; Weeks, Daniel E; Chen, Wei; Shaffer, John R; Purcell, Shaun M; Feingold, Eleanor

    2018-06-13

    In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), association between genotype and phenotype at autosomal loci is generally tested by regression models. However, X-chromosome data are often excluded from published analyses of autosomes because of the difference between males and females in number of X chromosomes. Failure to analyze X-chromosome data at all is obviously less than ideal, and can lead to missed discoveries. Even when X-chromosome data are included, they are often analyzed with suboptimal statistics. Several mathematically sensible statistics for X-chromosome association have been proposed. The optimality of these statistics, however, is based on very specific simple genetic models. In addition, while previous simulation studies of these statistics have been informative, they have focused on single-marker tests and have not considered the types of error that occur even under the null hypothesis when the entire X chromosome is scanned. In this study, we comprehensively tested several X-chromosome association statistics using simulation studies that include the entire chromosome. We also considered a wide range of trait models for sex differences and phenotypic effects of X inactivation. We found that models that do not incorporate a sex effect can have large type I error in some cases. We also found that many of the best statistics perform well even when there are modest deviations, such as trait variance differences between the sexes or small sex differences in allele frequencies, from assumptions. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Cytometric analysis of irradiation damaged chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of cells in interphase results in dose-dependent damage to DNA which is discernable by flow-cytometric analysis of chromosomes. The quantity (and possibly the quality) of chromosomal changes is different in survival-matched doses of x and α irradiation. It may, therefore, be possible to use these methods for analysis of dose and type of exposure in unknown cases

  17. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-06

    Nov 6, 2015 ... tion and cancer in mice after a long period of time (Yildirim et al. 2013). ... chromosome of man has a short pairing seg- ment, that is not normally ..... Lyon M. F. 1988 The William Allan memorial award address: X-chromosome ...

  18. Chromosomal evolution and phylogenetic analyses in Tayassu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chromosome preparation and karyotype description. The material analysed consists of chromosome preparations of the tayassuid species T. pecari (three individuals) and. P. tajacu (four individuals) and were made from short-term lymphocyte cultures of whole blood samples using standard protocols (Chaves et al. 2002).

  19. AFM image of an entire polygene chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minqian; Takeuchi; Ikai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author present AFM images of an entire polygene chromosome of Drosophila for the first time. Comparing with conventional optical microscope, the AFM image of the polygene chromosomes provides much higher resolution and 3-D measurement capability which will lead to finer scale gene mapping and identification

  20. A sexy spin on nonrandom chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charville, Gregory W; Rando, Thomas A

    2013-06-06

    Nonrandom chromosome segregation is an intriguing phenomenon linked to certain asymmetric stem cell divisions. In a recent report in Nature, Yadlapalli and Yamashita (2013) observe nonrandom segregation of X and Y chromosomes in Drosophila germline stem cells and shed light on the complex mechanisms of this fascinating process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of premature failure of a gas turbine component

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dedekind, MO

    1996-01-03

    Full Text Available A case study of certain gas turbine stator vanes which fail prematurely is presented, with a view to determining whether operational procedure might have caused the failures. The engines had been operated from a ‘hot-and-high’ environment...

  2. Resting-state functional connectivity differences in premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Damaraju

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the coherence in the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping children as measured by the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals. The results are described in terms of resting-state networks (RSN and their properties. More specifically, in this study we examine the effect of severe prematurity on the spatial location of the visual, temporal, motor, basal ganglia, and the default mode networks, the temporal response properties of each of these networks, and the functional connectivity between them. Our results suggest that the anatomical locations of the RSNs are well developed by 18 months of age and their spatial locations are not distinguishable between premature and term born infants at 18 months or at 36 months, with the exception of small spatial differences noted in the basal ganglia area and the visual cortex. The two major differences between term and preterm children were present at 36 but not 18 months and include: 1 increased spectral energy in the low frequency range (0.01 – 0.06 Hz for pre-term children in the basal ganglia component, and 2 stronger connectivity between RSNs in term children. We speculate that children born very prematurely are vulnerable to injury resulting in weaker connectivity between resting state networks by 36 months of age. Further work is required to determine whether this could be a clinically useful tool to identify children at risk of developmental delay related to premature birth.

  3. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the maternal outcomes of immediate induction of labor with expectant management in women presenting with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at term. Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were randomized into either immediate induction of labor with oxytocin or ...

  4. Management of premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the optimal way to manage patients with premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks' gestation. Design. A prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing immediate induction and delayed induction after 24 • 48 hours. Setting. Tygerberg Hospital, Gape Town. Participants. Seventy ...

