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Sample records for underwent endoscopic mucosal

  1. Long-term follow-up of pepsinogen I/II ratio after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients who underwent endoscopic mucosal resection for gastric cancer.

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    Nam, Su Youn; Jeon, Seong Woo; Lee, Hyun Seok; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Park, Haeyoon; Choi, Jin Woo

    2017-05-01

    Although the pepsinogen I/II (PGI/II) ratio after Helicobacter pylori eradication is recovered at short-term follow-up, long-term follow-up studies of PGI/II are rare. A total of 773 patients with gastric cancer who underwent endoscopic resection and pepsinogen and H. pylori tests were enrolled. H. pylori was eradicated in these patients. Endoscopic and pepsinogen tests were performed every year. A low PGI/II ratio was defined as ≤3. The PGI/II ratio was higher in non-infected patients (n=275, 4.99) than infected patients (n=498, 3.53). After H. pylori eradication, the PGI/II ratio increased to 5.81 and 5.63 after 1 and 2 years (each ppylori eradication group became similar to that of the H. pylori-negative group at 3 (4.48 vs. 4.34), 4 (4.88 vs. 4.34), and 5 years (4.89 vs. 4.23). The adjusted odds ratios for a lower PG I/II ratio in the non-eradication group compared to the eradication group were 4.78 (95% CI 2.15-10.67) after 1year and 8.13 (95% CI 2.56-25.83) after 2 years. After H. pylori eradication, the PGI/II ratio increased and was similar to that of H. pylori-negative controls for up to 5 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New mucosal flap modification for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in Asians.

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    Ji, Qing-Shan; Zhong, Jing-Xiang; Tu, Yun-Hai; Wu, Wen-Can

    2012-01-01

    To describe a simple modification of fashioning the mucosal flap for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EES-DCR) in Asians and investigate its efficacy. A total of 120 patients with unilateral primary chronic dacryocystitis (PCD) were randomized into two groups: the new shaped nasal mucosal flap group (group A) and the removed nasal mucosal flap group (group B). All patients underwent standard EES-DCR. Patients in group A were performed a new shaped nasal mucosal flap covering the bared bone around the opened sac and those in group B was removed the nasal mucosal flap uncovering the bared bone. Patients were followed up for one year. The occurrence of granulation tissue, the proliferation of scar tissue and success rate of EES-DCR was compared. In the present study, complete postoperative data were acquired from 54 patients in group A and from 57 patients in group B. During process of review, the occurrence of granulation tissue was at the ostium margins account for 15% (8/54) in group A and 39% (22/57) in group B (Pbared bone around the opened sac and reduce formation of granulation tissue, lessen the risk of scar tissue formation and closure of ostium, thus improve the success rate of EES-DCR in Asians.

  3. Management of a large mucosal defect after duodenal endoscopic resection.

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    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-08-07

    Duodenal endoscopic resection is the most difficult type of endoscopic treatment in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and is technically challenging because of anatomical specificities. In addition to these technical difficulties, this procedure is associated with a significantly higher rate of complication than endoscopic treatment in other parts of the GI tract. Postoperative delayed perforation and bleeding are hazardous complications, and emergency surgical intervention is sometimes required. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to establish a management protocol for preventing serious complications. For instance, the prophylactic closure of large mucosal defects after endoscopic resection may reduce the risk of hazardous complications. However, the size of mucosal defects after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is relatively large compared with the size after endoscopic mucosal resection, making it impossible to achieve complete closure using only conventional clips. The over-the-scope clip and polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin gel make it possible to close large mucosal defects after duodenal ESD. In addition to the combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection, endoscopic full-thickness resection holds therapeutic potential for difficult duodenal lesions and may overcome the disadvantages of endoscopic resection in the near future. This review aims to summarize the complications and closure techniques of large mucosal defects and to highlight some directions for management after duodenal endoscopic treatment.

  4. New mucosal flap modification for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in Asians

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    Qing-Shan Ji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe a simple modification of fashioning the mucosal flap for endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EES-DCR in Asians and investigate its efficacy.METHODS: A total of 120 patients with unilateral primary chronic dacryocystitis (PCD were randomized into two groups: the new shaped nasal mucosal flap group (group A and the removed nasal mucosal flap group (group B. All patients underwent standard EES-DCR. Patients in group A were performed a new shaped nasal mucosal flap covering the bared bone around the opened sac and those in group B was removed the nasal mucosal flap uncovering the bared bone. Patients were followed up for one year. The occurrence of granulation tissue, the proliferation of scar tissue and success rate of EES-DCR was compared.RESULTS: In the present study, complete postoperative data were acquired from 54 patients in group A and from 57 patients in group B. During process of review, the occurrence of granulation tissue was at the ostium margins account for 15% (8/54 in group A and 39% (22/57 in group B (P<0.05. At the one-year review, scar tissue was present in 5 patients in group A compared with 18 in group B (P<0.05. The success rate of EES-DCR was 98% (53/54 in group A and 84% (48/57 in group B (P<0.05.CONCLUSION: The simple modification of fashioning nasal mucosal flap can effectively cover the bared bone around the opened sac and reduce formation of granulation tissue, lessen the risk of scar tissue formation and closure of ostium, thus improve the success rate of EES-DCR in Asians.

  5. Colonoscopic resection of lateral spreading tumours: a prospective analysis of endoscopic mucosal resection.

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    Hurlstone, D P; Sanders, D S; Cross, S S; Adam, I; Shorthouse, A J; Brown, S; Drew, K; Lobo, A J

    2004-09-01

    Lateral spreading tumours are superficial spreading neoplasms now increasingly diagnosed using chromoscopic colonoscopy. The clinicopathological features and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumours (G-type "aggregate" and F-type "flat") has yet to be clarified in Western cohorts. Eighty two patients underwent magnification chromoscopic colonoscopy using the Olympus CF240Z by a single endoscopist. All patients had received a previous colonoscopy where an endoscopic diagnosis of lateral spreading tumour was made. All lesions were examined initially using indigo carmine chromoscopy to delineate contour followed by crystal violet for magnification crypt pattern analysis. A 20 MHz "mini probe" ultrasound was used if T2 disease was suspected. Following endoscopic mucosal resection, patients were followed up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months using total colonoscopy. Eighty two lateral spreading tumours were diagnosed in 80 patients (32% (26/82) F-type and 68% (56/82) G-type). G-type lesions were larger than F-type (G-type mean 42 (SD 14) mm v F-type 24 (6.4) mm; plateral spreading tumours using endoscopic mucosal resection at two years of follow-up was 96% (56/58). Endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumours, staged as T1, is a safe and effective treatment despite their large size. Endoscopic mucosal resection may be an alternative to surgery in selected patients.

  6. Endoscopic mucosal resection for staging and treatment of early esophageal carcinoma: a single institution experience.

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    Huntington, Justin T; Walker, Jon P; Meara, Michael P; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott; Perry, Kyle A

    2015-08-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has emerged for evaluation and treatment of esophageal nodules. We report our initial experience with EMR for T staging and management of early esophageal cancer. We reviewed patients undergoing EMR for esophageal adenocarcinoma between 2008 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was needed for esophagectomy. Secondary outcomes included complete eradication of adenocarcinoma, recurrence or persistence of cancer, nodal status for those undergoing esophagectomy, and complications of endoscopic treatment. During the study period, 24 patients underwent EMR demonstrating carcinoma, and a grossly margin negative endoscopic resection was achieved in all cases. Ten patients (42 %) had evidence of submucosal invasion and were referred for esophagectomy. Patients with margin negative EMR (n = 10, 42 %) or positive radial margins (n = 4, 16 %) underwent endoscopic surveillance and treatment with radiofrequency ablation or repeat EMR as needed. Thirteen patients (93 %) with intramucosal cancer (IMC) have been successfully managed with ongoing endoscopic surveillance and treatment with a median follow-up of 15.5 months. One patient underwent esophagectomy due to recurrent IMC in the setting of long-segment multifocal high-grade dysplasia. There were no esophageal perforations, one patient developed a self-limited gastrointestinal hemorrhage following EMR, and one had an esophageal stricture following endoscopic management. IMC can be successfully managed endoscopically and thus esophagectomy is avoided in a significant proportion of patients. Endoscopic management may be utilized in the setting of complete resection or radial margin involvement without evidence of submucosal invasion. Close endoscopic follow-up is of paramount importance even in those with negative margins, because recurrent disease may occur following EMR in these patients.

  7. Level of Fecal Calprotectin Correlates With Endoscopic and Histologic Inflammation and Identifies Patients With Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Holck, Susanne; Ibsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing is an important goal of treatment. However, mucosal healing is difficult to determine on the basis of clinical evaluation alone, and endoscopy is uncomfortable and can cause complications. Fecal calprotectin (FC...... or inactive UC who underwent sigmoidoscopy at Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre from September 2012 through 2014. Endoscopic inflammation was evaluated by using the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) and histologic inflammatory activity by a slightly......) is a marker of inflammation, and its levels have been associated with disease activity. We investigated the association between level of FC and mucosal healing and clinical disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS: We performed an observational cross-sectional study of 120 patients with active...

  8. Risk factors for incomplete resection and complications in endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumors.

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    Kim, Hyung Hun; Kim, Joo Hoon; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won

    2012-07-01

    Lateral spreading tumors (LST) are relatively large flat lesions with diameters exceeding 10 mm in length. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a commonly used technique for removing LST. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for incomplete resection and complications of EMR for LST. Between January 2004 and December 2010, 497 patients who underwent EMR for LST were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors for endoscopic and histopathological complete resection, complications, and clinical outcomes were investigated. Risks for incomplete resection by piecemeal resection and en bloc resection of a lesion ≥ 30 mm were higher than for en bloc resection of a lesion LST ≥ 30 mm, hospitalize patients for 12 h and note risk for incomplete resection. (iii) Following en bloc resection for LST<30 mm, hospitalize the patient for 12 h and expect complete resection. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  9. The Impact of Endoscopic Inflammation and Mucosal Healing on Health-related Quality of Life in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life [HRQoL] is impaired in ulcerative colitis and is correlated to clinical disease activity. The recent shift towards more objective treatment goals like mucosal healing generates a need for evaluating the association between endoscopic disease activity......, mucosal healing and HRQoL. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients with either active or inactive ulcerative colitis underwent sigmoidoscopy. Clinical disease activity was assessed by the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index [SCCAI], endoscopic inflammation by the Mayo Endoscopic Subscore [MES...... significantly with increasing clinical (SIBDQ [χ(2) = 61.8, p healing was associated with a higher HRQoL than active inflammation (59/46, p

  10. Gastric mucosal changes caused by Lugol's iodine solution spray: endoscopic features of 64 cases on screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

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    Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Utsunomiya, Takashi; Matsuura, Shuji; Komori, Masahiro; Kawanami, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Tatsuyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the endoscopic mucosal change of the stomach caused by Lugol's iodine solution spray on screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Sixty-four consecutive patients who underwent EGD for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma screening were included in this study. The records for these patients included gastric mucosa findings before and after Lugol's iodine solution was sprayed. The endoscopic findings of the greater curvature of the gastric body were retrospectively analyzed based on the following findings: fold thickening, exudates, ulcers, and hemorrhage. Mucosal changes occurred after Lugol's solution spray totally in 51 patients (80%). Fold thickening was observed in all 51 patients (80%), and a reticular pattern of white lines was found on the surface of the thickened gastric folds found in 28 of the patients (44%). Exudates were observed in 6 patients (9%). The gastric mucosa could be affected by Lugol's iodine; the most frequent endoscopic finding of this effect is gastric fold thickening, which should not be misdiagnosed as a severe gastric disease.

  11. Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum Diagnosed by Boring Biopsy in Combination with Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

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    Yoshito Hirata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man with severe back pain visited our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive bone metastasis and rectal wall thickness. Colonoscopy revealed circumferential stenosis with edematous mucosa, suggesting colon cancer. However, histological findings of biopsy specimens revealed inflammatory cells but no malignant cells. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound, which demonstrated edematous wall thickness without destruction of the normal layer structure. After unsuccessful detection of neoplastic cells by boring biopsies, we performed endoscopic mucosal resection followed by boring biopsies that finally revealed signet ring cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a case and provide a review of the literature.

  12. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

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    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  13. Endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal tumors: Our first experience

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    Nagorni Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR or mucosectomy is an interventional procedure for minimal invasive endoscopic removal of benign and malignant digestive tract tumors. Mucosectomy removes flat and sessile neoplasms, early colorectal cancer (CRC confined to mucosa or submucosa and lateral spreading tumors. The aim of the study was to show our first experience in application of this procedure in everyday practice in regarding completeness and efficacy of the procedure, complication rate and incidence of recurrent adenomas. Methods. In the prospective study 51 colorectal adenomas were removed in 44 patients by EMR. Results. Single mucosectomy was done in 43 patients, while multiple (8 in one patient. Complete resection was obtained in all procedures. In 36 (68.62% procedures „en block“ resection was done, but in 15 (31.37% procedures „piece meal“ resection was performed. Synchronous colorectal tumors (benign or malignant were detected in 20 (45.45% patients. Moderate dysplasia was found in 30 (58.82% adenomas, but high grade dysplasia in 9 (17.64% of adenomas. Intramucosal CRC was detected in 11.77% of adenomas. A total of 37 (72.54% advanced adenomas were removed. There were 3 (5.88% of recurrent adenomas, 6-30 months after the EMR. Only one (2.2% case of post procedure bleeding was observed. Conclusion: EMR is a safe and efficious method for removal of flat, sessile adenomas, as well as early CRC. EMR is a routine endoscopic procedure in everyday practice of interventional endoscopist.

  14. Endoscopic hemostasis with endoscopic mucosal resection and multiple synchronous early gastric cancers: a case report

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    Fujihara Shintaro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Endoscopic hemostasis for severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors and malignant lymphoma, is temporarily effective. However, permanent hemostasis is difficult in many cases because of diffuse bleeding. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital with hematemesis. Endoscopy revealed multiple gastric polyps and fresh blood in her stomach. One of the gastric polyps, which was associated with oozing bleeding, was found near the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We initially applied hemostatic forceps and argon plasma coagulation over the tumor surface, but the bleeding persisted. After endoscopic mucosal resection, exposed vessels were seen at the base of the mucosal resection site with oozing bleeding. Coagulation of the bleeding vessels using hemostatic forceps allowed successful completion of the hemostatic procedure. Our patient also had eight synchronous gastric cancer lesions. Histological examination of the resected specimens showed various types of cancer. Conclusion This is a case report of gastric cancer associated with eight gastric cancer lesions, confirmed by histology, in which hemostasis was achieved through endoscopy.

  15. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery versus endoscopic mucosal resection for large rectal adenomas (TREND-study

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    Geldof Han

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM. If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas. Methods/design Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma ≥ 3 cm, located between 1–15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2 number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3 major and minor morbidity; 4 disease specific and general quality of life; 5 anorectal function; 6 health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures. Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR

  16. Combined endoscopic mucosal resection and photodynamic therapy for esophageal neoplasia within Barrett's esophagus

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    Buttar, N. S.; Wang, K. K.; Lutzke, L. S.; Krishnadath, K. K.; Anderson, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and photodynamic therapy have been proposed as treatments for early stage cancers. EMR is limited by its focal nature whereas photodynamic therapy is dependent on precise staging. The combination of EMR and photodynamic therapy were studied in the

  17. Colonoscopic resection of lateral spreading tumours: a prospective analysis of endoscopic mucosal resection

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    Hurlstone, D P; Sanders, D S; Cross, S S; Adam, I; Shorthouse, A J; Brown, S; Drew, K; Lobo, A J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Lateral spreading tumours are superficial spreading neoplasms now increasingly diagnosed using chromoscopic colonoscopy. The clinicopathological features and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection for lateral spreading tumours (G-type “aggregate” and F-type “flat”) has yet to be clarified in Western cohorts.

  18. Management of Nodular Neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus: Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

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    Belghazi, Kamar; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Pouw, Roos E.

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has proven highly effective and safe in the removal of focal early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus and is considered the cornerstone of endoscopic treatment. Several techniques are available for endoscopic resection in Barrett's esophagus. The most widely used

  19. Effect of large fundal varices on changes in gastric mucosal hemodynamics after endoscopic variceal ligation.

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    Tayama, C; Iwao, T; Oho, K; Toyonaga, A; Tanikawa, K

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS AND STUDY AIMS: Effect of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) on gastric mucosal hemodynamics would differ in patients with and without large fundal varices. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. Twenty-seven patients with cirrhosis and large sized esophageal varices were prospectively studied. There were eight patients with large fundal varices and 19 patients without large fundal varices. Before EVL, gastric mucosal hemodynamics were endoscopically assessed by laser-Doppler velocimetry and reflectance spectrophotometry in the antrum and the corpus. In the reflectance spectrophotometric measurements, gastric mucosal hemoglobin content (IHb) and gastric mucosal oxygen saturation (ISO2) were determined. The severity of portal-hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) was also recorded at the antrum and the corpus. For data analysis, PHG was scored (absent, 0; mild, 1; severe, 2; bleeding, 3). These measurements were repeated after initial (three days after initial session) and repeated (seven days after last session) EVL. At the antrum, neither PHG score nor gastric mucosal hemodynamic parameters were modified after initial and repeated EVL in patients with and without large fundal varices. In addition, no significant differences of the integrated changes in PHG score and gastric mucosal hemodynamic parameters were observed in the two groups. At the corpus, PHG score significantly increased after initial and repeated EVL in patients without large fundal varices. In these patients, laser-Doppler signal and ISO2 significantly decreased and IHb significantly increased after initial and repeated EVL. In contrast, PHG score, laser-Doppler signal, and ISO2 did not change significantly in patients with large fundal varices, although IHb transiently increased after initial EVL. Furthermore, the integrated changes in PHG score and gastric mucosal hemodynamic parameters were significantly lower in patients with large fundal varices than in those without. The

  20. The Risk of Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in the Setting of Clopidogrel Use

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    Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Prasad, Ganapathy A.; Lutzke, Lori S.; Dunagan, Kelly T.; Borkenhagen, Lynn S.; Okoro, Ngozi I.; Tomizawa, Yutaka; Buttar, Navtej S.; Michel, Wongkeesong Louis; Wang, Kenneth K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Guidelines on antiplatelet medication use during endoscopy are based on limited evidence. We investigate the risk of bleeding and ischemic events in patients undergoing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of esophageal lesions in the setting of scheduled cessation and prompt resumption of clopidogrel. Design. Single centre retrospective review. Patients. Patients undergoing EMR of esophageal lesions. Interventions. Use of clopidogrel before EMR and resumption after EMR. Patients cease antiplatelets and anticoagulants 7 days before EMR and resume clopidogrel 2 days after EMR in average risk patients. Main Outcomes. Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) and ischemic events (IE) within 30 days of EMR. Results. 798 patients underwent 1716 EMR. 776 EMR were performed on patients on at least 1 antiplatelet/anticoagulant (APAC). 17 EMR were performed following clopidogrel cessation. There were 14 GIB and 2 IE. GIB risk in the setting of recent clopidogrel alone (0%) was comparable to those not on APAC (1.1%) (P = 1.0). IE risk on clopidogrel (6.3%) was higher than those not on APAC (0.1%) (P = 0.03). Limitations. Retrospective study. Conclusions. Temporary cessation of clopidogrel before EMR and prompt resumption is not associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding but may be associated with increased ischemic events. PMID:24944824

  1. Management of Nodular Neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus: Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

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    Belghazi, Kamar; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Pouw, Roos E

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic resection has proven highly effective and safe in the removal of focal early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus and is considered the cornerstone of endoscopic treatment. Several techniques are available for endoscopic resection in Barrett's esophagus. The most widely used technique for piecemeal resection of early Barrett's neoplasia is the ligate-and-cut technique. Newer techniques such as endoscopic submucosal dissection may also play a role in the treatment of neoplastic Barrett's esophagus. Treatment of early Barrett's neoplasia should be centralized and limited to expert centers with a high-volume load and sufficient expertise in the detection and treatment of esophageal neoplasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metachronous Esophageal Cancer and Colon Cancer Treated by Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

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    Chun-Chao Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer in Taiwan are diagnosed in the advanced stage and treated by surgery or concurrent chemoirradiation. The detection rates of early esophageal cancer and early colorectal cancer are still low in Taiwan. Metachronous early esophageal cancer and early colorectal cancer have rarely been reported. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR is a well-established method for treatment of early gastrointestinal cancer in Japan. We report a 77-year-old man with metachronous early esophageal cancer and early colorectal cancer detected by chromoendoscopy with 3% Lugol's iodine and 0.2% indigo carmine, respectively. These two lesions were successfully treated by EMR. Endoscopic mucosal resection of early cancer in the gastrointestinal tract may be considered in patients who are not suitable for open surgery. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3 Suppl:S5-S9

  3. Effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayedrelease tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery

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    Qing-Hua Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayedrelease tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery and its feasibility. Methods: A total of 80 patients who were admitted in ENT department from June, 2012 to June, 2015 for nasal endoscope surgery were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 40 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were given nifedipine delayed-release tablets for advanced blood pressure control before operation, and were given routine blood pressure control during operation; while the patients in the control group were only given blood pressure control during operation. The changes of blood pressure, mean central arterial pressure, and heart rate before anesthesia (T0, after intubation (T1, during operation (T2, extubation when waking (T3, 30 min after extubation (T4, and 3 h after back to wards (T5 in the two groups were compared. The intraoperative situation and the surgical field quality in the two groups were compared. Results: SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T1-5 in the two groups were significantly lower than those at T0. SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T2 were significantly lower than those at other timing points, and were gradually recovered after operation, but were significantly lower than those at T0. The effect taking time of blood pressure reducing, intraoperative nitroglycerin dosage, and postoperative wound surface exudation amount in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The surgical field quality scores in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. Conclusions: Advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets can stabilize the blood pressure during the perioperative period in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery, and enhance the surgical field qualities.

  4. Accurate cut-offs for predicting endoscopic activity and mucosal healing in Crohn's disease with fecal calprotectin

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    Juan María Vázquez-Morón

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal biomarkers, especially fecal calprotectin, are useful for predicting endoscopic activity in Crohn's disease; however, the cut-off point remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to analyze whether faecal calprotectin and M2 pyruvate kinase are good tools for generating highly accurate scores for the prediction of the state of endoscopic activity and mucosal healing. Methods: The simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease and the Crohn's disease activity index was calculated for 71 patients diagnosed with Crohn's. Fecal calprotectin and M2-PK were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Results: A fecal calprotectin cut-off concentration of ≥ 170 µg/g (sensitivity 77.6%, specificity 95.5% and likelihood ratio +17.06 predicts a high probability of endoscopic activity, and a fecal calprotectin cut-off of ≤ 71 µg/g (sensitivity 95.9%, specificity 52.3% and likelihood ratio -0.08 predicts a high probability of mucosal healing. Three clinical groups were identified according to the data obtained: endoscopic activity (calprotectin ≥ 170, mucosal healing (calprotectin ≤ 71 and uncertainty (71 > calprotectin < 170, with significant differences in endoscopic values (F = 26.407, p < 0.01. Clinical activity or remission modified the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity (100% vs 89% or mucosal healing (75% vs 87% in the diagnostic scores generated. M2-PK was insufficiently accurate to determine scores. Conclusions: The highly accurate scores for fecal calprotectin provide a useful tool for interpreting the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity or mucosal healing, and are valuable in the specific clinical context.

  5. Prediction of Pathological Complete Response Using Endoscopic Findings and Outcomes of Patients Who Underwent Watchful Waiting After Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer.

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    Kawai, Kazushige; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Nonoperative management for patients with rectal cancer who have achieved a clinical complete response after chemoradiotherapy is becoming increasingly important in recent years. However, the definition of and modality used for patients with clinical complete response differ greatly between institutions, and the role of endoscopic assessment as a nonoperative approach has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the ability of endoscopic assessments to predict pathological regression of rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy and the applicability of these assessments for the watchful waiting approach. This was a retrospective comparative study. This study was conducted at a single referral hospital. A total of 198 patients with rectal cancer underwent preoperative endoscopic assessments after chemoradiotherapy. Of them, 186 patients underwent radical surgery with lymph node dissection. The histopathological findings of resected tissues were compared with the preoperative endoscopic findings. Twelve patients refused radical surgery and chose watchful waiting; their outcomes were compared with the outcomes of patients who underwent radical surgery. The endoscopic criteria correlated well with tumor regression grading. The sensitivity and specificity for a pathological complete response were 65.0% to 87.1% and 39.1% to 78.3%. However, endoscopic assessment could not fully discriminate pathological complete responses, and the outcomes of patients who underwent watchful waiting were considerably poorer than the patients who underwent radical surgery. Eventually, 41.7% of the patients who underwent watchful waiting experienced uncontrollable local failure, and many of these occurrences were observed more than 3 years after chemoradiotherapy. The number of the patients treated with the watchful waiting strategy was limited, and the selection was not randomized. Although endoscopic assessment after chemoradiotherapy correlated with pathological response

  6. Novel endoscopic application of a new flexible-fiber CO2 laser for esophageal mucosal ablation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandasabapathy, S; Maru, D; Klumpp, S; Uthamanthil, R; Borne, A; Bhutani, M S

    2009-02-01

    The CO (2) laser is a surgical tool that is widely used because of its predictable penetration depth and minimal collateral damage due to efficient absorption of CO (2) laser energy by tissue water. Until recently, endoscopic use was limited by lack of an efficient, flexible delivery system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance, efficacy, and safety of a novel, photonic band-gap CO (2) laser configured for esophageal mucosal ablation. This was an endoscopic experimental study in a porcine survival model. Initial evaluation was done on ex vivo tissue followed by endoscopic studies at 7-, 10-, 15-, and 20-W power and at 0-, 1-, 2-, 5-, and 10-mm distances, using continuous and pulsed currents, to determine optimal performance settings. In an IACUC-approved protocol, six pigs underwent circumferential ablation of the distal 6 cm of the esophagus at 10W continuous current. The animals were monitored for 2 or 4 weeks to evaluate delayed effects. Prior to euthanasia, the proximal esophagus was ablated to evaluate the homogeneity of ablation and depth of injury immediately after single and repeat ablation. The animals resumed normal diets within 24 hours and experienced no dysphagia or weight loss. Pathology at 2 and 4 weeks revealed complete re-epithelialization with minimal histologic injury. A single application of the laser produced complete transepithelial ablation of a mean of 83.3 % of the surface area (range 55 % - 100 %); depth of injury was to the muscularis mucosa in five pigs and to the superficial submucosa in one pig. With ablation, sloughing, and re-ablation, a mean of 95 % transepithelial ablation was achieved (range 80 % -100 %) with similar depth of injury. Using a novel, flexible CO (2) laser, homogeneous ablation was achieved with predictable penetration and minimal deep tissue injury. These results warrant further evaluation of the laser in Barrett's esophagus, as it may overcome the limitations of current technologies

  7. En bloc endoscopic mucosal resection is equally effective for sessile serrated polyps and conventional adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amol; Garimall, Sidyarth; Scott, Frank I; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Kochman, Michael L; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Chandrasekhara, Vinay

    2018-04-01

    Sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) are associated with higher rates of incomplete resection compared to conventional adenomas after traditional snare polypectomy. Outcomes after endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) are less established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of residual neoplasia at surveillance colonoscopy for SSPs compared to conventional adenomas ≥ 10 mm after en bloc EMR. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients referred for EMR of a colonic lesion ≥ 10 mm from 2005 to 2013. Data on procedures, histopathology, and surveillance colonoscopies were recorded. The primary outcome was rate of macroscopically evident residual neoplasia at surveillance colonoscopy for SSPs compared to adenomas. Secondary outcomes included rate of neoplasia at the resection margin. 283 consecutive patients with 293 polyps underwent en bloc EMR including 101 SSPs and 192 adenomas. Pathology commented on the lateral resection margins of the specimen in 235 cases (80%). Of these, neoplasia was noted at the resection margin in 29/64 SSPs (45.3%) compared to 65/171 adenomas (38.0%; P = .37). Surveillance data were available for 153 index lesions with a median interval of 13 months (interquartile range, 10.75-23.25 months). Ten resection sites (6.5%) were found to have residual neoplasia, including 2/52 SSPs (3.8%) and 8/101 adenomas (7.9%; P = .50). Of the cases with surveillance data 128/153 (84%) commented on the lateral margin of the resection specimen. Residual neoplasia was noted in 3/68 lesions (4.4%) with negative margins compared to 5/60 lesions (8.3%) with positive margins (P = .47). En bloc EMR for colonic lesions ≥ 10 mm is associated with a 6.5% rate of macroscopic residual neoplasia. Although 45% of SSPs had neoplasia extending to the resection margin, rates of residual neoplasia at surveillance colonoscopy were low. These results suggest that when feasible en bloc EMR is a reasonable option to resect SSPs ≥ 10 mm.

  8. Use of prototype two-channel endoscope with elevator enables larger lift-and-snare endoscopic mucosal resection in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Matthew; Chukwumah, Chike; Marks, Jeffrey; Chak, Amitabh

    2014-02-01

    Flat and depressed lesions are becoming increasingly recognized in the esophagus, stomach, and colon. Various techniques have been described for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of these lesions. To evaluate the efficacy of lift-grasp-cut EMR using a prototype dual-channel forward-viewing endoscope with an instrument elevator in one accessory channel (dual-channel elevator scope) as compared to standard dual-channel endoscopes. EMR was performed using a lift-grasp-cut technique on normal flat rectosigmoid or gastric mucosa in live porcine models after submucosal injection of 4 mL of saline using a dual-channel elevator scope or a standard dual-channel endoscope. With the dual-channel elevator scope, the elevator was used to attain further lifting of the mucosa. The primary endpoint was size of the EMR specimen and the secondary endpoint was number of complications. Twelve experiments were performed (six gastric and six colonic). Mean specimen diameter was 2.27 cm with the dual-channel elevator scope and 1.34 cm with the dual-channel endoscope (P = 0.018). Two colonic perforations occurred with the dual-channel endoscope, vs no complications with the dual-channel elevator scope. The increased lift of the mucosal epithelium, through use of the dual-channel elevator scope, allows for larger EMR when using a lift-grasp-cut technique. Noting the thin nature of the porcine colonic wall, use of the elevator may also make this technique safer.

  9. Endoscopic mucosal resection of lateral spreading tumors of the colon using a novel solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Paroutoglou, George; Beltsis, Athanasios; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris; Papaziogas, Basilis; Katsinelos, Taxiarchis; Rizos, Christos; Tzovaras, George; Vasiliadis, Ioannis; Dimiropoulos, Stavros

    2006-04-01

    Lateral spreading tumors (LSTs) of the colon are lesions over 10 mm in diameter that are low in height and grow superficially. They are increasingly being diagnosed in Western cohorts. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dextrose 50% solution in the endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of LSTs. The study population consisted of 21 patients with LSTs of the colorectum. The mean size of the LSTs was 23.52+/-13.60 mm. Dextrose 50% solution was injected, via a variceal needle, into the submucosa to lift up the LST sufficiently from the proper muscle layer. Subsequently, a snare was positioned around the lesion and then closed while being pressed against the mucosa, with suction being applied to draw the lesion into the snare. Blended current was used for resection. If necessary, a piecemeal technique was used to achieve complete resection. Immediate and delayed complications were recorded. After the EMR, patients were followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months or later, using total colonoscopy. Endoscopic resection was completed in all LSTs. Of the 21 LSTs, 15 (71.4%) were resected en bloc and 6 (28.6%) piecemeal. The mean amount of injected dextrose 50% solution was 14.86+/-9.13 mL. One patient (4.78%) had immediate bleeding after EMR, which was stopped endoscopically. Histologic examination of resected LSTs showed adenoma with high-grade dysplasia 9 (42.9%), adenoma with low-grade dysplasia 10 (47.6%), and invasive carcinoma 2 (9.5%). Twenty patients were followed up for 37.9+/-24.03 months. Local recurrent disease was detected in 4 patients (20%), all within 6 months of the index EMR. These recurrent lesions were completely resected endoscopically. The contribution of submucosal injection of dextrose 50% is significant for a safe and efficient EMR of LSTs of the colorectum.

  10. An endoscopic study of upper-GI mucosal changes in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Kaiser; Kochhar, Rakesh; Sethy, Pradeepta K; Dutta, Usha; Bali, Harinder K; Varma, Jagmohan S

    2004-12-01

    Congestive heart failure results in an increase in systemic venous pressure that is transmitted to the inferior vena cava and to the hepatic veins. This can cause GI vascular and mucosal congestion. The aim of this study was to define upper-GI mucosal changes in patients with congestive heart failure. A total of 57 patients with congestive heart failure presenting with GI symptoms underwent upper endoscopy. Echocardiography was performed in all patients to determine the ejection fraction and the degree of tricuspid regurgitation. Transabdominal US was performed to measure the diameters of the hepatic veins, the inferior vena cava, and the portal vein. The presence and the severity of gastropathy and duodenopathy were compared with the parameters relating to severity of cardiac failure. Of the 57 patients studied, gastric mucosal changes were observed in 50 (88%), duodenal mucosal changes in 31 (54%), and esophageal mucosal changes in none. Gastric mucosal changes were the following: mosaic-like pattern (n = 50), punctate spots (n = 34), thickened folds (n = 5), watermelon stomach (n = 3), and telangiectasia (n = 10). Duodenal mucosal changes were the following: mosaic-like pattern (n = 29), thickened folds (n = 8), and telangiectasia (n = 2). Upper-GI symptoms were associated with gastropathy ( p = 0.027) and duodenopathy ( p = 0.003). The presence and the severity of duodenopathy showed a high degree of positive correlation with the presence and the severity of gastropathy (gamma value 0.690; p value <0.001). Patients with gastropathy and duodenopathy had higher mean inferior vena cava and hepatic vein diameters than those without gastropathy and duodenopathy. The severity of duodenopathy but not that of gastropathy was significantly associated with increasing severity of tricuspid regurgitation ( p = 0.001), larger portal vein diameter ( p = 0.02), and lower ejection fraction ( p = 0.008). Among patients with congestive cardiac failure with GI symptoms, changes

  11. Radiofrequency ablation and endoscopic mucosal resection for dysplastic barrett's esophagus and early esophageal adenocarcinoma: outcomes of the UK National Halo RFA Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidry, Rehan J; Dunn, Jason M; Butt, Mohammed A; Burnell, Matthew G; Gupta, Abhinav; Green, Sarah; Miah, Haroon; Smart, Howard L; Bhandari, Pradeep; Smith, Lesley Ann; Willert, Robert; Fullarton, Grant; Morris, John; Di Pietro, Massimo; Gordon, Charles; Penman, Ian; Barr, Hugh; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Kapoor, Neel; Mahon, Brinder; Hoare, Jonathon; Narayanasamy, Ravi; O'Toole, Dermot; Cheong, Edward; Direkze, Natalie C; Ang, Yeng; Novelli, Marco; Banks, Matthew R; Lovat, Laurence Bruce

    2013-07-01

    Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or early neoplasia increasingly receive endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy. We analyzed data from a UK registry that follows the outcomes of patients with BE who have undergone RFA for neoplasia. We collected data on 335 patients with BE and neoplasia (72% with HGD, 24% with intramucosal cancer, 4% with low-grade dysplasia [mean age, 69 years; 81% male]), treated at 19 centers in the United Kingdom from July 2008 through August 2012. Mean length of BE segments was 5.8 cm (range, 1-20 cm). Patients' nodules were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection, and the patients then underwent RFA every 3 months until all areas of BE were ablated or cancer developed. Biopsies were collected 12 months after the first RFA; clearance of HGD, dysplasia, and BE were assessed. HGD was cleared from 86% of patients, all dysplasia from 81%, and BE from 62% at the 12-month time point, after a mean of 2.5 (range, 2-6) RFA procedures. Complete reversal dysplasia was 15% less likely for every 1-cm increment in BE length (odds ratio = 1.156; SE = 0.048; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.26; P < .001). Endoscopic mucosal resection before RFA did not provide any benefit. Invasive cancer developed in 10 patients (3%) by the 12-month time point and disease had progressed in 17 patients (5.1%) after a median follow-up time of 19 months. Symptomatic strictures developed in 9% of patients and were treated by endoscopic dilatation. Nineteen months after therapy began, 94% of patients remained clear of dysplasia. We analyzed data from a large series of patients in the United Kingdom who underwent RFA for BE-related neoplasia and found that by 12 months after treatment, dysplasia was cleared from 81%. Shorter segments of BE respond better to RFA; http://www.controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN93069556. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful Treatment of Early-Stage Jejunum Adenocarcinoma by Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Using Double-Balloon Endoscopy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirobumi Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA has generally been considered to have a poor prognosis because of nonspecific presentations and difficulties in detection of the disease. The advent of capsule endoscopy (CE and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE makes it possible to access to the small intestine for endoscopic interventions. We describe a successful case of early jejunum adenocarcinoma completely resected by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR using double-balloon endoscopy (DBE. Early diagnosis and EMR using new technologies such as CE and DBE may improve the recognition of this disease that, at present, has a poor prognosis.