  5. Mothers' perceptions of their premature infant's communication: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michelle Pascoe

    through semi-structured interviews. ... helping their infants to communicate through physical contact and talking. ... They face the stress of their baby being placed in the ... premature infants to be more vulnerable when compared to ... The study used a qualitative approach to investigate the na- ... detailed notes were made.

  6. Neurological consequences of systemic inflammation in the premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aparna; Huang, Hong; Bauer, John A; Giannone, Peter J

    2017-06-01

    Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis. Underlying mechanisms may include cytokine mediated processes without direct entry of pathogens into the brain, developmental differences in immune response and complex neurovascular barrier system that play a critical role in regulating the cerebral response to various systemic inflammatory insults in premature infants. Understanding of these pathologic mechanisms and clinical correlates of such injury based on serum biomarkers or brain imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging will pave way for future research and translational therapeutic opportunities for the developing brain.

  7. Neurological consequences of systemic inflammation in the premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis. Underlying mechanisms may include cytokine mediated processes without direct entry of pathogens into the brain, developmental differences in immune response and complex neurovascular barrier system that play a critical role in regulating the cerebral response to various systemic inflammatory insults in premature infants. Understanding of these pathologic mechanisms and clinical correlates of such injury based on serum biomarkers or brain imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging will pave way for future research and translational therapeutic opportunities for the developing brain.

  8. Feeding premature neonates: Kinship and species in translational neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Mie S; Juhl, Sandra M; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2017-04-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of 'translating' research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013-2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care hold the potential for stimulating and eroding kinship relations between human and nonhuman actors. In the laboratory, piglets and researchers form 'interspecies-milk-kinships' that entail the intimate care crucial to keeping the compromised piglets alive during the experiments, thereby enhancing what the researchers refer to as the 'translatability' of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the 'species flexibility' of premature beings profoundly shapes the translational processes in the field of neonatology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weight above 1500 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify the rate and prognosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among newborn infants of birthweight of above 1500 grams, and the possible risk factors associated with the disease. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Neonatal unit at Maternity Hospital, Kuwait city, Kuwait. Methods: All low birth ...

  10. Bevacizumab treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP in the developing world. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a growing problem in South. Africa (SA), as it is in many parts of the developing world. The so-called 'third epidemic' of ROP is caused by a combination of high preterm birth rates, relatively good infant survival and inadequate oxygen monitoring in neonatal ...

  11. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity in a provincial hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an emerging public health problem in many middle-income countries where improved neonatal survival rates coupled with inadequate health resources have created a new epidemic. There are limited available data on the magnitude of the problem, and screening in South ...

  12. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  13. On the premature convergence of particle swarm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rie B.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses convergence issues of the basic particle swarm optimization algorithm for different pa- rameters. For the one-dimensional case, it is shown that, for a specific range of parameters, the particles will converge prematurely, i.e. away from the actual minimum of the objective...

  14. The progress of prophylactic treatment in retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Kun; Li, Xiao-Gang

    2018-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vascular disorder frequently found in premature infants. Different therapeutic strategies have been developed to treat ROP. However, there are still many children with ROP suffering by severe limitations in vision or even blindness. Recently, ROP has been suggested to be caused by abnormal development of the retinal vasculature, but not simply resulted by retinal neovascularization which takes about 4 to 6wk after birth in premature infants. Thus, instead of focusing on how to reduce retinal neovascularization, understanding the pathological changes and mechanisms that occur prior to retinal neovascularization is meaningful, which may lead to identify novel target(s) for the development of novel strategy to promote the healthy growth of retinal blood vessels rather than passively waiting for the appearance of retinal neovascularization and removing it by force. In this review, we discussed recent studies about, 1) the pathogenesis prior to retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR; a ROP in animal model) and in premature infants with ROP; 2) the preclinical and clinical research on preventive treatment of early OIR and ROP. We will not only highlight the importance of the mechanisms and signalling pathways in regulating early stage of ROP but also will provide guidance for actively exploring novel mechanisms and discovering novel treatments for early phase OIR and ROP prior to retinal neovascularization in the future. PMID:29862189

  15. Congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, LM; Fleer, A; de Vries, LS; Gerards, LJ

    2004-01-01

    A case of congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) with fatal outcome in a premature infant is reported. An intrauterine infection with Staphylococcus aureus was probably the cause for the fulminant course of the disease. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the infant died within 24

  16. Tackling the premature convergence problem in Monte-Carlo localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart

    Monte-Carlo localization uses particle filtering to estimate the position of the robot. The method is known to suffer from the loss of potential positions when there is ambiguity present in the environment. Since many indoor environments are highly symmetric, this problem of premature convergence is

  17. Evaluation by computed tomography in premature and newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckein, D.

    1981-01-01

    By means of cranio-cerebral computed tomography hypoxic brain damage of varying degrees and different types may be demonstrated in premature infants and high-risk newborns. Paraventricular leucomalacia of varying extent up to porencephalic defects are found, as well as cortical infarctions, hemorrhage into brain tissue or ventricles, cerebral atrophy, developing hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies. (orig.) [de

  18. Apnoea of prematurity – discontinuation of methylxanthines in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Methylxanthines such as caffeine have been proven to reduce apnoea of prematurity and are often discontinued at 35 weeks' corrected gestational age (GA). Objective. To ascertain whether a caffeine protocol based on international guidelines is applicable in our setting, where GA is often uncertain. Methods.

  19. Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Leaving hospital care prematurely could threaten the healthy survival of and expose children to a risk of harmful alternatives. It is also a concern and a challenge to healthcare providers and the health system. A better understanding of its characteristic could help mitigate the impact on children. Objective: To ...

  20. Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes be treated with antibiotics? AP Macdonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ogf.v19i2.43719 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  1. The use of dexamethasone in women with preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of dexamethasone in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes - A multicentre, double-blind, placebocontrolled, randomised trial. R.C. Pattinson, J.D. Makin, M. Funk, S.D. Delport, A.P. Macdonald, K. Norman, G. Kirsten, C. Stewart, D. Woods, G. Moller, E. Coetzee, P. Smith, J. Anthony, M. Schoon, ...

  2. Bevacizumab treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a growing problem in South. Africa (SA), as it is .... detected in the serum of both infants and adults after intraocular injection,[7] ... use of anti-VEGF agents to treat macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy ...

  3. Postnatal corticosteroids and risk of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsas, Tammy Z; Spitzer, Alan R; Gewolb, Ira H

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the association between postnatal steroids and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonates born with birth weights at the limit of viability (large study cohort of critically low birth weight infants ROP was more common in neonates exposed to postnatal steroids. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma in a premature neonate: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... We report a case of CMN in a 30 week old premature female neonate seen at autopsy who was born ... is very good and in most cases, surgery alone may effect a .... CMN with intratumoral hemorrhage and all cases with large.

  5. Premature atherosclerosis after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sadurska

    2018-03-01

    Survivors of childhood ALL in the examined group demonstrated elevated concentrations of selected new biomarkers and increased IMT values, compared to controls, which may confirm the occurrence of endothelial injuries in blood vessels. This study indicates that subjects treated for childhood malignancy are at a higher risk of prematurely developing atherosclerosis.

  6. Clinical Outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease who underwent FFR evaluation of intermediate coronary lesionS– COFFRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In our experience, MACE events were not higher in patients with FFR > 0.8 and kept under medical therapy and were similarly lower in patients with FFR ≤0.8 and underwent revascularisation (p = 0.73. Also MACE events were higher in patients with FFR ≤ 0.8 and did not undergo revascularisation compared to other two appropriately treated groups (p = 0.03. FFR based revascularization decision appears to be a safe strategy in Indian patients.

  7. X-ray-related potentially lethal damage expressed by chromosome condensation and the influence of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishimoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    Caffeine has been reported to induce premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in S-phase cells in the presence of an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. We found that when S-phase cells are treated with caffeine and hydroxyurea after X irradiation, substantially more potentially lethal damage (PLD) is expressed, but the addition of cycloheximide, which inhibits PCC induction in S-phase cells, in the presence of caffeine and hydroxyurea reduces the expression of PLD to the same level as seen with caffeine alone. This can be interpreted to mean that the expression of PLD seen with caffeine in the absence of an inhibitor of DNA synthesis is not associated with chromosome condensation. Evidence that PCC induction in S-phase cells and the influence of caffeine on PLD expression were suppressed by incubation at 40 degrees C of tsBN75 cells with a ts defect in ubiquitin-activating enzyme indicates the involvement of ubiquitin in these two processes. These observations as well as previous findings on ubiquitin suggest to us that caffeine induces changes in DNA-chromatin conformation, which are caused by induction of PCC or ubiquitination of chromosomal protein. Such changes occurring postirradiation would favor expression of PLD