  13. Different healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects by endoscopic mucosal dissection between with and without steroid injection in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Ban, Shinichi; Aikawa, Masayasu; Akimoto, Naoe; Koyama, Isamu; Kita, Hiroto

    2013-04-25

    Stricture formation is one of the major complications after endoscopic removal of large superficial squamous cell neoplasms of the esophagus, and local steroid injections have been adopted to prevent it. However, fundamental pathological alterations related to them have not been well analyzed so far. The aim of this study was to analyze the time course of the healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects resulting in stricture formation and its modification by local steroid injection, using an animal model. Esophageal circumferential mucosal defects were created by endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD) for four pigs. One pig was sacrificed five minutes after the ESD, and other two pigs were followed-up on endoscopy and sacrificed at the time of one week and three weeks after the ESD, respectively. The remaining one pig was followed-up on endoscopy with five times of local steroid injection and sacrificed at the time of eight weeks after the ESD. The esophageal tissues of all pigs were subjected to pathological analyses. For the pigs without steroid injection, the esophageal stricture was completed around three weeks after the ESD on both endoscopy and esophagography. Histopathological examination of the esophageal tissues revealed that spindle-shaped α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myofibroblasts arranged in a parallel fashion and extending horizontally were identified at the ulcer bed one week after the ESD, and increased contributing to formation of the stenotic luminal ridge covered with the regenerated epithelium three weeks after the ESD. The proper muscle layer of the stricture site was thinned with some myocytes which seemingly showed transition to the myofibroblast layer. By contrast, for the pig with steroid injection, esophageal stricture formation was not evident with limited appearance of the spindle-shaped myofibroblasts, instead, appearance of stellate or polygocal SMA-positive stromal cells arranged haphazardly in the persistent granulation

  14. Gastric Mucosal Changes Caused by Lugol's Iodine Solution Spray: Endoscopic Features of 64 Cases on Screening Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Tsurumaru

    2010-01-01

    findings: fold thickening, exudates, ulcers, and hemorrhage. Results. Mucosal changes occurred after Lugol's solution spray totally in 51 patients (80%. Fold thickening was observed in all 51 patients (80%, and a reticular pattern of white lines was found on the surface of the thickened gastric folds found in 28 of the patients (44%. Exudates were observed in 6 patients (9%. Conclusion. The gastric mucosa could be affected by Lugol's iodine; the most frequent endoscopic finding of this effect is gastric fold thickening, which should not be misdiagnosed as a severe gastric disease.

  15. Comparison of quality of life between men and women who underwent Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy for lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Thomaidis, Tryfon; Charitoudis, Georgios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Studies describing the efficacy of TPED on shortness of recovery and improvement of postoperative quality of life are limited, especially regarding gender something that has never been reported before in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate possible differences of the health-related quality of life in patients who underwent TPED for LDH in accordance with sex. Seventy-six patients diagnosed and treated with TPED for LDH with 1 year follow-up were selected and divided into two groups of equal number depending on sex. Their quality of life was evaluated by using the SF-36 before the operation, six weeks, three, six and twelve months postoperatively. A statistical analysis was conducted, in order to compare the 8 scaled scores of the SF-36 combining each time two chronological phases in the total of patients, in each group and between groups. Fifty-two (68.4%) patients were ≤63 years old, while the rest 24 (31,4%) were >63 years old (mean ±SD = 56,5 ±12,1 years). Apart from the PF domain, the scores were higher in every visit for the two groups, but the change between groups was not significant. Women had a significantly higher increase of PF score in 3 months after TPED and in the interval 6 weeks-3 months comparing with men. However, in the intervals 3 months-6 months and 3 months-12 months men presented significantly higher increase compared to women. Statistically significant improvement of the quality of life for both men and women was observed. Generally, there was no significant difference between the two groups. As regards to the physical functioning, it appears to be a significant difference which is counterpoised over time. 2. TPED for LDH does not present major differences in the improvement of quality of life regarding gender.

  16. Effectiveness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on nutritional status and mucositis in oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miki; Takemoto, Naoko; Sano, Ayaka

    2012-01-01

    Recently, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is frequently used for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. However, CCRT induces mucositis and dysphagia and causes inadequate oral nutrition intake. Thus, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in advance is recently recommended. To evaluate the effectiveness of PEG on nutritional intake, nutritional status, blood test, and grade of mucositis of 29 patients who had CCRT with PEG were investigated retrospectively. The results were statistically compared with those of 13 patients who had CCRT without PEG as a control group. Regarding the total energy, no significant change was observed in the PEG group, while the total energy intake significantly decreased in the control group (P=0.026). A significant correlation was observed between the rate of body weight loss during CCRT and total energy intake (R=0.78). The total energy intake of patients who could maintain body weight was 34.1 kcal/kg/day. Taken together, these results suggested that early nutritional administration using PEG can reduce the weight loss during CCRT. (author)

  17. Cold versus hot endoscopic mucosal resection for nonpedunculated colorectal polyps sized 6-10 mm: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Paraskeva, Konstantina D; Fragaki, Maria; Dimas, Ioannis; Vardas, Emmanouil; Theodoropoulou, Angeliki; Mathou, Nicoletta; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Karmiris, Konstantinos; Mpitouli, Afroditi; Apessou, Dimitra; Giannikaki, Linda; Karagiannis, John A; Chlouverakis, Grigorios; Paspatis, Gregorios A

    2018-04-01

     Cold snare polypectomy is an established method for the resection of small colorectal polyps; however, significant incomplete resection rates still leave room for improvement. We aimed to assess the efficacy of cold snare endoscopic mucosal resection (CS-EMR), compared with hot snare endoscopic mucosal resection (HS-EMR), for nonpedunculated polyps sized 6 - 10 mm.  This study was a dual-center, randomized, noninferiority trial. Consecutive adult patients with at least one nonpedunculated polyp sized 6 - 10 mm were enrolled. Eligible polyps were randomized (1:1) to be treated with either CS-EMR or HS-EMR. Both methods involved submucosal injection of a methylene blue-tinted normal saline solution. The primary noninferiority end point was histological eradication evaluated by postpolypectomy biopsies (noninferiority margin - 10 %). Secondary outcomes included occurrence of intraprocedural bleeding, clinically significant postprocedural bleeding, and perforation.  Among 689 patients screened, 155 patients with 164 eligible polyps were included (CS-EMR n = 83, HS-EMR n = 81). The overall rate of histological complete resection was 92.8 % in the CS-EMR group and 96.3 % in the HS-EMR group (difference 3.5 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] - 4.15 to 11.56), showing noninferiority of CS-EMR compared with HS-EMR. CS-EMR was shown to be noninferior both for polyps measuring 6 - 7 mm (CS-EMR 93.3 %; HS-EMR 100 %; 95 %CI - 7.95 to 21.3) and those of 8 - 10 mm (92.5 % vs. 94.7 %, respectively; 95 %CI - 7.91 to 13.16). Rates of intraprocedural bleeding were similar between the two groups (CS-EMR 3.6 %, HS-EMR 1.2 %; P  = 0.30). No clinically significant postprocedural bleeding or perforation occurred in either group.  CS-EMR appears to be a valuable modification of the standard cold snare technique, obviating the need to use diathermy for nonpedunculated colorectal polyps sized 6 - 10

  18. Endoscopic mucosal incision by diode laser for early cancer treatment in the alimentary tract: effect of submucosal indocyanine green solution injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Nakamura, Naoko; Tajiri, Hisao; Miura, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1999-06-01

    Mucosal incision technique by diode laser ablation was studied to ensure the operation of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), which is gold standard method for early gastric cancer with little/no risk of lymphnode metastasis. Our method was designed to facilitate grasping a large lesion by hitching the snaring wire on the incised mucosal groove around the lesion. We employed local submucosal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) solution. ICG solution was used to prevent direct laser light penetration to the muscularis propriae owing to strong absorption of 805nm light (absorption coefficent at 805 nm is about 200cm-1). We used diode laser radiation with an output of 25W by contact (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 kg/cm2) and non-contact irradiation methods. In the preliminary experiment with resected porcine stomach, muscularis propriae was intact by the 60s non-contact irradiation or the 8s contact irradiation with contact pressure of 1kg/cm2. In the endoscopic experiment we used 3 dogs. Using conical contact probe, we successfully demonstrated 3cm diameter circular incision with sharp groove in 10 minutes. We could place the snaring wire on the incised groove. Histology of the endoscopically incised canine stomach revealed that the submucosal layer welled up to 6mm in thickness and the bottom of the incision groove reached 1.9mm at deepest below the mucosal muscle. The thickness of the coagulation layer around the incised groove was up to 1.8mm. No damage was seen a the muscularis propriae. We demonstrate easy as well as sure snaring by using our laser incision technique. We think our technique may be available to enhance the efficacy of EMR for early gastric cancer including the lesion over 2cm in diameter.

  19. Endoscopic Mucosal Healing Predicts Favorable Clinical Outcomes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink, Andrew R; Lee, Terrence C; Higgins, Peter D R

    2016-08-01

    Mucosal healing (MH) in inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes. Uncertainty remains as to the magnitude of this effect and to how this association changes with time and degree of healing. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science searches identified 1570 citations. Screening of abstracts identified 155 articles for full-text review, of which 19 met inclusion criteria. For 3 outcomes of interest (surgeries, hospitalizations, remission), weighted random-effects meta-analysis was performed. In pooled analysis, MH predicted fewer major abdominal surgeries (relative risk [RR], 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.46), increased remission (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.43-2.36), and fewer hospitalizations (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.78). Complete MH and partial MH both showed significantly higher rates of favorable outcomes. Separate analyses for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis showed identical patterns for surgeries and remission. When subjects with no healing were excluded, and complete versus partial healing was compared, rates of surgery were not significantly different (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.46-1.44). However, complete healing was superior in predicting corticosteroid-free remission (RR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.24-2.34). Meta-regression found that the predictive power of this complete versus partial healing distinction was strongly associated with the duration of follow-up after endoscopy. MH is a strong predictor of fewer surgeries, long-term clinical remission, and fewer hospitalizations. Complete healing is not significantly more favorable than partial healing for predicting surgeries or hospitalizations, but it did predict higher rates of clinical remission. This benefit of complete MH over partial healing increases with follow-up time.

  20. Endoscopic mucosal resection of flat and sessile colorectal adenomas: Our experience with long-term follow-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR or mucosectomy is a removing method of flat or sessile lesions, laterally spreading tumors and carcinoma of the colon or the rectum limited to mucosa or the surface part of the submucosa. The aim of the study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of EMR in removing flat and sessile colorectal adenomas. Methods. This prospective study involved 140 patients during the period of 8 years. A total of 187 colorectal adenomas were removed using the EMR method “inject and cut with snare”. Results. The approximate size of mucosectomised adenomas was 13.6 mm (from 8 mm to 60 mm. There was a total of 48 (25.7% flat adenomas and 139 (74.3% sessile adenomas, (p < 0.01. Using “en bloc” and “piecemeal” resection, 173 (92.5% and 14 (7.5% of colorectal adenomas were removed, respectively. In all the cases, a complete removal of colorectal adenomas was achieved. Two (1.4% patients had adenoma removal with intramucosal carcinoma each. In the average follow-up period of 21.2 ± 17.8 months, 2 (1.4% patients had adenoma relapse after EMR. Considering complications, there was bleeding in 1 (0.7% patient with a big rectum adenoma removed with EMR. Furthermore, one (0.7% patient had a postcoagulation syndrome after cecal adenoma was removed by EMR. Conclusion. EMR is an efficient, safe and minimally invasive technique of removing flat and sessile adenomas in the colon and the rectum, with a very low percentage of adenoma recurrence over a long period of monitoring.

  1. Recurrence of Esophageal Intestinal Metaplasia After Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Radiofrequency Ablation of Barrett’s Esophagus: Results From a US Multicenter Consortium Recurrence of Barrett’s Esophagus after EMR and RFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Milli; Iyer, Prasad G.; Lutzke, Lori; Gorospe, Emmanuel C.; Abrams, Julian A.; Falk, Gary W.; Ginsberg, Gregory G.; Rustgi, Anil K.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Wang, Timothy C.; Fudman, David I.; Poneros, John M.; Wang, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment for dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Although short-term endpoints of ablation have been ascertained, there have been concerns about recurrence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) after ablation. We aimed to estimate the incidence and identify factors that predicted the recurrence of IM after successful RFA. METHODS We analyzed data from 592 patients with BE treated with RFA from 2003 through 2011 at 3 tertiary referral centers. Complete remission of intestinal metaplasia (CRIM) was defined as eradication of IM (in esophageal and gastro esophageal junction biopsies), documented by 2 consecutive endoscopies. Recurrence was defined as presence of IM or dysplasia after CRIM in surveillance biopsies. Two experienced gastrointestinal pathologists confirmed pathology findings. RESULTS Based on histology analysis, before RFA, 71% of patients had high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma, 15% had low-grade dysplasia, and 14% had non-dysplastic BE. Of patients treated, 448 (76%) were assessed following RFA. 55% of patients underwent endoscopic mucosal resection before RFA. The median time to CRIM was 22 months, with 56% of patients in CRIM by 24 months. Increasing age and length of BE segment were associated with a longer times to CRIM. Twenty-four months after CRIM, the incidence of recurrence was 33%; 22% of all recurrences observed were dysplastic BE. There were no demographic or endoscopic factors associated with recurrence. Complications developed in 6.5% of subjects treated with RFA; strictures were the most common complication. CONCLUSION Of patients with BE treated by RFA, 56% are in complete remission after 24 months. However, 33% of these patients have disease recurrence within the next 2 years. Most recurrences were non-dysplastic and endoscopically manageable, but continued surveillance after RFA is essential. PMID:23499759

  2. Successful application of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for a lateral-spreading mucosal gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunobe, Souya; Hiki, Naoki; Gotoda, Takuji; Murao, Takahisa; Haruma, Ken; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Tanimura, Shinya; Sano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2012-07-01

    In the current era of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer, which carries a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis, local resection of the stomach remains an option for these lesions. This is particularly so for a large intramucosal lesion or a lesion with a strong ulcer scar, for which ESD becomes a difficult option. Here, we describe a case of lateral-spreading intramucosal gastric cancer of 6-cm diameter located at the fornix of the stomach, which was successfully treated by laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) because of the expected risk of complications during ESD. In the LECS procedure, the resection margin was appropriately determined by the endoscopic evaluation in detail and by the ESD technique. If early gastric cancer fits the criteria for endoscopic resection but would present difficulty if performing ESD, this is a good indication for the LECS procedure.

  3. Radiofrequency ablation for the endoscopic eradication of esophageal squamous high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vilsteren, F. G.; Alvarez Herrero, L.; Pouw, R. E.; ten Kate, F. J.; Visser, M.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Weusten, B. L.; Bergman, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and study aims: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with or without prior endoscopic resection safely and effectively removes early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We speculated that this approach might also be suited for early squamous neoplasia of the esophagus. The aim of the study was to

  4. Terminal ileum of patients who underwent colonoscopy: endoscopic, histologic and clinical aspects Íleo terminal de pacientes submetidos a colonoscopia: aspectos endoscópicos, histológicos e clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Maia Caixeta de Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: For the diagnosis of the diseases which affect the terminal ileum, the colonoscopy allows macroscopic evaluation and the performing of biopsies. Studies with criteria for the endoscopic and histological characterization of this segment are scarce and there are still some doubts about the need of biopsies in patients with normal ileoscopy. OBJECTIVE: Study the terminal ileum of patients who underwent colonoscopy considering: endoscopic and histological correlation; agreement between results of the initial histological evaluation and slides review, and the chance of subjects with normal ileoscopy with abdominal pain and/or chronic diarrhea to show histological alterations. METHODS: In a prospective study, 111 patients who presented smooth mucosa without enanthema in the endoscopic exam of the terminal ileum were selected. Biopsies of the ileal mucosa of such patients were performed, being the slides routinely examined and reviewed afterwards. RESULTS: The correlation between patients with normal ileoscopy and ileum with preserved histological architecture was of 99.1%. The agreement between initial histological evaluation and slides review calculated by the Kappa test was 0.21. In patients with abdominal pain and/or chronic diarrhea, the chance of showing histological alterations was 2.5 times higher than the others. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between endoscopic and histological findings was high. The agreement between the initial histologic evaluation and slides review was not satisfactory. The chance of subjects with normal ileoscopy with abdominal pain and/or chronic diarrhea, showing histological alterations was higher in relation to the asymptomatic ones or with other symptoms, although the clinical importance of this datum was not evaluated.CONTEXTO: Para o diagnóstico de doenças que afetam o íleo terminal, a colonoscopia permite avaliação macroscópica e realização de biopsias. Estudos com critérios para caracteriza

  5. Predicting the Progress of Caustic Injury to Complicated Gastric Outlet Obstruction and Esophageal Stricture, Using Modified Endoscopic Mucosal Injury Grading Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lung-Sheng; Tai, Wei-Chen; Hu, Ming-Luen; Wu, Keng-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Severe caustic injury to the gastrointestinal tract carries a high risk of luminal strictures. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify predicting factors for progress of caustic injury to gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and esophageal strictures (ES), using modified endoscopic mucosal injury grading scale. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with caustic injuries to the gastrointestinal tract in our hospital in the past 7 years. We enrolled 108 patients (49 male, 59 female, mean age 50.1 years, range 18–86) after applying strict exclusion criteria. All patients received early upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours of ingestion. Grade III stomach injuries were found in 58 patients (53.7%); 43 (39.8%) esophageal, and 13 (12%) duodenal. Of the 108 patients, 10 (9.3%) died during the acute stage. Age over 60 years (OR 4.725, P = 0.029) was an independent risk factor of mortality for patients after corrosive injury. Among the 98 survivors, 36 developed luminal strictures (37.1%): ES in 18 patients (18.6%), GOO in 7 (7.2%), and both ES and GOO in 11 (11.3%). Grade III esophageal (OR 3.079, P = 0.039) or stomach (OR 18.972, P = 0.007) injuries were independent risk factors for obstructions. Age ≥60 years was the independent risk factor for mortality after corrosive injury of GI tract. Grade III injury of esophagus was the independent risk factor for development of ES. Grade III injury of stomach was the independent risk factor for development of GOO. PMID:25162035

  6. Efficacy of Infliximab Biosimilar CT-P13 Induction Therapy on Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Klaudia; Rutka, Mariann; Golovics, Petra A; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Lovász, Barbara D; Nyári, Tibor; Gecse, Krisztina B; Kolar, Martin; Bortlik, Martin; Duricova, Dana; Machkova, Nadezda; Hruba, Veronika; Lukas, Martin; Mitrova, Katarina; Malickova, Karin; Bálint, Anita; Nagy, Ferenc; Bor, Renáta; Milassin, Ágnes; Szepes, Zoltán; Palatka, Károly; Lakatos, Péter L; Lukas, Milan; Molnár, Tamás

    2016-11-01

    CT-P13 is the first biosimilar to infliximab that has been approved for the same indications as its originator infliximab. No data are available on the effect of infliximab biosimilar on mucosal healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CT-P13 induction therapy on mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis [UC]. UC patients, who received CT-P13 therapy from its local introduction at three Hungarian and one Czech inflammatory bowel disease centres, were prospectively enrolled. Sigmoidoscopy was performed after the end of the induction therapy at week 14. Mucosal healing was defined as Mayo endoscopic subscore 0 or 1. Complete mucosal healing was defined as Mayo endoscopic subscore 0. Trough level of CT-P13 was measured at week 14. Sixty-three UC patients who underwent CT-P13 induction therapy were enrolled in the study. Indication for the therapy was acute, severe flare up and chronic, refractory activity in 24 and 39 patients, respectively. Cumulative clinical response and steroid-free remission at week 14 were achieved in 82.5% and 47.6% of the patients, respectively. Sigmoidoscopy revealed steroid-free mucosal healing in 47.6% of the patients, and complete mucosal healing was present in 27%. Mayo endoscopic subscore decreased significantly at week 14 compared to baseline. Trough levels of infliximab correlated with mucosal healing. This is, to our knowledge, the first study examining the efficacy of CT-P13 induction therapy on mucosal healing in UC. The results indicate that mucosal healing is achieved in two-thirds of UC patients by the end of the induction treatment with CT-P13. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Fischer, Andreas; Schmidt, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal adenomas are well known precursors of invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for adenoma detection. Colonoscopy is far more than a diagnostic tool, as it allows effective treatment of colorectal adenomas. Endoscopic resection of colorectal adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Difficult resection techniques are available, such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic full-thickness resection. This review aims to provide an overview of the different endoscopic resection techniques and their indications, and summarizes the current recommendations in the recently published guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

  8. Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Cur...

  9. Endoscopic mucosal resection of large and giant lateral spreading lesions of the duodenum: success, adverse events, and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amir; Nayyar, Dhruv; Bahin, Farzan F; Qi, Zhengyan; Lee, Eric; Williams, Stephen J; Byth, Karen; Bourke, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Large sporadic duodenal adenomas are uncommon but they harbor malignant potential, which requires consideration of definitive treatment. EMR is gaining acceptance as an effective and safe alternative to high-risk surgical procedures, but data on long-term outcomes are limited. Herein we describe the short- and long-term outcomes of these lesions in a tertiary referral center. Prospectively collected data were analyzed to identify risk factors for adverse events and outcomes. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and procedural technical data were collected. From 2007 to 2015, 106 adenomas ≥10 mm were resected (mean patient age, 69 years; 54% male; median size, 25 mm; interquartile range [IQR], 19-40). Complete endoscopic resection was achieved in 96%. Intraprocedural bleeding occurred in 43% of cases and was associated with lesion size (P < .001), number of resected specimens (P = .003), and longer procedures (P = .001). Delayed bleeding occurred in 15% (56% did not require active intervention) and was associated with lesion size (P = .03). Perforation occurred in 3 patients. The 30-day mortality was 0%. Median follow-up was 22 months (IQR, 7-45). Histologically proven adenoma recurrence was identified and treated in 12 of 83 patients (14.4%) on first surveillance endoscopy. For the 53 patients for whom follow-up ≥12 months was available (median follow-up, 36 months; IQR, 24-51), 48 patients (90.6%) were free of adenoma and considered cured. In a tertiary referral center, endoscopic resection of duodenal adenomas is a safe and effective alternative to surgery. Lesion size is strongly associated with adverse events, particularly intraprocedural bleeding and delayed bleeding. Good long-term outcomes are demonstrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-08-21

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices.

  11. Endoscopic suturing versus endoscopic clip closure of the mucosotomy during a per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescarus, Radu; Shlomovitz, Eran; Sharata, Ahmed M; Cassera, Maria A; Reavis, Kevin M; Dunst, Christy M; Swanström, Lee L

    2016-05-01

    Obtaining an adequate mucosal closure is one of the crucial steps in per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). Thus far, there have been no objective data comparing the various available closure techniques. This case-controlled study attempts to compare the application of endoscopic clips versus endoscopic suturing for mucosotomy closure during POEM cases. A retrospective review of our prospective POEM database was performed. All cases in which endoscopic suturing was used to close the mucosotomy were matched to cases in which standard endoclips were used. Overall complication rate, closure time and mucosal closure costs between the two groups were compared. Both techniques offer good clinical results with good mucosal closure and the absence of postoperative leak. Closure time was significantly shorter (p = 0.044) with endoscopic clips (16 ± 12 min) when compared to endoscopic suturing (33 ± 11 min). Overall, the total closure cost analysis showed a trend toward lower cost with clips (1502 ± 849 USD) versus endoscopic suturing (2521 ± 575 USD) without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.073). The use of endoscopic suturing seems to be a safe method for mucosal closure in POEM cases. Closure time is longer with suturing than conventional closure with clips, and there is a trend toward higher overall cost. Endoscopic suturing is likely most cost-effective for difficult cases where conventional closure methods fail.

  12. Mesenteric findings of CT enterography are well correlated with the endoscopic severity of Crohn’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Takehiro [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670, Chiba (Japan); Katsuno, Tatsuro, E-mail: katsuno@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Kashiwanoha Clinic, Chiba University, 6-2-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, 277-0882, Chiba (Japan); Saito, Keiko; Yoshihama, Sayuri; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Koseki, Hirotaka; Taida, Takashi; Ishigami, Hideaki; Okimoto, Ken-ichiro; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670, Chiba (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Maintenance of mucosal healing is a primary goal when treating Crohn’s disease (CD). Endoscopy is the most precise method for the assessment of mucosal healing, but is considered overly invasive for patients with CD. In contrast, CT enterography (CTE) is less invasive, but little is known about the correlation between mucosal status and CTE parameters. Methods: We recruited CD patients who underwent CTE and double balloon endoscopy (DBE) on the same day at our hospital between 2012 and 2014. CTE parameters evaluated included bowel-wall thickening, mural hyperenhancement, mural stratification (target sign), submucosal fat deposition, mesenteric hypervascularity (comb sign), increased fat density, mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, and stenosis/sacculation. Endoscopic findings were evaluated using the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn’s Disease (SES-CD). CTE parameters that were predictive of higher values in the SES-CD were extracted statistically. Results: Forty-one patients were recruited, from which 191 intestinal segments were evaluated. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed that the majority of CTE values exhibited mild to moderate correlations with SES-CD values. Notably, multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis demonstrated that CTE findings obtained from the mesenteric area, such as mesenteric hypervascularity (comb sign) and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, were more critical predictors of endoscopic mucosal ulceration than those obtained from the bowel wall. Conclusions: This study was the first of its kind to assess correlations between CTE values and SES-CD values. Mesenteric findings of CTE, rather than mural findings, were highly correlated with the endoscopically evaluated severity of ulceration.

  13. When to remove the urethral catheter after endoscopic realignment of traumatic disruption of the posterior urethra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Darawany, H M

    2017-09-01

    To detect the optimal time for urethral stent removal after endoscopic urethral realignment and its effect on the incidence of development of urethral stricture. Eighteen patients underwent endoscopic urethral realignment after traumatic disruption of the posterior urethra. Post-operative urethroscopy was done using the flexible cystoscope to assess progress of urethral healing. The urethral Foley catheter that served as a stent and for urine drainage was removed only when complete mucosal healing was observed by flexible urethroscopy. There was a post-operative follow-up period of 12-36months. Uroflowmetry was performed at the end of the follow-up period. Endoscopy 6weeks after realignment showed 50-75% mucosal epithelialization at the site of urethral disruption in all patients. Epithelialization was complete at 9weeks in 15/18 patients (83%) and at 12weeks in the remaining 3 patients (17%). One patient (5.6%) developed a mild symptomatic stricture 5months post stent removal that was successfully treated by a single session of visual urethrotomy. All 18 patients had normal uroflowmetry readings at 12-36months after realignment. Urethral stenting should be continued till mucosal healing at the site of urethral disruption became complete. Removal of the stent at this optimal time decreases the incidence of post-operative urethral stricture. Flexible urethroscopy was a safe procedure for post-operative follow-up of endoscopic urethral realignment to assess the progress and completion of mucosal healing at the site of realignment. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Utility of Endoscopic Examination in the Diagnosis of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nomura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD in the lower gastrointestinal (GI tract and the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy. Methods. Of 1231 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between January 2005 and December 2014, 186 of whom underwent colonoscopy and biopsy and had no cytomegalovirus infection. The endoscopic findings and histologic diagnosis from these 186 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Based on the histopathological findings, 171 patients were diagnosed with GVHD, accounting for 13.9% of all transplant recipients. Useful endoscopic findings for the diagnosis of GVHD were atrophy of the ileocecal valve and villous atrophy in the terminal ileum and tortoise shell-like mucosae, edema, and low vascular permeability in the colon. Even when no mucosal abnormality was observed, the incidence of GVHD was 78.9% in the terminal ileum and 75.0% in the colon. Furthermore, patients with mucosal exfoliation, although infrequent, were all diagnosed with grade 3/4 GVHD. Conclusions. It is important to perform endoscopy proactively for the early diagnosis of GVHD, and biopsy should be performed even when no abnormality is observed. In addition, because patients with mucosal exfoliation are extremely likely to have grade 3/4 GVHD, early treatment should be initiated.

  15. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory.

  16. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory

  17. Endoscopic string clip suturing method: a prospective pilot study (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Akimoto, Teppei; Uraoka, Toshio; Mitsunaga, Yutaka; Maehata, Tadateru; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Fujimoto, Ai; Goto, Osamu; Kanai, Takanori; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2018-04-01

    We developed a suturing method with string and clips for a single-channel endoscope. The feasibility of the string clip suturing method is evaluated in this prospective pilot study. This study involved 10 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for a duodenal tumor. Polyester string was tied to the arm of a partially out thrust clip. The clip and string can be passed through the instrument channel (3.2 mm) of a single-channel endoscope. The clip with string was placed at the distal edge of the large mucosal defect. A second clip was hooked on the string and placed on the opposite side. Both clips were gathered by pulling the free end of the string, and additional clips were placed to achieve complete closure. This method was compared with that for the previous 10 patients without mucosal closure after duodenal ESD. Mean size of resected specimens was 39.1 ± 12.4 mm. The success rate of the string clip suturing method was 100% (10/10). The mean procedure time was 23.4 ± 13.8 minutes. Perforation during ESD occurred in 1 patient and was successfully closed by this method. None of the treated patients developed serious adverse events after the procedure. Compared with the no-suture group, the length of stay was significantly shorter (P = .038). The string clip suturing method appears to be a safe and effective method for closure of large mucosal defects. (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000023698.). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  19. Detection of Mucosal Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas After Radiotherapy With Narrow-Band Imaging Endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-Hung [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yen-Chun, E-mail: sarah_travel@hotmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Cheng [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kam-Fai [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of screening mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma with narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and six patients were enrolled. All patients underwent conventional white-light (WL) endoscopic examination of the nasopharynx followed by NBI endoscopy. Biopsies were performed if recurrence was suspected. Results: We identified 32 suspected lesions by endoscopy in WL and/or NBI mode. Scattered brown spots (BS) were identified in 22 patients, and 4 of the 22 who had negative MRI findings were histopathologically confirmed to be neoplasias that were successfully removed via endoscopy. A comparison of the visualization in NBI closer view corresponded to histopathological findings in 22 BS, and the prevalence rates of neoplasias in tail signs, round signs, and irregularities signs were 0% (0/6), 0% (0/7), and 44.4% (4/9), respectively (p = 0.048). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic capability were 37.5%, 92.9% and 0.652 for WL, 87.5%, 74.5% and 0.810 for NBI, and 87.5%, 87.8%, and 0.876 for NBI closer view, respectively. NBI closer view was effective in increasing specificity compared with NBI alone (87.8% vs. 74.5%, p < 0.05), and in increasing sensitivity and diagnostic capability compared to WL alone (87.5% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.05; 0.876 vs. 0.652, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Although NBI in endoscopy can improve sensitivity of mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal neoplasias, false-positive (nonneoplasia BS) results may be obtained in areas with nonspecific inflammatory changes due to postradiation effects. NBI closer view not only can offer a timely, convenient, and highly reliable assessment of mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, it can also make endoscopic removal possible.

  20. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...

  1. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 84 patients managed endoscopically, 44 had a cystic duct (CD) leak, 26 a CD leak and common bile duct (CBD) stones, and 14 a CBD injury amenable to endoscopic stenting. Of the 70 patients with CD leaks (group A), 24 underwent sphincterotomy only (including 8 stone extractions), 43 had a sphincterotomy with stent ...

  2. Curative effect of endoscopic resection in non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-feng ZHAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the curative effect of endoscopic resection in patients with non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma. Methods The clinical data of 9 patients with non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012 in the Department of Endoscopy of General Hospital of Shenyang Command were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were diagnosed with endoscopy, ultrasound endoscopy and preoperative pathology, and all of them underwent endoscopic dissection. Pathological examination and follow-up were carried out after operation. Results Nine patients, including 4 men and 5 women aged 45-78 (59.6±11.5 years old were involved. Tubulovillous adenomas were found in descending duodenum of all patients, with the size of 1.8 to 2.5cm, with a mean of 2.03±0.24cm. Endoscopic resection (EMR was used in all patients successfully. No complication was found during operation and after operation. Postoperative pathology confirmed that all the tumors were tubulovillous adenomas. Low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia was found in 4 cases, and high-grade in 5 cases. Mucosal focal carcinoma was confirmed in one case, without involvement of muscularis mucosae. The position emission tomography (PET showed no abnormal radionuclide accumulation. There were no hemorrhage or death during and after the operation. The average follow-up time was 6-58 (25.6±16.4 months. Metastases and recurrence had not been found. Conclusion Endoscopic mucosal resection is a safe, adequate method for non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenomas. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.012

  3. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  4. Endoscopic corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sandeep; Marupudi, Neena I; Asano, Eishi; Haridas, Abilash; Ham, Steven D

    2015-12-01

    Corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy are conventionally performed via a large craniotomy with the aid of a microscope for children with intractable epilepsy. Primary technical considerations include completeness of disconnection and blood loss. The authors describe an endoscopic technique performed through a microcraniotomy for these procedures. Four patients with drop attacks and 2 with intractable seizures related to a neonatal stroke underwent endoscopic complete corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy, respectively. The surgeries were performed through a 2- to 3-cm precoronal microcraniotomy. Interhemispheric dissection to the corpus callosum was done using the standard technique. Subsequently, the bimanual technique with a suction device mounted on an endoscope was used to perform a complete corpus callosotomy, including interforniceal and anterior commissure disconnection. In patients who had hemispherotomy, the fornix was resected posteriorly and lateral disconnection was done by unroofing the temporal horn. Anteriorly, endoscopic corticectomy was done along the ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery to reach the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery to complete the anterior disconnection. Postoperative MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain were performed to confirm complete disconnection. The procedure was accomplished successfully in all patients, with excellent visualization secured. None of the patients required a blood transfusion. Postoperative MRI and DTI confirmed completeness of the disconnection. Patients who underwent corpus callosotomy had complete resolution of drop attacks at a mean follow-up of 6 months, and patients who underwent hemispherotomy became seizure free. Endoscopic corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy are surgically feasible procedures associated with minimal blood loss, minimal risk, and excellent visualization.

  5. Endoscopic mucosal resection with a multiband ligator for the treatment of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and early gastric cancer Resección endoscópica de la mucosa con un ligador multibanda para el tratamiento de la displasia de Barret de alto grado y el cáncer gástrico precoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Espinel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: due to surgery's high mortality and morbidity, local therapeutic techniques are required for Barrett's high-grade dysplasia (BHGD and early gastric cancer (EGC. Various techniques are available for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR in the GI tract. The "suck and cut" technique, which uses a transparent cap or modified multiband variceal ligator, is usually the most practiced method. A multiband ligator (ML allows sequential resection without the need for submucosal injection and endoscope withdrawal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EMR with a ML device in the treatment of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and early gastric cancer. Patients and methods: prospective study. Eight consecutive patients (4 men; median age, 62 years; range 38-89 years with BHGD (4 or EGC (4 were treated. EMR was performed with a multiband ligator in order to create a pseudopolyp and then permit snare polypectomy of flat mucosal lesions. The pseudopolyp was resected by using pure coagulating current. No submucosal saline injection was administered before resection. Results: a total of 8 consecutive patients were treated with the multiband ligator (ML technique. Barrett's esophagus (BE: one patient with long BE received 3 EMR sessions. Three patients presented with short BE and received 1 EMR session each. The histology of the EMR specimens confirmed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration (1 patient and BHGD (3 patients. Early gastric cancer (EGC: 3 patients had EGC (type IIa and 1 patient had high-grade dysplasia. EMR was accomplished in 1 session for each patient. The histology of EMR specimens confirmed a mucinous adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration (1 patient, EGC (2 patients, and HGD (1 patient. Complications (mild esophageal stenosis, minor bleeding occurred in 2 patients. Conclusions: EMR has diagnostic and therapeutic implications, and represents a superior diagnostic modality as

  6. Results of Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer by Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tani

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We have introduced two endoscopic treatments for early gastric cancer: endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap-fitted panendoscope (EMRC, and endoscopic laser therapy using a Nd-YAG laser. Thirty-two patients (34 lesions with gastric cancer were treated by Nd-YAG laser; including 23 initial-therapy cases (25 lesions and 9 second-therapy cases representing failures of endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic ethanol injection. Endoscopic laser therapy was performed safely without complication in all patients. Three patients had residual cancer, and 2 of these required surgery. Six patients died from other disease. Endoscopic laser therapy can remove early gastric cancer even when the lesion has ulceration or submucosal invasion, and has a powerful hemostatic effect. It is a safe and effective treatment for early gastric cancer.