  8. X-ray-related potentially lethal damage expressed by chromosome condensation and the influence of caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishimoto, T. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    Caffeine has been reported to induce premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in S-phase cells in the presence of an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. We found that when S-phase cells are treated with caffeine and hydroxyurea after X irradiation, substantially more potentially lethal damage (PLD) is expressed, but the addition of cycloheximide, which inhibits PCC induction in S-phase cells, in the presence of caffeine and hydroxyurea reduces the expression of PLD to the same level as seen with caffeine alone. This can be interpreted to mean that the expression of PLD seen with caffeine in the absence of an inhibitor of DNA synthesis is not associated with chromosome condensation. Evidence that PCC induction in S-phase cells and the influence of caffeine on PLD expression were suppressed by incubation at 40 degrees C of tsBN75 cells with a ts defect in ubiquitin-activating enzyme indicates the involvement of ubiquitin in these two processes. These observations as well as previous findings on ubiquitin suggest to us that caffeine induces changes in DNA-chromatin conformation, which are caused by induction of PCC or ubiquitination of chromosomal protein. Such changes occurring postirradiation would favor expression of PLD.

  9. [Initial results of the Erfurt Prevention of Prematurity Campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, U B; Grosch, A; Roemer, V M; Saling, E

    1998-01-01

    Genital infection particularly bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases the relative risk of prematurity. Detection of disturbances of vaginal milieu at an early stage and the use of suitable countermeasures such as intervention with antimicrobial substances, e.g. clindamycin, can reduce the preterm birth rate, provided the diagnosis is made early enough. Since October 1996 pregnant women being given prenatal care in 16 of the 29 outpatient offices in Erfurt, have been informed about the Prematurity Prevention Programme and have been offered to take part and to perform self-measurements of their vaginal pH twice a week in order to screen for any disturbances in the vaginal milieu. Special CarePlan-VpH gloves (Selfcare, Oberhaching) were used to identify patients a risk (pH > 4.7). The pregnant women taking part in the programme were instructed to see their physician immediately, if abnormal values were present, in order to get them confirmed and to start lactobacillus acidophilus therapy (Gynoflor, Nourypharma, Oberschleissheim) or, in case of BV, to treat with clindamycin cream (Sobelin, Upjohn, Erlangen) i.vag. Patients being given prenatal care in the 13 outpatient offices not participating and other pregnant women in Erfurt who were not interested in the programme served as control group. Up to now 59 out of 314 women in the intervention group have been identified as risk cases (p > or = 4.7). 52 of them were treated with a lactobacillus preparation, and 19 additionally with clindamycin cream, 3 patients refused to have any therapy. In this ongoing study the prematurity rate was 8.3% in the self-measurement/intervention group vs. 13.0% in the control group (n = 1,842); 0.3% vs. 3.3% of the neonates belonged to the group of very early prematures with a gestational age of < 32 + 0 weeks (p < 0.01). PROM was registered in 22.3% vs. 32.1% (p < 0.001) respectively. Self-measurement of vaginal pH at close intervals, as recommended by Saling, leads to the early

  10. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  11. The economic impact of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fuente, María; Arruza, Luis; Muro, Marta; Zozaya, Carlos; Avila, Alejandro; López-Ortego, Paloma; González-Armengod, Carmen; Torrent, Alba; Gavilán, Jose Luis; Del Cerro, María Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most serious chronic lung diseases in infancy and one of the most important sequels of premature birth (prevalence of 15-50%). Our objective was to estimate the cost of BPD of one preterm baby, with no other major prematurity-related complications, during the first 2 years of life in Spain. Data from the Spanish Ministry of Health regarding costs of diagnosis-related group of preterm birth, hospital admissions and visits, palivizumab administration, and oxygen therapy in the year 2013 were analyzed. In 2013, 2628 preterm babies were born with a weight under 1500 g; 50.9% were males. The need for respiratory support was 2.5% needed only oxygen therapy, 39.5% required conventional mechanical ventilation, and 14.9% required high-frequency ventilation. The incidence of BPD was of 34.9%. The cost of the first 2 years of life of a preterm baby with BPD and no other major prematurity-related complications ranged between 45,049.81 € and 118,760.43 €, in Spain, depending on birth weight and gestational age. If the baby required home oxygen therapy or developed pulmonary hypertension, this cost could add up to 181,742.43 €. Prematurity and BPD have an elevated cost, even for public health care systems. This cost will probably increase in the coming years if the incidence and survival of preterm babies keeps rising. The development of new therapies and preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of BPD and other morbidities associated with prematurity should be a priority. What is known: • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious chronic lung disease related with premature birth. • BPD is an increasing disease due to the up-rise in the number of premature births. What is new: • The economic cost of preterm birth and BPD has never before been estimated in Spain nor published with European data. • Preterm babies with BPD and a good clinical outcome carry also an important economic and social burden.

  12. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  13. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  14. Chromosome reduction in Eleocharis maculosa (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C R M; González-Elizondo, M S; Laforga Vanzela, A L

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome numbers in Cyperaceae lower than the typical basic number x = 5 have been described for only three species: Rhynchospora tenuis (n = 2), Fimbristylis umbellaris (n = 3) and Eleocharis subarticulata (n = 3). Eleocharis maculosa is recorded here as the fourth species of Cyperaceae that has a chromosome number lower than 2n = 10, with 2n = 8, 7 and 6. The karyotype differentiation in E. maculosa was studied using conventional staining (mitosis and meiosis), FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA and telomere probes. The results allow us to determine which chromosomes of the chromosome race with 2n = 10 fused to form the remaining reduced numbers, as well as to understand how the symploidy and translocation mechanisms were important in karyotype differentiation and the formation of chromosome races in Eleocharis. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Periodic limb movements and restless legs syndrome in children with a history of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielo, Christopher M; DelRosso, Lourdes M; Tapia, Ignacio E; Biggs, Sarah N; Nixon, Gillian M; Meltzer, Lisa J; Traylor, Joel; Kim, Ji Young; Marcus, Carole L

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the pediatric population at an increased risk of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). Polysomnographic data from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity-Sleep (CAPS) study showed a high prevalence of elevated periodic limb movement index (PLMI) in a cohort of ex-preterm children, but the clinical importance of this finding, such as association with RLS, is unknown. We hypothesized that ex-preterm children would have a high prevalence of RLS and PLMD. Ex-preterm children enrolled in CAPS, now aged 5-12 years, completed home polysomnography (PSG) and standardized questionnaires. A diagnosis of RLS or PLMD was established by participants meeting the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, criteria based on questionnaires and polysomnograms. The clinically available serum ferritin levels were assessed. In total, 167 participants underwent polysomnography and completed all questionnaires. The overall prevalence of RLS was 14/167 (8.4%). An additional 13 subjects (7.8%) were found to have PLMD. Of the 26 participants who had PLMI > 5/h, seven (26.9%) had RLS and 13 (50%) had PLMD. The serum ferritin levels were prematurity have a high prevalence of RLS, particularly those with elevated periodic limb movements. Iron deficiency likely contributes to RLS and PLMD symptoms in this population. Clinicians evaluating ex-preterm children with sleep disturbances should evaluate for RLS and PLMD. Further studies including serum ferritin evaluation are required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy Landscapes of Folding Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  17. The Y chromosome of the Atelidae family (Platyrrhini): study by chromosome microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifalli-Iughetti, C; Koiffmann, C P

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intergeneric variability of the Y chromosome, we describe the hybridization of the Y chromosome of Brachytelesarachnoides, obtained by microdissection, to metaphases of Atelesbelzebuthmarginatus, Lagothrixlagothricha, and Alouatta male specimens. Brachytelesarachnoides (Atelinae) has 62 chromosomes and a very small Y chromosome. Our results showed that the Brachytelesarachnoides Y chromosome probe hybridized to Lagothrixlagothricha metaphases yielding one hybridization signal on only the tiny Y chromosome, and when hybridized with Atelesbelzebuthmarginatus metaphases it yielded one hybridization signal on two thirds of the small acrocentric Y chromosome. However, no hybridization signal was observed in Alouatta metaphases (subfamily Alouattinae), a closely related genus in the Atelidae family. Furthermore, our data support a close phylogenetic relationship among Brachyteles, Ateles, and Lagothrix and their placement in the Atelinae subfamily, but exclude Alouatta from this group indicating its placement as basal to this group. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Y-chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y-chromosome degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-02-01

    The human Y chromosome is intriguing not only because it harbours the master-switch gene that determines gender but also because of its unusual evolutionary history. The Y chromosome evolved from an autosome, and its evolution has been characterized by massive gene decay. Recent whole-genome and transcriptome analyses of Y chromosomes in humans and other primates, in Drosophila species and in plants have shed light on the current gene content of the Y chromosome, its origins and its long-term fate. Furthermore, comparative analysis of young and old Y chromosomes has given further insights into the evolutionary and molecular forces triggering Y-chromosome degeneration and into the evolutionary destiny of the Y chromosome.