  7. [X-ray endoscopic semiotics and diagnostic algorithm of radiation studies of preneoplastic gastric mucosa changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akberov, R F; Gorshkov, A N

    1997-01-01

    The X-ray endoscopic semiotics of precancerous gastric mucosal changes (epithelial dysplasia, intestinal epithelial rearrangement) was examined by the results of 1574 gastric examination. A diagnostic algorithm was developed for radiation studies in the diagnosis of the above pathology.

  8. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in inflammatory bowel disease: need for mucosal viral load measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Racca, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Campanini, Giulia; Pozzi, Lodovica; Betti, Elena; Riboni, Roberta; Vanoli, Alessandro; Baldanti, Fausto; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-02-14

    To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/10(5) cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/10(5) cells; P < 0.05 and < 0.001) IBD patients and controls (HCMV and EBV 0 copies/10(5) cells; P < 0.001 for both). Refractory patients showed DNA peak values ≥ 10(3) copies/10(5) cells in diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require quantitative real

  9. Biofeedback efficacy to improve clinical symptoms and endoscopic signs of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Mojgan; Shekarchizadeh, Masood; Farmanara, Hamedreza; Esfahani, Ahmad Reza Shekarchizadeh; Esfahani, Mansooreh Shekarchizadeh

    2018-01-12

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is often resistant to medical and surgical treatment. This study assessed the effect of biofeedback in decreasing the symptoms and the healing of endoscopic signs in SRUS patients. Before starting the treatment, endoscopy and colorectal manometry was performed to evaluate dyssynergic defecation. Patients were followed every four weeks, and during each visit their response to treatment was evaluated regarding to manometry pattern. After at least 50% improvement in manometry parameters, recipients underwent rectosigmoidoscopy. Endoscopic response to biofeedback treatment and clinical symptoms were investigated. Duration of symptoms was 43.11±36.42 months in responder and 63.9 ± 45.74 months in non-responder group (P=0.22). There were more ulcers in non-responder group than responder group (1.50 ±0.71 versus 1.33±- 0.71 before and 1.30 ± 0.95 versus 0.67 ±0.50 after biofeedback), although the difference was not significant (P=0.604, 0.10 respectively). The most prevalent symptoms were constipation (79%), rectal bleeding (68%) and anorectal pain (53%). The most notable improvement in symptoms after biofeedback occured in abdominal pain and incomplete evacuation, and the least was seen in mucosal discharge and toilet waiting as shown in the bar chart. Endoscopic cure was observed in 4 of 10 patients of the non-responder group while 8 patients in responder group experienced endoscopic improvement. It seems that biofeedback has significant effect for pathophysiologic symptoms such as incomplete evacuation and obstructive defecation. Improvement of clinical symptoms does not mean endoscopic cure; so to demonstrate remission the patients have to go under rectosigmoidoscopy.

  10. Biofeedback efficacy to improve clinical symptoms and endoscopic signs of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Forootan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is often resistant to medical and surgical treatment. This study assessed the effect of biofeedback in decreasing the symptoms and the healing of endoscopic signs in SRUS patients. Before starting the treatment, endoscopy and colorectal manometry was performed to evaluate dyssynergic defecation. Patients were followed every four weeks, and during each visit their response to treatment was evaluated regarding to manometry pattern. After at least 50% improvement in manometry parameters, recipients underwent rectosigmoidoscopy. Endoscopic response to biofeedback treatment and clinical symptoms were investigated. Duration of symptoms was 43.11±36.42 months in responder and 63.9±45.74 months in non-responder group (P=0.22. There were more ulcers in non-responder group than responder group (1.50±0.71 versus 1.33±-0.71 before and 1.30 ± 0.95 versus 0.67±0.50 after biofeedback, although the difference was not significant (P=0.604, 0.10 respectively. The most prevalent symptoms were constipation (79%, rectal bleeding (68% and anorectal pain (53%. The most notable improvement in symptoms after biofeedback occured in abdominal pain and incomplete evacuation, and the least was seen in mucosal discharge and toilet waiting as shown in the bar chart. Endoscopic cure was observed in 4 of 10 patients of the non-responder group while 8 patients in responder group experienced endoscopic improvement. It seems that biofeedback has significant effect for pathophysiologic symptoms such as incomplete evacuation and obstructive defecation. Improvement of clinical symptoms does not mean endoscopic cure; so to demonstrate remission the patients have to go under rectosigmoidoscopy.

  11. Comparison of Endoscopic Variceal Ligation and Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration in Patients with GOV1 Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hyoung Ju; Jun, Chung Hwan; Lee, Du Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ae; Park, Seon Young; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, HyunSoo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, rebleeding rates, survival, and complications of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with those of endoscopic variceal obliteration (EVO) in patients with acute type 1 gastroesophageal variceal (GOV1) bleeding. Data were collected retrospectively at a single center. A total of 84 patients were selected (20 patients underwent EVL; 64 patients underwent EVO) from February 2004 to September 2011. Their clinical characteristics, laboratory results...

  12. Side effects of endoscopic variceal ligation by using Indonesian Endoscopic Ligator versus Endoscopic Variceal Sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simadibrata, Marcellus; Syam, Ari F; Fauzi, Achmad; Abdullah, Murdani; Rani, Abdul A

    2011-01-01

    to investigate the side effects and survival of endoscopic variceal ligation by using Indonesian Endoscopic Ligator versus Endoscopic Variceal Sclerotherapy. we studied the medical records and endoscopy reports of patients who underwent endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) or endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) from January 2003 until December 2006. EST was done using ethoxysclerol injection; and ligation was done using a home-made Indonesian endoscopic ligating device. Patient characteristics, side effects of EVL and EST, as well as survival and length of stay were collected. Data of side effects was analyzed by chi-square test. there were no statistically significant differences of patients characteristics among both groups. The side effects in EVL group (29.2%) were less frequent than the EST group (60.9%) (p = 0.009). The death side effect in the EVL group (1.0%) was less frequent than in the EST group (21.7%) (pEVL and EST were 91.7% and 16.7%, respectively (pEVL had fewer side effects than EST in the treatment of esophageal varices bleeding. Death in the EVL group was lower than in the EST group.

  13. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Milanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intensive epiphora (lacrimal apparatus disease can make difficult daily routine and cause ocular refraction disturbances. In most cases ethiology is unknown, rarely occurs after nose surgical procedures, face fractures, in Wegener granulomatosis, sarcoidosis and malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of endonasal endoscopic surgical procedure with the conventional surgical instruments in treatment of nasolacrimal obstructions. Methods. This retrospective study included 12 female patients with endonasal endoscopic surgical procedure from Otorhinological and Ophtalmological Departments of Military Medical Academy, Belgrade from September 2007 to April 2009. Preoperative nasal endoscopy was performed in order to reveal concomitant pathological conditions and anatomic anomalies which could make surgical procedure impossible. Computerized tomography was performed only in suspect nose diseases. Surgical endonasal endoscopic procedure was performed by otorhinolaryngologist and ophtalmologist in all patients. The patients had regular controls from 2 to 20 months. Results. A total of 12 female patients, age 34-83 years, were included in our study. Epiphora was a dominant symptom in all patients. In two patients deviation of nasal septum was found, and in other one conha bulosa at the same side as chronic dacryocystitis. All patients were subjected to endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR by endoscopic surgical technique using conventional instruments. Concomitantly with DCR septoplastics in two patients and lateral lamictetomy in one patient were performed. There were no complications intraoperatively as well as in the immediate postoperative course. In two patients the need for reoperation occurred. Conclusion. Endoscopic DCR is minimally invasive and efficacious procedure for nasolacrymal obstructions performed by otorhinolaryngologist and ophtalmologist. Postoperative recovery is very fast.

  14. Sepsis Markers Soluble IL-2 Receptor and Soluble CD14 Subtype as Potential Biomarkers for Complete Mucosal Healing in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Shuhei; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Itani, Shigehiro; Yukawa, Tomomi; Otani, Koji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Taira, Koichi; Kamata, Noriko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-05

    Novel noninvasive biomarkers with high diagnostic accuracy are required to assess mucosal healing, which is associated with sustained clinical remission, in inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to explore sepsis markers as potential biomarkers for mucosal healing. Patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] or Crohn's disease [CD], who underwent blood tests for C-reactive protein [CRP], serum procalcitonin [PCT], soluble interleukin-2 receptor [sIL-2R], and plasma soluble CD14 subtype [sCD14-ST] within 2 weeks of endoscopy, were retrospectively recruited; and we assessed the relationship between marker levels and clinical features. Complete mucosal healing [cMH] was defined as a Mayo endoscopic subscore [MES] of 0 for UC and a simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease [SES-CD] of 0 for CD. In all, 68 UC patients and 33 CD patients were included in this study. In patients with UC, the sIL-2R level was significantly higher in patients without cMH than in those with cMH. The sIL-2R level had the highest diagnostic value for identifying cMH in UC. In patients with CD, CRP and sCD14-ST levels were significantly higher in patients without cMH than in those with cMH, and both CRP and sCD14-ST had good diagnostic values for identifying cMH. The sCD14-ST level had a high diagnostic value for identifying cMH even among CD patients with complete clinical remission, defined as a Harvey-Bradshaw index of 0. The sIL-2R and sCD14-ST levels in patients with UC and CD, respectively, can be useful surrogate markers for identifying mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy: major advance in achalasia treatment and in endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2014-12-21

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to laparoscopy Heller myotomy (LHM). POEM is arguably the most successful clinical application of NOTES. The growth of POEM from a single center in 2008 to approximately 60 centers worldwide in 2014 with several thousand procedures having been performed attests to the success of POEM. Initial efficacy, safety and acid reflux data suggest at least equivalence of POEM to LHM, the previous gold standard for achalasia therapy. Adjunctive techniques used in the West include impedance planimetry for real-time intraprocedural luminal assessment and endoscopic suturing for challenging mucosal defect closures during POEM. The impact of POEM extends beyond the realm of esophageal motility disorders as it is rapidly popularizing endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West and spawning offshoots that use the submucosal tunnel technique for a host of new indications ranging from resection of tumors to pyloromyotomy for gastroparesis.

  16. Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis by Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicitis Therapy (ERAT): Combination of Colonoscopy and Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Mi, Chen; Li, Weizhi; She, Junjun

    2016-11-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency, but the diagnosis of appendicitis remains a challenge. Endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) is a new and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis. To investigate the diagnostic value of ERAT for acute appendicitis by the combination of colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde appendicography (ERA). Twenty-one patients with the diagnosis of suspected uncomplicated acute appendicitis who underwent ERAT between November 2014 and January 2015 were included in this study. The main outcomes, imaging findings of acute appendicitis including colonoscopic direct-vision imaging and fluoroscopic ERA imaging, were retrospectively reviewed. Secondary outcomes included mean operative time, mean hospital stay, rate of complication, rate of appendectomy during follow-up period, and other clinical data. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established in 20 patients by positive ERA (5 patients) or colonoscopy (1 patient) alone or both (14 patients). The main colonoscopic imaging findings included mucosal inflammation (15/20, 75 %), appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and maturation (5/20, 25 %). The key points of ERA for diagnosing acute appendicitis included radiographic changes of appendix (17/20, 85 %), intraluminal appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and perforation (1/20, 5 %). Mean operative time of ERAT was 49.7 min, and mean hospital stay was 3.3 days. No patient converted to emergency appendectomy. Perforation occurred in one patient after appendicoliths removal was not severe and did not require invasive procedures. During at least 1-year follow-up period, only one patient underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. ERAT is a valuable procedure of choice providing a precise yield of diagnostic information for patients with suspected acute appendicitis by combination of colonoscopy and ERA.

  17. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  18. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy: Establishing a New Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, Nikhil A.; Mehta, Shivani; Kedia, Prashant; Weaver, Kristen; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Fukami, Norio; Minami, Hitomi; Casas, Fernando; Gaidhane, Monica; Lambroza, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder characterized by incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and aperistalsis of the esophageal body. Treatment of achalasia is aimed at decreasing the resting pressure in the LES. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), derived from natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), presents a novel, minimally invasive, and curative endoscopic treatment for achalasia. POEM involves an esophageal mucosal incision followed by creation of a submucosal tunnel crossing the esophagogastric junction and myotomy before closure of the mucosal incision. Although the procedure is technically demanding and requires a certain degree of skill and competency, treatment success is high (90%) with low complication rates. Since the first described POEM in humans in 2010, it has been used increasingly at centers worldwide. This article reviews available published clinical studies demonstrating POEM efficacy and safety in order to present a proposal on how to establish a dedicated POEM program and reach base proficiency for the procedure. PMID:25324996

  19. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  20. Lack of correlation between fecal blood loss and drug-induced gastric mucosal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenbro, J.L.; Wetterberg, P.; Vallgren, S.; Bergqvist, L.

    1988-01-01

    Increased fecal blood loss was produced in healthy volunteers by the administration of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), naproxen or fenflumizole. Basal as well as drug-induced gastrointestinal blood loss was measured using 51 Cr erythrocyte labeling. Median rise in daily fecal blood loss was 432%. All subjects were endoscoped at the initiation and at the completion of the study. Endoscopic findings were assessed quantitatively by two observers in two different ways. All subjects but three had gastric mucosal lesions at follow-up endoscopy. There was a good correlation between the endoscopic assessments but no statistical correlation between the endoscopic assessment and the increase in fecal blood loss. The data suggest that factors other than gastric mucosal lesions have to be taken into account when investigating NSAID-induced gastrointestinal bleeding

  1. Endoscopic resection of an esophageal leiomyoma with overlying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-25

    Aug 25, 2015 ... Leiomyoma of esophagus. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;13:78‑81. 2. Lee LS, Singhal S, Brinster CJ, Marshall B, Kochman ML, Kaiser LR, et al. Current management of esophageal leiomyoma. J Am Coll Surg 2004;198:136‑46. 3. Status T, Report E, Considerations T. Endoscopic mucosal resection.

  2. Endoscopic tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethu, Sripathi R; Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel; Tierney, William M

    2010-10-01

    The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through January 2010 for articles related to endoscopic tattooing by using the Keywords tattooing, colonic, endoscopic, India ink, indocyanine green in different search term combinations. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by

  3. Utility of esophageal gastroduodenoscopy at the time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalea Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utility of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD performed at the time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is unclear. We examined whether EGD at time of PEG yielded clinically useful information important in patient care. We also reviewed the outcome and complication rates of EGD-PEG performed by trauma surgeons. Methods Retrospective review of all trauma patients undergoing EGD with PEG at a level I trauma center from 1/01–6/03. Results 210 patients underwent combined EGD with PEG by the trauma team. A total of 37% of patients had unsuspected upper gastrointestinal lesions seen on EGD. Of these, 35% had traumatic brain injury, 10% suffered multisystem injury, and 47% had spinal cord injury. These included 15 esophageal, 61 gastric, and six duodenal lesions, mucosal or hemorrhagic findings on EGD. This finding led to a change in therapy in 90% of patients; either resumption/continuation of H2 -blockers or conversion to proton-pump inhibitors. One patient suffered an upper gastrointestinal bleed while on H2-blocker. It was treated endoscopically. Complication rates were low. There were no iatrogenic visceral perforations seen. Three PEGs were inadvertently removed by the patient (1.5%; one was replaced with a Foley, one replaced endoscopically, and one patient underwent gastric repair and open jejunostomy tube. One PEG leak was repaired during exploration for unrelated hemorrhage. Six patients had significant site infections (3%; four treated with local drainage and antibiotics, one requiring operative debridement and later closure, and one with antibiotics alone. Conclusion EGD at the time of PEG may add clinically useful data in the management of trauma patients. Only one patient treated with acid suppression therapy for EGD diagnosed lesions suffered delayed gastrointestinal bleeding. Trauma surgeons can perform EGD and PEG with acceptable outcomes and complication rates.

  4. Endoscopic Findings Associated With Button Battery Ingestion in Children: Do We Need to Change the Protocol for Managing Gastric Location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Gloria; Rodríguez, Lorena; Lucero, Yalda; Miquel, Isabel; Arancibia, María Eugenia; Alliende, Francisco

    2018-01-23

    Ingested button batteries (BB) can cause corrosive damage of digestive mucosa within minutes. Immediate endoscopic removal of esophageal BB has been clearly established, but the management of BB located in the stomach is still controversial. To describe demographic, clinical, radiologic, and endoscopic characteristics of a series of pediatric patients evaluated for BB ingestion. Retrospective analysis of clinical charts belonging to children younger than 15 years, who underwent endoscopic removal of BB at Clínica Alemana of Santiago, between November 2007 and November 2011. Twenty-five patients subjected to upper endoscopy were analyzed; median age, 31 months; 15 were male (60%), and 11 patients (46%) were symptomatic after ingestion. The BB ingestion was confirmed by radiograph. Endoscopy revealed 10 patients with BB in the esophagus, 12 patients in the stomach and 3 distal to duodenum. Range time between ingestion and endoscopy was 2 to 10 hours for esophageal BB and 2 hours to 3 days for gastric BB. Eight of the 22 BBs removed had a diameter of 20 mm or greater, 6 of them were located in the esophagus and 2 in stomach. The BB color changes were observed in 14 of the 22 BBs. Breakage of battery edges was present in 11 of the 22 batteries. All patients with esophageal BB and 6 of those 12 with gastric BB presented mucosal damage. Esophageal BB cause damage within hours. The BB located in the stomach may also cause damage early. Extraction of gastric BB before 48 hours should be considered.

  5. Endoscopic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Sokolov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo endoscopic optical microscopy provides a tool to assess tissue architecture and morphology with contrast and resolution similar to that provided by standard histopathology – without need for physical tissue removal. In this article, we focus on optical imaging technologies that have the potential to dramatically improve the detection, prevention, and therapy of epithelial cancers. Epithelial pre-cancers and cancers are associated with a variety of morphologic, architectural, and molecular changes, which currently can be assessed only through invasive, painful biopsy. Optical imaging is ideally suited to detecting cancer-related alterations because it can detect biochemical and morphologic alterations with sub-cellular resolution throughout the entire epithelial thickness. Optical techniques can be implemented non-invasively, in real time, and at low cost to survey the tissue surface at risk. Our manuscript focuses primarily on modalities that currently are the most developed: reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM and optical coherence tomography (OCT. However, recent advances in fluorescence-based endoscopic microscopy also are reviewed briefly. We discuss the basic principles of these emerging technologies and their current and potential applications in early cancer detection. We also present research activities focused on development of exogenous contrast agents that can enhance the morphological features important for cancer detection and that have the potential to allow vital molecular imaging of cancer-related biomarkers. In conclusion, we discuss future improvements to the technology needed to develop robust clinical devices.

  6. GI endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajulu, Shyam; Banerjee, Subhas; Barth, Bradley A; Desilets, David J; Kaul, Vivek; Kethu, Sripathi R; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Pfau, Patrick R; Tokar, Jeffrey L; Wang, Amy; Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel; Rodriguez, Sarah A

    2011-07-01

    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but in many cases data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the Committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through September 2010 for articles related to endoscopy by using the key words "gastroscope," "colonoscope," "echoendoscope," "duodenoscope," "choledochoscope," "ultraslim endoscope," "variable stiffness colonoscope," and "wide-angle colonoscope." Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal

  7. Submucosal tunnel endoscopy: Peroral endoscopic myotomy and peroral endoscopic tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Maselli, Roberta; Santi, Grace

    2016-01-25

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an innovative, minimally invasive, endoscopic treatment for esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders, emerged from the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures, and since the first human case performed by Inoue in 2008, showed exciting results in international level, with more than 4000 cases globally up to now. POEM showed superior characteristics than the standard 100-year-old surgical or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), not only for all types of esophageal achalasia [classical (I), vigorous (II), spastic (III), Chicago Classification], but also for advanced sigmoid type achalasia (S1 and S2), failed LHM, or other esophageal motility disorders (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or Jackhammer esophagus). POEM starts with a mucosal incision, followed by submucosal tunnel creation crossing the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and myotomy. Finally the mucosal entry is closed with endoscopic clip placement. POEM permitted relatively free choice of myotomy length and localization. Although it is technically demanding procedure, POEM can be performed safely and achieves very good control of dysphagia and chest pain. Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common troublesome side effect, and is well controllable with proton pump inhibitors. Furthermore, POEM opened the era of submucosal tunnel endoscopy, with many other applications. Based on the same principles with POEM, in combination with new technological developments, such as endoscopic suturing, peroral endoscopic tumor resection (POET), is safely and effectively applied for challenging submucosal esophageal, EGJ and gastric cardia tumors (submucosal tumors), emerged from muscularis propria. POET showed up to know promising results, however, it is restricted to specialized centers. The present article reviews the recent data of POEM and POET and discussed controversial issues that need further study and future perspectives.

  8. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF L-MENTHOL IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hitomi; Hikichi, Takuto; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Watanabe, K O; Nakamura, Jun; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Peppermint oil, which suppresses gastric peristalsis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is effective for determining the margin of a gastric tumor. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of an L-menthol preparation for suppressing gastric peristalsis and for diagnosing gastric tumors. The study examined 124 patients who underwent EGD between January and April 2012. After 20 mL of 0.8% L-menthol was sprayed directly onto the mucosal surface of the gastric antrum, the degree of peristalsis suppression in the antrum was evaluated. The effectiveness of L-menthol for identifying new gastric tumors and determining tumor margins was also evaluated. Gastric peristalsis was suppressed in 88.5% (69/78) of patients, with complete suppression of peristalsis achieved in 78.2%. L-menthol exerted a higher peristalsis-suppressive effect in patients with endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (93.3%, 56/60) than in patients without atrophy (72.2%, 13/18) (p = .014). L-menthol application caused the detection of new gastric tumors in 1.6% (2/124) of patients and clarification of the margin of three lesions (in 3 patients) identified as having an unclear margin before L-menthol application. These results suggest that L-menthol is effective for suppressing gastric peristalsis during EGD and suggest that it is useful for identifying gastric tumors and for determining tumor margins.

  9. Endoscopic dacryocystrhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Filho, Bernardo Cunha; Voegels, Richard Louis; Butugan, Ossamu; Pinheiro Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2005-01-01

    Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR) is now a well-established procedure to relieve nasolacrimal duct obstruction, becoming its domain for the ENT surgeons indispensable. The aim of the present study is to report the experience of the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo Medical School in the management of the obstruction of the drainage of the nasolacrimal system by EN-DCR, comparing with the results in literature. clinical retrospective. We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients (17 eyes) that were submitted to EN-DCR between april 2001 and july 2004. We analysed: sex, age at the time of diagnosis, etiology, clinical findings, surgical technique, use of silicone tubes, follow-up and complications. Eight men and nine women, the age range was from 29 to 79 years (mean 42.6413.1 years), mean follow-up time: 15 months, presented a lacrimal clinic with epiphora. Powered DCR was performed in 06 cases and YAG LASER in 01 patient. Silicone tubes were used in all cases and left in place mean 7.9 weeks. The surgical success rate was 82,3%. EN-DCR showed one safe technique, with advantages in relation to the external technique. So ophthalmologists and ENT physicians must work in harmony to offer more benefits to its patients.

  10. Imaging of Mucosal Inflammation: Current Technological Developments, Clinical Implications, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J. Waldner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various technological developments markedly improved imaging of mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Although technological developments such as high-definition-, chromo-, and autofluorescence-endoscopy led to a more precise and detailed assessment of mucosal inflammation during wide-field endoscopy, probe-based and stationary confocal laser microscopy enabled in vivo real-time microscopic imaging of mucosal surfaces within the gastrointestinal tract. Through the use of fluorochromes with specificity against a defined molecular target combined with endoscopic techniques that allow ultrastructural resolution, molecular imaging enables in vivo visualization of single molecules or receptors during endoscopy. Molecular imaging has therefore greatly expanded the clinical utility and applications of modern innovative endoscopy, which include the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment of disease as well as the prediction of the therapeutic response of individual patients. Furthermore, non-invasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy, and ultrasound provide helpful information as supplement to invasive endoscopic procedures. In this review, we provide an overview on the current status of advanced imaging technologies for the clinical non-invasive and endoscopic evaluation of mucosal inflammation. Furthermore, the value of novel methods such as multiphoton microscopy, optoacoustics, and optical coherence tomography and their possible future implementation into clinical diagnosis and evaluation of mucosal inflammation will be discussed.

  11. Clinical consequences of oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlton G; Wingard, John

    2004-02-01

    To identify the clinical manifestations, risk factors, secondary complications, and assessment and management of oral mucositis. Professional journals, websites, and books. Secondary consequences of oral mucositis include infection, xerostomia, hemorrhage, and nutritional deficits. Nurses should have an extensive knowledge base about the appropriate interventions that can be used to alleviate or lessen the consequences often associated with oral mucositis.

  12. Pneumonia and mortality after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Neville; Ellul, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding provides enteral nutrition to patients with neurological dysphagia. Thirty-day mortality rates of 4-26% have been reported, with pneumonia being the common cause post-percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. This retrospective analysis of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertions in Malta (January 2008 - June 2010) compares the incidence of pneumonia in patients fed through a nasogastric tube versus in those fed via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. We analyzed the indications, poor prognostic factors and mortality for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. Ninety-seven patients underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion. Fifty-four patients received nasogastric feeds before percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds. Patients on nasogastric feeds developed 32 episodes of pneumonia over a total of 7884 days of feeds (1 every 246 days). Patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds after a period of nasogastric feeds developed 48 pneumonia episodes over 36,238 days (1 every 755 days). Patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds without previous nasogastric feeds developed 28 pneumonia episodes over 23,983 days (1 every 856 days), and this was statistically significant (χ 2 test p value nasogastric feeds. However, pneumonia is still the major cause of death among percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy patients.

  13. Endoscopic treatment of early colorectal cancer – just a competition with surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebigbo Alanna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic treatment of cancerous and precancerous lesions in the gastrointestinal (GI tract has experienced major breakthroughs in the past years. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR is a simple and efficient method for the treatment of most benign lesions in the GI tract. However, with the introduction of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD and endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR, the scope of lesions eligible for endoscopic treatment has been widened significantly even in the colon. These methods are now being used routinely not just for the treatment of benign lesions but also in the curative en bloc resection of early colorectal cancers. The quick, efficient, and noninvasive character of these endoscopic procedures make them not just an alternative to surgery but, in many cases, the methods of choice for the treatment of most early colon cancers and some rectal cancers.

  14. Endoscopic ultrasonography in the management of esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowers, Eugene A.

    2000-05-01

    Precise tumor-staging is critical in the management of early esophageal caner. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows the endoscopist a view beyond the esophageal wall which opens the door to a variety of new gastroenterologic techniques. Endoscopic mucosal resection, laser photoablation and photodynamic therapy may be successfully employed in early esophageal cancer management. Combination radiation therapy and chemotherapy have shown better responses in advanced cancer. Expandable metallic stents may also provide palliation with inoperable esophageal cancer. The efficacy of EUS in the management of esophageal cancer is critically reviewed.

  15. Stricture Occurring after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Esophageal and Gastric Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Ha; Jang, Jae Young; Shin, Sung Kwan; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Sang Gyun; Sung, Jae Kyu; Choi, Suck Chei; Jeon, Seong Woo; Jang, Byung Ik; Huh, Kyu Chan; Chang, Dong Kyung; Jung, Sung-Ae; Keum, Bora; Cho, Jin Woong; Choi, Il Ju; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a widely accepted treatment for early gastric and esophageal cancer. Compared to endoscopic mucosal resection, ESD has the advantage of enabling en bloc removal of tumors regardless of their size. However, ESD can result in a large artificial ulcer, which may lead to a considerable deformity. Circumferential mucosal defects of more than three-fourths the esophageal circumference, long longitudinal mucosal defects (>30 mm), and lesions in the upper esophagus are significant risk factors for the development of post-ESD strictures of the esophagus. In the stomach, a circumferential mucosal defects more than three-fourths in extent and longitudinal mucosal defects >5 cm are risk factors of post-ESD stricture. If scheduled early, regular endoscopic balloon dilation is effective in controlling and preventing post-ESD stricture. Moreover, intralesional steroid injections or oral steroids can achieve remission of dysphagia or reduce the need for repeated endoscopic balloon dilation. However, further study is needed to improve the prevention of stricture formation. PMID:25505717

  16. Riesgo de perforación en la mucosectomía esofágica con banda: estudio experimental con dos modelos de ligadores Perforation risk in esophageal endoscopic mucosal resection with ligation: an experimental study with two ligator models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Vázquez-Iglesias

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: en los últimos años se han publicado varios trabajos que encuentran la mucosectomía con banda (MB como un método seguro para el tratamiento de algunos tumores esofágicos, gástricos y colorrectales. Hemos realizado este estudio en animales de experimentación (cerdos para comparar la seguridad de la MB en esófago, con dos modelos de ligadores multibanda, ya que muchos centros sólo disponen de estos modelos de ligadores comercializados para la ligadura de varices esofágicas. Métodos: se utilizaron 8 cerdos en los que se realizaron 23 resecciones esofágicas sin inyección previa. Se hicieron 10 resecciones con el modelo Six Shooter Saeed y 13 resecciones con el modelo Speedband Superview Super 7. También se comparó la técnica realizando el corte aleatoriamente por debajo o por encima de la banda. Resultados: se produjeron 5 perforaciones, todas con el modelo Speedband. Del total de casos en los que se utilizó este modelo se perforaron el 38,5% frente a ninguna de las intervenciones con el modelo Six Shooter, lo que alcanzó significación estadística (p = 0,046. No hubo deferencias estadísticamente significativas en la frecuencia de perforación, entre realizar el corte por debajo o por encima de la banda. Conclusiones: MB esofágica realizada con el modelo Speedband sin inyección previa, da lugar a perforación en un porcentaje elevado de casos en el animal de experimentación. Se precisan más estudios para establecer si la inyección previa incrementa la seguridad de la técnica con este modelo de ligador.Objective: endoscopic mucosal resection with ligation (EMRL is considered an efficient, safe method for the treatment of some esophageal, gastric and colorectal tumors. We conducted this study using a porcine model in order to compare the safety of esophageal EMRL with two multiband ligation systems, since many centers only use these ligator models in EMRL (commercialized for varix ligation. Methods: eight pigs were

  17. [The use of oxymetazoline in nasal endoscopic sinus surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Hongtao; Gao, Qixue; Cui, Yonghua; Hua, Xiaoyang; Li, Huiqin; Feng, Jiane

    2003-05-01

    To assess the value of oxymetazoline used in nasal endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The effect of oxymetazoline on 68 patients pulse, cilium mottom and rebound phenomenon during ESS were observed. Pulse and cilium motion are no significant difference after using oxymetazoline. Oxymetazoline reduces about 59% nasal mucosal blood flow and acts over 6 hours. Oxymetazoline used as nasal decongestant and anesthesia assistant is safe and effect in ESS as routine.

  18. Mucosal melanosis associated with chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal lesions due to underlying disease or drug toxicity, are important part of oncology practice. Patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was treated with chemoembolisation. She presented with new onset of mucosal hyperpigmented lesion all through her oral cavity. Biopsy was consistent with mucosal melanosis, which was associated with the chemotherapeutics used in the chemoembolisation procedure. Lesion progressively improved without any treatment. Here we present an mucosal melanosis experience after chemoembolisation. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 189-191

  19. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  20. Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of a Colonic Lateral Spreading Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalau, Ana-Maria; Lemmers, Arnaud; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Blero, Daniel; Neuhaus, Horst

    2018-01-17

    The Full-Thickness Resection Device (FTRD; Ovesco Endoscopy, Tübingen, Germany) combines endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) of gastrointestinal lesions with closure and cutting of the tissue in one integrated procedure. It provides en-bloc resection with an integral wall specimen for histopathological evaluation. This resection technique is partially filling of the gaps between the current procedures of choice in endoscopy (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection) and surgery. We present the case of an EFTR procedure performed for a periappendicular lateral spreading tumor. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Endoscopic polypectomy: A promising therapeutic choice for esophageal carcinosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Feng; Xu, Yue-Mei; Xu, Cheng-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor composing of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Endoscopic therapy is less invasive and may represent an alternative to esophagectomy for superficial esophageal carcinosarcoma. Here, we report a 61-year-old male who was diagnosed as esophageal carcinosarcoma and underwent endoscopic polypectomy with well tolerance and favorable prognosis. We also present a brief review of the literature. PMID:19610152

  2. Autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets cultured on an amniotic membrane substrate for intraoral mucosal defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Amemiya

    Full Text Available The human amniotic membrane (AM is a thin intrauterine placental membrane that is highly biocompatible and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties. Using AM, we developed a novel method for cultivating oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets. We investigated the autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cells cultured on AM in patients undergoing oral surgeries. We obtained specimens of AM from women undergoing cesarean sections. This study included five patients without any history of a medical disorder who underwent autologous cultured oral epithelial transplantation following oral surgical procedures. Using oral mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from these patients, we cultured oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier. We transplanted the resultant cell sheets onto the oral mucosal defects. Patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after transplantation. After 2-3 weeks of being cultured on AM, epithelial cells were well differentiated and had stratified into five to seven layers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cultured cells expressed highly specific mucosal epithelial cell markers and basement membrane proteins. After the surgical procedures, no infection, bleeding, rejection, or sheet detachment occurred at the reconstructed sites, at which new oral mucous membranes were evident. No recurrence was observed in the long-term follow-up, and the postoperative course was excellent. Our results suggest that AM-cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets represent a useful biomaterial and feasible method for oral mucosal reconstruction. However, our primary clinical study only evaluated their effects on a limited number of small oral mucosal defects.

  3. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, K. A.R.; Baloch, A.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS). Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit-III, Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2009 to June 2012. Methodology: Patients with SRUS, based on characteristic endoscopic and histological findings, were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had other causes of the rectal lesions (neoplasm, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and trauma). Endoscopically, lesions were divided on the basis of number (solitary or multiple) and appearance (ulcerative, polypoidal/nodular or erythematous mucosa). Demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of subjects were evaluated. Results: Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 21 (47.7%) were females and 23 (52.3%) were males with overall mean age of 33.73 ±13.28 years. Symptom-wise 41 (93.2%) had bleeding per rectum, 39 (88.6%) had mucous discharge, 34 (77.3%) had straining, 34 (77.3%) had constipation, 32 (72.7%) had tenesmus, 5 (11.4%) had rectal prolapse and 2 (4.5%) had fecal incontinence. Twelve (27.27%) patients presented with hemoglobin less 10 gm/dl, 27 (61.36%) with 10 - 12 gm/dl and 05 (11.36%) subjects had hemoglobin more than 12 gm/dl. Endoscopically, 26 (59.1%) patients had mucosal ulceration, 11 (25.0%) had mucosal ulceration with polypoid characteristics; while only polypoid features were found in 7 (15.9%) subjects. Conclusion: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome affects adults of both genders with diverse clinical presentation and nonspecific endoscopic features. (author)

  4. Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: Demographic, Clinical, Endoscopic and Histological Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amanullah; Bhutto, Abdul Rabb; Taj, Ali; Aurangzaib; Baloch, Akhtar; Masroor, Muhammad; Munir, S M

    2015-12-01

    To assess the demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS). Cross-sectional observational study. Medical Unit-III, Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2009 to June 2012. Patients with SRUS, based on characteristic endoscopic and histological findings, were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had other causes of the rectal lesions (neoplasm, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and trauma). Endoscopically, lesions were divided on the basis of number (solitary or multiple) and appearance (ulcerative, polypoidal/nodular or erythematous mucosa). Demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of subjects were evaluated. Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 21 (47.7%) were females and 23 (52.3%) were males with overall mean age of 33.73 ±13.28 years. Symptom-wise 41 (93.2%) had bleeding per rectum, 39 (88.6%) had mucous discharge, 34 (77.3%) had straining, 34 (77.3%) had constipation, 32 (72.7%) had tenesmus, 5 (11.4%) had rectal prolapse and 2 (4.5%) had fecal incontinence. Twelve (27.27%) patients presented with hemoglobin less 10 gm/dl, 27 (61.36%) with 10 - 12 gm/dl and 05 (11.36%) subjects had hemoglobin more than 12 gm/dl. Endoscopically, 26 (59.1%) patients had mucosal ulceration, 11 (25.0%) had mucosal ulceration with polypoid characteristics; while only polypoid features were found in 7 (15.9%) subjects. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome affects adults of both genders with diverse clinical presentation and nonspecific endoscopic features.