  19. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term encephalopathy of prematurity encompasses not only the acute brain injury (such as intraventricular hemorrhage but also complex disturbance on the infant’s subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL. Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9 and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  20. FOETOMATERNAL AND NEONATAL OUTCOME OF PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumam Vilangot Nhalil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane is defined as rupture of foetal membrane before onset of labour at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Incidence of PPROM is around 3-10% of all deliveries. Primary complication for mother is infection and for foetus and neonate is prematurity, foetal distress, cord compression, deformation, pulmonary hypoplasia, necrotising enterocolitis and neurologic disorders. Most likely outcome is preterm delivery within 1 week. The aim of the study is to study the foetomaternal and neonatal outcome in PPROM patients and the common prevalent organism in PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cohort study of pregnant women from 24-37 weeks with PPROM admitted to IMCH for a period of 1 year, January 2016 to December 2016. 100 patients with PPROM were taken up for the study. The data was collected using the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria are gestational age 24-37 weeks confirmed by dates, clinical examination and ultrasound with lack of uterine contractions for at least 1 hour from PPROM; single live pregnancy in vertex presentation; PPROM confirmed by direct visualisation, neonates admitted in NICU soon after delivery. RESULTS 49% of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes were from 18-24 years.68% of patients had a latency period of 3 weeks.15% of patients had maternal tachycardia, 4% had tenderness of uterus and 4% had leucocytosis and 14% had an elevated CRP. Thus, clinical chorioamnionitis was seen in 14% of patients, 38% of babies born had prematurity and 2% had sepsis and 19% had respiratory distress syndrome and hyperbilirubinaemia, 2% had perinatal asphyxia, 2% had anomalies, 1% had necrotising enterocolitis and 5% were NND. Common organisms were normal flora, E. coli, Streptococci and Enterococci. CONCLUSION PPROM increases the incidence of maternal morbidity with longer hospital stay due to chorioamnionitis. Neonatal morbidity is increased due to

  1. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin were isolated from C. aurantium. Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory function on cell growth. ROS production was increased in naringin- and hesperetin-treated groups after one day of culture while the level was always lowest in the naringenin-treated group after three days of culture. 95 osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgery were assigned into two groups: naringenin group (NG, received 20 mg naringenin daily, n=47 and control group (CG, received 20 mg placebo daily, n=48. After an average of two-year follow-up, osteosarcoma volumes were smaller in the NG group than in the CG group (P>0.01. The rate of osteosarcoma recurrence was also lower in the NG group than in CG group. ROS levels were lower in the NG group than in the CG group. Thus, naringenin from Citrus aurantium inhibits osteosarcoma progression and local recurrence in the patients who underwent osteosarcoma surgery by improving antioxidant capability.

  2. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Tiechao; Wu, Kunzhe; Ding, Chuanbo; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xuanhe; Yu, Tianhua; Song, Changlong

    2018-01-01

    Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin) were isolated from C. aurantium . Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory function on cell growth. ROS production was increased in naringin- and hesperetin-treated groups after one day of culture while the level was always lowest in the naringenin-treated group after three days of culture. 95 osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgery were assigned into two groups: naringenin group (NG, received 20 mg naringenin daily, n = 47) and control group (CG, received 20 mg placebo daily, n = 48). After an average of two-year follow-up, osteosarcoma volumes were smaller in the NG group than in the CG group ( P > 0.01). The rate of osteosarcoma recurrence was also lower in the NG group than in CG group. ROS levels were lower in the NG group than in the CG group. Thus, naringenin from Citrus aurantium inhibits osteosarcoma progression and local recurrence in the patients who underwent osteosarcoma surgery by improving antioxidant capability.

  3. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation has not yet been reached because of debates based on subjective authority opinions and nonstandardized assessment methods to measure ejaculation time and ejaculation control. Aim. To provide a definition for lifelong premature

  4. Identification of 30 protein species involved in replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierick, Jean François; Kalume, Dário E; Wenders, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of human proliferative cells to subcytotoxic stress triggers stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is characterized by many biomarkers of replicative senescence. Proteomic comparison of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence indicates that, at the level...

  5. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Dinlen, Nurdan Fettah; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Beken, Serdar; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2017-11-01

    Aim To evaluate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 25 (OH) D, levels and retinopathy of prematurity. Methods and Results Serum 25 (OH) D levels were measured in 97 very low birth weight infants, prior to vitamin D supplementation. The development of retinopathy of prematurity and its treatment requirement were evaluated. At follow-up, retinopathy of prematurity developed in 71 (73.2%) infants. Serum 25 (OH) D levels were significantly lower in infants with retinopathy of prematurity than ones without retinopathy of prematurity ( P prematurity development [OR: 1.14, 95% CI (1.02-1.27), P = 0.02]. Conclusion Lower 25 (OH) D levels in the first days of life may be related to retinopathy of prematurity development and treatment requirement in premature infants.

  6. An evaluation of the screening for retinopathy of prematurity in very ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal risk factor was the supply of unmonitored ... of blindness from untreated ROP is likely to increase. It was first ... premature babies at risk of ROP, treating those premature babies .... Stage 5: complete retinal detachment. Extent.

  7. Thyroid-stimulating hormone assessments in a Dutch cohort of 620 men with lifelong premature ejaculation without erectile dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Apart from the involvement of central serotonergic neurotransmission on lifelong premature ejaculation, interference of thyroid function has been speculated. Aim. To study thyroid function in a large group of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Methods. Lifelong premature

  8. Introduction of a normal human chromosome 8 corrects abnormal phenotypes of Werner syndrome cells immortalized by expressing an hTERT gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Kentaro; Kodama, Seiji; Suzuki, Keiji; Goto, Makoto; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ishizaki, Kanji; Watanabe, Masami

    2009-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by premature aging and caused by mutations of the WRN gene mapped at 8p12. To examine functional complementation of WS phenotypes, we introduced a normal human chromosome 8 into a strain of WS fibroblasts (WS3RGB) immortalized by expressing a human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT) gene. Here, we demonstrate that the abnormal WS phenotypes including cellular sensitivities to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) and hydroxy urea (HU), and chromosomal radiosensitivity at G 2 phase are corrected by expression of the WRN gene mediated by introducing a chromosome 8. This indicates that those multiple abnormal WS phenotypes are derived from a primary, but not secondary, defect in the WRN gene. (author)

  9. [Premature labour with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes: maternal, obstetric and neonatal features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Ana Maria Simões; Domingues, Ana Patrícia Rodrigues; Fonseca, Etelvina Morais Ferreira; Miranda, Teresa Maria Antunes; Belo, Adriana; Moura, José Paulo Achando Silva

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of maternal, obstetrics e neonatal features in both spontaneous preterm births (PTB) with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Retrospective study of single fetus pregnancies with PTB between 2003 and 2012. PTB associated with ou without PPROM. Exclusion criterias: PTB by medical indication due to fetal/maternal disease and all non accessible or incomplete clinical files. Different characteristics were compared between two groups of PTB: spontaneous PTB without PPROM (sPTB) versusPPROM. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Levene, χ2, t Student and Mann-Withney tests were used for statistical analysis. From 2,393 PTB of single fetus, 1,432 files were analysed, from which 596 were sPTB and 836 PPROM. The socioeconomic conditions were similar in both groups. Multiparity (50.7 versus 40.3%), personal history of previous PTB (20.8 versus10.2%), cervical length (18.2 versus27.2 mm), lower body index mass (23.4 versus 24.3 kg/m2) and higher infectious parameters (Protein C Reactive: 2.2 versus1.2 mg/L; Leukocytes: 13.3 versus 12.4 x109) were more frequent in PBTs (p<0,001). Neonatal outcomes, specially neurologic outcomes (4.7 versus2.8%, p<0,001), were worst in PBTs. PTB with or without PPROM has a complex etiology. From all evaluated features in our study, only maternal thinness, multiparity with a previous PTB, the cervical length and worst systemic infections parameters were significant in sPTB. This group also showed worst neonatal outcomes, specially on neurological outcomes.

  10. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  11. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  12. Automatic Metaphase Finding by Inter-Chromosome Extrema Profile Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    ...-level inter-chromosome coarseness features in microscopic images of metaphase spreads, and allows to quantity the texture of the cytological objects analysing the intensity profile between chromosome...

  13. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore......HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method...

  14. Differential effects of treatment with UV-light (365 nm) and 8-methoxypsoralen on chromosomes of healthy persons and psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeber, G.; Kittler, L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 5 x 10 -5 M), near UV-light of 365 nm wavelength (UVA, 1.5 J/cm 2 ) and the combination of both (PUVA treatment) were studied on lymphocytes in vitro taken from healthy persons and patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriasis arthritis (psoriasis arthropathica). Chromosomes isolated from cell nuclei were visualized by means of Giemsa staining technique and analyzed for induction of chromosomal defects, i.e. premature centromere division (PCD), major coiling (MC), and formation of gaps and fragile sites. Exposure of nonpsoriatic lymphocytes to 8-MOP, UVA or PUVA increased the rate of PCD or MC generation. In experiments with psoriatic lymphocytes a much weaker effect was found, with a moderate increase of PCD and MC after UVA or PUVA treatment in the case of psoriasis vulgaris, and of MC after UVA treatment of psoriasis arthritis. On the average the number of chromosomes per metaphase plate displaying PCD did not exceed 10. No indication was obtained for the preference of certain chromosome groups or the appearance of 'fragile sites'. Under all experimental conditions the number of chromosome gaps ranged in the order of their spontaneous induction. The findings suggest PCD and MC investigations as possible sensitive tools for diagnosing latent psoriasis and for refined analysis of psoriatic cells or chromosomes. (author)