  5. Reliability assessment of the endoscopic examination in patients with allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ziade, Georges K.; Karami, Reem A.; Fakhri, Ghina B.; Alam, Elie S.; Hamdan, Abdul latif; Mourad, Marc M.; Hadi, Usama M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study if nasal endoscope can be a reliable tool in assessing patients with allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: A prospective study. Patients who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis underwent a nasal endoscopic examination performed by two physicians blinded to the scoring of each other. A correlation was made among symptom severity, endoscopic findings, and interrater variability. Results: Ninety patients were included in the study: 34 patients had mild disease and 56 ha...

  6. Endoscopic injection therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, endoscopic injection therapy using Deflux has become a popular alternative to open surgery and continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Endoscopic correction with Deflux is minimally invasive, well tolerated, and provides cure rates approaching those of open surgery (i.e., approximately 80% in several studies. However, in recent years a less stringent approach to evaluating urinary tract infections (UTIs and concerns about long-term efficacy and complications associated with endoscopic injection have limited the use of this therapy. In addition, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy in preventing UTIs and vesicoureteral reflux-related renal scarring. In this report, we reviewed the current literature regarding endoscopic injection therapy and provided an updated overview of this topic.

  7. Endoscopic injection therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woon; Lee, Yong Seung

    2017-01-01

    Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, endoscopic injection therapy using Deflux has become a popular alternative to open surgery and continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Endoscopic correction with Deflux is minimally invasive, well tolerated, and provides cure rates approaching those of open surgery (i.e., approximately 80% in several studies). However, in recent years a less stringent approach to evaluating urinary tract infections (UTIs) and concerns about long-term efficacy and complications associated with endoscopic injection have limited the use of this therapy. In addition, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy in preventing UTIs and vesicoureteral reflux-related renal scarring. In this report, we reviewed the current literature regarding endoscopic injection therapy and provided an updated overview of this topic. PMID:28612059

  8. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty: the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; El Zein, Mohamad; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dunlap, Margo; Chang, Angela; Agrawal, Alison; Barola, Sindhu; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Chen, Yen-I; Kalloo, Anthony N; Khashab, Mouen A; Kumbhari, Vivek

    2017-09-01

    Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is gaining traction as a minimally invasive bariatric treatment. Concern that the learning curve may be slow, even among those proficient in endoscopic suturing, is a barrier to widespread implementation of the procedure. Therefore, we aimed to define the learning curve for ESG in a single endoscopist experienced in endoscopic suturing who participated in a 1-day ESG training program.  Consecutive patients who underwent ESG between February 2016 and November 2016 were included. The performing endoscopist, who is proficient in endoscopic suturing for non-ESG procedures, participated in a 1-day ESG training session before offering ESG to patients. The outcome measurements were length of procedure (LOP) and number of plications per procedure. Nonlinear regression was used to determine the learning plateau and calculate the learning rate.  Twenty-one consecutive patients (8 males), with mean age 47.7 ± 11.2 years and mean body mass index 41.8 ± 8.5 kg/m 2 underwent ESG. LOP decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a learning plateau at 101.5 minutes and a learning rate of 7 cases ( P  = 0.04). The number of plications per procedure also decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a plateau at 8 sutures and a learning rate of 9 cases ( P  < 0.001). Further, the average time per plication decreased significantly with consecutive procedures, reaching a plateau at 9 procedures ( P  < 0.001).  Endoscopists experienced in endoscopic suturing are expected to achieve a reduction in LOP and number of plications per procedure in successive cases, with progress plateauing at 7 and 9 cases, respectively.

  9. Endoscopic Management of a Primary Duodenal Carcinoid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Abraham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer.

  10. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    . With the introduction of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors for the treatment of UC, it has become increasingly evident that the disease course is influenced by whether or not the patient achieves mucosal healing. Thus, patients with mucosal healing have fewer flare-ups, a decreased risk of colectomy......, and a lower probability of developing colorectal cancer. Understanding the mechanisms of mucosal wound formation and wound healing in UC, and how they are affected therapeutically is therefore of importance for obtaining efficient treatment strategies holding the potential of changing the disease course of UC....... This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...

  11. Evaluation of endoscopic laser excision of polypropylene mesh/sutures following anti-incontinence procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-11-01

    We reviewed our experience with and outcome of the largest series to our knowledge of patients who underwent endoscopic laser excision of eroded polypropylene mesh or sutures as a complication of previous anti-incontinence procedures.

  12. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  13. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia cardia: Treatment analysis and follow up of over 200 consecutive patients at a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Mohan; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Darisetty, Santosh; Kotla, Rama; Chavan, Radhika; Kalpala, Rakesh; Galasso, Domenico; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Rao, G V

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a recently introduced technique for the treatment of achalasia cardia (AC). Data regarding safety and efficacy are still emerging. We report our experience of POEM emphasizing its safety, efficacy and follow-up data. Patients with AC (220; mean age 39 years, range 9-74 years) underwent POEM from January 2013 to August 2014 for AC. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was done. POEM was carried out by the standard technique of mucosal incision, submucosal tunneling, and myotomy of the esophageal and gastric muscle bundles followed by closure of the mucosal incision by hemoclips. Eckardt score, high-resolution manometry (HRM) and timed barium esophagogram (TBE) were used to evaluate the results. Post-procedure patients were followed up. Technical success rate of POEM was 96%. At 1 year, clinical success rate was 92%. Mean Eckardt score was 7.2 ± 1.55 prior to POEM and 1.18 ± 0.74 after POEM (P = 0.001). There was significant improvement of esophageal emptying on TBE (38.4 ± 14.0 % vs 71.5 ± 16.1 % (P = 0.001). Pre-procedure and post-procedure mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure was 37.5 ± 14.5 mmHg and 15.2 ± 6.3 mmHg, respectively. (P = 0.001) Erosive esophagitis was seen in 16% of patients who underwent POEM. There were no major adverse events. Study demonstrates excellent safety profile of POEM with significant relief of symptoms, reduced pressure at HRM and improved emptying at TBE. Further prospective studies are required to compare with other treatment modalities. © 2015 The Authors Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF PRESERVING THE MUCOSAL FLAP IN ENDONASAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koteswar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Endoscopic DCR is routinely performed by otolaryngologists for the treatment of chronic dacryocystitis. However, postoperative stenosis and failure rates are common. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study is to evaluate the role of preserving the mucosal flap in maintaining the patency of neo ostium. The surgical technique involved the creation of nasal mucosal and large posterior lacrimal flaps at the medial lacrimal sac wall and the two flaps were placed in close apposition. Success was defined as complete resolution of epiphora and a patent lacrimal system, evaluated by lacrimal irrigation and endoscopy followed upto 1 year postoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prosective study was conducted in 60 patients and followed for a duration of 1 year in ENT department,KMC,Guntur RESULTS In our study, Symptomatic and anatomic success was seen in 59 out of 60 operations that is 98% success in syringing patency was seen with this technique, which is comparable to external DCR and better than other endoscopic techniques. CONCLUSION Mucosal flap preservation appears to be the single most important innovation in endoscopic DCR surgery, which makes it comfortable for both the surgeon and patient, apart from providing a 98% success rate in our study.

  15. Endoscopic placement of the small-bowel video capsule by using a capsule endoscope delivery device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jeremy P; Dureja, Parul; Pfau, Patrick R; Schwartz, Darren C; Reichelderfer, Mark; Judd, Robert H; Danko, Istvan; Iyer, Lalitha V; Gopal, Deepak V

    2007-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy performed via the traditional peroral route is technically challenging in patients with dysphagia, gastroparesis, and/or abnormal upper-GI (UGI) anatomy. To describe the indications and outcomes of cases in which the AdvanCE capsule endoscope delivery device, which has recently been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration, was used. Retrospective, descriptive, case series. Tertiary care, university hospital. We report a case series of 16 consecutive patients in whom the AdvanCE delivery device was used. The study period was May 2005 through July 2006. Endoscopic delivery of the video capsule to the proximal small bowel by using the AdvanCE delivery device. Indications, technique, and completeness of small bowel imaging in patients who underwent endoscopic video capsule delivery. The AdvanCE delivery device was used in 16 patients ranging in age from 3 to 74 years. The primary indications for endoscopic delivery included inability to swallow the capsule (10), altered UGI anatomy (4), and gastroparesis (2). Of the 4 patients with altered UGI anatomy, 3 had dual intestinal loop anatomy (ie, Bilroth-II procedure, Whipple surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) and 1 had a failed Nissen fundoplication. In all cases, the capsule was easily deployed without complication, and complete small intestinal imaging was achieved. Small patient size. Endoscopic placement of the Given PillCam by use of the AdvanCE delivery device was safe and easily performed in patients for whom capsule endoscopy would otherwise have been contraindicated or technically challenging.

  16. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  17. Early endoscopic realignment in posterior urethral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B; Baidya, J L

    2013-01-01

    Posterior urethral injury requires meticulous tertiary care and optimum expertise to manage successfully. The aim of our study is to describe our experiences with pelvic injuries involving posterior urethra and their outcome after early endoscopic realignment. A prospective study was carried out in 20 patients with complete posterior urethral rupture, from November 2007 till October 2010. They presented with blunt traumatic pelvic fracture and underwent primary realignment of posterior urethra in our institute. The definitive diagnosis of urethral rupture was made after retrograde urethrography and antegrade urethrography where applicable. The initial management was suprapubic catheter insertion after primary trauma management in casualty. After a week of conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and pain management, patients were subjected to the endoscopic realignment. The follow up period was at least six months. The results were analyzed with SPSS software. After endoscopic realignment, all patients were advised CISC for the initial 3 months. All patients voided well after three months of CISC. However, 12 patients were lost to follow up by the end of 6 postoperative months. Out of eight remaining patients, two had features of restricture and were managed with DVU followed by CISC again. One patient with restricture had some degree of erectile dysfunction who improved significantly after phospodiesterase inhibitors. None of the patients had features of incontinence. Early endoscopic realignment of posterior urethra is a minimally invasive modality in the management of complete posterior urethral injury with low rates of incontinence and impotency.

  18. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.

  19. The outcomes of overlay myringoplasty: Endoscopic versus microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plodpai, Yuvatiya; Paje, Nanatphong

    To investigate the outcomes of overlay myringoplasty by comparing the endoscopic versus the microscopic approach. This is a retrospective comparative study of 181 patients who underwent myringoplasty with overlay techniques between January 2010 and 2016 at Songklanagarind Hospital, Thailand. Group 1 underwent an endoscopic-assisted (n=90), and group 2 underwent the microscopic-assisted (n=91) overlay myringoplasty. The outcomes were graft take rates, the audiometric results, the need of canalplasty, complications and operative time. All patients were followed up for at least 6months. The graft take rates were 96.7% in the endoscopic group and 91.2% in the microscopic group, p=0.22. The operative time was 98.9±11.0min for the endoscopic group, and 176.6±14.9min for the microscope group, poverlay myringoplasty provided satisfactory surgical as well as audiometric outcomes when compared with the microscopic approach. The graft take rate and postoperative hearing were similar in both groups. The endoscopic approach seemed to be superior than the microscopic approach in term of operative time, complication, and no need for canalplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pneumoretroperitoneum and Sepsis After Transanal Endoscopic Resection of a Rectal Lateral Spreading Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Bruno Augusto Alves; Coura, Marcelo de Melo Andrade; de Almeida, Romulo Medeiros; Moreira, Natascha Mourão; de Sousa, João Batista; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

    2017-06-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is considered a safe, appropriate, and minimally invasive approach, and complications after endoscopic microsurgery are rare. We report a case of sepsis and pneumoretroperitoneum after resection of a rectal lateral spreading tumor. The patient presented with rectal mucous discharge. Colonoscopy revealed a rectal lateral spreading tumor. The patient underwent an endoscopic transanal resection of the lesion. He presented with sepsis of the abdominal focus, and imaging tests revealed pneumoretroperitoneum. A new surgical intervention was performed with a loop colostomy. Despite the existence of other reports on pneumoretroperitoneum after transanal endoscopic microsurgery, what draws attention to this case is the association with sepsis.

  1. Endoscopic ultrasonographic characteristics of gastric schwannoma distinguished from gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Chul; Son, Dong-Jun; Oh, Hyung-Hoon; Oak, Chan-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Chung, Cho-Yun; Myung, Dae-Seong; Kim, Jong-Sun; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Joo, Young-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric schwannoma (GS), a rare neurogenic mesenchymal tumor, is usually benign, slow-growing, and asymptomatic. However, GS is often misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) on endoscopic and radiological examinations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EUS characteristics of GS distinguished from GIST. A total of 119 gastric subepithelial lesions, including 31 GSs and 88 GISTs, who were histologically identified and underwent EUS, were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the EUS characteristics, including location, size, gross morphology, mucosal lesion, layer of origin, border, echogenic pattern, marginal halo, and presence of an internal echoic lesion by retrospective review of the medical records. GS patients comprised nine males and 22 females, indicating female predominance. In the gross morphology according to Yamada's classification, type I was predominant in GS and type III was predominant in GIST. In location, GSs were predominantly located in the gastric body and GISTs were predominantly located in the cardia or fundus. The frequency of 4th layer origin and isoechogenicity as compared to the echogenicity of proper muscle layer was significantly more common in GS than GIST. Although not statistically significant, marginal halo was more frequent in GS than GIST. The presence of an internal echoic lesion was significantly more common in GIST than GS. The EUS characteristics, including tumor location, gross morphology, layer of origin, echogenicity in comparison with the normal muscle layer, and presence of an internal echoic lesion may be useful in distinguishing between GS and GIST.

  2. Clinical and Pharmacokinetic Factors Associated With Adalimumab-Induced Mucosal Healing in Patients With Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Nakase, Hiroshi; Motoya, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Naoki; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kato, Shingo; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Esaki, Motohiro; Nagahori, Masakazu; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Naito, Yuji; Kanai, Takanori; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nojima, Masanori; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2017-11-11

    We previously reported results from a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of adalimumab monotherapy versus combination with azathioprine for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who were naive to biologics and thiopurines. We performed a subanalysis of data from this study to evaluate factors associated with endoscopic response and mucosal healing in study participants. We compared simple endoscopic scores for CD in between patients with moderate to severe active CD randomly assigned groups that received adalimumab monotherapy (n = 85) or adalimumab in combination with azathioprine (n = 91), from June 2011 to June 2014 in Japan. We evaluated associations of simple endoscopic scores for CD with clinical factors and trough levels of adalimumab. Ultimately, 135 patients at Week 26 and 139 patients at Week 52 from 44 referral sites were analyzed for the present investigation. The odds for endoscopic response were significantly higher in the combination group than in the monotherapy group at Week 26 (odds ratio [OR], 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-4.32) but not at Week 52 (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.77-2.94). The odds of mucosal healing did not differ significantly between groups at Weeks 26 or 52. Simple endoscopic scores for CD at Week 0 was significantly associated with mucosal healing at Week 26 (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.90) and at Week 52 (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99). Higher adalimumab trough level at Week 26 associated with mucosal healing at Week 52 (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.58; P for trend = .001) and was significantly higher in patients with endoscopic response than in patients without endoscopic response at Weeks 26 and 52 (P < .001). In a post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of patients with moderate to severe CD, we found that adalimumab in combination with azathioprine increased trough levels of adalimumab. Higher trough levels of adalimumab associated with endoscopic response and mucosal healing at

  3. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patussi, Cleverson; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir; Munhoz, Eduardo Ciliao; Zanicotti, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; Schussel, Juliana Lucena

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient's recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

  4. [Findings from Total Colonoscopy in Obstructive Colorectal Cancer Patients Who Underwent Stent Placement as a Bridge to Surgery(BTS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Tsuyuki, Hajime; Kojima, Tadahiro; Koreyasu, Ryohei; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Kota; Ikeda, Takashi; Takayanagi, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    We clinically investigated 34 patients with obstructive colorectal cancer who underwent placement of a colonic stent as a bridge to surgery(BTS), focusing on endoscopic findings after stent placement.Twenty -nine patients(85.3%)underwent colonoscopy after stent placement, and the entire large intestine could be observed in 28(96.6%).Coexisting lesions were observed in 22(78.6%)of these 28 patients.The lesions comprised adenomatous polyps in 17 patients(60.7%), synchronous colon cancers in 5 patients(17.9%), and obstructive colitis in 3 patients(10.7%), with some overlapping cases.All patients with multiple cancers underwent one-stage surgery, and all lesions were excised at the same time.Colonoscopy after colonic stent placement is important for preoperative diagnosis of coexisting lesions and planning the extent of resection. These considerations support the utility of colonic stenting for BTS.

  5. Esophageal per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for achalasia: first case reported in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantau, Marcel; Tantau, Alina

    2013-12-01

    Traditional endoscopic treatment of achalasia consists of endoscopic balloon dilatation with the inconvenience of the recurrence of symptoms and the necessity of repeated sessions. Surgical laparoscopic procedure has been advocated to be more efficient especially in young patients because it sections the lower oesophageal sphincter via a transabdominal approach. The long term most severe complication has been refractory reflux oesophagitis due mainly to the alteration of the oesogastric antireflux anatomy (Hiss angle). Surgical myotomy was clasically associated with an antireflux procedure. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) via a mucosal orifice is as efficient as surgical myotomy but the antireflux anatomy of gastroesophageal junction is not altered, so the reflux symptoms are reduced. Second, POEM is mini invasive in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. The paper presents our first and successful case of this endoscopic surgical procedure in a 41 year old patient.

  6. Agreement between endoscopic and histological gastric atrophy scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yi; Uemura, Naomi; Xiao, Shu-Dong; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; Kate, Fiebo J. W. Ten

    2005-01-01

    Background. This study was conducted to investigate the strength of agreement between the endoscopic atrophic border (EAB) and the histological score for atrophy. Methods. A series of 298 dyspeptic Japanese patients underwent upper endoscopy. The grade of gastric atrophy was estimated according to

  7. Endoscopic findings in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the endoscopic findings in patients presenting with UGIB and its frequency among these patients according to gender and age in Lacor hospital, northern Uganda. Methods: The study was carried out at Lacor hospital, located at northern part of Uganda. The record of 224 patients who underwent ...

  8. Radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Cheon, Jung Eun; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Guk Myung

    2001-01-01

    Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required

  9. Advanced endoscopic imaging: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, James E; Vleugels, Jasper L; Roelandt, Philip; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bisschops, Raf; Dekker, Evelien; Hassan, Cesare; Horgan, Gareth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Wilson, Ana; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2016-11-01

    Background and aim: This technical review is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the utilization of advanced endoscopic imaging in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods: This technical review is based on a systematic literature search to evaluate the evidence supporting the use of advanced endoscopic imaging throughout the GI tract. Technologies considered include narrowed-spectrum endoscopy (narrow band imaging [NBI]; flexible spectral imaging color enhancement [FICE]; i-Scan digital contrast [I-SCAN]), autofluorescence imaging (AFI), and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations: 1. We suggest advanced endoscopic imaging technologies improve mucosal visualization and enhance fine structural and microvascular detail. Expert endoscopic diagnosis may be improved by advanced imaging, but as yet in community-based practice no technology has been shown consistently to be diagnostically superior to current practice with high definition white light. (Low quality evidence.) 2. We recommend the use of validated classification systems to support the use of optical diagnosis with advanced endoscopic imaging in the upper and lower GI tracts (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3. We suggest that training improves performance in the use of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques and that it is a prerequisite for use in clinical practice. A learning curve exists and training alone does not guarantee sustained high performances in clinical practice. (Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.) Conclusion: Advanced endoscopic imaging can improve mucosal visualization and endoscopic diagnosis; however it requires training and the use of validated classification systems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric adenomas using the clutch cutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Kazuya; Kubokawa, Masaru; Gibo, Junya; Osada, Shigeki; Tokumaru, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Eriko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Sato, Takao; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kimura, Yusuke; Shiratsuchi, Yuki; Akahoshi, Kazuaki; Oya, Masafumi; Koga, Hidenobu; Ihara, Eikichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-16

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using the clutch cutter (CC) (ESD-CC) for gastric adenoma (GA). From June 2007 to August 2015, 122 consecutive patients with histological diagnoses of GA from specimens resected by ESD-CC were enrolled in this prospective study. The CC was used for all ESD steps (marking, mucosal incision, submucosal dissection, and hemostatic treatment), and its therapeutic efficacy and safety were assessed. Both the en-bloc resection rate and the R0 resection rate were 100% (122/122). The mean surgical time was 77.4 min, but the time varied significantly according to tumor size and location. No patients suffered perforation. Post-ESD-CC bleeding occurred in six cases (4.9%) that were successfully resolved by endoscopic hemostatic treatment. ESD-CC is a technically efficient, safe, and easy method for resecting GA.

  11. Radiologic and endoscopic correlation in Crohn's disease of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czembirek, H.; Poetzi, R.; Tscholakoff, D.; Salomonowitz, E.; Wittich, G.; Vienna Univ.; Vienna Univ.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative assessment was carried out in 47 patients with double-contrast irrigoscopy (DCI), colonos-copy and edoscopy, the confirmed diagnosis being Crohn's disease in each of the patients. However, the histological finding of Crohn's disease was established in 19% only of the endoscopic biopsies. DCI enabled a more comprehensive assessment of the entire colon than was possible via endoscopy, since the right half of the colon could be visualized in less than 50% of the patients by the endoscopic method, whereas roentgenologic visualization of this part of the colon was possible in more than 90% of the patients. There was good agreement in respect of parts of the colon visualized both via endoscopy and via X-ray examination. As far as the assessment of deeper mucosal lesions was concerned, radiology proved superior, whereas endoscopy offered advantages in respect of changes on the level of the mucosa. (orig.) [de

  12. [Lugol's solution in endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Zhou, M; Cong, Q

    1995-07-01

    About 1500 high-risk subjects of esophageal cancer were found during screening by balloon cytology and all of them were examined endoscopically. Among them, 120 were considered as having early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. During the examination, Lugol's solution staining was used and guiding biopsy was taken. 98 subjects with unstained lesions were found, and biopsy showed early esophageal cancer in 60 (61.2%) and moderate and severe dysplasia in 38 (38.8%). It is usually extremely difficult to detect and localize the very early esophageal mucosal and submucosal carcinoma. But endoscopic examination and using Lugol's solution staining with multiple spots biopsy from unstained area are of great assistance. Minute malignant lesions may not be overlooked.

  13. Double endoscopic bypass for gastric outlet obstruction and biliary obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer Gutierrez, Olaya I.; Nieto, Jose; Irani, Shayan; James, Theodore; Pieratti Bueno, Renata; Chen, Yen-I; Bukhari, Majidah; Sanaei, Omid; Kumbhari, Vivek; Singh, Vikesh K.; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Baron, Todd H.; Khashab, Mouen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  Double endoscopic bypass entails EUS-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) and EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) in patients who present with gastric outlet and biliary obstruction. We report a multicenter experience with double endoscopic bypass. Patients and methods  Retrospective, multicenter series involving 3 US centers. Patients who underwent double endoscopic bypass for malignant gastric and biliary obstruction from 1/2015 to 12/2016 were included. Primary outcome was clinical success defined as tolerance of oral intake and resolution of cholestasis. Secondary outcomes included technical success, re-interventions and adverse events (AE). Results  Seven patients with pancreatic head cancer (57.1 % females; mean age 64.6 ± 12.5 years) underwent double endoscopic bypass. Four patients had EUS-GE and EUS-BD performed during the same session with a mean procedure time of 70 ± 20.4 minutes. EUS-GE and EUS-BD were technically successful in all patients, all of whom were able to tolerate oral intake with resolution of cholestasis in 6 (87.5 %). One patient had a repeat EUS-BD with normalization of bilirubin. There were no adverse events. Conclusions  Double endoscopic bypass is feasible and effective when performed by experienced operators. Studies comparing this novel concept to existing techniques are warranted. PMID:28924596

  14. Intraoperatory endoscopic papillectomy during cholecystectomy in the cholecystocholedocolithiasis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelaez M, Victor; Pineda O, Luis F; Gonzalez, Raul and others

    2002-01-01

    Patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis and suspected choledocolithiasis are a frequent clinical problem and there are different strategies for their treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a single cholecystocholedocolithiasis treatment by endoscopic papillotamy during cholecystectomy. Thirty-four patients 30 female and 4 male; average age 40.1 years, range 14 to 78) underwent cholecystectomy and endoscopic papillotomy Intra-operative transcystic cholangiography (IOC) confirmed choledocholithiasis or obstruction of the passage of the contrast medium to the duodenum. Through a hydrophilic guide passed through the cystic, a papillotomy was inserted endoscopically and papillotomy and removal if calculi with canastilla were carried out, as well as transcystic irrigation. choledocholithiasis was found in 32 patients (94%) and obstruction of the passage of the contrast medium in 2 (6%). Papillectomy was possible in all the cases and calculi were successfully removed in 28 patients (87.5%). Three patients required additional endoscopic procedures for the extraction if the calculi. One patient underwent open surgery Two patients had complications relating to the papillotomy 5.8%) with no mortality/morbidity. The average stay in hospital was 2.8 day and follow-up at 38 day. The combined endoscopic and surgical technique is useful in the treatment of patients with choledocholithasis

  15. Gastric schwannomas: radiological features with endoscopic and pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, H.S. [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, H.K. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr; Won, H.J.; Byun, J.H.; Shin, Y.M.; Kim, A.Y.; Kim, P.N.; Lee, M.-G. [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G.H. [Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.J. [Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To describe the radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of gastric schwannomas in 16 patients. Materials and methods: The radiological, endoscopic, and pathological findings of 16 surgically proven cases of gastric schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and four patients were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal series. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and upper gastrointestinal series images by consensus with regard to tumour size, contour, margin, and growth pattern, the presence or absence of ulcer, cystic change, and the CT enhancement pattern. Endoscopy was performed in eight of these 16 patients. Six patients underwent endoscopic ultrasonography. Pathological specimens were obtained from and reviewed in all 16 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed for c-kit, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Results: On radiographic examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as submucosal tumours with the CT features of well-demarcated, homogeneous, and uncommonly ulcerated masses. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated homogeneous, submucosal masses contiguous with the muscularis propria in all six examined cases. On pathological examination, gastric schwannomas appeared as well-circumscribed and homogeneous tumours in the muscularis propria and consisted microscopically of interlacing bundles of spindle cells. Strong positivity for S-100 protein was demonstrated in all 16 cases on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Gastric schwannomas appear as submucosal tumours of the stomach and have well-demarcated and homogeneous features on CT, endoscopic ultrasonography, and gross pathology. Immunohistochemistry consistently reveals positivity for S-100 protein in the tumours.

  16. How to establish endoscopic submucosal dissection in Western countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Ponchon, Thierry; Kiesslich, Tobias; Berr, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been invented in Japan to provide resection for cure of early cancer in the gastrointestinal tract. Professional level of ESD requires excellent staging of early neoplasias with image enhanced endoscopy (IEE) to make correct indications for ESD, and high skills in endoscopic electrosurgical dissection. In Japan, endodiagnostic and endosurgical excellence spread through personal tutoring of skilled endoscopists by the inventors and experts in IEE and ESD. To translocate this expertise to other continents must overcome two fundamental obstacles: (1) inadequate expectations as to the complexity of IEE and ESD; and (2) lack of suitable lesions and master-mentors for ESD trainees. Leading endoscopic mucosal resection-proficient endoscopists must pioneer themselves through the long learning curve to proficient ESD experts. Major referral centers for ESD must arise in Western countries on comparable professional level as in Japan. In the second stage, the upcoming Western experts must commit themselves to teach skilled endoscopists from other referral centers, in order to spread ESD in Western countries. Respect for patients with early gastrointestinal cancer asks for best efforts to learn endoscopic categorization of early neoplasias and skills for ESD based on sustained cooperation with the masters in Japan. The strategy is discussed here. PMID:26523097

  17. A Distinctive Urinary Metabolomic Fingerprint Is Linked With Endoscopic Postoperative Disease Recurrence in Crohn's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Tso, Robert; Dieleman, Levinus A; Park, Heekuk; Kroeker, Karen I; Jovel, Juan; Gillevet, Patrick M; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Mandal, Rupasri; Fedorak, Richard N; Madsen, Karen L

    2018-03-19

    Crohn's disease (CD) patients who undergo ileocolonic resection frequently have disease recurrence. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify urinary metabolomic profiles associated with disease recurrence in order to identify underlying mechanisms of recurrence and possible disease biomarkers. Biopsies from the neoterminal ileum were collected from CD patients (n = 38) after ileocolonic resection in order to assess mucosa-associated microbiota using 16S rRNA multitag pyrosequencing. Urine samples were collected, and metabolomic profiling was done using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resolution spectroscopy and a combined direct infusion liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The Rutgeerts scoring system was used to assess endoscopic postoperative recurrence of CD. There were 28 (73.7%) patients with endoscopic CD recurrence. CD patients who were in endoscopic remission had a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and lower abundance of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria in comparison with CD patients who had endoscopic recurrence. In addition, metabolomic profiling could also discriminate between these 2 groups of patients. Endoscopic recurrence was associated with increased concentration of urinary levoglucosan. Rutgeerts score was positively correlated with levoglucosan and propylene glycol levels. CD patients who present with endoscopic disease recurrence after surgery have a unique urinary metabolomic fingerprint that can differentiate them from CD patients who are in endoscopic remission after ileocolonic resection. In addition, mucosal-associated microbiota in CD patients with or without disease recurrence after surgery differs and correlates with some urinary metabolites.

  18. Outcomes following Purely Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of endoscope for the management of pituitary adenoma is not new. The better magnification and illumination provided by the endoscope gives better outcome than microscopic pituitary surgery. Objective: To find out the benefits of endoscope in relation to microscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: We performed 45 cases of pituitary adenoma surgery by endoscopic endonasal approach from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Forty five cases underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Gross total removal was done in 35 cases and subtotal removal was done in 10 cases. Residual tumours were seen in 10 cases (22% in postoperative follow-up MRI scan. Visual improvement was satisfactory, and hormonal improvement of functional adenoma was nice. Postoperative visual acuity and visual field were improved in 75% cases. There were 37% cases of temporary diabetes insipidus and about 4.5% cases of permanent diabetes insipidus. The average duration of follow-up was 20 months. One patient required reexploration to correct visual deterioration in the immediate postoperative period. There were 4.5% cases of CSF leak and 6.6% mortality. Mortality was due to electrolyte imbalance and improper management of infection and hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery now has become a gold standard surgery for most of the pituitary adenomas because of its better advantages in relation to microscopic surgery and less complications and less hospital stay.

  19. [Treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis by an endoscopic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seicean, Andrada; Burtin, Pascal; Boyer, Jean; Pascu, Oliviu

    2002-06-01

    The epigastric pain is the most frequent manifestation in chronic pancreatitis. It is due to intraductal pancreatic pressure, presence of compressive pseudocysts and probably to neuroinflammatory process caused by alcohol. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of endoscopic treatment on pain in chronic pancreatitis and the correlation between residual pain after endoscopic treatment and pancreatic morphology. Forty-four patients from the Gastroenterology Department of Angers (France) with chronic pancreatitis were included in our retrospective clinical study. Thirty-seven patients underwent a diagnostic ERCP and only 28 needed an endoscopic treatment. The pain was evaluated semi-quantitatively before and after the endoscopic treatment. The mean follow-up was 28.6 months. Among the 28 patients with endoscopic treatment, 18 had a complete improvement of the pain, 4 an incomplete improvement and 6 had no improvement; these last were submitted to pancreatic surgery. The pain evolution had a good correlation with the reduction of Wirsung diameter; there was no correlation with ductal stenosis, residual lithiasis and pseudocysts presence. Alcohol consumption had no influence on the pain evolution. The endoscopic treatment of intraductal lithiasis and pseudocysts is a useful method for Wirsung decompression, improving the pain in chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  1. Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Outcomes and quality of life assessment after per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) performed in the endoscopy unit with trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacha, Sunil; Wang, Lei; Li, Xaioyu; Jiang, Yueping; Philips, George; Keilin, Steven A; Willingham, Field F; Cai, Qiang

    2018-01-29

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has emerged as a promising option for the treatment of achalasia. This study assessed POEM training process, outcomes, and improvement in quality of life after POEM performed by an interventional endoscopist (mentor) with trainees. We performed a retrospective review of data for patients who underwent POEM with involvement of trainees. Trainees were trained in performing mucosotomy, submucosal dissection, creating submucosal tunnel, identifying gastroesophageal junction, myotomy, and closure of mucosal incision in a step-by-step fashion. Trainees' performance on each step was evaluated by the mentor based on several key points in each step. The short form 36 (SF36) was obtained before and certain times after the primary POEM procedure was performed. Sixty-two patients, 26 males and 36 females with a mean age of 59 years, who underwent POEM were enrolled. A checklist included all related items for each step was established. All trainees obtained competence within 6 cases for each step. 61/62 (98.3%) patients had a significant improvement in the Eckardt's score post POEM: 9.3 ± 1.5 prior to POEM and 2.6 ± 1.2 after the POEM (P = 0.001) and a decrease in mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LES): pre- and post-procedure mean LES pressures were 28.5 ± 11.4 and 12.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.001). The SF-36 questionnaire demonstrated a significant improvement in quality of life and comparable with those without trainees in other studies. This preliminary study showed for the first time that training for POEM can be performed in a step-by-step fashion, learning mucosal incision, submucosal dissection, myotomy, and mucosal incision closure from an expert interventional endoscopist without increasing adverse events. The checklist for each step could be used as an important guide in training POEM. The outcomes of POEM in this study were similar to those reported by others without trainees. Further

  3. Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Olmesartan-Associated Collagenous Gastroduodenitis: A Potential Endoscopic Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Hudacko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous gastroenteritis is a rare disease that is known to be associated with the drug olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension. It is characterized histologically by increased subepithelial collagen deposition with associated inflammation and epithelial injury. Endoscopically, the mucosa appears inflamed and friable and may be nodular or atrophic. We report a case of acute gastric bleeding on direct mucosal contact during endoscopy in a patient with olmesartan-associated collagenous gastroduodenitis to raise awareness of this potential endoscopic complication.

  4. Visceral Arterial Aneurysms Complicating Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Gaduputi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report this case of a 74-year-old man with altered anatomy secondary to Billroth-II surgery who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP for choledocholithiasis and subsequently developed severe diffuse abdominal pain with drop in hemoglobin. Patient was found to have hemorrhagic shock requiring aggressive resuscitative measures. Patient was found to have large peripancreatic hematoma secondary to bleeding from gastroduodenal and superior pancreaticoduodenal artery pseudoaneurysms. Gastroduodenal artery aneurysm is the rarest of all the splanchnic artery aneurysms, and to our knowledge this is the only reported case of a gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm complicating ERCP.

  5. A case that underwent bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract Available A case that underwent bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) biopsy combined with pneumonectomy is presented. The patient developed hypoxia during the contralateral VATS biopsy. His hypoxia was treated with positive expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the dependent lung and apneic ...

  6. Use of a real-time viewer for endoscopic deployment of capsule endoscope in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lee M; Misiewicz, Lawrence

    2012-11-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is an increasingly used procedure for visualization of the small intestine. One challenge in pediatric WCE is the placement of the capsule in a population unable to swallow it for a variety of reasons. Here we present a novel use of the real-time (RT) viewer in the endoscopic deployment of the capsule endoscope. We performed a retrospective chart review on all WCE completed at the Children's Memorial Hospital from February 2010 to May 2011. Following a diagnostic upper endoscopy, the RT viewer was attached to the capsule recorder and image was noted before insertion. The endoscope and AdvanCE capsule delivery device were slowly advanced into duodenum while maintaining visualization on the RT viewer. A total of 17 patients who underwent a WCE with endoscopic placement were identified. They ranged in ages from 2 to 19 years. Thirteen patients required endoscopic placement because of the inability to swallow the capsule, whereas 4 were placed during a scheduled procedure to take advantage of sedation and airway protection. All of the 17 patients had successful deployment of the capsule into the duodenal lumen. In each case, the endoscopist was able to confirm capsule location in duodenum during scope withdrawal. There was no evidence of iatrogenic trauma or bleeding in any patient. There were 5 incomplete studies, a completion rate consistent with that described in the literature. The use of the RT viewer for endoscopic deployment of WCE is an effective technique to improve visualization of capsule placement in the pediatric population.

  7. Sedation Monitoring and Management during Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menekse Oksar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic laser discectomy (PELD is a painful intervention that requires deep sedation and analgesia. However, sedation should be light at some point because cooperation by the patient during the procedure is required for successful surgical treatment. Light sedation poses a problem for endotracheal intubation, while patients placed in the prone position during percutaneous endoscopic discectomy pose a problem for airway management. Therefore, under these conditions, sedation should be not deeper than required. Here we report the sedation management of three cases that underwent PELD, with a focus on deep and safe sedation that was monitored using bispectral index score and observer’s assessment of alertness/sedation score.