  15. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  16. Prematurity and fetal lung response after tracheal occlusion in fetuses with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananes, Nicolas; Rodo, Carlota; Peiro, Jose Luis; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Favre, Romain; Joal, Arnaud; Gaudineau, Adrien; Silva, Marcos Marques da; Tannuri, Uenis; Zugaib, Marcelo; Carreras, Elena; Ruano, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the independent association of fetal pulmonary response and prematurity to postnatal outcomes after fetal tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Fetal pulmonary response, prematurity (prematurity (prematurity was not statistically associated with mortality after controlling for fetal pulmonary response (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.12-2.30, p=0.367). Fetal pulmonary response after FETO is the most important factor associated with survival, independently from the gestational age at delivery.

  17. The Mediterranean diet adherence by pregnant women delivering prematurely: association with size at birth and complications of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Agakidou, Eleni; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Diamanti, Elisavet

    2017-11-13

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome and gestational diabetes due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of its components. The aim was to investigate the potential association of MD adherence (MDA) during pregnancy by mothers delivering prematurely, with intrauterine growth as expressed by neonates' anthropometry at birth and complications of prematurity. This is a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study of 82 women who delivered preterm singletons at post conceptional age (PCA) ≤ 34 weeks and their live-born neonates. Maternal and neonatal demographic and clinical data were recorded. All mothers filled in a food frequency questionnaire, and the MDA score was calculated. Based on 50th centile of MD score, participants were classified into high-MDA and low-MDA groups. The low-MDA mothers had significantly higher pregestational BMI and rates of overweight/obesity (odd ratios (OR) 3.5) and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (OR 3.8). Neonates in the low-MDA group had significantly higher incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (OR 3.3) and lower z-scores of birth weight and BMI. Regarding prematurity-related complications, the low MDA-group was more likely to develop necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.2, 1.3, and 1.6, respectively), while they were less likely to develop respiratory distress syndrome (OR 0.49), although the differences were not statistically significant. However, adjustment for confounders revealed MDA as a significant independent predictor of hypertension/preeclampsia, IUGR, birth weight z-score, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. High MDA during pregnancy may favorably affect intrauterine growth and certain acute and chronic complications of prematurity as well as maternal hypertension/preeclampsia.

  18. Tumor deposit is a poor prognostic indicator in patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Q

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Qi Lin,# Ye Wei,# Li Ren,# Yunshi Zhong,# Chunzhi Qin, Peng Zheng, Pingping Xu, Dexiang Zhu, Meiling Ji, Jianmin XuDepartment of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China#These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Tumor deposits are one of the important influencing factors among the different editions of Tumor, Node, Metastasis classification. Incidence and prognosis of tumor deposits in stage I, II, and III colorectal cancer patients has been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of tumor deposits in stage IV colorectal cancer patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCRLM.Methods: Clinicopathological and outcome data of 146 consecutive SCRLM patients who underwent simultaneous R0 resection between July 2003 and July 2013 were collected from our prospectively established SCRLM database. The prognostic value of tumor deposits was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis.Results: Tumor deposits were detected in 41.8% (61/146 of these SCRLM patients. Tumor deposits were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and nerve invasion of the primary tumors (P=0.002, P=0.041; respectively. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS of SCRLM patients with tumor deposits were significantly poorer than those with no tumor deposits (P=0.039, P=0.001; respectively. And with multivariate analysis, we found that positive tumor deposits were significantly associated with shorter DFS independent of lymph node status (P=0.002. Subgroup analysis found that of the 57 SCRLM patients with negative lymph node status, the OS and DFS of patients with positive tumor deposits were significantly shorter than those with negative tumor deposits (P=0.002 and P=0.031, respectively. Of the 89 patients with positive lymph node status, the OS of

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity in a cohort of neonates at Groote Schuur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a preventable cause of visual impairment in premature ... and extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) premature infants from the West Metro ...... Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118(5):645-649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/.

  20. Structure of the human chromosome interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sarnataro

    Full Text Available New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence. Intra-chromosomal contacts broadly occur between epigenomically homologous regions, whereas inter-chromosomal contacts are especially associated with regions rich in highly expressed genes. Overall, genomic contacts in the nucleus appear to be structured as a network of networks where a set of strongly individual chromosomal units, as envisaged in the 'chromosomal territory' scenario derived from microscopy, interact with each other via on average weaker, yet far from random and functionally important interactions.