  8. Endoscopic laryngeal web formation for pitch elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Endoscopic laryngeal web formation has been used to elevate the speaking voice, primarily in male to female transsexuals as part of gender reassignment intervention. The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding surgical treatment for pitch elevation and to describe a novel method of laryngeal web formation. The results of this technique are also reported in a series of six patients. All patients were assessed and treated at the St. Michael's Hospital Voice Disorders Clinic, a tertiary referral centre for voice disorders. Pre- and postoperative voice recordings, acoustic analysis, and videostroboscopic examinations were performed in this series. The acoustic data collected included isolated vowel samples, a reading task, and a modified voice range profile. The patients all underwent successful endoscopic web formation with a Gelfoam augmentation technique. The voice results collected at least 6 months after vocal fold web formation demonstrate a dramatic increase in the habitual speaking fundamental frequency. This new modification for endoscopic web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity.

  9. Endoscope-Assisted Abscess Drainage Secondary to Endoscope-Assisted Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: 1-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Karthik; Burks, Steven Shelby; Chieng, Lee Onn; Veeravagu, Anand; Wang, Michael Y

    2017-11-01

    Endoscopic discectomy and fusions have been gaining popularity in the recent past and are noted to be safe for their application in elderly population. The procedure involves ultra-small incision for discectomy followed by placement of percutaneous screws in awake patients. Treatment of advanced spinal pathology with endoscope-assisted techniques is challenging. Although not common with the endoscopic approach, postoperative infection can be problematic, as there are no established guidelines on its management. A 76-year-old female patient underwent lumbar 4-5 endoscopic-assisted transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for severe degenerative changes leading to back and radicular leg pain. She did well postoperatively and was discharged home the following day. She presented to the outside hospital with new onset of severe back pain, sepsis, and positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with blood culture and demonstrated no improvement while on antibiotics. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed postoperative changes only. With positive blood culture and localized pain, she was then offered to undergo a percutaneous drainage of the abscess. Under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation, a small pocket of collection was found along the endoscopic trajectory from previous surgery. After evacuation of the collection, the interbody device was irrigated with vancomycin through endoscope. Postoperatively, immediate symptomatic improvement was noted in back pain. She was discharged home on oxacillin and continues to do well at 12 months' follow-up with excellent fusion. The present case illustrates the successful treatment of a surgical-site infection after endoscope-assisted transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion via a repeat percutaneous endoscopic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mucosal Kaposi sarcoma, a Rare Cancer Network study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Miller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS most often affect the skin but occasionally affect the mucosa of different anatomic sites. The management of mucosal KS is seldom described in the literature. Data from 15 eligible patients with mucosal KS treated between 1994 and 2008 in five institutions within three countries of the Rare Cancer Network group were collected. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age >16 years, confirmed pathological diagnosis, mucosal stages I and II, and a minimum of 6 months’ follow-up after treatment. Head and neck sites were the most common (66%. Eleven cases were HIV-positive. CD4 counts correlated with disease stage. Twelve patients had biopsy only while three patients underwent local resection. Radiotherapy (RT was delivered whatever their CD4 status was. Median total radiation dose was 16.2 Gy (0-45 delivered in median 17 days (0-40 with four patients receiving no RT. Six patients underwent chemotherapy and received from 1 to 11 cycles of various regimens namely vinblastin, caelyx, bleomycine, or interferon, whatever their CD4 counts was. Five-year disease free survival were 81.6% and 75.0% in patients undergoing RT or not, respectively. Median survival was 66.9 months. Radiation-induced toxicity was at worse grade 1-2 and was manageable whatever patients’ HIV status. This small series of mucosal KSs revealed that relatively low-dose RT is overall safe and efficient in HIV-positive and negative patients. Since there are distant relapses either in multicentric cutaneous or visceral forms in head and neck cases, the role of systemic treatments may be worth investigations in addition to RT of localized disease. Surgery may be used for symptomatic lesions, with caution given the risk of bleeding.

  11. Automated endoscope reprocessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, David; Kaul, Vivek; Tierney, William M; Banerjee, Subhas; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel

    2010-10-01

    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but in many cases data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through February 2010 for articles related to automated endoscope reprocessors, using the words endoscope reprocessing, endoscope cleaning, automated endoscope reprocessors, and high-level disinfection. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of gastric remnant cancer post distal gastrectomy by endoscopic submucosal dissection using an insulation-tipped diathermic knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasaki, Shoji; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Minoru; Fujita, Kohei; Matsumura, Shuji; Suzuki, Seiyuu

    2008-04-28

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic submucosal dissection using an insulation-tipped diathermic knife (IT-ESD) for the treatment of patients with gastric remnant cancer. Thirty-two patients with early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach, who underwent distal gastrectomy due to gastric carcinoma, were treated with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or ESD at Sumitomo Besshi Hospital and Shikoku Cancer Center in the 10-year period from January 1998 to December 2007, including 17 patients treated with IT-ESD. Retrospectively, patient backgrounds, the one-piece resection rate, complete resection (CR) rate, operation time, bleeding rate, and perforation rate were compared between patients treated with conventional EMR and those treated with IT-ESD. The CR rate (40% in the EMR group vs 82% in the IT-ESD group) was significantly higher in the IT-ESD group than in the EMR group; however, the operation time was significantly longer for the IT-ESD group (57.6 +/- 31.9 min vs 21.1 +/- 12.2 min). No significant differences were found in the rate of underlying cardiopulmonary disease (IT-ESD group, 12% vs EMR group, 13%), one-piece resection rate (100% vs 73%), bleeding rate (18% vs 6.7%), and perforation rate (0% vs 0%) between the two groups. IT-ESD appears to be an effective treatment for gastric remnant cancer post distal gastrectomy because of its high CR rate. It is useful for histological confirmation of successful treatment. The long-term outcome needs to be evaluated in the future.

  13. A novel fully synthetic and self-assembled peptide solution for endoscopic submucosal dissection-induced ulcer in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraoka, Toshio; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Fujimoto, Ai; Goto, Osamu; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Naoya; Kanai, Takanori; Matsuda, Sachiko; Kitagawa, Yuko; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2016-06-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can remove early stage GI tumors of various sizes en bloc; however, success requires reducing the relatively high postprocedure bleeding rate. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel, fully synthetic, and self-assembled peptide solution that functions as an extracellular matrix scaffold material to facilitate reconstruction of normal tissues in ESD-induced ulcers. Consecutive patients who underwent gastric ESD were prospectively enrolled. Immediately after the resection, the solution was applied to the site with a catheter. Gastric ulcers were evaluated by endoscopy and classified as active, healing, or scarring stages at weeks 1, 4, and 8 after ESD. Forty-seven patients with 53 lesions, including 14 (29.8%) previously on antithrombotic therapy and 2 (4.3%) requiring heparin bridge therapy, were analyzed; 2 patients were excluded, 1 with perforations and 1 with persistent coagulopathy. The mean size of the en bloc resected specimens was 36.5 ± 11.3 mm. The rate of post-ESD bleeding was 2.0% (1/51; 95% CI, 0.03-10.3). Transitional rate to the healing stage of ESD-induced ulcers at week 1 was 96% (49/51). Subsequent endoscopies demonstrated the scarring stage in 19% (9/48) and 98% (41/42) at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. No adverse effects related to this solution occurred. The use of this novel peptide solution may potentially aid in reducing the delayed bleeding rate by promoting mucosal regeneration and speed of ulcer healing after large endoscopic resections in the stomach. Further studies, particularly randomized controlled studies, are needed to fully evaluate its efficacy. ( 000011548.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Hung Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007–2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o’clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12–15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18–30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4. Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases.

  15. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shou-Hung; Kao, Chien-Chang; Wu, Seng-Tang; Meng, En; Cha, Tai-Lung

    2012-04-01

    Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007-2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o'clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12-15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18-30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4). Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Therapeutic management of radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Doelling-Jochem, I.; Baumann, M.; Herrmann, T.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Acute reactions of oral mucosa are a frequent side effect of radiotherapy, which often necessitates interruption of the treatment. Marked proliferation of tumor stem cells during treatment interruptions may occur in squamous cell carcinomata, which represent the majority of tumors in the head and neck area. Hence a fatal consequence of treatment breaks may be a significant decrease in tumor cure rates. Furthermore, marked acute responses frequently result in increased late sequelae ('consequential damage'). Therefore, amelioration of the mucosal response aiming at avoiding treatment breaks and at reduction of late reactions coul definitely increase the therapeutic success of radiation treatment. Results: A variety of prophylactic and therapeutic methods have been proposed for the management of acute radiation reactions of the oral mucosa. Frequently, their efficiacy has been established for chemotherapy or in combination with other immunosuppressive treatments. Hence, systemical rather than local effects have to be considered. Conclusions: In general, prophylaxis of oral mucositis is mainly based on dental restoration or edentation, in combination with frequent oral hygienic measures after the meals and with antiseptic mouthwashes. Intensive personal care is recommended. The necessity of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma is dependent on the status of the patient and on size and localization of the treatment area, i.e. the impairment of food uptake which is to be expected. Therapeutic intervention is restricted to local or systemic treatment of pain and local application of antimycotics and antibiotics. (orig./VHE) [de

  17. Patient and staff exposure to glutaraldehyde from KeyMed Auto-Disinfector endoscope washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D A; Parnell, P; Porter, C; Axon, A T

    1994-05-01

    Activated glutaraldehyde (2%) is the recommended agent for disinfection of endoscopic equipment. Exposure to the disinfectant is associated with side-effects and guidelines have been set to avoid these complications. Endoscope washing machines are used to provide automated high level disinfection of endoscopes as well as reduce exposure to the irritant aldehyde. We report a design fault in an endoscope washing machine which results in patients and staff being exposed to activated glutaraldehyde. The Auto-Disinfector (KeyMed) comprises a washing chamber supplied by three separate reservoirs (detergent, disinfectant, and rinse water) via a common channel. After the first cycle endoscopes are processed using previously used detergent and rinse water. Rinse water glutaraldehyde concentrations were measured in four machines during routine endoscopy lists on at least two occasions and showed a progressive rise in glutaraldehyde concentration up to 0.1% after two to six cycles. This results in staff being exposed to glutaraldehyde present on the processed instrument and the disinfectant being pumped from the internal channels of the endoscope into direct contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa during endoscopy at concentrations of 200-1000 ppm. The present atmospheric limit for glutaraldehyde is 0.2 ppm. Skin and mucosal irritation occur at concentrations of 0.3 ppm and severe synovitis in experimental animals at 100 pm. Tongue swelling and bloody diarrhoea with characteristic mucosal histological changes have been reported in patients exposed to activated glutaraldehyde on inadequately rinsed equipment. To reduce this problem the rinse water should be changed after every cycle and the endoscope should be dried thoroughly before use.

  18. NUTRITION SUPPORT COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENT WHO UNDERWENT CARDIAC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Krdžalić, Alisa; Kovčić, Jasmina; Krdžalić, Goran; Jahić, Elmir

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nutrition support complications after cardiac surgery should be detected and treated on time. Aim: To show the incidence and type of nutritional support complication in patients after cardiac surgery. Methods: The prospective study included 415 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2013 in Clinic for Cardiovascular Disease of University Clinical Center Tuzla. Complications of the delivery system for nutrition support (NS) and nutrition itself were analy...

  19. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Salinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT, the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT. Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture.

  20. Endoscopic diagnosis of early carcinoma of the esophagus using Lugol's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, K; Kitamura, K; Baba, K; Ikebe, M; Kuwano, H

    1992-01-01

    Small esophageal lesions, particularly intraepithelial cancers, are extremely difficult to detect. We used Lugol's iodine solution with panendoscopic examination to detect the presence and spread of small squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus. Serial histologic specimens of the surgically removed esophagus from 32 patients with Lugol's combined endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal carcinoma were examined to determine the correlation between endoscopic and histologic findings. All of the early staged carcinomas clearly remained unstained by Lugol's solution. We believe that the application of Lugol's solution will greatly aid in instances when a suspicious mucosal lesion is noted, when the margin of the lesion is unclear, or when there is suspicion that a mucosal lesion may have been overlooked.

  1. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    , and a lower probability of developing colorectal cancer. Understanding the mechanisms of mucosal wound formation and wound healing in UC, and how they are affected therapeutically is therefore of importance for obtaining efficient treatment strategies holding the potential of changing the disease course of UC....... This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...... epithelial cells and other cells of the mucosa are discussed. The biochemistry of wound healing in UC provides the basis for the subsequent description of how these pathways are affected by the current medications, and what can be learnt on how to design future treatment regimens for UC based on targeting...

  2. Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Most infants are immunologically active and are able to develop a tolerance to oligoclonal antigens by producing IgA, along with activation of regulatory T cells, in early infancy. Cytokines and their signaling molecules are important mediators in the intestine, regulating both oral tolerance and mucosal inflammation. This system works efficiently in most individuals, but for an as yet undefined reason, some people react to food and other proteins as though they were pathogens, with induction of chronic inflammation in the mucosa. The adverse reaction caused by ingested foods is defined as food intolerance. The clinical features of food intolerance include vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, eczema, failure to thrive, and a protean range of other symptoms. Intolerance can be divided into two categories depending on whether or not they are immunologically mediated. Food intolerance and mucosal inflammation are deeply related because tolerance cannot be established when there is an inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Mast cells, eosinophils, mucosal lymphocytes, and epithelial cells are deeply involved and related to each other in the development of mucosal inflammation. Meanwhile, rectal bleeding in infancy is related to lymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophil infiltration into the colonic mucosa facilitated by C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11, known as eotaxin-1) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13). Rectal bleeding in infancy may not be simply caused by allergic reactions against specific antigens, but may be due to migrated lymphocytes developing immunological tolerance; including IgA synthesizing, in the intestinal mucosa. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Choledocholithiasis diagnostics – endoscopic ultrasound or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Leszczyszyn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 3.4% of patients qualified for cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis have a coexisting choledocholithiasis. For decades, endoscopic ascending retrograde cholangiopancreatography has been the golden diagnostic standard in cases of suspected choledocholithiasis. The method is associated with a relatively high rate of complications, including acute pancreatitis, the incidence of which is estimated to range between 0.74% and 1.86%. The mechanism of this ERCP-induced complication is not fully understood, although factors increasing the risk of acute pancreatitis, such as sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, previous acute pancreatitis, narrow bile ducts or difficult catheterization of Vater’s ampulla are known. It has been suggested to discontinue the diagnostic endoscopic retrograde ascending cholangiopancreatography and replace it with endoscopic ultrasonography due to possible and potentially dangerous complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography has sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 95% regardless of gallstone diameter, as opposed to magnetic resonance cholangiography. However, both of these parameters depend on the experience of the performing physician. The use of endoscopic ultrasonography allows to limit the number of performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures by more than 2/3. Ascending endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography combined with an endoscopic incision into the Vater’s ampulla followed by a mechanical evacuation of stone deposits from the ducts still remains a golden standard in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. Despite some limitations such as potentially increased treatment costs as well as the necessity of the procedure to be performed by a surgeon experienced in both endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography as well as endoscopic ultrasonography, the diagnostic endoscopic ultrasonography followed by a simultaneous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

  4. Kaposi's sarcoma of the small intestine after renal transplantation : radiological and endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Ha Hun; Kang, Si Won; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Ahn, Byung Min [Taejon St. Mary' s Hospital, the Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    A case of Kaposi's sarcoma involving the small bowel two years after receiving a renal transplant is described. Immunosuppression had been achieved using cyclosporine A and prednisolone. Lesions extended from the duodenum to the ileum;radiologically, they were demonstrated on small bowel follow-through study and computed tomography as multiple small nodular intraluminal masses with or without central umbilication, and endoscopically, were seen as intramural mucosal elevations with a central crater-like ulceration.

  5. Treatment of over 20 mm gastric cancer by endoscopic submucosal dissection using an insulation-tipped diathermic knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasaki, Shoji; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Minoru; Fujita, Kohei; Ikeda, Fusao; Taniguchi, Hideaki; Yumoto, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Seiyuu

    2007-08-07

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic submucosal dissection using an insulation-tipped diathermic knife (IT-ESD) for the treatment of patients with over 20 mm early gastric cancer (EGC). A total of 112 patients with over 10 mm EGC were treated with IT-ESD at Sumitomo Besshi Hospital and Shikoku Cancer Center in the 5 year period from January 2002 to December 2006, including 40 patients with over 20 mm EGC. We compared patient backgrounds, the one-piece resection rate, complete resection (CR) rate, operation time, bleeding rate, perforation rate between patients with over 20 mm EGC [over 20 mm group (21-40 mm)] and the remaining patients (under 20 mm group). We found no significant difference in the rate of underlying cardiopulmonary disease (over 20 mm group vs under 20 mm group, 5.0% vs 5.6%), one-piece resection rate (95% vs 96%), CR rate (85% vs 89%), operation time (72.3 min vs 66.5 min), bleeding rate (5% vs 4.2%), and perforation rate (0% vs 1.4%) between the 2 groups. Three patients in each group had submucosal invasion and two in each groups underwent additional surgery. There was no significant difference in the outcome resulting from IT-ESD between the 2 groups. Our study proves that IT-ESD is a feasible treatment for patients with over 20 mm mucosal gastric cancer although the long-term outcome should be evaluated in the future.

  6. Esophageal Perforation due to Transesophageal Echocardiogram: New Endoscopic Clip Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robotis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal perforation due to transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE during cardiac surgery is rare. A 72-year-old female underwent TEE during an operation for aortic valve replacement. Further, the patient presented hematemesis. Gastroscopy revealed an esophageal bleeding ulcer. Endoscopic therapy was successful. Although a CT scan excluded perforation, the patient became febrile, and a second gastroscopy revealed a big perforation at the site of ulcer. The patient's clinical condition required endoscopic intervention with a new OTSC® clip (Ovesco Endoscopy, Tübingen, Germany. The perforation was successfully sealed. The patient remained on intravenous antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and parenteral nutrition for few days, followed by enteral feeding. She was discharged fully recovered 3 months later. We clearly demonstrate an effective, less invasive treatment of an esophageal perforation with a new endoscopic clip.

  7. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  8. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  9. Accuracy of Endoscopy in Predicting the Depth of Mucosal Injury Following Caustic Ingestion; a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Alipour-Faz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD is currently considered as the primary method of determining the degree of mucosal injury following caustic ingestion. The present study aimed to evaluate the screening performance characteristics of EGD in predicting the depth of gastrointestinal mucosal injuries following caustic ingestion.Methods: Adult patients who were referred to emergency department due to ingestion of corrosive materials, over a 7-year period, were enrolled to this diagnostic accuracy study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values as well as negative and positive likelihood ratios of EGD in predicting the depth of mucosal injury was calculated using pathologic findings as the gold standard.Results: 54 cases with the mean age of 35 ± 11.2 years were enrolled (59.25% male. Primary endoscopic results defined 28 (51.85% cases as second grade and 26 (48.14% as third grade of mucosal injury. On the other hand, pathologic findings reported 21 (38.88% patients as first grade, 14 (25.92% as second, and 19 patients (35.18% as third grade. Sensitivity and specificity of endoscopy for determining grade II tissue injury were 50.00 (23.04-76.96 and 47.50 (31.51-63.87, respectively. These measures were 100.00 (82.35-100 and 80.00 (63.06-91.56, respectively for grade III. Accuracy of EGD was 87.03% for grade III and 48.14% for grade II.Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, endoscopic grading of caustic related mucosal injury based on the Zargar’s classification has good accuracy in predicting grade III (87% and fail accuracy in grade II injuries (48%. It seems that we should be cautious in planning treatment for these patients solely based on endoscopic results. 

  10. Influence of the application of platelet-enriched plasma in oral mucosal wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A. H.; Mathura, Keshen R.; Aartman, Irene H. A.; Kroon, Frans H. M.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Ince, Can

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the therapeutic value of platelet concentrate on the capillary density in oral mucosal wound healing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects included 10 healthy edentulous patients who underwent bilaterally a sinus floor elevation procedure and

  11. Clinical outcomes for 14 consecutive patients with solid pseudopapillary neoplasms who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Sumiyoshi, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-02-01

    The postoperative results of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), including the effects of spleen-preserving resection, are still to be elucidated. Of the 139 patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatectomy for non-cancerous tumors, 14 consecutive patients (average age, 29.6 years; 1 man, 13 women) with solitary SPN who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy between March 2004 and June 2015 were enrolled. The tumors had a mean diameter of 4.8 cm. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in eight patients (spleen-preserving group), including two cases involving pancreatic tail preservation, and laparoscopic spleno-distal pancreatectomy was performed in six patients (standard resection group). The median operating time was 317 min, and the median blood loss was 50 mL. Postoperatively, grade B pancreatic fistulas appeared in two patients (14.3%) but resolved with conservative treatment. No patients had postoperative complications, other than pancreatic fistulas, or required reoperation. The median postoperative hospital stay was 11 days, and the postoperative mortality was zero.None of the patients had positive surgical margins or lymph nodes with metastasis. The median follow-up period did not significantly differ between the two groups (20 vs 39 months, P = 0.1368). All of the patients are alive and free from recurrent tumors without major late-phase complications. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy might be a suitable treatment for patients with SPN. A spleen-preserving operation is preferable for younger patients with SPN, and this study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the procedure compared to spleno-distal pancreatectomy. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jye Hae; Rhie, Seonkyeong; Jeong, Su Jin

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6) months. Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5) years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87%) had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment. PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.

  13. [GERD: endoscopic antireflux therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, K

    2006-08-02

    A couple of minimally-invasive, endoscopic antireflux procedures have been developed during the last years. Beside endoscopic suturing these included injection/implantation technique of biopolymers and application of radiofrequency. Radiofrequency (Stretta) has proved only a very modest effect, while implantation techniques have been abandoned due to lack of long-term efficacy (Gatekeeper) or serious side effects (Enteryx). While first generation endoluminal suturing techniques (EndoCinch, ESD) demonstrated a proof of principle their lack of durability, due to suture loss, led to the development of a potentially durable transmural plication technique (Plicator). In a prospective-randomized, sham-controlled trial the Plicator procedure proved superiority concerning reflux symptoms, medication use and esophageal acid exposure (24-h-pH-metry). While long-term data have to be awaited to draw final conclusions, technical improvements will drive innovation in this field.

  14. [Functional endoscopic sinus surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D M

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-two cases of functional endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed. It include 62 males and 20 females; the oldest was 72 years of age and the youngest eight years of age. A hard endoscope with a diameter of 4mm and the CCD micro-videorecorder produced by Circon and Olympus Company were used. Operations were done under general anesthesia in all cases. Twenty-three cases (28.1%) recovered in one stage and recovery was delayed in 28 cases (34.2%); late inflammation occurred in 23 cases (28.1%); 8 cases failed (9.8%). The cure rate was 62.2%. Two cases (2.4%) had operative complications namely injury to the lamina papyracea and anterior ethmoidal artery, all recovered uneventfully.

  15. Endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate on esophagojejunal anastomotic leak: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulos Stamatis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case report describes an esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The leak was treated successfully with endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. This is the first case report on the endoscopic application of cyanoacrylate alone for the treatment of an anastomotic leak. Case presentation This report describes a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. He underwent total gastrectomy and esophagojejunal anastomosis with Roux-en-Y anastomosis plus transverse colectomy. An anastomotic leak was treated conservatively at first for a total of three weeks. However, the leak persisted; therefore, the decision was made to apply topical endoscopic n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Conclusion The endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate alone can be used successfully to treat esophagojejunal anastomotic leakage.

  16. Circumostial injection of mitomycin C (COS-MMC) in external and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: efficacy, safety profile, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Saurabh; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new technique of circumostial mitomycin C (COS-MMC) injection in dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and to evaluate the outcomes. A prospective, interventional consecutive case series involving 110 DCR surgeries performed over a period of 1 year using the COS-MMC technique were evaluated. All patients were operated by a single surgeon (M.J.A.). After fashioning of the mucosal flaps, all patients underwent an intramucosal injection of 0.02% MMC at 4 points (0.1 ml at each point) along the edges of the freshly created ostium. All patients were intubated, and stent removal was done at 12 weeks following the surgery. All patients underwent regular monitoring of the ostium to look for any complications. A minimum follow up of 6 months after stent removal was considered for final analysis. The outcome measures analyzed were anatomical and functional success, complications, and ostium. The mean age at presentation was 39.91 years. The diagnosis was primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction in 60.9% (67/110) and persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in 9.1% (10/110) of the patients. Twenty-six patients were known cases of failed DCR and underwent a revision DCR. Of the total patients, 19.1% (21/110) had a history of acute dacryocystitis, of which, 73% (80/110) of the surgeries were performed by an external approach and 27% (30/110) by endoscopic endonasal route. Anatomical success was noted in 97.3% (107/110) and functional success in 96.4% (106/110). All the 4 failures were due to cicatricial closure of the ostium. None of the patients were noted to have mucosal burns in the area where MMC was injected, and none of the Ostia showed any features of necrosis, infection, or any other complications. COS-MMC is a safe and effective adjunctive modality in DCR. No adverse effects on the ostium were noted. The technique appears to be promising for the success of cases with high risk of failures like revision DCR and traumatic

  17. Novel methods for endoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, C E; Jowell, P S; Baillie, J

    1995-04-01

    The development of past, present, and future endoscopic training methods is described. A historical perspective of endoscopy training guidelines and devices is used to demonstrate support for the use of novel endoscopic training techniques. Computer simulation of endoscopy, interactive learning, and virtual reality applications in endoscopy and surgery are reviewed. The goals of endoscopic simulation and challenges facing investigators in this field are discussed, with an emphasis on current and future research.

  18. Endoscopic tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, Gavin C

    2008-09-01

    The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.

  19. On-the-fly detection of changes on and below the surface in epithelium mucosal tissue architecture from scattered light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fernand S; Taslidere, Ezgi; Murthy, Sreekant

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present a technique to raise a flag on the fly when a transition occurs between different mucosal architectures on or below the surface. The segmentation is based on a novel difference metric for detecting an abrupt change in the parameters extracted from a Stochastic Decomposition Method (SDM) that models the scattered light reflected from the mucosal tissue structure over an area (2-D scan) illuminated by an optical sensor (fiber) emitting light at either one wavelength or with white light. This work has the potential to enhance the endoscopist's ability to locate and identify abnormal mucosal architectures in particular when the disease is developing below the surface and hence becoming hidden during colonoscopy or endoscopic examination. It also has also potential in helping deciding as to when and where to take biopsies; steps that should lead to improvement in the diagnostic yield. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Transforaminal versus endoscopic epiduroplasty in post-lumbar laminectomy syndrome: a prospective, controlled, randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    EL MOLLA AHMED FAWZI

    2016-01-01

    The study primary goal was to evaluate the efficacy of non-endoscopic and endoscopic epiduroplasty on chronic leg pain severity in post-lumbar laminectomy syndrome (PLS) patients. The secondary goals were to evaluate low back pain, functional abilities, satisfaction, and complications after the procedures. Seventy-two patients were allocated randomly into two groups. The Trans group ( n = 35) in whom patients underwent transforaminal epiduroplasty and EDS group ( n = 37) in whom patients unde...

  1. Endoscopic endonasal approach for mass resection of the pterygopalatine fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Plzák

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa.

  2. Evaluation of an endoscopic liver biopsy technique in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Stahl, Scott J; McBride, Michael; Stedman, Nancy L

    2007-06-15

    To establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for collection of liver biopsy specimens from lizards by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice. Prospective study. 11 subadult male green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Each lizard was anesthetized, and right-sided coelioscopic examination of the right liver lobe and gallbladder was performed. Three liver biopsy specimens were collected from each lizard by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope and 1.7-mm (5-F) biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Ten days following surgery, all iguanas were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination. For all 11 iguanas, the right liver lobe and gallbladder were successfully examined endoscopically, and 3 biopsy specimens of the liver were collected without complications. Mean +/- SD durations of anesthesia and surgery were 24 +/- 7 minutes and 6.8 +/- 1.0 minutes, respectively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of trauma or disease associated with the skin or muscle entry sites, liver, or any visceral structures in any iguana. All 33 biopsy specimens were considered acceptable for histologic interpretation; in most samples, the extent of crush artifact was considered minimal. By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, liver biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and easily in green iguanas. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. For evaluation of the liver and biopsy specimen collection in lizards, endoscopy is recommended.

  3. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  4. Low pepsinogen I level predicts multiple gastric epithelial neoplasias for endoscopic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Young; Lim, Sung Ook; Ki, Ho Seok; Jun, Chung Hwan; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2014-05-01

    Synchronous/metachronous gastric epithelial neoplasias (GENs) in the remaining lesion can develop at sites other than the site of endoscopic resection. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the predictive value of serum pepsinogen for detecting multiple GENs in patients who underwent endoscopic resection. In total, 228 patients with GEN who underwent endoscopic resection and blood collection for pepsinogen I and II determination were evaluated retrospectively. The mean period of endoscopic follow-up was 748.8±34.7 days. Synchronous GENs developed in 46 of 228 (20.1%) and metachronous GENs in 27 of 228 (10.6%) patients during the follow-up period. Multiple GENs were associated with the presence of pepsinogen I <30 ng/mL (p<0.001). Synchronous GENs were associated with the presence of pepsinogen I <30 ng/mL (p<0.001). Low pepsinogen I levels predict multiple GENs after endoscopic resection, especially synchronous GENs. Cautious endoscopic examination prior to endoscopic resection to detect multiple GENs should be performed for these patients.

  5. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis in a Patient who Underwent Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Dabak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS is a rare, benign, but a locally aggressive tumor. It is characterized by the proliferation of synovial membrane, but it can also be seen in tendon sheaths and bursae. Clinical presentation of solitary lesions include compression and locking of the joint suggesting loose bodies in the joint and a subsequent findings of an effusion, whereas diffuse lesions manifest with pain and chronic swelling. In this article, we presented a curious case of PVNS in a female patient who have been followed up due to an acetabular cystic lesion. She underwent total hip arthroplasty for severe osteoarthritis of the hip joint and associated pain. The diagnosis of PVNS was established intraoperatively. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 235-7

  6. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  7. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  8. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, A B; Mahida, Y R; Cole, A T; Hawkey, C J

    1991-01-01

    1. Gastric damage induced by low-dose aspirin and the protective effect of enteric-coating was assessed in healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial using Latin square design. Each was administered placebo, plain aspirin 300 mg daily, plain aspirin 600 mg four times daily, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg daily, or enteric-coated aspirin 600 mg four times daily for 5 days. Gastric damage was assessed endoscopically, and gastric mucosal bleeding measured. 2. Aspirin...

  9. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  10. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witzeman K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Witzeman,1 Ruby HN Nguyen,2 Alisa Eanes,3 Sawsan As-Sanie,4 Denniz Zolnoun51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pelvic Pain Research Unit, Division of Advanced Laparoscopy and Pelvic Pain, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: An estimated 8.3%–16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD. Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy.Objective: To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD.Design: In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity.Methods: We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100 was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the

  11. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    . This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...... epithelial cells and other cells of the mucosa are discussed. The biochemistry of wound healing in UC provides the basis for the subsequent description of how these pathways are affected by the current medications, and what can be learnt on how to design future treatment regimens for UC based on targeting...

  12. Three-dimensional photoacoustic endoscopic imaging of the rabbit esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Mo Yang

    Full Text Available We report photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic images of two intact rabbit esophagi. To investigate the esophageal lumen structure and microvasculature, we performed in vivo and ex vivo imaging studies using a 3.8-mm diameter photoacoustic endoscope and correlated the images with histology. Several interesting anatomic structures were newly found in both the in vivo and ex vivo images, which demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this endoscopic imaging modality. In the ex vivo imaging experiment, we acquired high-resolution motion-artifact-free three-dimensional photoacoustic images of the vasculatures distributed in the walls of the esophagi and extending to the neighboring mediastinal regions. Blood vessels with apparent diameters as small as 190 μm were resolved. Moreover, by taking advantage of the dual-mode high-resolution photoacoustic and ultrasound endoscopy, we could better identify and characterize the anatomic structures of the esophageal lumen, such as the mucosal and submucosal layers in the esophageal wall, and an esophageal branch of the thoracic aorta. In this paper, we present the first photoacoustic images showing the vasculature of a vertebrate esophagus and discuss the potential clinical applications and future development of photoacoustic endoscopy.

  13. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early esophageal squamous neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ikeya, Takashi; Marcon, Norman; Mosko, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It carries a poor prognosis as more than half of patients present with advanced and unresectable disease. One contributing factor is the increased risk of lymph node metastases at early stages of disease. As such, it is essential to detect squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) at an early stage. In order to risk stratify lesions, endoscopists must be able to perform image enhanced endoscopy including magnification and Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. The assessment of both the horizontal extent and depth of any lesion is also of utmost importance prior to treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection and submucosal dissection remain the standard of care with literature supportive their respective use. Radiofrequency ablation and other endoscopic treatments are currently available although should not be considered first line at this time. Our objective is to review the current options for the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal SCN. PMID:28979708

  14. Sinonasal imaging after Caldwell-Luc surgery: MDCT findings of an abandoned procedure in times of functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan Franz; Peloschek, Philipp; Koelblinger, Claus; Mehrain, Sheida; Krestan, Christian Robert; Czerny, Christian [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletalradiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-04-15

    Background and purpose: Today, functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is performed in most of the patients with sinonasal inflammatory disease. The postoperative imaging findings of FESS in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) considerably differ from those of historic Caldwell-Luc (CL) maxillary sinus surgery which is an uncommon procedure today. Thus, the postoperative CL imaging findings may lead to diagnostic confusion and misinterpretation. Therefore, this study explicitly presents the MDCT findings of post-CL patients which have not been described previously. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with clinically suspected sinusitis and documented history of CL-procedure underwent 16 row MDCT (MDCT Mx8000 IDT Philips) with multiplanar reconstructions of the paranasal sinuses in the axial plane. The following parameters were used: 140 kV, 50 mAs; 16 mm x 0.75 mm detector collimation; 1 mm reconstructed slice thickness; 0.5 mm increment. The studies were reconstructed with a bone algorithm (W3000/L600; 1 mm slice thickness) in axial plane and coronal plane (3 mm slice thickness). The images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of normal surgery-related and pathological findings. Results: Surgery-related imaging characteristics presented as follows: an anterior and a medial bony wall defect and sclerosis and sinus wall thickening were observed in all 28/28 cases (100%). Collaps of the sinus cavity was seen in 26/28 cases (92.9%). Furthermore, inflammatory disease of the operated sinus(es) was found in 23/28 cases (82.1%): 14/28 patients (50%) had inflammatory mucosal thickening of the operated sinus(es) as well as of other sinonasal cavities and 9/28 patients (32.1%) had inflammatory mucosal thickening limited to the operated sinus(es). A postoperative mucocele was depicted in 3/28 cases (10.7%). 2/28 patients (7.1%) showed neither maxillary nor other mucosal swelling. Conclusion: MDCT with multiplanar reconstructions is a precise method to evaluate

  15. Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty - A New Tool to Manage Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Deepanshu; Bhandari, Bharat Singh; Arora, Ankit; Singhal, Shashideep

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing pandemic across the world. Dietary restrictions and behavior modifications alone have a limited benefit. Bariatric surgery, despite being the current gold standard, has limited acceptance by patients due to cost and associated morbidity. In our review, we have discussed nine original studies describing endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG). A total of 172 subjects successfully underwent ESG. Of 65 subjects with follow up data, 95.4% (62/65) had intact gastric sleeve confir...

  16. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the ... are living longer3. Chronic GI illnesses, such as non-infec- tious gastric ulcer disease, cancer, dyspepsia and cirrhosis, are on the rise and have created an increased demand for endoscopic ...

  17. Endoscopic transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000

  18. Robot-assisted endoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurda, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    During the last three years, robot-assisted surgery systems are increasingly being applied in endoscopic surgery. They were introduced with the objective to overcome the challenges of standard endoscopic surgery. With the improvements in manipulation and visualisation that robotic-assistance offers,

  19. Endoscopic Solution to Rhinogenic Contact Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Abdul Cader Segana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Headache is a common complaint that brings patients to multidisciplinary clinics. It is utmost important to have meticulous clinical diagnosis of patients with rhinogenic and non sinusogenic headaches. The diagnosis has become easier with the advent of modern endoscopy and endoscopic sinus surgical techniques. This study aims to investigate the role of some anatomical nasal abnormalities in rhinogenic contact headache and to evaluate response to endoscopic surgery.   Materials and Method A prospective study was conducted at a secondary level regional referral Hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. Patients with long-lasting, frequent, severe headaches not amenable to medical treatment, above 20 years of age were taken into consideration. Routine nasal endoscopy, Computerized tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses, Nasal decongestion and various surgical techniques to correct the anatomical abnormalities were included in our study and results were correlated statistically.   Result There was a male predominance in our study with duration of headache ranging from 2 weeks to 5 years. There was a preponderance of headache in frontal region in our study group. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy and CT scan of PNS revealed Deviated nasal septum / septal spur, concha bullosa, Haller cell, pneumatised uncinate process and agar nasi cells. The overall success rate of the surgery in relieving headaches, measured by the MIDAS- VAS score, was approximately 75 %. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test, Chi square and paired T tests shows that the following study has rejected the null hypothesis as statistically significant where the P value <0.05.   Discussion Researchers have examined the contact points as a source of rhinogenic / contact headache. Intranasal mucosal contact released substance P, causing pain and headache, Substance P has a potent vasodilator effect. Vasodilatation and perivascular inflammation are the final common pathways in

  20. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate thefrequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopyeastern Anatolia.Materials and methods: The patients whose endoscopicantral biopsies were taken for any reason in our endoscopyunit in February-June 2010 period were includedand retrospectively investigated. The frequency of Helicobacterpylori was determined as separating the patientsaccording to general, sex and the age groups. Antral biopsieswere stained with hematoxylin-eosin and modified giemsamethod and examined under light microscope andreported as (+ mild, (++ moderate, (+++ severe positiveaccording to their intensities.Results: Biopsy specimens of 1298 patients were includedinto the study. The mean age was 47.5 ± 17.5 years(range 14-88 and 607 of these patients (47% were male.Histopathological evaluation revealed that, 918 of the patientswere (71% positive and 379 (29% were negativefor Helicobacter pylori. Approximately 60% of our patientshad mild, 29% had moderate and 11% had severe positivityfor Helicobacter pylori. No significant difference wasfound in the frequency of Helicobacter pylori betweenwomen and men. The frequencies of Helicobacter pyloriwere 73.2%, 71.5%, 68.6% and 70.4%, respectively, inthe age groups of 14-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 yearsand 61-88 years.Conclusion: The frequency of Helicobacter pylori was71% in Eastern Anatolia Region. No statistically significantdifference was found between genders and agegroups in term of the frequency of Helicobacter pylori.

  1. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-12-16

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods.

  2. Assessment of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation employing nuclear methods in murine mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Rafaela M.; Takenaka, Isabella K.T.M.; Barros, Patricia A.V.; Moura, Livia P.; Contarini, Sara M.L.; Amorim, Juliana M.; Castilho, Raquel O.; Leite, Camila M.A.; Cardoso, Valbert N.; Diniz, Simone Odilia F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Mg (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Mucositis affects approximately 80% of patients who receive chemotherapy combinations. The lesions are painful, restrict food intake and make patients more susceptible to systemic infections. Some agents and strategies are being studied for controlling mucositis, none of them is used in clinical practice. In Minas Gerais, many studies have addressed the popular use of the plant Arrabidaea chica in the form of tea, to treat intestinal cramps and diarrhea, the main symptoms of mucositis. Objective: To evaluate the potential of Arrabidaea chica extract in the management of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, using the experimental model of gut mucositis induced by 5-Fluorouracila (5-FU). Methods: The UFMG Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (CETEA/UFMG) approved this study (nº 411/2015). Male BALB/c mice between 6-8 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n=9) as follows: 1. Control (CTL) - oral administration of saline solution (10 days); 2. A. chica (AC) - oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days); 3. Mucositis (MUC) - underwent mucositis (5-FU) (10 days); 4. Mucositis + A. chica (MUC+ AC) - underwent mucositis and received oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days). At the 7{sup th} day, mice in the MUC and MUC + AC groups received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection containing 300 mg/kg 5-FU, whereas the animals of the CTL and AC groups received a saline IP injection. After 72 hours (10{sup th} experimental day), intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and bacterial translocation was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of E. coli labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). After 4 hours, the mice were euthanized and assessed for intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and

  3. [ENDOSCOPIC INJECTION TREATMENT OF BLEEDING PEPTIC ULCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Freddy; Contardo, Carlos; Román, Rossana; Eduardo, Vesco; Dávalos, Milagros; Velásquez, Hermes; Soriano, César; Espejo, Hernán

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Objectives were two. (1) to determine theefficiency of the endoscopic injection therapy (EIT) in patients suffering from bleeding caused by peptic ulcer disease with high risk of recurrence, and (2) to recognize clinical and endoscopical risk factors that influence recurrence of hemorrhage and mortality from this pathology. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that included 121 patients, who were admitted by a unit specialized in managing gastrointestinal hemorrhage owing to peptic ulcer with active bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessel, and who underwent EIT with epinephrine between March, 1994 and February, 1996.RESULTS: Initial success was achieved in 119 patients who underwent EIT (99,1%). Bleeding persisted in one patient (0,9%), and in another one, EIT was not sucessful because of inaccessible location. Definite hemostasis was achieved in 93 patients (77,5%) and there was recurrence in 28 cases (23,5%). Twenty-six patients underwent surgical therapy (21,5%). The univariable analysis showed that hemorrhage recurrence was related to the presence of shock (p = 0,002), hematemesis (p = 0,2), age over 60 (p = 0,009), number of blood units transfused (p = 0,00000) and ulcer diameter larger than 2 cm (p = 0,018). The global mortality in our patients was of 10%, and surgical mortality was of 34,6%. Factors significantly related to mortality were hemorrhage recurrence (p = 0,000003), presence of concomitant disease (p = 0,05), and presence of gastric ulcer (p = 0,021), in addition to age (over 60), presence of shock and ulcer diameter larger than 2 cm (p = 0,05).CONCLUSION: EIT is a valuable procedure for the treatment of hemorrhage caused by peptic ulcer with high risk of recurrence (active hemorrhage or visible vessel), with a definite hemostasis of 77,5%. The presence of shock, hematemesis, age over 60, transfusion requirements of more than 3 blood units, and ulcer diameter of more than 2 cm are factors that increase the probability of hemorrhage

  4. Lower incidence of complications in endoscopic nasobiliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Haba, Shin; Kudo, Taiki; Taya, Yoko A; Kawahata, Shuhei; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Kimitoshi; Eto, Kazunori; Ehira, Nobuyuki; Yamato, Hiroaki; Onodera, Manabu; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-05-10

    To identify the most effective endoscopic biliary drainage technique for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. In total, 118 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma underwent endoscopic management [endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic biliary stenting] as a temporary drainage in our institution between 2009 and 2014. We retrospectively evaluated all complications from initial endoscopic drainage to surgery or palliative treatment. The risk factors for biliary reintervention, post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (post-ERCP) pancreatitis, and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) were also analyzed using patient- and procedure-related characteristics. The risk factors for bilateral drainage were examined in a subgroup analysis of patients who underwent initial unilateral drainage. In total, 137 complications were observed in 92 (78%) patients. Biliary reintervention was required in 83 (70%) patients. ENBD was significantly associated with a low risk of biliary reintervention [odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.08-0.76, P = 0.012]. Post-ERCP pancreatitis was observed in 19 (16%) patients. An absence of endoscopic sphincterotomy was significantly associated with post-ERCP pancreatitis (OR = 3.46, 95%CI: 1.19-10.87, P = 0.023). PTBD was required in 16 (14%) patients, and Bismuth type III or IV cholangiocarcinoma was a significant risk factor (OR = 7.88, 95%CI: 1.33-155.0, P = 0.010). Of 102 patients with initial unilateral drainage, 49 (48%) required bilateral drainage. Endoscopic sphincterotomy (OR = 3.24, 95%CI: 1.27-8.78, P = 0.004) and Bismuth II, III, or IV cholangiocarcinoma (OR = 34.69, 95%CI: 4.88-736.7, P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for bilateral drainage. The endoscopic management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is challenging. ENBD should be selected as a temporary drainage method because of its low risk of complications.

  5. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, P; Kaltseis, J; Fritz, A; Edlinger, M; Posch, W; Wilflingseder, D; Lass-Flörl, C; Orth-Höller, D

    2018-02-24

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes, have been described. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination varies dramatically in literature. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture-based and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3%-4.6% according to the national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene-relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples failing in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly Pseudomonas oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n = 9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n = 6, 11.5%) only on account of microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared with results from other European countries, possibly due to the high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrition and Gut Mucositis in Pediatric Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    . Unfortunately, effective treatment strategies against mucositis are not in general available. The overall aim of the present PhD was to study interactions between mucositis, inflammation and nutrition. We hypothesized that toxic reactions in the alimentary tract, induced by chemotherapy, followed by release...

  7. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye Hae Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6 months. Results: Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5 years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87% had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment. Conclusion: PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.

  8. Effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheeshkumar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral care in cancer patients is an important aspect in the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer therpay. Mucositis, trismus, salivary gland dysfunction are the main complications of the cancer therapy, which lead to long-term comlications such as radiation caries, poor oral hygiene and osteoradionecrosis. A timely oral evaluation and intervention in these patients can reduce the severity of the potential complications. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent widely used in periodontal therapy, the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation induced oral mucositis is evaluated here. Aims: 1 To determine the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis. 2 To compare the effectiveness of triclosan mouth rinse with conventional sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who underwent radiation therapy for oral cancer and subsequently developed oral mucositis were included in the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups on noticing grade I mucositis (erythema. The study group was advised to use triclosan mouthwash containing triclosan 0.03% W/V and sodium bicarbonate 2 mg mouth wash for the control group. A weekly follow-up evaluation of body weight, food intake, pain and grading of mucositis were made during the radiation treatment period and post radiation treatment period. Results: Both the groups were statistically identical. All the 24 patients in both the groups passed through grade 3 mucositis on the last day of radiotherapy. However, 10 patients in the control group and only one patient in the study group entered to grade 4 mucositis. A definite change was noticed in the severity of the mucositis, food intake and weight loss. The control group took more than 45 days to resolve while the study group took only less than 28 days. Discussion: The results of the study were evaluated and tried to formulate a hypothesis so as to explain

  9. Endoscopic retreatment of recurrent choledocholithiasis after sphincterotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, M; Suzuki, Y; Abe, N; Masaki, T; Mori, T; Atomi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) carries a substantial risk of recurrent choledocholithiasis but retreatment with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is safe and feasible. However, long term results of repeat ERCP and risk factors for late complications are largely unknown. Aims: To investigate the long term outcome of repeat ERCP for recurrent bile duct stones after ES and to identify risk factors predicting late choledochal complications. Methods: Eighty four patients underwent repeat ERCP, combined with ES in 69, for post-ES recurrent choledocholithiasis. Long term outcomes of repeat ERCP were retrospectively investigated and factors predicting late complications were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results: Complete stone clearance was achieved in all patients. Forty nine patients had no visible evidence of prior sphincterotomy. Two patients experienced early complications. During a follow up period of 2.2–26.0 years (median 10.9 years), 31 patients (37%) developed late complications, including stone recurrence (n = 26), acute acalculous cholangitis(n = 4), and acute cholecystitis (n = 1). There were neither biliary malignancies nor deaths attributable to biliary disease. Multivariate analysis identified three independent risk factors for choledochal complications: interval between initial ES and repeat ERCP ⩽5 years, bile duct diameter ⩾15 mm, and periampullary diverticulum. Choledochal complications were successfully treated with repeat ERCP in 29 patients. Conclusions: Choledochal complications after repeat ERCP are relatively frequent but are endoscopically manageable. Careful follow up is necessary, particularly for patients with a dilated bile duct, periampullary diverticulum, or early recurrence. Repeat ERCP is a reasonable treatment even for recurrent choledocholithiasis after ES. PMID:15542528

  10. Mucosal vaccines: a paradigm shift in the development of mucosal adjuvants and delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, Devegowda Vishakante; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Shinde, Chetan G; Iyer, Meenakshi

    2015-04-01

    Mucosal immune responses are the first-line defensive mechanisms against a variety of infections. Therefore, immunizations of mucosal surfaces from which majority of infectious agents make their entry, helps to protect the body against infections. Hence, vaccinization of mucosal surfaces by using mucosal vaccines provides the basis for generating protective immunity both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments. Mucosal vaccines offer several advantages over parenteral immunization. For example, (i) ease of administration; (ii) non-invasiveness; (iii) high-patient compliance; and (iv) suitability for mass vaccination. Despite these benefits, to date, only very few mucosal vaccines have been developed using whole microorganisms and approved for use in humans. This is due to various challenges associated with the development of an effective mucosal vaccine that can work against a variety of infections, and various problems concerned with the safe delivery of developed vaccine. For instance, protein antigen alone is not just sufficient enough for the optimal delivery of antigen(s) mucosally. Hence, efforts have been made to develop better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for improved mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses using an efficient and safe immunostimulatory molecule and novel delivery carriers. Therefore, in this review, we have made an attempt to cover the recent advancements in the development of adjuvants and delivery carriers for safe and effective mucosal vaccine production. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. BISPHOSPHONATE - RELATED MUCOSITIS (BRM: A CASE REPORT

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    Pavel Stanimirov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BPs are the most widely used and effective antiresorptive agents for the treatment of diseases in which there is an increase in osteoclastic resorption, including post-menopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and tumor-associated osteolysis. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are well aware of the side effects of bisphosphonates and mainly with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ. Less known are the mucosal lesions associated with the use of these agents. In the scientific literature, there are only few reports of mucosal lesions due to the direct contact of the oral form of BPs with the mucosa (bisphosphonate-related mucositis. They are mostly related to improper use of bisphosphonate tablets that are chewed, sucked or allowed to melt in the mouth before swallowing. Lesions are atypical and need to be differentiated from other mucosal erosions. We present a case of bisphosphonate-related mucositis due to the improper use of alendronate.

  12. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosing ulcerative early gastric cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyungkil; Bang, Byongwook; Kwon, Kyesook; Shin, Youngwoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the first-choice imaging modality for predicting the invasion depth of early gastric cancer (EGC), the prediction accuracy of EUS is significantly decreased when EGC is combined with ulceration. The aim of present study was to compare the accuracy of EUS and conventional endoscopy (CE) for determining the depth of EGC. In addition, the various clinic-pathologic factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of EUS, with a particular focus on endoscopic ulcer shapes, were evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed data from 236 consecutive patients with ulcerative EGC. All patients underwent EUS for estimating tumor invasion depth, followed by either curative surgery or endoscopic treatment. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS and CE was evaluated by comparing the final histologic result of resected specimen. The correlation between accuracy of EUS and characteristics of EGC (tumor size, histology, location in stomach, tumor invasion depth, and endoscopic ulcer shapes) was analyzed. Endoscopic ulcer shapes were classified into 3 groups: definite ulcer, superficial ulcer, and ill-defined ulcer. The overall accuracy of EUS and CE for predicting the invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was 68.6% and 55.5%, respectively. Of the 236 patients, 36 patients were classified as definite ulcers, 98 were superficial ulcers, and 102 were ill-defined ulcers, In univariate analysis, EUS accuracy was associated with invasion depth (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.034), and endoscopic ulcer shapes (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there is a significant association between superficial ulcer in CE and EUS accuracy (odds ratio: 2.977; 95% confidence interval: 1.255–7.064; P = 0.013). The accuracy of EUS for determining tumor invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was superior to that of CE. In addition, ulcer shape was an important factor that affected EUS accuracy. PMID:27472672

  13. Rare Endoscopic Manifestation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

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    Haritha Chelimilla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer secondary to direct invasion from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is rare. Metastases to the stomach have been commonly reported with melanoma and with primary tumors of the breast, lung, ovary, liver, colon and testis. We report a patient who presented with epigastric pain and in whom subsequently upper endoscopy showed a malignant gastric ulcer secondary to direct invasion from pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body. An 81-year-old female presented to our hospital with epigastric pain and subsequently underwent endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasound for evaluation of a pancreatic body mass. She had a large gastric ulcer in the fundus which was in direct continuity with the pancreatic mass. Pathology from biopsy of the ulcer revealed invasive well-to-moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive for CA19-9, CK7, CK19 and carcinoembryonic antigen. These findings were consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas. Patients with gastrointestinal metastases usually have advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Endoscopic evaluation with adequate biopsies should be performed for symptomatic patients.

  14. Endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljajić, Vladimir; Vuleković, Petar; Vlaški, Ljiljana; Savović, Slobodan; Dragičević, Danijela; Papić, Vladimir

    Nasal liquorrhea indicates a cerebrospinal fluid fistula, an open communication between the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid and the nasal cavity. It can be traumatic and spontaneous. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid fistula using fluorescein. This retrospective study included 30 patients of both sexes, with a mean age of 48.7 years, treated in the period from 2007 to 2015. All patients underwent lumbar administration of 5% sodium fluorescein solution preoperatively. Fistula was closed using three-layer graft and fibrin glue. Cerebrospinal fluid fistulas were commonly located in the ethmoid (37%) and sphenoid sinus (33%). Most patients presented with traumatic cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (2/3 of patients). The reported success rate for the first repair attempt was 97%. Complications occurred in three patients: one patient presented with acute hydrocephalus, one with reversible encephalopathy syndrome on the fifth postoperative day with bilateral loss of vision, and one patient was diagnosed with hydrocephalus two years after the repair of cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Endoscopic diagnosis and repair of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas using fluorescein intrathecally has high success rate and low complication rate. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical treatment of choanal atresia with transnasal endoscopic approach with stentless single side-hinged flap technique: 5 year retrospective analysis

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    Carmelo Saraniti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Choanal atresia is a rare congenital malformation of the nasal cavity characterized by the complete obliteration of the posterior choanae. In 67% of cases choanal atresia is unilateral, affecting mainly (71% the right nasal cavity. In contrast to the unilateral form, bilateral choanal atresia is a life-threatening condition often associated with respiratory distress with feeding and intermittent cyanosis exacerbated by crying. Surgical treatment remains the only therapeutic option. Objective: To report our experience in the use of a transnasal endoscopic approach with stentless single side-hinged flap technique for the surgical management of choanal atresia. Methods: A 5 year retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes of 18 patients treated for choanal atresia with a transnasal technique employing a single side-hinged flap without stent placement. All subjects were assessed preoperatively with a nasal endoscopy and a Maxillofacial computed tomography scan. Results: Ten males and eight females with a mean age at the time of surgery of 20.05 ± 11.32 years, underwent surgery for choanal atresia. Fifteen subjects (83.33% had a bony while 3 (26.77% a mixed bony-membranous atretic plate. Two and sixteen cases suffered from bilateral and unilateral choanal atresia respectively. No intra- and/or early postoperative complications were observed. Between 2 and 3 months after surgery two cases (11.11% of partial restenosis were found. Only one of these presented a relapse of the nasal obstruction and was subsequently successfully repaired with a second endoscopic procedure. Conclusion: The surgical technique described follows the basic requirements of corrective surgery and allows good visualization, evaluation and treatment of the atretic plate and the posterior third of the septum, in order to create the new choanal opening. We believe that the use of a stent is not necessary, as recommended in case of other surgical techniques

  16. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various...... studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications...

  17. [Histopathological Study of the Relationship between Lymphoid Follicles and Different Endoscopic Types of Nodular Gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou

    2014-11-01

    Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.

  18. Acute Vision Loss Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

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    Serena Byrd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

  19. [Left postpneumonectomy syndrome: early endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.

  20. Endoscopic retrograde cholanglopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, S.C.; Garra, B.S.; Zeman, R.K.; Krasner, B.H.; Lo, S.C.B.; Davros, W.J.; Silverman, P.M.; Cattau, E.L.; Fleischer, D.E.; Benjamin, S.B.S.B.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the clinical evaluation of image management and communications system (IMACS), the authors undertook a prospective study to compare conventional film versus digitized film viewed on a workstation. Twenty-five each of normal and abnormal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic (ERCP) studies were digitized with a 1,684 x 2,048-pixel matrix and evaluated in a single-blind fashion on the workstation. The resulting interpretations were then compared with those resulting from interpretation of film (spot film and 100-mm photospot) images. They report that no significant differences were found in ability to see anatomic detail or pathology. A second study involved performing 10 ERCP studies in a lithotripsy suite equipped with biplane digital fluoroscopy. The digital video displays were comparable in quality to that of film. Progress is being made in using the IMACS for archiving and retrieval of all current ERCP images

  1. Revision endoscopic sinonasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillano, Pablo; Rubio, Fabián; Naser, Alfredo; Nazar, Rodolfo

    Endoscopic sinonasal surgery is the procedure of choice in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and sinonasal polyposis refractory to medical treatment, with high rates of success (76% to 97.5%). However, 2.5%-24% of those patients will require revision surgery (RESS). In this study, we present the clinical, anatomical, radiological and histological features of patients receiving RESS in our centre during a 3-year period. A retrospective review of clinical, anatomical, radiological and histopathological data of patients receiving revision endoscopic sinonasal surgery between 2012 and 2014 was carried out. From 299 surgery procedures performed, 27 (9%) were revision surgeries. The mean patient age was 46 years, with a male/female ratio of 1.4/1. The most frequent preoperative and postoperative diagnosis was chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis. The mean time since the previous surgery was 6.1 years, with 11.9 months of mean follow-up since that surgery. Stenotic antrostomy was found during revision in 81.5% of the patients and incomplete anterior ethmoidectomy and persistent uncinate process, in 59.3%. In radiology, 70.4% of patients had persistent anterior ethmoidal cells. Antrostomy or widening of antrostomy was performed in 96.3% of cases and anterior ethmoidectomy or completion of it was performed in 66.7%. Polyps, stenotic antrostomy and incomplete ethmoidectomy were the most frequent causes of revision surgery, in concordance with the procedures performed. The patients had long periods of time without follow-up between surgeries. Further investigation is necessary to generate measures to reduce the number of revision surgeries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

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    Yad Ram Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of

  3. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers evaluated for studies of macromolecular permeability in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Braaf, Ylva; Wolving, Mats; Olaison, Gunnar; Söderholm, Johan D

    2005-05-01

    Studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens in humans are limited to in vitro techniques. The use of surgical specimens for such studies has major shortcomings. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers have been introduced as a means of studying secretion and transepithelial permeability, but have not been evaluated for studies of protein antigen uptake in human intestine. Standard forceps biopsies from the sigmoid colon of 24 healthy volunteers were mounted in Ussing chambers with an exposed tissue area of 1.76 mm2. 51Cr-EDTA (paracellular probe) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 45 kDa protein antigen) were used as permeability markers. Mucosal permeability, electrophysiology, histology and energy contents of the biopsies were studied over time. To evaluate the ability of the technique to detect permeability changes, the mucosa was modulated with capric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, known to affect tight junctions. In the Ussing chamber the mucosal biopsies were viable for 160 min with stable levels of ATP and lactate, and only minor changes in morphology. Steady-state permeability with low variability was seen for both markers during the 30-90 min period. Exposure to capric acid induced a rapid decrease in short-circuit current (Isc) and a slower reversible decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), as well as an increased permeability to 51Cr-EDTA and HRP. Endoscopic biopsies of human colon are viable in Ussing chambers and are reliable tools for studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens. The technique offers a broad potential for studies of mucosal function in the pathophysiology of human gastrointestinal diseases.

  4. The Implications of Endoscopic Ulcer in Early Gastric Cancer: Can We Predict Clinical Behaviors from Endoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Jae Jun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyojin; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, Seung Ho; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The presence of ulcer in early gastric cancer (EGC) is important for the feasibility of endoscopic resection, only a few studies have examined the clinicopathological implications of endoscopic ulcer in EGC. To determine the role of endoscopic ulcer as a predictor of clinical behaviors in EGC. Data of 3,270 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed in relation to the presence and stage of ulcer in EGC. Based on endoscopic findings, the stage of ulcer was categorized as active, healing, or scar. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM). 2,343 (71.7%) patients had endoscopic findings of ulceration in EGC. Submucosal (SM) invasion, LNM, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion, and undifferentiated-type histology were significantly higher in ulcerative than non-ulcerative EGC. Comparison across different stages of ulcer revealed that SM invasion, LNM, and LVI were significantly associated with the active stage, and that these features exhibited significant stage-based differences, being most common at the active stage, and least common at the scar stage. The presence of endoscopic ulcer and active status of the ulcer were identified as independent risk factors for LNM. Ulcerative EGC detected by endoscopy exhibited more aggressive behaviors than non-ulcerative EGC. Additionally, the endoscopic stage of ulcer may predict the clinicopathological behaviors of EGC. Therefore, the appearance of ulcers should be carefully evaluated to determine an adequate treatment strategy for EGC.

  5. [Acute secondary pseudo-obstruction of the colon (Ogilvie syndrome): experiences with endoscopic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, U; Wälchli, P

    1985-09-07

    Twenty-seven patients with acute secondary colonic pseudoobstruction have been studied before and after endoscopic decompression of the colon. 19 patients were treated by single endoscopic decompression and 8 patients who had, or were expected to have, recurrent pseudoobstruction were treated by endoscopy-assisted introduction of a double-lumen tube into the colon. 17 out of 27 patients had massive dilatation of the right hemicolon. 19 patients completely retained stools and had a dilated colon the day before the endoscopic treatment, while 8 out of 27 patients still had passage of stool despite threatening dilatation of the colon. Initial decompression of the colon was achieved in all patients with both techniques, but cecal perforation developed in 1 patient. Normal colonic function returned in all patients who underwent single endoscopic decompression within three days, and in all patients treated with a colonic tube within 4 days (mean value). The success of endoscopic therapy of acute pseudoobstruction could not be explained by drugs administered before and after the endoscopic treatment. It is concluded that endoscopic decompression of the colon is an effective treatment for acute pseudoobstruction. Repeated colonoscopic decompression in refractory cases may be avoided by endoscopy-assisted placement of large caliber drainage tubes.

  6. Endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric subepithelial tumors: a single-center series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; von Renteln, Daniel; Muehleisen, Helmut; Caca, Karel

    2015-02-01

    Endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric subepithelial tumors with a full-thickness suturing device has been described as feasible in two small case series. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and clinical outcome of this resection technique. After 31 patients underwent endoscopic full-thickness resection, the data were analyzed retrospectively. Before snare resection, 1 to 3 full-thickness sutures were placed underneath each tumor with a device originally designed for endoscopic anti-reflux therapy. All tumors were resected successfully. Bleeding occurred in 12 patients (38.7 %); endoscopic hemostasis could be achieved in all cases. Perforation occurred in 3 patients (9.6 %), and all perforations could be managed endoscopically. Complete resection was histologically confirmed in 28 of 31 patients (90.3 %). Mean follow-up was 213 days (range, 1 - 1737), and no tumor recurrences were observed. Endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric subepithelial tumors with the suturing technique described above is feasible and effective. After the resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), we did not observe any recurrences during follow-up, indicating that endoscopic full-thickness resection may be an alternative to surgical resection for selected patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Correlation between Histological Activity and Endoscopic, Clinical, and Serologic Activities in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

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    Dae Bum Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent studies suggest that histological healing is a treatment goal in ulcerative colitis (UC. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between histological activity and clinical, endoscopic, and serologic activities in patients with UC. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records from patients with UC who underwent colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. The Mayo endoscopic subscore was used to assess endoscopic activity. Biopsy specimens were reviewed by two blinded pathologists and scored using the Geboes scoring system. Results. We analyzed 154 biopsy specimens from 82 patients with UC. Histological scores exhibited strong correlation with endoscopic subscores (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient r=0.774, p<0.001 and moderate correlation with C-reactive protein levels (r=0.422, p<0.001 and partial Mayo scores (r=0.403, p<0.001. Active histological inflammation (Geboes score ≥ 3.1 was observed in 6% (2 of 33 of the endoscopically normal mucosa samples, 66% (19 of 29 of mild disease samples, and 98% (90 of 92 of moderate-to-severe disease samples. Conclusions. Histological activity was closely correlated with the endoscopic, clinical, and serologic UC activities. However, several patients with mild or normal endoscopic findings exhibited histological evidence of inflammation. Therefore, histological assessment may be helpful in evaluating treatment outcomes and determining follow-up strategies.

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    cholangiopancreatography is the gold standard for its diagnosis, but is invasive and associated with significant adverse effects. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows the detailed evaluation of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system without injecting contrast in these ducts. Moreover, it provides detailed images...

  9. Lower esophageal mucosal ring: correlation of referred symptoms with radiographic findings using a marshmallow bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F; Ott, D J; Gelfand, D W; Chen, M Y

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of lower esophageal mucosal rings and to correlate the relationship between these mucosal rings and the presence and anatomic level of symptoms evoked using a marshmallow bolus. Our prospective study included 130 patients who underwent barium examination of the esophagus. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the anatomic location of their symptoms of dysphagia. In addition to a multiphasic examination of the esophagus, all patients also underwent fluoroscopic observation and videotaping while swallowing a marshmallow bolus; any symptoms that were provoked were recorded. Lower esophageal mucosal rings were shown in 26 (20%) of the 130 patients. The diameter of the rings was 9-12 mm in six patients, 13-20 mm in 18 patients, and larger than 20 mm in two patients. In 16 (62%) of the 26 patients, a marshmallow bolus became impacted at the ring; the impaction caused dysphagia in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients. In these 12 patients, dysphagia was referred to the neck in seven, the sternal angle in two, the mid chest in two, and the lower chest in one patient. None of the 12 patients had a pharyngeal or cervical esophageal abnormality that would account for their symptoms. Because proximal referral of symptoms is common in patients with lower esophageal mucosal rings, a thorough radiographic examination of the entire esophagus and esophagogastric region is required regardless of the level of their swallowing complaints.

  10. [Endoscopic treatment of pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledro Cano, D; Catalán Ramírez, J M; González Mariscal, M J; Romero Castro, R; Pellicer Bautista, F J; Herrerías, J M

    2002-02-01

    Chronic Pancreatitis is a recurrent disease, frequently alcohol intake related and tend to occur in the third and the fourth decades. Stenoses and lithiasis in the main pancreatic duct causes obstruction and subsequently pain. Therefore endoscopic or surgical decompression of main pancreatic duct results in pain relief. Review our experience in the endoscopic management in patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis. 42 patients underwent ERCP for management of their chronic pancreatitis. Therapeutic options were sphincterotomy alone, prostheses and "do nothing". Follow-up was made by phone call and outpatient office visits. Mean follow-up was 47.8 (27.2) months. 22 patients underwent therapeutic ERCP. In 8 patients we performed sphincterotomy and in 14 patients, a sphincterotomy and prostheses intubation. 8 patients are asymptomatic after a mean follow-up of 10.8 (11.6) months. 2 of them, underwent sphincterotomy and six of them, underwent sphincterotomy and prostheses intubation. Therapeutic ERCP is a tool that relieves pain in a fifth of patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis.

  11. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  12. Transgenic Killer Commensal Bacteria as Mucosal Protectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As first line of defense against the majority of infections and primary site for their transmission, mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts represent the most suitable sites to deliver protective agents for the prevention of infectious diseases. Mucosal protection is important not only for life threatening diseases but also for opportunistic infections which currently represent a serious burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost of cures. Candida albicans is among the most prevalent causes of mucosal infections not only in immuno- compromised patients, such as HIV-infected subjects who are frequently affected by oral and esophageal candidiasis, but also in otherwise healthy individuals, as in the case of acute vaginitis. Unfortunately, current strategies for mucosal protection against candidiasis are severely limited by the lack of effective vaccines and the relative paucity and toxicity of commercially available antifungal drugs. An additional option has been reported in a recent

  13. Dental Floss Traction Assists in Treating Gastrointestinal Mucosal Tumors by Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Lun; Shi, Qiang; Chen, Tao; Zhong, Yun-Shi

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a relatively new but widely used medical technique that has been used to remove gastrointestinal mucosal tumors. This study aimed to identify the usefulness of ESD-assisted dental floss traction for the removal of gastrointestinal tumors. This was a retrospective study performed at a single institution. From April 2014 to August 2014, 20 consecutive patients presenting with gastrointestinal mucosal tumors at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, were enrolled. The tumor characteristics, en bloc resection rates, treatments, and follow-up care practices were evaluated for all patients. Of the lesions presenting in the 20 patients, 10 were located in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the remainder were located in the lower gastrointestinal tract. All the resected tumors were removed completely without interrupting the tumor capsule. No bleeding or perforation occurred, and no recurrences were identified at the time of follow-up. The dental floss traction method benefits the ESD procedure during the treatment of gastrointestinal mucosal tumors.

  14. Variability of high-dose melphalan exposure on oral mucositis in patients undergoing prophylactic low-level laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Henrique; Jaguar, Graziella Chagas; Alves, Fabio Abreu; Guollo, Andre; Camandoni, Vanessa Oliveira; Damascena, Aline Santos; Lima, Vladmir Claudio Cordeiro

    2017-07-01

    The present study outlines the clinical impact and risk factors of oral mucositis in 79 patients with multiple myeloma following high-dose melphalan for autologous transplant. All patients underwent daily prophylactic low-level indium gallium aluminum phosphate diode laser therapy (660 nm, 15 mW, 3.75 J/cm 2 , 10 s per point) from the beginning of the conditioning regimen up to day +2. Oral mucositis assessments were made daily until hospital discharge. For analysis, oral mucositis was divided into two groups according to severity: group 1, patients with oral mucositis grade mucositis grade ≥III (n = 8). Univariate logistic models were used to determine the risk factors. Patients in group 1 were found to have statistically fewer days of oral pain than those in group 2 (3.94 and 6.25 days, respectively, p = 0.014). Morphine was required in 75% of patients in group 2, versus 42.25% in group 1 (p = 0.06). Risk of severe oral mucositis was associated with higher serum creatinine levels (OR = 6.10; 95% CI 1.25-31.60; p = 0.02) and older age (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.05-1.47; p = 0.027). Severe oral mucositis was associated with worse clinical outcomes. Older patients and those with renal dysfunction previous autologous transplant had the greatest risk for severe oral mucositis despite prophylactic laser treatment. Our results highlight the importance of further research to define the dose, application time, and number of prophylactic laser sessions in those patients with the greatest risk for severe oral mucositis.

  15. Intermittent Bowel Obstruction Due to a Retained Wireless Capsule Endoscope in a Patient with a Small Bowel Carcinoid Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Strosberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man with a history of metastatic carcinoid disease is presented. The patient had symptoms of chronic intermittent abdominal pain two years after undergoing a wireless capsule endoscopy procedure. Radiological examinations revealed a retained capsule endoscope, and the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with capsule retrieval. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case presentation of chronic, partial small bowel obstruction caused by unrecognized retention of a capsule endoscope.

  16. The Efficacy of Endoscopic Palliation of Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Semi; Park, Jeong Youp; Chung, Moon Jae; Chung, Jae Bock; Park, Seung Woo; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Song, Si Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention. Materials and Methods From 1999 to 2009, 54 patients with HCC who underwent endoscopic intervention to relieve obstructive jaundice were included. We defined endoscopic intervention as a clinical success when the obstructive jaundice was relieved within 4 weeks. Results Clinical success was achieved in 23 patients (42.6%). Patients in the clinical success group showed better Child-Pugh liver function (C-P grade A or B/C; 17/6 vs. 8/20), lower total bilirubin levels (8.1±5.3 mg/dL vs. 23.1±10.4 mg/dL) prior to the treatment, and no history of alcohol consumption. The only factor predictive of clinical success by multivariate analysis was low total bilirubin level at the time of endoscopic intervention, regardless of history of alcohol consumption [odds ratio 1.223 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-1.396), p=0.003]. The cut-off value of pre-endoscopic treatment total bilirubin level was 12.8 mg/dL for predicting the clinical prognosis. Median survival after endoscopic intervention in the clinical success group was notably longer than that in the clinical failure group (5.6 months vs. 1.5 months, p≤0.001). Conclusion Before endoscopic intervention, liver function, especially total bilirubin level, should be checked to achieve the best clinical outcome. Endoscopic intervention can be helpful to relieve jaundice in well selected patients with HCC. PMID:25048484

  17. [Standardized development of transanal endoscopic microsurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guole

    2017-08-25

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is currently the only one-port system in endoscopic surgery, which a direct endoluminal approach can lead to the target organ through a natural opening of human body. TEM has been applied in colorectal surgery for over 3 decades. Compared with radical surgery, TEM has the advantages, such as quicker recovery, shorter hospital stay and fewer complications. One perfect TEM surgical system, which mainly consists of three parts, namely peculiar rectoscope for surgery, special surgical instruments and imaging system, is the foundation of standardized development of TEM. Accurate preoperative evaluation and staging is the key for good outcomes in TEM technology. In addition to digital examination of rectum, rigid sigmoidoscopy(or rectoscopy) should be routinely performed to confirm the location of the lesion and record it in a "time-in-clock" form. For lesions with undetermined nature, biopsy should be performed. For patients with rectal tumor, pelvic MRI examination can be used on the basis of routine endorectal ultrasonography (ERUS). Endoluminal suture is the challenge for standardized development of TEM, especially for those with large intestinal wall defects. Professional training is required to master suture technique. In 2016, the consensus of experts on TEM technology was formulated by TEM Study Group of Colorectal Cancer Specialty Committee of Chinese Anticancer Association. The recommended surgical indications for TEM include (1)rectal adenoma; (2)early rectal cancer with good histopathological features; (3)extended resection of locally malignant polyps by colonoscopy; (4)other rectal tumors suitable for local resection; (5)benign stricture or anastomotic stricture of the rectum; (6)repair of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection of rectum; (7)diagnosis of rectal hemorrhage; (8)biopsy of rectum and surrounding lesions; (9)repair of rectovaginal fistula or mucosal flap transposition of the internal mouth of anal

  18. Postoperative complications following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy are common in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvard Hansen, Erik Sören; Qvist, N.; Rasmussen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Inserting a feeding tube using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be necessary to ensure that children with eating problems receive sufficient enteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the perioperative and postoperative complications of percutaneous endoscopic...... gastrostomy when the pull-through method was the standard procedure. Methods: This was a retrospective review of 229 children (50.7% male) who underwent a gastrostomy procedure at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012. The median age of the children was 1.6 years...... were grade 3b complications. No gastrostomy-related deaths were observed, and no single preoperative risk factor was identified. Perioperative complications were experienced by 2.6% of the patients. Conclusion: Gastrostomy feeding tube placement was associated with a high rate of postoperative...

  19. Endoscopic Transoral Resection of an Axial Chordoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taran S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper cervical chordoma (UCC is rare condition and poses unique challenges to surgeons. Even though transoral approach is commonly employed, a minimally invasive technique has not been established. We report a 44-year old Malay lady who presented with a 1 month history of insidious onset of progressive neck pain without neurological symptoms. She was diagnosed to have an axial (C2 chordoma. Intralesional resection of the tumour was performed transorally using the Destandau endoscopic system (Storz, Germany. Satisfactory intralesional excision of the tumour was achieved. She had a posterior fixation of C1-C4 prior to that. Her symptoms improved postoperatively and there were no complications noted. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy to minimize local recurrence. Endoscopic excision of UCC via the transoral approach is a safe option as it provides an excellent magnified view and ease of resection while minimizing the operative morbidity.

  20. The appearance of the pre-Achilles fat pad after endoscopic calcaneoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Zwiers, Ruben; van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; Maas, Mario M.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether the imaging features of the retrocalcaneal recess normalize on a conventional radiograph after surgery for retrocalcaneal bursitis and evaluate whether it can be reused if complaints reoccur. Patients who underwent an endoscopic calcaneoplasty at least 2 years before were

  1. Early human experience with per-oral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (POP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomovitz, Eran; Pescarus, Radu; Cassera, Maria A; Sharata, Ahmed M; Reavis, Kevin M; Dunst, Christy M; Swanström, Lee L

    2015-03-01

    Gastroparesis is a condition characterized by delayed gastric emptying, and a constellation of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and bloating. Although current surgical options such as pyloroplasty have been shown to be effective, an endoscopic submucosal myotomy technique may be applied to divide the pyloric sphincter without surgical access. Such endoscopic technique may provide the benefits of a natural orifice procedure, and improve gastric emptying in gastroparetic patients. Per-oral pyloromyotomy (POP) was performed in seven female patients aged 33-65 years (mean 51 years). All patients had a pre-operative work-up that included upper endoscopy, and a gastric emptying study. A pH study, and esophageal manometry were also performed when a concomitant fundoplication was considered. POP was technically successful in all seven cases. There were no immediate procedural complications. Perioperative, complications included: one patient with an upper GI bleed 2 weeks post-procedure, necessitating transfusions, and endoscopic clipping of a pyloric channel ulcer; one patient who experienced difficulty swallowing post operatively, delaying discharge by 1 day; and one patient who developed a hospital-acquired pneumonia, delaying discharge by several days. Six of the seven patients experienced significant symptomatic improvement following the procedure. Three month follow-up nuclear medicine solid-phase gastric emptying studies are currently available for 5 of the 7 patients. Normal gastric emptying at 4 h was noted in four of five patients (80 %). One patient did not respond to endoscopic management subsequently underwent an uneventful laparoscopic pyloroplasty, which also failed to significantly improve her symptoms. POP is a technically safe and feasible endoscopic procedure. Early follow-up suggests promising symptomatic improvement as well as objective improvement in gastric emptying. Additional clinical experience is required to establish the role

  2. Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy with foraminoplasty for the treatment of spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Gabriele P; Francisco, Gina M; Telfeian, Albert E

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis is a common entity and occurs mainly in elderly patients. The trend in surgery has been to offer decompression with instrumented fusion based on patient-based outcome data and the inherent instability of the condition. Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy is an ultra-minimally invasive outpatient surgical option available to patients that does not require general anesthesia and does not involve the same amount of destabilizing facet joint removal as a traditional laminectomy and medial facetectomy. The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of tranforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy in patients with lumbar 4-5 (L4-L5) and lumbar 5-sacral 1 (L5-S1) spondylolisthesis and lumbar radiculopathy. After Institutional Review Board Approval, charts from 21 consecutive patients with L4-L5 or L5-S1 spondylolisthesis and complaints of lower back and radicular pain who underwent endoscopic procedures between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed. The average pain relief one year postoperatively was reported to be 71.9%, good results as defined by MacNab. The average pre-operative VAS score was 8.48, indicated in our questionnaire as severe and constant pain. The average one year postoperative VAS score was 2.30, indicated in our questionnaire as mild and intermittent pain. This is a retrospective study and only offers one year follow-up data for patients with spondylolisthesis undergoing endoscopic spine surgery for treatment of lumbar radiculopathy. Endoscopic discectomy is a safe and effective alternative to open back surgery. The one year follow-up data presented here appears to indicate that an ultra-minimally invasive approach to the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of spondylolisthesis that has a low complication rate, avoids general anesthesia, and is outpatient might be worth studying in a prospective, longer term way. IRB approval: Meridian Health: IRB Study # 201206071J.

  3. Technical consideration of transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery for central herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish P Datar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lumbar disc prolapse is most common between 30 and 50 years of age and is associated with severe disability and pain. It commonly occurs at L4/5 and L5/S1. Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is an emerging technique for treatment of degenerative disc disease. Literature has shown clinical outcomes, comparable to classical open and micro lumbar discectomy. Central disc herniations in lumbar spine pose technical challenge for transforaminal endoscopic decompression due to its location. Existing techniques to access central herniations and ventral epidural space have trajectory related challenges due to the proximity of the retroperitoneal space and abdominal organs and technically difficult for the less experienced surgeon. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients – 19 males and 11 females – with central, multifocal, central-paracentral disc herniations in the lumbar spine operated in 2015 and 2016 were considered in this study. All patients underwent selective endoscopic discectomy under monitored care anesthesia and local anesthesia with modification of the classical technique, medialization of annulotomy, undercutting the nonarticular part of superior articular process (foraminotomy and use of articulating and long jaw instruments either alone or in combination. Results: In all the thirty patients, we were able to achieve adequate decompression with neurological recovery. All patients improved in their neurological status. Postoperatively, visual analog scale dropped from 7.8 to 1.8 and ODI dropped from 73.46% to 32. 90% of the patients reported excellent and good results. One patient had recurrent herniation and was treated with transforaminal surgery. One patient had persistent back pain and reported poor outcome. Three patients underwent medial branch block for facet joint pain followed by medial branch rhizotomy and reported excellent and good results. Conclusion: Transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery with modifications

  4. Inside the mucosal immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R McGhee

    Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. M Brand, D Bisoz. Abstract. Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among ...

  6. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Fürst, Anton; Kummer, Martin; Mosel, Gesine; Tschanz, Theo; Lischer, Christoph J

    2012-07-01

    To report use of transendoscopic electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. Case series. Male horses (n = 21). Fragmentation of cystic calculi (median, 6 cm diameter; range, 4-11 cm diameter) was achieved by transurethral endoscopy in standing sedated horses using an electrohydraulic shockwave fiber introduced through the biopsy channel of an endoscope. The fiber was advanced until it contacted the calculus. Repeated activation of the fiber was used to disrupt the calculus into fragments calculus removal was achieved in 20 horses (95%) with mean total surgical time of 168.6 minutes (range, 45-450). In the 20 horses with single calculi, 1-6 sessions were required to completely fragment the calculus. Except for 1 horse, in which perineal urethrotomy was eventually performed for complete fragment removal, fragments calculi were excreted via the urethra. Postoperative complications included hematuria because of severe mucosal erosion (n = 2), dysuria because of a trapped urethral fragment (2), small amount of urinary debris (1). One horse was euthanatized because of bladder rupture. Complete clearance of calculi and urinary debris was confirmed endoscopically 20 (3-45) days after the last session. Telephone follow-up (mean, 18.8 months; range, 7-24 months) revealed that horses had returned to previous activity levels without recurrence of clinical signs. Transendoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy appears to be an effective method for fragmentation of low-density calcium carbonate cystic calculi in male horses. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Endoscopic Management of Gastric Polyp with Outlet Obstruction without Polypectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk-Kay Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although gastric polyp is usually an incidental endoscopic finding, large-sized polyps can cause symptoms ranging from epigastralgia to bleeding from ulcerated polyps and gastric outlet obstruction. Although the gold standard of treatment is removal of the polyp either through endoscopic polypectomy or surgical excision, complications associated with these procedures cannot be ignored. The risk becomes a major concern for patients at high risk for surgery when complications arise. We describe a debilitated 74-year-old woman who presented with early satiety, intermittent postprandial nausea and vomiting for three months. Upper endoscopy revealed a 2.5 cm pedunculated polyp over the gastric antrum causing intermittent obstruction. Considering her high risk for polypectomy, detachable snaring was performed without polypectomy in an outpatient setting. The patient was complication-free with complete relief of obstructive symptoms one week after the procedure. Subsequent follow-ups showed satisfactory healing without signs of mucosal disruption or recurrence. The results suggest that detachable snaring without polypectomy may be a therapeutic option for high-risk patients with benign symptomatic gastric polyps.

  8. Endoscopic Transaxillary Near Total Thyroidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeh, Ijeoma Acholonu; Speights, Fredne; Rashid, Qammar N.; Ideis, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since first reported in 1996, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery of the cervical region has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of benign thyroid and parathyroid disease. The endoscopic transaxillary technique uses a remote lateral approach to the thyroid gland. Because of the perceived difficulty in accessing the contralateral anatomy of the thyroid gland, this technique has typically been reserved for patients with unilateral disease. Objectives: The present study examines the safety and feasibility of the transaxillary technique in dissecting and assessment of both thyroid lobes in performing near total thyroidectomy. Methods: Prior to this study we successfully performed endoscopic transaxillary thyroid lobectomy in 32 patients between August 2003 and August 2005. Technical feasibility in performing total thyroidectomy using this approach was accomplished first utilizing a porcine model followed by three human cadaver models prior to proceeding to human surgery. After IRB approval three female patients with histories of enlarging multinodular goiter were selected to undergo endoscopic near total thyroidectomy. Results: The average operative time for all models was 142 minutes (range 57–327 min). The three patients in this study had clinically enlarging multinodular goiters with an average size of 4 cm. The contralateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified in all cases. There was no post-operative bleeding, hoarseness or subcutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: Endoscopic transaxillary near total thyroidectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in human patients with bilateral thyroid disease. PMID:16882421

  9. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  10. Improvement over time in outcomes for patients undergoing endoscopic therapy for Barrett's oesophagus-related neoplasia: 6-year experience from the first 500 patients treated in the UK patient registry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haidry, R J

    2015-08-01

    Barrett\\'s oesophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition leading to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Treatment of neoplasia at an early stage is desirable. Combined endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) followed by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an alternative to surgery for patients with BE-related neoplasia.

  11. Endoscopic Palliation for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Bakhru

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is devastating due to its poor prognosis. Patients require a multidisciplinary approach to guide available options, mostly palliative because of advanced disease at presentation. Palliation including relief of biliary obstruction, gastric outlet obstruction, and cancer-related pain has become the focus in patients whose cancer is determined to be unresectable. Endoscopic stenting for biliary obstruction is an option for drainage to avoid the complications including jaundice, pruritus, infection, liver dysfunction and eventually failure. Enteral stents can relieve gastric obstruction and allow patients to resume oral intake. Pain is difficult to treat in cancer patients and endoscopic procedures such as pancreatic stenting and celiac plexus neurolysis can provide relief. The objective of endoscopic palliation is to primarily address symptoms as well improve quality of life.

  12. Different risk factors between reflux symptoms and mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsien Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is diagnosed based on typical symptoms in clinical practice. It can be divided into two groups using endoscopy: erosive and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD. This study aims to determine the risk factors of reflux symptoms and mucosal injury. This was a two-step case-control study derived from a cohort of 998 individuals having the data of reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ and endoscopic findings. Those with minor reflux symptoms were excluded. The first step compared symptomatic GERD patients with healthy controls. The 2nd step compared patients with erosive esophagitis with healthy controls. In this study, the prevalence of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis were 163 (16.3% and 166 (16.6%, respectively. A total of 507 asymptomatic individuals without mucosal injury of the esophagus on endoscopy were selected as healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, multivariate analyses showed that symptomatic GERD patients had a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [odds ratio (OR, 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.13–2.96] and obesity (OR, 1.85; 95% CI 1.08–3.02. By contrast, male sex (OR, 2.24; 95% CI 1.42–3.52, positive Campylo-like organism (CLO test (OR, 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.84, and hiatus hernia (OR, 14.36; 95% CI 3.05–67.6 were associated with erosive esophagitis. In conclusion, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with reflux symptoms. By contrast, male sex, negative infection of Helicobacter pylori, and hiatus hernia were associated with mucosal injury. Our results suggested that risk factors of reflux symptoms or mucosal injury might be different in GERD patients. The underlying mechanism awaits further studies to clarify.

  13. Overtube-Assisted Foreign Body Removal: A Review of Endoscopic Management and Case Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Andrew; Ramai, Daryl; Reddy, Madhavi

    2017-09-29

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is a common medical emergency seen in both adults and children. In children, the most commonly ingested foreign bodies include coins, toys, magnets, and batteries. In adults, food bolus impaction represents the most common cause of foreign body ingestion. The majority of foreign bodies pass spontaneously. Sharp or pointed objects increase the risk of perforation. Emergent endoscopic intervention is indicated in cases of esophageal obstruction, ingestion of disk batteries, and sharp pointed objects in the esophagus. Flexible endoscopy is the therapeutic method of choice for removing foreign bodies. It is preferred due to its high success rate and low risk for complications. Additionally, the use of an overtube provides gastric and esophageal protection from mucosal laceration. We present a 27-year-old male who ingested six razor blades and a curtain hook and review endoscopic management.

  14. Mucosal Immunity and the Onset of Allergic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusei Ohshima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal barriers encounter an environment that is rich in pathogens that possess mechanisms for invading mucosal tissues. These barriers also encounter innocuous antigens, such as foods, airborne antigens, and microbiota. The mucosa has developed a sophisticated immune system that can mount robust immune responses against pathogenic antigens, while maintaining mucosal tolerance against non-pathogenic antigens. Accumulating evidence indicates that the mucosal epithelium, dendritic cells, and a subtype of T cells with regulatory properties play important roles in the development and maintenance of mucosal tolerance. Moreover, the micribiota also contribute to regulating the mucosal immune system. A failure to develop or the breakdown of mucosal tolerance can result in allergic diseases, such as food allergy and asthma. By taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the mucosal immune system, strategies that induce regulatory cells in vivo and, thereby, reconstitute mucosal tolerance may be used to develop novel therapies that are suitable for treating or preventing of allergic diseases.

  15. Initial experience of direct-to-test endoscopic ultrasonography for suspected choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Paul; Phull, Perminder

    2015-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound has become an invaluable tool in the investigation of patients with suspected pancreatobiliary disease. We set out to determine whether a "direct-to-test" endoscopic ultrasound procedure could be offered to selected patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. We included patients referred to our general gastroenterology service with clinical history, symptomatology and/or laboratory results compatible with choledocholithiais. Almost all patients had already had a transabdominal ultrasound performed at the request of their general practitioner. All patients underwent direct-to-test day-case endoscopic ultrasound under conscious sedation. Procedures were performed by a single practitioner using an oblique-viewing radial echoendoscope. The diagnostic yield and frequencies of discharge, onward referral and follow-up were determined. Overall diagnostic yield of direct-to-test endoscopic ultrasound was 61%. The most common diagnoses were cholelithiasis (18%) and choledocholithiasis (11%); one periampullary cancer was also detected. A definitive outcome (discharge or referral for a therapeutic procedure) occurred in 14 of 28 patients (50%). The remaining 14 patients underwent further out-patient evaluation. Eventual diagnoses in this group included autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and drug-induced hepatitis. For patients with suspected biliary disease, direct-to-test endoscopic ultrasound has a high diagnostic yield, and may be an appropriate mode of investigation. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Posterior Endoscopic Excision of Os Trigonum in Professional National Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Roche, Andy; Brodrick, Anna; Williams, R Lloyd; Calder, James D F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have compared the outcomes after open and endoscopic excision of an os trigonum in patients of mixed professions. No studies have compared the differences in outcomes between the 2 procedures in elite ballet dancers. From October 2005 to February 2010, 35 professional ballet dancers underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum of the ankle after a failed period of nonoperative treatment. Of the 35 patients, 13 (37.1%) underwent endoscopic excision and 22 (62.9%) open excision. We compared the outcomes, complications, and time to return to dancing. The open excision group experienced a significantly greater incidence of flexor hallucis longus tendon decompression compared with the endoscopic group. The endoscopic release group returned to full dance earlier at a mean of 9.8 (range 6.5 to 16.1) weeks and those undergoing open excision returned to full dance at a mean of 14.9 (range 9 to 20) weeks (p = .001). No major complications developed in either group, such as deep infection or nerve or vessel injury. We have concluded that both techniques are safe and effective in the treatment of symptomatic os trigonum in professional ballet dancers. Endoscopic excision of the os trigonum offers a more rapid return to full dance compared with open excision. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful endoscopic management with Mitomycin C application for sinusitis with orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil S Harugop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sinusitis with orbital complication is a potentially fatal disease that has been known since the days of Hippocrates. Primary sinus infection is the most common cause of orbital cellulitis. It is an emergency that threatens not only vision but also life from complications such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and brain abscess. Surgical intervention is mandatory whenever antibiotic treatment fails. There are two surgical options for the drainage, an external approach via a Lynch incision and an intranasal endoscopic procedure. Materials and Methods: Five patients with orbital cellulitis secondary to acute on chronic rhinosinusitis were included in the study from the period of 2010 - 2011. All five patients did not respond to medical management and hence underwent endoscopic sinus surgery with treatment of orbital pathology. At the end of the surgical procedure Mitomycin C in a concentration of 0.4mg/ml was applied with a cottonoid for a period of 4 minutes to prevent chance of adhesion formation. Results: In this series 3 females and 2 male patient with orbital cellulitis secondary to acute on chronic rhinosinusitis underwent endoscopic sinus surgery with treatment of orbital pathology. All 5 patients showed subjective and objective improvement within one week of endoscopic management. Conclusion: Though antibiotics have altered the course of sinusitis, its grave complications still persist in our environment. The excellent results and the absence of any major complications of endoscopic sinus surgery and drainage of abscess with application of Mitomycin C can be recommended as the preferred surgical technique.

  18. Innate Immunity to Mucosal Candida Infections

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    Akash Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal epithelial tissues are exposed to high numbers of microbes, including commensal fungi, and are able to distinguish between those that are avirulent and those that cause disease. Epithelial cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to defend against colonization and invasion by Candida species. The interplay between mucosal epithelial tissues and immune cells is key for control and clearance of fungal infections. Our understanding of the mucosal innate host defense system has expanded recently with new studies bringing to light the importance of epithelial cell responses, innate T cells, neutrophils, and other phagocytes during Candida infections. Epithelial tissues release cytokines, host defense peptides, and alarmins during Candida invasion that act in concert to limit fungal proliferation and recruit immune effector cells. The innate T cell/IL-17 axis and recruitment of neutrophils are of central importance in controlling mucosal fungal infections. Here, we review current knowledge of the innate immunity at sites of mucosal Candida infection, with a focus on infections caused by C. albicans.

  19. Early Squamous Neoplasia of the Esophagus: The Endoscopic Approach to Diagnosis and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Kesavan; Chedgy, Fergus J. Q.; Subramaniam, Sharmila; Thayalasekaran, Sreedhari; Kurup, Arun; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Considerable focus has been placed on esophageal adenocarcinoma in the last 10 years because of its rising incidence in the West. However, squamous cell cancer (SCC) continues to be the most common type of esophageal cancer in the rest of the world. The detection of esophageal SCC (ESCC) in its early stages can lead to early endoscopic resection and cure. The increased incidence of ESCC in high-risk groups, such as patients with head and neck squamous cancers, highlights the need for screening programs. Lugol's iodine chromoendoscopy remains the gold standard technique in detecting early ESCC, however, safer techniques such as electronic enhancement or virtual chromoendoscopy would be ideal. In addition to early detection, these new “push-button” technological advancements can help characterize early ESCC, thereby further aiding the diagnostic accuracy and facilitating resection. Endoscopic resection (ER) of early ESCC with negligible risk of lymph node metastases has been widely accepted as an effective therapeutic strategy because it offers similar success rates when compared to esophagectomy, but carries lesser morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the preferred technique of ER in lesions larger than 15 mm because it provides higher rates of en bloc resections and lower local recurrence rates when compared to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). PMID:28361837

  20. Comparison of Endoscopic Variceal Ligation and Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration in Patients with GOV1 Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyoung Ju; Jun, Chung Hwan; Lee, Du Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ae; Park, Seon Young; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Hyunsoo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, rebleeding rates, survival, and complications of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with those of endoscopic variceal obliteration (EVO) in patients with acute type 1 gastroesophageal variceal (GOV1) bleeding. Data were collected retrospectively at a single center. A total of 84 patients were selected (20 patients underwent EVL; 64 patients underwent EVO) from February 2004 to September 2011. Their clinical characteristics, laboratory results, vital signs, Child-Pugh score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and overall mortality were evaluated. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The success rate in initial control of active bleeding was not significantly different between the EVL and EVO groups (18/20 EVL, or 90.0%, compared with 62/64 EVO, or 96.9%; p=0.239). The early rebleeding rate was also not significantly different between the groups (3/18 EVL, or 16.7% compared with 17/62 EVO, or 27.4%; p=0.422). The late rebleeding rate of the EVL group was lower than that of the EVO group (3/18 EVL, or 16.7%, compared with 26/59 EVO, or 44.1%; p=0.042). The time-to-rebleeding was 594 days for the EVL group and 326 days for the EVO group (p=0.054). In the multivariate analysis, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) was a significant risk factor for early rebleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and previous history of bleeding were significant risk factors for very late rebleeding. In conclusion, EVL is better than EVO in reducing late rebleeding in acute GOV1 bleeding. HCC, PVT, and previous bleeding history were significant risk factors for rebleeding.

  1. Accuracy of identification of tissue types in endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsies used for molecular biology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plauto Beck

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Plauto Beck1, George C Mayne1, David Astill2, Tanya Irvine1, David I Watson1, Willem A Dijckmeester1, Bas PL Wijnhoven1, Damian J Hussey11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Anatomical Pathology, Flinders University, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, AustraliaObjectives: To determine if histopathologic assessment of esophageal biopsies harvested for research study is justified due to the heterogeneity of tissues in the esophagus, and the consequent histopathologic mis-matches with the clinical histopathology of biopsies taken at the same level.Methods: Since 2004, patients undergoing upper endoscopy for a variety of clinical conditions were invited to provide additional esophageal biopsies; those were collected for research purpose at the same level as biopsies collected for clinical histopathology. Research biopsies were cut in two parts: one part was submitted to research histopathology and the other stored for molecular analysis. Results of clinical histopathology for each patient were summarized per biopsy level and compared to results obtained from research biopsies at the corresponding level.Results: A total of 377 level summaries were obtained from 137 patients. Clinical histopathology summaries classified 123 levels (32.6% as squamous epithelium, 84 levels (22.3% as metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, 135 levels (35.8% as columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia, 30 levels (8% as dysplasia, and 5 levels (1.3% as adenocarcinoma. Research histopathology matched to clinical summaries on 120 of 123 (97.5% levels for squamous epithelium, 52 of 84 (61.9% for metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, and 94 of 135 (69.5% for columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia. There were no matches for dysplasia between the groups; however, they agreed on all five cases of AC. On 59 (70.2% metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium levels and on 62 (46% columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia levels, tissue heterogeneity was observed in clinical histopathology, with portions of squamous epithelium within the samples. Matches with pure tissue samples in both clinical and research histopathology levels were observed on 22 (26.2% levels of metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium and in 55 (40.7% levels of columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia.Conclusions: The high proportion of mismatches and tissue heterogeneity observed, especially among columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, points to the necessity of determining the histopathology of the research samples to avoid sampling errors during molecular studies.Keywords: esophageal biopsies, endoscopy, columnar-lined epithelium, Barrett’s esophagus

  2. Endoscopic Mucosal Resection of Early Esophageal Carcinoma—Experience of 9 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Fu Lin

    2008-07-01

    Conclusion: Early esophageal cancer can be diagnosed by meticulous examination of the esophageal mucosa with conventional endoscopy, facilitated by Lugol's iodine staining, and can be treated by EMR, which is safe. Recurrence can occur after piecemeal EMR.

  3. Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography versus Endoscopic Ultrasonography against Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Diagnosing Choledocholithiasis: The Indonesian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makmun, Dadang; Fauzi, Achmad; Shatri, Hamzah

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Biliary stone disease is one of the most common conditions leading to hospitalization. In addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are required in diagnosing choledocholithiasis. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of EUS and MRCP against ERCP in diagnosing choledocholithiasis. Methods This retrospective study was conducted after prospective collection of data involving 62 suspected choledocholithiasis patients who underwent ERCP from June 2013 to August 2014. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group (31 patients) underwent EUS and the second group (31 patients) underwent MRCP. Then, ERCP was performed in both groups. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of EUS and MRCP were determined by comparing them to ERCP, which is the gold standard. Results The male to female ratio was 3:2. The mean ages were 47.25 years in the first group and 52.9 years in the second group. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for EUS were 96%, 57%, 87%, 88%, and 80% respectively, and for MRCP were 81%, 40%, 68%, 74%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusions EUS is a better diagnostic tool than MRCP for diagnosing choledocholithiasis. PMID:28241408

  4. Endoscopic and surgical palliation of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, G; De Palma, G; Elia, S; Catanzano, C; Cecere, C; Griffo, S; Sivero, L; Costabile, R

    1999-12-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage. Therefore for most patients either surgical or endoscopic palliation with or without radiochemotherapy may be taken into consideration. This retrospective study analyzes immediate and long term results of perendoscopic treatment in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer. Moreover a comparative analysis has been made with a group of patients who underwent palliation surgery. From 1982 to 1998 458 patients with esophageal cancer underwent palliation perendoscopic disobstructive treatment (427 patients), palliation surgery (29 patients) and dis-obstruction followed by perendoscopic gastrostomy (2 patients). Among patients treated by perendoscopic procedures, 18 underwent dilation, 53 dilation and radiotherapy, 236 stent implantation, respectively of the plastic (102) and self-expandable metallic (134) type. 120 patients underwent NdYAG laser treatment. The results for patients who underwent perendoscopic procedures are referred to as regards the first 30 days after treatment and on the long run in terms of grade of dysphagia according to Visick's scale. For the group of patients undergoing simple dilation we had an improvement (from Visick III-IV to I-II) in 33% of cases and in 54.7% when radiotherapy was added. Far better results were achieved in all groups undergoing stent implantation, with or without brachytherapy, and NdYAG laser treatment with or without previous chemical necrolysis (range 90.3-100%). Most frequent complications were obstruction and stent displacement. Mean survival was better for patients undergoing laser recanalisation (7.2 months) while among stents the metallic type has given better results than plastic ones both for survival (6.2 vs 5.9 months) and mortality (2.4 vs 4.9%). Comparison with the group undergoing palliation surgery has shown that mean survival is the same for patients undergoing jejunostomy or gastrostomy while it is significantly better for patients

  5. Techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Leon M G; Gralnek, Ian M; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-04-01

    Performing high-quality colonoscopy is one of the important goals of gastroenterology practices and requires achieving a high level of bowel cleansing, performing good and safe polypectomy, and detecting all polyps present in the colon. This article summarizes currently available techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal visualization. Several maneuvers can be applied during insertion and withdrawal of the colonoscope to optimize mucosal visualization and decrease the number of missed polyps. Newly developed technologies support the endoscopist in the detection of polyps. Each technique is reviewed, with emphasis on the impact on colorectal polyp detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ghrelin improves intestinal mucosal atrophy during parenteral nutrition: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Waka; Kaji, Tatsuru; Onishi, Shun; Nakame, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Koji; Kawano, Takafumi; Mukai, Motoi; Souda, Masakazu; Yoshioka, Takako; Tanimoto, Akihide; Ieiri, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has been reported to be associated with mucosal atrophy of the small intestine. Ghrelin has hormonal, orexigenic, and metabolic activities. We investigated whether ghrelin improved intestinal mucosal atrophy using a TPN-supported rat model. Rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and were divided into four groups: TPN alone (TPN), TPN plus low-dose ghrelin (TPNLG), TPN plus high-dose ghrelin (TPNHG), and oral feeding with normal chow (OF). Ghrelin was administered continuously at dosages of 10 or 50 μg/kg/day. On day 6 rats were euthanized, and the small intestine was harvested and divided into the jejunum and ileum. Then the villus height (VH) and crypt depth (CD) were evaluated. The jejunal and ileal VH and CD in the TPN group were significantly decreased compared with those in the OF group. TPNHG improved only VH of the jejunum. TPNLG improved VH and CD of the jejunum and CD of the ileum. The improvement of TPNLG was significantly stronger than that in CD of the jejunum and ileum. TPN was more strongly associated with mucosal atrophy in the jejunum than in the ileum. Low-dose intravenous administration of ghrelin improved TPN-associated intestinal mucosal atrophy more effectively than high-dose administration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. enter endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ventriculoperitoneal 78. Point of View: Exit ventriculoperitoneal shunt; enter endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV): contemporary views on hydrocephalus and their implications on management. Abstract. Hydrocephalus has been known to affect humans since the birth of human medicine as it is described by Hippocrates.

  8. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Rösch, T.; Fockens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of achalasia is complicated by symptom recurrence and a significant risk for severe complications. Endoscopic myotomy was developed in the search for a highly efficacious treatment with lower risks. Since its introduction in 2010, several centers have adopted the technique and published

  9. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-03-16

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection.

  10. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We highlight a potentially lethal complication of acute severe pancreatitis that may not be suspected in severely ill patients. A 41-year-old woman developed acute severe pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis. When her condition deteriorated ...

  11. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  12. The Evaluation of Endoscopic Balloon Dilation Treatment for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokri-Shirvani Javad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Balloon dilatation of stricture is one of the new treatment methods among patients with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO. However, the prevalence and underlying etiologies of GOO in various populations are different. The goal of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic balloon dilatation and factors that would affect its success rate patients with benign etiology for GOO. Forty-five patients with the symptoms of benign GOO were randomly selected. Gastric outlet was delineated using double channel videoendoscopy. The information of initial balloon dilation was collected from recorded files. Balloon dilatation was repeated during the mean follow up of 9.9 ± 5.8 months. The severity of gastric pain was measured immediately before balloon dilatation and one month after procedure and was rated on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. The mean age of patients was 43.7 ± 18.1 years and 86.7% of them were men. Furthermore, 71.1% were H pylori positive. Response rate to endoscopic balloon dilatation was 80% and 8 patients underwent surgical resection. Weight loss was more frequent in non-responding group. The pain severity was significantly reduced more in responding subjects. No meaningful relationships were found between the responses to balloon dilatation and positive H pylori and cigarette smoking. Endoscopic balloon dilation is safe and effective for most patients with benign gastric outlet obstruction and has favorable long-term outcome.

  13. Radiographer Delivered Fluoroscopy Reduces Radiation Exposure During Endoscopic Urological Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Hennessey, D B; Young, M; Pahuja, A

    2016-01-01

    The 1999 Ionising Radiation Regulations recommend that medical professionals using ionising radiation should aim to keep exposure as 'low as reasonably practicable'. Urologists regularly use fluoroscopy during endoscopic surgical procedures. In some institutions, this is delivered by a radiographer whereas in others, it is delivered by the urological surgeon. To determine if radiographer-delivered fluoroscopy can reduce the exposure to ionising radiation during urological procedures. An analysis of 395 consecutive patients, who underwent endoscopic urological procedures requiring fluoroscopy, was performed simultaneously across two institutions, over a 4 month period. 321 patients were matched and included in the analysis. Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy was associated with reduced ionising radiation exposure for retrograde pyelography procedures ED 0.09626 vs. 1.323 mSev, p= 0.0003, and endoscopic stone surgeries ED 0.3066 Vs. 0.5416 mSev, p=0.0039, but not for ureterorenoscopic stone surgeries 0.4880 vs. 0.2213 mSev, p=0.8292. Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy could reduce the patient's exposure to ionising radiation for some urological procedures.

  14. Endoscopic Excision of Symptomatic Os Trigonum in Professional Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Mazza, Daniele; Serlorenzi, Pierluigi; Guidi, Marco; Camerucci, Emanuela; Calderaro, Cosma; Iorio, Raffaele; Guzzini, Matteo; Ferretti, Andrea

    The present study reports the clinical results of excision of a symptomatic os trigonum using an endoscopic procedure in professional ballet dancers. The hypothesis was that posterior endoscopic excision of the os trigonum would be safe and effective in treating posterior ankle impingement syndrome related to the os trigonum. Twelve professional dancers underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum for PAIS using a posterior endoscopic technique after failure of conservative treatment. The patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scale score, the Tegner activity scale score, and the visual analog scale score. The surgical time, timing of a return to sports, patient satisfaction, and any complications related to the procedure were recorded. The average postoperative follow-up duration was 38.9 ± 20.6 (range 12 to 72) months. The mean Tegner activity scale score increased from 4.3 ± 0.8 (range 3 to 5) preoperatively to 9 ± 0.2 postoperatively (p os trigonum using a 2-portal technique after failure of conservative treatment is characterized by excellent results with low morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CORRELATION OF ENDOSCOPIC AND HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES IN ADULTS WITH SUSPECTED CELIAC DISEASE IN A REFERRAL CENTER OF MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Macedo ROSA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Clinical presentation of celiac disease is extremely variable and the diagnosis relies on serologic tests, mucosal intestinal biopsy and clinic and serologic response to a gluten-free diet. Objectives To correlate the endoscopic and histological aspects of adult patients with suspicion of celiac disease and to evaluate the interobserver histological agreement. Methods Endoscopic aspects of 80 adult patients were evaluated and correlated with the histological features according the Marsh-Oberhuber classification system. The interobserver histological agreement was based on kappa values. Results The symptoms of the patients varied largely, with prominence for chronic diarrhea, present in 48 (60% patients. The endoscopic aspects related with the duodenal villous atrophy had been observed in 32 (40% patients. There were confirmed 46 cases of celiac disease, with prevalence of 57.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the endoscopic markers for celiac disease diagnosis were of 60.9%, 88.2%, 87.5% and 62.5%. There was moderate interobserver histological agreement (kappa = 0.46. Conclusions The endoscopic markers of villous atrophy, although not diagnostic, had assisted in the suspicion and indication of the duodenal biopsies for diagnosis proposal. Histology is sometimes contradictory and new biopsies or opinion of another professional can provide greater diagnostic agreement.

  16. Mucosal vaccines: recent progress in understanding the natural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Olga; Lebre, Filipa; Bento, Dulce; Borchard, Gerrit; Junginger, Hans E

    2010-02-01

    It has long been known that protection against pathogens invading the organism via mucosal surfaces correlates better with the presence of specific antibodies in local secretions than with serum antibodies. The most effective way to induce mucosal immunity is to administer antigens directly to the mucosal surface. The development of vaccines for mucosal application requires antigen delivery systems and immunopotentiators that efficiently facilitate the presentation of the antigen to the mucosal immune system. This review provides an overview of the events within mucosal tissues that lead to protective mucosal immune responses. The understanding of those biological mechanisms, together with knowledge of the technology of vaccines and adjuvants, provides guidance on important technical aspects of mucosal vaccine design. Not being exhaustive, this review also provides information related to modern adjuvants, including polymeric delivery systems and immunopotentiators.

  17. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interc...

  18. Nutrition and Gut Mucositis in Pediatric Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    Childhood malignancies are the second most common cause of death in children. A major limitation of current therapies is the high toxicity. Alimentary tract toxicity (mucositis) is associated with increased risk of complication such as infections that may lead to death. In relation to HSCT, mucos...

  19. Mucosal biofilm detection in chronic otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Marcus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine middle ear biopsies from Greenlandic patients with chronic otitis media (COM) for the presence of mucosal biofilms and the bacteria within the biofilms. Thirty-five middle ear biopsies were obtained from 32 Greenlandic COM patients admitted to ear...

  20. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Understanding the complex factors that can lead ... Related content ... on women's paid work. Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  1. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feber, T. [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author).

  2. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author)

  3. Immunology: The Neuronal Pathway to Mucosal Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Stephan; Maizels, Rick M

    2018-01-08

    Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunology: the neuronal pathway to mucosal immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Löser, Stephan; Maizels, Rick M.

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways.

  5. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  6. Cecal intubation rates in different eras of endoscopic technological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyja, Maciej; Pasternak, Artur; Szura, Mirosław; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Major, Piotr; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2018-03-01

    Colonoscopy plays a critical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and has been widely regarded as the gold standard. Cecal intubation rate (CIR) is one of the well-defined quality indicators used to assess colonoscopy. To assess the impact of new technologies on the quality of colonoscopy by assessing completion rates. This was a dual-center study at the 2 nd Department of Surgery at Jagiellonian University Medical College and at the Specialist Center "Medicina" in Krakow, Poland. The CIR and cecal intubation time (CIT) in three different eras of technological advancement were determined. The study enrolled 27 463 patients who underwent colonoscopy as part of a national CRC screening program. The patients were divided into three groups: group I - 3408 patients examined between 2000 and 2003 (optical endoscopes); group II - 10 405 patients examined between 2004 and 2008 (standard electronic endoscopes); and group III - 13 650 patients examined between 2009 and 2014 (modern endoscopes). There were statistically significant differences in the CIR between successive eras. The CIR in group I (2000-2003) was 69.75%, in group II (2004-2008) was 92.32%, and in group III (2009-2014) was 95.17%. The mean CIT was significantly reduced in group III. Our study shows that the technological innovation of novel endoscopy devices has a great influence on the effectiveness of the CRC screening program. The new era of endoscopic technological development has the potential to reduce examination-related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation and increase diagnostic yields.

  7. Transforaminal Endoscopic Surgery for Adjacent Segment Disease After Lumbar Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeian, Albert Edward

    2017-01-01

    The natural history of degenerative disease after instrumented lumbar fusion can result in symptomatic radiculopathy at the adjacent segment. Here we describe our experience with transforaminal endoscopic decompression for the treatment of adjacent segment radiculopathy. A technique for the transforaminal endoscopic treatment of lumbar radiculopathy adjacent to instrumented lumbar fusions is presented. Prospectively, we followed a series of 9 consecutive patients operated on with lumbar radiculopathy above (5) or below (4) their instrumented fusion. Preoperative and postoperative clinical data with 2-year follow-up are presented. A consecutive series of 9 patients who underwent transforaminal endoscopic treatment for lumbar radiculopathy adjacent to an instrumented spinal fusion between 2012 and 2014 is presented. Three patients required revision to fusion at 2, 13, and 19 months postoperatively. The mean visual analogue scale score for radicular pain improved from an average pain score before surgery of 8.4 to 1.3 1 year after surgery and the mean visual analogue scale for back pain improved from an average pain score before surgery of 8.0 to 4.7 1 year after surgery (excluding the 1 patient with 2month postoperative failure). Transforaminal endoscopic surgical access to adjacent level disease pathology may be a unique approach to the treatment of adjacent segment disease because it allows for neural decompression of disc and foraminal pathology without requiring significant destabilizing bone removal. However, the 2-year failure rate presented here is 33%, which indicates that the benefit of this technique may ultimately be temporary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Peroral endoscopic esophageal myotomy: defining the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Ashwin A; Dunst, Christy M; Sharata, Ahmed; Bhayani, Neil H; Reavis, Kevin M; Swanström, Lee L

    2013-05-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an endoscopic alternative to laparoscopic esophageal myotomy. It requires a demanding skill set that involves both advanced endoscopic skills and knowledge of surgical anatomy and complication management. Determine the learning curve for POEM. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary-care teaching hospital. The study involved the first 40 consecutive patients undergoing the POEM procedure under a prospective institutional review board protocol (research.gov #NCT01399476, 1056). Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal motility disorders. Length of procedure (LOP) and technical errors (inadvertent mucosotomy). A total of 40 patients underwent POEM. The mean LOP was 126 ± 41 minutes. The mean myotomy length was 9 cm (range, 6-20 cm). The LOP per centimeter myotomy and variability decreased as our experience progressed. The means (± standard deviation) of the LOP per centimeter myotomy were as follows: first cohort, 16 ± 4 minutes; second, 17 ± 5 minutes; third, 13 ± 3 minutes; fourth, 15 ± 2 minutes; and fifth, 13 ± 4 minutes. The incidence of inadvertent mucosotomy also decreased with increasing experience, to 8, 6, 4, 0, and 1, respectively. These minor complications were repaired intraoperatively with clips. There were 7 patients with capnoperitonium and another with bilateral capnothoraces that were associated with hemodynamic instability but resolved by Veress needle decompression. Two patients required endoscopy in the early postoperative period: self-limited hematemesis in one and radiologic evidence of leakage at the mucosotomy site in another. Nonrandomized study. Mastery of operative technique in POEM is evidenced by a decrease in LOP, variability of minutes per centimeter of myotomy, and incidence of inadvertent mucosotomies and plateaus in about 20 cases for experienced endoscopists. The learning curve can be shortened with very close supervision and/or proctoring. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  9. Endoscopic imaging of the vermiform appendix (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Puespoek, Andreas; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Chronic appendicitis may be detected in as many as 10% of patients with right lower quadrant pain. Although the appendiceal orifice is easily identified during colonoscopy, its lumen has not been investigated so far. To determine the feasibility of endoscopic appendix imaging to identify features of chronic appendicitis in patients with recurrent right lower quadrant pain. Prospective, proof-of-concept study. University-based tertiary referral hospital. Colonoscopy scheduled because of right lower quadrant pain. First, the appendix orifice was cannulated with a guidewire and a Jagtome. Next fluoroscopic imaging was performed by injection of contrast agent into the appendix orifice, and then a SpyGlass endoscope was inserted for imaging of the appendiceal mucosa and for biopsy. Patients were monitored 3 hours after investigation, with follow-up at 4 weeks. Cannulation rate. Thirteen patients were included. Endoscopic imaging of the appendix was successful in 9 of 13 patients (69%). In 10 patients, a guidewire was placed; in 7 patients, biopsy specimens were taken, revealing histological signs of inflammation in 5. In 4 patients, visible fecoliths were removed by flushing. All patients were discharged on the same day. No adverse events occurred. Three patients reported resolution of pain at follow-up. One patient with strictures at appendicoscopy underwent surgical appendectomy. Histology confirmed the findings of chronic appendicitis with fibrosis. Patient number limits power for analysis. Endoscopic imaging of the appendix is feasible, safe, and clinically useful in patients with suspected chronic appendicitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mucosal Vaccination and Therapy with Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vehicles that overcome the problem of delivering functional proteins to the mucosal tissues. By the intranasal route, both live and killed LAB vaccine strains have been shown to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses that

  11. Can the oral microflora affect oral ulcerative mucositis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review: Oral mucositis is one of the most prevalent toxicities after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mucositis is initiated by the chemotherapy or radiotherapy preceding the transplantation. It is commonly accepted that microorganisms play a role in the process of oral mucositis.

  12. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, and 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 {+-} 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  13. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 ± 1.6 mm, and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 ± 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 ± 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  14. Development and reliability of the new endoscopic virtual chromoendoscopy score: the PICaSSO (Paddington International Virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre) in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacucci, Marietta; Daperno, Marco; Lazarev, Mark; Arsenascu, Razvan; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Akinola, Oluseyi; Gui, Xianyong Sean; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Goetz, Martin; Lowerison, Mark; Lethebe, Brendan Cord; Vecchi, Maurizio; Neumann, Helmut; Ghosh, Subrata; Bisschops, Raf; Kiesslich, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Endoscopic inflammation and healing are important therapeutic endpoints in ulcerative colitis (UC). We developed and validated a new electronic virtual chromoendoscopy (EVC) score that could reflect the full spectrum of mucosal and vascular changes including mucosal healing in UC. Eight participants reviewed a 60-minute training module outlining 3 different i-SCAN modes demonstrating the entire spectrum of inflammatory mucosal and vascular changes in UC. Performance characteristics in endoscopic scoring and predicting the histologic inflammation with EVC (i-SCAN) by using 20 video clips before (pre-test) and after (post-test) were evaluated. Exploratory univariate factor analysis was performed on Paddington International Virtual Chromoendoscopy Score (PICaSSO) covariates for mucosal and vascular score separately. Subsequently, a proportional odds logistic regression model for the prediction of histologic scores was analyzed. The interobserver agreement for Mayo endoscopic score in the pre-test (κ = .85; 95% CI, .78-.90) and the post-test (κ = .85; 95% CI, .77-.90) evaluation were very good. This was also true for the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity in the pre-test and post-test score interobserver agreement (κ = .86; 95% CI, .77-.92; and κ = .84; 95% CI, .75-.91, respectively). The interobserver agreement of the PICaSSO endoscopic score was very good in the pre-test and post-test evaluations (κ = .92; 95% CI, .87-.96; and κ = .89; 95% CI, .84-.94, respectively). The accuracy of the overall PICaSSO in assessing histologic abnormalities and inflammation by Harpaz score was 57% (95% CI, 48%-65%), by Robarts Histological Index 72% (95% CI, 64%-79%), and by the extent, chronicity, activity, plus system (full spectrum of histologic changes) 83% (95% CI, 76%-88%). The EVC score "PICaSSO" showed very good interobserver agreement. The new EVC score may be used to define the endoscopic findings of mucosal and vascular healing in UC and reflected

  15. Investigating the application of diving endoscopic technique in determining the extent of pituitary adenoma resection via the trans-nasal-sphenoidal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hai-Bin; Wang, Li-Qing; Zhou, Jian-Yun; Sun, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the diving endoscopic technique in pituitary adenoma surgery, and the application value in determining the extent of tumor resection. A total of 37 patients with pituitary adenoma initially underwent tumor resection under an endoscope-assisted microscope via standard trans-nasal-sphenoidal approach, and tumor cavity structure was observed by applying the diving endoscopic technique. Surgery was subsequently performed again under a microscope or endoscope. The diving endoscopic technique allowed surgeons to directly observe the structure inside a tumor cavity in high-definition. In the present study, 24 patients had pituitary macroadenomas or microadenomas that did not invade the cavernous sinus, and were considered to have undergone successful total resection. Among these patients, no tumor residues were observed through the diving endoscopic technique. Some white lichenoid or fibrous cord-like tissues in the tumor cavity were considered to be remnants of tumors. However, pathology confirmed that these were not tumor tissues. For tumors that invaded the cavernous sinus in 13 patients, observation could only be conducted under the angulation endoscope of the diving endoscope; i.e., the operation could not be conducted under an endoscope. The present study suggests that the diving endoscopic technique may be used to directly observe the resection extent of tumors within the tumor cavity, especially the structure of the tumor cavity inside the sella turcica. The present study also directly validates the reliability of pituitary adenoma resection under endoscope-assisted microscope. In addition, the diving endoscopic technique also allows the surgeon to observe the underwater environment within the sella turcica.

  16. Endoscopic transnasal repair of cerebrospinal fluid leaks with and without an encephalocele in pediatric patients: from infants to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingying; Huang, Qian; Li, Xiaokui; Huang, Dongsheng; Xian, Junfang; Cui, Shunjiu; Li, Yunchuan; Zhou, Bing

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis and management of pediatric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and encephalocele are challenging. The current study aimed to identify patient characteristics, review operative techniques, and evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic endonasal repair in a pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of pediatric patients who underwent transnasal endoscopic repair of CSF leak with or without a meningocele or an encephalocele at Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, between July 2003 and May 2014. All patients had preoperative radiological evaluations and underwent endoscopic endonasal repair of their skull base defects. Altogether, 23 children (mean age 7.0 years) underwent the procedures. Sixteen cases were congenital, and 7 patients had trauma history. The herniations or defects included meningoencephaloceles in 15 cases, meningoceles in 4 cases, and CSF leak in 4 cases (2 patients had bilateral leaks). The leak or herniation sites were ethmoid roof in 10 patients (one was bilateral), cribriform plate in 5, lateral to the foramen cecum in 3, posterior wall of the frontal sinus in 1, sphenoid sinus in 2, lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus in 1, and sella turcica base in 2. All subjects had favorable clinical outcomes without recurrence during a follow-up of 6-123 months (mean 61.1 months). The endoscopic endonasal approach was the preferred method for repairing CSF leaks with or without an encephalocele in pediatric patients. Compared to traditional operations, this endoscopic procedure is minimally invasive, efficient, and safe.

  17. Risk factors of open converted cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis after endoscopic removal of choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Cho, Chang-Min; Jung, Min Kyu; Kim, Sang Gul; Yoon, Young Kook

    2015-02-01

    Open converted cholecystectomy could occur in patients who planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic removal of choledocholithiasis. To evaluate the risk factors associated with open converted cholecystectomy. The data for all patients who underwent cholecystectomy after endoscopic removal of choledocholithiasis were retrospectively reviewed. Factors predictive for conversion to open cholecystectomy were analyzed. The rate of open converted cholecystectomy was 15.7 %. In multivariate analysis, cholecystitis (OR 1.908, 95 % CI 1.390-6.388, p = 0.005), mechanical lithotripsy (OR 6.129, 95 % CI 1.867-20.123, p choledocholithiasis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography-related factors predictive for open converted cholecystectomy are helpful in planning the appropriate timing of surgery.

  18. Scoping the scope: endoscopic evaluation of endoscope working channels with a new high-resolution inspection endoscope (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Monique T; Girotra, Mohit; Huang, Robert J; Banerjee, Subhas

    2018-02-06

    Outbreaks of transmission of infection related to endoscopy despite reported adherence to reprocessing guidelines warrant scrutiny of all potential contributing factors. Recent reports from ambulatory surgery centers indicated widespread significant occult damage within endoscope working channels, raising concerns regarding the potential detrimental impact of this damage on the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. We inspected working channels of all 68 endoscopes at our academic institution using a novel flexible inspection endoscope. Inspections were recorded and videos reviewed by 3 investigators to evaluate and rate channel damage and/or debris. Working channel rinsates were obtained from all endoscopes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence was measured. Overall endoscope working channel damage was rated as minimal and/or mild and was consistent with expected wear and tear (median 1.59 on our 5-point scale). Our predominant findings included superficial scratches (98.5%) and scratches with adherent peel (76.5%). No channel perforations, stains, or burns were detected. The extent of damage was not predicted by endoscope age. Minor punctate debris was common, and a few small drops of fluid were noted in 42.6% of endoscopes after reprocessing and drying. The presence of residual fluid predicted higher ATP bioluminescence values. The presence of visualized working channel damage or debris was not associated with elevated ATP bioluminescence values. The flexible inspection endoscope enables high-resolution imaging of endoscope working channels and offers endoscopy units an additional modality for endoscope surveillance, potentially complementing bacterial cultures and ATP values. Our study, conducted in a busy academic endoscopy unit, indicated predominately mild damage to endoscope working channels, which did not correlate with elevated ATP values. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Hernia repair during endoscopic (laparoscopic) radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Rabenalt, Robert; Dietel, Anja; Do, Minh; Pfeiffer, Heidemarie; Schwalbe, Steffen; Dorschner, Wolfgang

    2003-02-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our experience in performing endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy (EERPE) and totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair in one procedure to evaluate its feasibility and safety. Based on our experience of 70 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies, a total of 60 patients underwent EERPE. Eight of these had 10 hernias repaired with Prolene mesh. The median total operating time for EERPE was 165 minutes. Mesh placement required an additional 15 minutes for a unilateral hernia and 25 minutes for bilateral hernias. The conversion rate and the reoperation rate were 0%. The median duration of vesical catheterization was 8.3 days. One patient required a blood transfusion. The most common minor complications, occurring in eight patients, were edema and hematoma of the penis. No wound infection occurred. The only major complication was a deep venous thrombosis in one patient. No additional complications developed in the hernioplasty group. We conclude that the extraperitoneal approach for radical prostatectomy allows concomitant inguinal hernia repair with a low morbidity rate and within an acceptable operating time.

  20. Endoscopic stenting versus operative gastrojejunostomy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasegaram, Manju D; Eslick, Guy D; Mansfield, Clare O; Liem, Han; Richardson, Mark; Ahmed, Sulman; Cox, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction represents a terminal stage in pancreatic cancer. Between 5% and 25% of patients with pancreatic cancer ultimately experience malignant gastric outlet obstruction. The aim in palliating patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction is to reestablish an oral intake by restoring gastrointestinal continuity. This ultimately improves their quality of life in the advanced stages of cancer. The main drawback to operative bypass is the high incidence of delayed gastric emptying, particularly in this group of patients with symptomatic obstruction. This study aimed to compare surgical gastrojejunostomy and endoscopic stenting in palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction, acknowledging the diversity and heterogeneity of patients with this presentation. This retrospective study investigated patients treated for malignant gastric outlet obstruction from December 1998 to November 2008 at Nepean Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Endoscopic duodenal stenting was performed under fluoroscopic guidance for placement of the stent. The operative patients underwent open surgical gastrojejunostomy. The outcomes assessed included time to diet, hospital length of stay (LOS), biliary drainage procedures, morbidity, and mortality. Of the 45 participants in this study, 26 underwent duodenal stenting and 19 had operative bypass. Comparing the stenting and operative patients, the median time to fluid intake was respectively 0 vs. 7 days (P < 0.001), and the time to intake of solids was 2 vs. 9 days (P = 0.004). The median total LOS was shorter in the stenting group (11 vs. 25 days; P < 0.001), as was the median postprocedure LOS (5 vs. 10 days; P = 0.07). Endoscopic stenting is preferable to operative gastrojejunostomy in terms of shorter LOS, faster return to fluids and solids, and reduced morbidity and in-hospital mortality for patients with a limited life span.

  1. Duodenal endoscopic full-thickness resection (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Cahyadi, Oscar; Caca, Karel

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic resection of duodenal non-lifting adenomas and subepithelial tumors is challenging and harbors a significant risk of adverse events. We report on a novel technique for duodenal endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) by using an over-the-scope device. Data of 4 consecutive patients who underwent duodenal EFTR were analyzed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were technical success, R0 resection, histologic confirmation of full-thickness resection, and adverse events. Resections were done with a novel, over-the-scope device (full-thickness resection device, FTRD). Four patients (median age 60 years) with non-lifting adenomas (2 patients) or subepithelial tumors (2 patients) underwent EFTR in the duodenum. All lesions could be resected successfully. Mean procedure time was 67.5 minutes (range 50-85 minutes). Minor bleeding was observed in 2 cases; blood transfusions were not required. There was no immediate or delayed perforation. Mean diameter of the resection specimen was 28.3 mm (range 22-40 mm). Histology confirmed complete (R0) full-thickness resection in 3 of 4 cases. To date, 2-month endoscopic follow-up has been obtained in 3 patients. In all cases, the over-the-scope clip was still in place and could be removed without adverse events; recurrences were not observed. EFTR in the duodenum with the FTRD is a promising technique that has the potential to spare surgical resections. Modifications of the device should be made to facilitate introduction by mouth. Prospective studies are needed to further evaluate efficacy and safety for duodenal resections. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoscopic diode laser therapy for chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Lino; Marini, Lucia; Rizzato, Roberto; Picardi, Edgardo; Merigliano, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of endoscopic diode laser therapy in patients presenting rectal bleeding due to chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). A retrospective analysis of CRP patients who underwent diode laser therapy in a single institution between 2010 and 2016 was carried out. The patients were treated by non-contact fibers without sedation in an outpatient setting. Fourteen patients (median age 77, range 73-87 years) diagnosed with CRP who had undergone high-dose radiotherapy for prostatic cancer and who presented with rectal bleeding were included. Six required blood transfusions. Antiplatelet (three patients) and anticoagulant (two patients) therapy was not suspended during the treatments. The patients underwent a median of two sessions; overall, a mean of 1684 J of laser energy per session was used. Bleeding was resolved in 10/14 (71%) patients, and other two patients showed improvement (93%). Only one patient, who did not complete the treatment, required blood transfusions after laser therapy; no complications were noted during or after the procedures. Study findings demonstrated that endoscopic non-contact diode laser treatment is safe and effective in CRP patients, even in those receiving antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy.

  3. Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) Modelling of Severe Acute Mucositis using a Novel Oral Mucosal Surface Organ at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J A; Welsh, L C; Wong, K H; Aleksic, A; Dunne, E; Islam, M R; Patel, A; Patel, P; Petkar, I; Phillips, I; Sham, J; Schick, U; Newbold, K L; Bhide, S A; Harrington, K J; Nutting, C M; Gulliford, S L

    2017-04-01

    A normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of severe acute mucositis would be highly useful to guide clinical decision making and inform radiotherapy planning. We aimed to improve upon our previous model by using a novel oral mucosal surface organ at risk (OAR) in place of an oral cavity OAR. Predictive models of severe acute mucositis were generated using radiotherapy dose to the oral cavity OAR or mucosal surface OAR and clinical data. Penalised logistic regression and random forest classification (RFC) models were generated for both OARs and compared. Internal validation was carried out with 100-iteration stratified shuffle split cross-validation, using multiple metrics to assess different aspects of model performance. Associations between treatment covariates and severe mucositis were explored using RFC feature importance. Penalised logistic regression and RFC models using the oral cavity OAR performed at least as well as the models using mucosal surface OAR. Associations between dose metrics and severe mucositis were similar between the mucosal surface and oral cavity models. The volumes of oral cavity or mucosal surface receiving intermediate and high doses were most strongly associated with severe mucositis. The simpler oral cavity OAR should be preferred over the mucosal surface OAR for NTCP modelling of severe mucositis. We recommend minimising the volume of mucosa receiving intermediate and high doses, where possible. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoscopic suture repair of full-thickness esophagotomy during per-oral esophageal myotomy for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Ashwin A; Bhayani, Neil H; Reavis, Kevin; Dunst, Christy; Swanström, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) requires advanced flexible endoscopic skills, especially in the management of complications. We present a full-thickness esophagotomy while performing POEM and repair using an endoscopic suturing device. An anterior esophageal 2 cm mucosectomy is created 7-10 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction after a submucosal wheal is raised. A submucosal tunnel is created and extended to 2 cm on the gastric cardia. A selective circular myotomy is performed. The mucosectomy is closed using endoscopic clips. An inadvertent full-thickness esophagotomy was created while performing the mucosotomy on an inadequate submucosal wheal. We were able to resume the POEM technique at the initial esophagotomy site. There was a discussion to convert to laparoscopy. However, as we succeeded in creating the tunnel, we continued with the POEM technique. After the selective myotomy was completed, we used an endoluminal suturing device (Overstitch, Apollo Endosurgery, Austin TX) to close the full-thickness esophagotomy in two layers (muscular, mucosal). A covered stent was not an option because the esophagus was dilated, which precluded adequate apposition. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. At 9-month follow-up, had excellent palliation of dysphagia without reflux. This case demonstrates the importance of identifying extramucosal intrathoracic anatomy, thus emphasizing the need for an experienced surgeon to perform these procedures, or at a minimum to be highly involved. Raising an adequate wheal is crucial before mucosectomy. Inadequacy of the wheal may reflect local esophageal fibrosis. If this fails at multiple locations in the esophagus, it may be prudent to convert to laparoscopy. This case also demonstrates the need for advanced flexible endoscopic therapeutic tools and a multidisciplinary approach to manage potential complications.

  5. Clinical outcomes of endoscope-assisted vitrectomy for treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sho Yokoyama,1 Takashi Kojima,2 Toshio Mori,3 Taisuke Matsuda,1 Hiroyuki Sato,3 Norihiko Yoshida,4 Tatsushi Kaga,1 R Theodore Smith,5 Kazuo Ichikawa6 1Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Community Healthcare Organization Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Iida Municipal Hospital, Iida, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Japanese Red Cross Gifu Hospital, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 6Chukyo Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Summary: We evaluated the clinical outcomes for ophthalmic endoscope-assisted vitrectomy in consecutive patients with uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. The primary success rate was 98.4% (125/127 without performing a posterior drainage retinotomy or using perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCL for subretinal fluid drainage.Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of endoscope-assisted vitrectomy in patients with uncomplicated RRD.Methods: We examined 127 eyes from consecutive patients who underwent repair of RRD by 23- or 25-gauge endoscope-assisted vitrectomy, with a minimum follow-up of 3 months. Eyes with the following criteria were excluded: Giant retinal tears, grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy, dense vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment secondary to other ocular diseases, and prior retinal or vitreous surgery. All cases underwent subretinal fluid drainage, endolaser photocoagulation and fundus inspection were performed under ophthalmic endoscopic observation. Success rate, visual acuity, surgery time and complications were evaluated.Results: Primary and final success rate was 98.4% (125/127 and 100% (127/127, respectively, Surgery time was 59.6±26.3 minutes. The best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 20/100 to 20/20 (P<0.0001. There were 2 cases (1.6% of creation of a peripheral drainage retinotomy and 4

  6. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...

  7. [Endoscopic surgery of hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash'ian, V G; Korshikova, A N; Godkov, I M; Krylov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Demonstration and analysis of possibilities of video-endoscopy in the surgical treatment of hypertensive hemorrhages Materials and methods. We analyzed the results of surgical treatment of 35 patients with hypertensive intracranial hematomas which were removed using endoscopic method. Twenty-eight patients had putamen, 3 thalamic, 3 cerebellar and 1 subcortical hematoma; the volume of hematomas ranged from 14 to 84 cm3. Results. Neurological lesions completely disappeared in 7 patients, 6 patients had moderate and 17 severe disability. Five (14%) patients died. Outcome of treatment was significantly (psurgery, localization of the hemorrhage, presence and degree of transverse brain dislocation, repeated hemorrhages. Risk factors for poor outcome were depressed consciousness, recurrent hemorrhages, the transverse dislocation >6 mm and deep intracranial hematoma. Conclusions. The efficacy of endoscopic aspiration of hematomas is comparable to open surgical interventions but less traumatic.

  8. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM: a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Miranda-García

    Full Text Available Background/aims: Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM is a new minimally invasive technique to treat achalasia. Methods: We performed a review of the literature of POEM with a special focus on technical details and the results obtained with this technique in patients with achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders. Results: Thousands of POEM procedures have been performed worldwide since its introduction in 2008. The procedure is based on the creation of a mucosal entry point in the proximal esophagus to reach the cardia through a submucosal tunnel and then perform a myotomy of the muscular layers of the cardia, esophagogastric junction and distal esophagus, as performed in a Heller myotomy. The clinical remission rate ranges from 82 to 100%. Although no randomized studies exist and available data are from single-center studies, no differences have been found between laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM and POEM in terms of perioperative outcomes, short-term outcomes (12 months and long-term outcomes (up to three years. Procedure time and length of hospital stay were lower for POEM. Post-POEM reflux is a concern, and controversial data have been reported compared to LHM. The technique is safe, with no reported deaths related to the procedure and an adverse event rate comparable to surgery. Potential complications include bleeding, perforation, aspiration and insufflation-related adverse events. Thus, this is a complex technique that needs specific training even in expert hands. The indication for this procedure is widening and other motor hypercontractil esophageal disorders have been treated by POEM with promising results. POEM can be performed in complicated situations such as in pediatric patients, sigmoid achalasia or after failure of previous treatments. Conclusions: POEM is an effective treatment for achalasia and is a promising tool for other motor esophageal disorders. It is a safe procedure but, due to its technical difficulty and

  9. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM): a new endoscopic treatment for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda García, Pablo; Casals Seoane, Fernando; Gonzalez, Jean-Michel; Barthet, Marc; Santander Vaquero, Cecilio

    2017-10-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new minimally invasive technique to treat achalasia. We performed a review of the literature of POEM with a special focus on technical details and the results obtained with this technique in patients with achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders. Thousands of POEM procedures have been performed worldwide since its introduction in 2008. The procedure is based on the creation of a mucosal entry point in the proximal esophagus to reach the cardia through a submucosal tunnel and then perform a myotomy of the muscular layers of the cardia, esophagogastric junction and distal esophagus, as performed in a Heller myotomy. The clinical remission rate ranges from 82 to 100%. Although no randomized studies exist and available data are from single-center studies, no differences have been found between laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and POEM in terms of perioperative outcomes, short-term outcomes (12 months) and long-term outcomes (up to three years). Procedure time and length of hospital stay were lower for POEM. Post-POEM reflux is a concern, and controversial data have been reported compared to LHM. The technique is safe, with no reported deaths related to the procedure and an adverse event rate comparable to surgery. Potential complications include bleeding, perforation, aspiration and insufflation-related adverse events. Thus, this is a complex technique that needs specific training even in expert hands. The indication for this procedure is widening and other motor hypercontractil esophageal disorders have been treated by POEM with promising results. POEM can be performed in complicated situations such as in pediatric patients, sigmoid achalasia or after failure of previous treatments. POEM is an effective treatment for achalasia and is a promising tool for other motor esophageal disorders. It is a safe procedure but, due to its technical difficulty and possible associated complications, the procedure should be performed

  10. Endoscopic Management of Posterior Epistaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, J.; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika

    2011-01-01

    The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26–50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of ...

  11. The Effectiveness of Adjuvant Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Adults who Underwent Hypospadias Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Kara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2T with buccal mucosal tube urethroplasty in adult patients with hypospadias. Material and Method: Sixteen adult patients with hypospadias were included in our study. Patients with a short urethra and penile curvature were treated in two stages (orthoplasty buccal mucosal tube urethroplasty. Buccal mucosa was taken and prepared for tube urethroplasty around a 16 French (Fr nelaton catheter and the urethral tube was introduced between the urethral meatus and glans penis. Beginning the 1st postoperative day (HBO2T was applied for 10 sessions during weekdays in 13 patients. Results: The mean age was 21 (±1.23 years and mean follow-up time was 10.1 (±2.1 months. In the group who received HBO2T postoperatively (n=13, a two-stage (orthoplasty buccal mucosal tube urethroplasty procedure was performed in 6 (46%, and the mean length of graft was 5.4 (±1.23 cm. In this group of 13 the success rate without any additional manipulations (urethrotomy intern, fistula repair was 54% (7/13. After additional manipulations, complete healing was achieved in 11 out of 13 patients (84.6%. In the group who did not receive HBO2T postoperatively (n=3, a two-stage procedure was performed in 1 patient (33%, and the mean length of graft was 8 (±5 cm. In this group of 3, complete healing was not achieved in any of these patients as a result of the hypospadias surgery. However, after the additional manipulations, complete healing was achieved in 1 patient (33%. Discussion: Given the promising rates of surgical success, postoperative HBO2T might be considered as a supportive treatment modality for adult patients with hypospadias who undergo buccal mucosal tube urethroplasty. Randomized controlled studies are needed.

  12. Endoscopic treatment of esophageal achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D

    2016-01-01

    Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies. PMID:26839644

  13. Endoscopic management of posterior epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika

    2011-04-01

    The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26-50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of the bleeding vessel. Of these, in four cases unsuspected diagnosis was made. Of the remaining 19, in three patients, the bleeding point could not be localized accurately and these patients were managed by anteroposterior packing. The rest of the 16 patients were managed by endoscopic cauterization. In four patients, there was recurrence of bleeding within 24 h. In one of these, cauterization controlled the bleeding while in the rest nasal packing had to be resorted to. Thus, of the 23 patients of posterior epistaxis subjected to nasal endoscopy, we could avoid nasal packing in 17 (74%). To conclude, endoscopic nasal cauterization is recommended as the first line to treatment in all cases of posterior epistaxis. This will not only prevent the uncomfortable and potentially dangerous nasal packing but also help in finding the underlying pathology.

  14. Endoscopically removed giant submucosal lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.

  15. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; José de Macêdo, Dário; Suely Barros Dantas, Fernanda; Dos Santos Menezes, Karla; Filipe Bezerra Silva, Diego; Alves de Melo Junior, William; Fabia Cabral Cavalcanti, Alidianne

    2018-04-24

    Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%). Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%). Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2%) was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9%) and tongue (17.7%) being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%). Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  16. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%. Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%. Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2% was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9% and tongue (17.7% being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%. Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  17. Experience of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to colorectal tumor-especially about clinical course of cases with perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    to colorectal tumor was effective therapy to large tumor though perforation during ESD was observed more frequently than endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Endoscopic clipping could be performed to all cases because the hole of perforation was quite small. They could be cured without urgent surgical operation. Perforation has been still one of major problems for normalization of ESD to colorectal tumor. However, many of them could be cured by endoscopic therapy. (author)

  18. Selective Embolization for Post-Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Bleeding: Technical Aspects and Clinical Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young Ho; Choi, Young Ho [Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and clinical efficacy of selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. We reviewed the records of 10 patients (3%; M:F 6:4; mean age, 63.3 years) that underwent selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding among 344 patients who received arteriography for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed the endoscopic procedure, onset of bleeding, underlying clinical condition, angiographic findings, interventional procedure, and outcomes in these patients. Among the 12 bleeding branches, primary success of hemostasis was achieved in 10 bleeding branches (83%). Secondary success occurred in two additional bleeding branches (100%) after repeated embolization. In 10 patients, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleedings were detected during the endoscopic procedure (n = 2, 20%) or later (n = 8, 80%), and the delay was from one to eight days (mean, 2.9 days; {+-} 2.3). Coagulopathy was observed in three patients. Eight patients had a single bleeding branch, whereas two patients had two branches. On the selective arteriography, bleeding branches originated from the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 8, 67%) and anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 4, 33%), respectively. Superselection was achieved in four branches and the embolization was performed with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. The eight branches were embolized by combined use of coil, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, or Gelfoam. After the last embolization, there was no rebleeding or complication related to embolization. Selective embolization is technically feasible and an effective procedure for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. In addition, the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the main origin of the causative vessels of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

  19. The Implications of Endoscopic Ulcer in Early Gastric Cancer: Can We Predict Clinical Behaviors from Endoscopy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Jin Lee

    Full Text Available The presence of ulcer in early gastric cancer (EGC is important for the feasibility of endoscopic resection, only a few studies have examined the clinicopathological implications of endoscopic ulcer in EGC.To determine the role of endoscopic ulcer as a predictor of clinical behaviors in EGC.Data of 3,270 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed in relation to the presence and stage of ulcer in EGC. Based on endoscopic findings, the stage of ulcer was categorized as active, healing, or scar. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM.2,343 (71.7% patients had endoscopic findings of ulceration in EGC. Submucosal (SM invasion, LNM, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, perineural invasion, and undifferentiated-type histology were significantly higher in ulcerative than non-ulcerative EGC. Comparison across different stages of ulcer revealed that SM invasion, LNM, and LVI were significantly associated with the active stage, and that these features exhibited significant stage-based differences, being most common at the active stage, and least common at the scar stage. The presence of endoscopic ulcer and active status of the ulcer were identified as independent risk factors for LNM.Ulcerative EGC detected by endoscopy exhibited more aggressive behaviors than non-ulcerative EGC. Additionally, the endoscopic stage of ulcer may predict the clinicopathological behaviors of EGC. Therefore, the appearance of ulcers should be carefully evaluated to determine an adequate treatment strategy for EGC.

  20. Asymptomatic Esophageal Varices Should Be Endoscopically Treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nib Soehendra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment has generally been accepted in the management of bleeding esophageal varices. Both the control of acute variceal bleeding and elective variceal eradication to prevent recurrent bleeding can be achieved via endoscopic methods. In contrast to acute and elective treatment, the role of endoscopic therapy in asymptomatic patients who have never had variceal bleeding remains controversial because of the rather disappointing results obtained from prophylactic sclerotherapy. Most published randomized controlled trials showed that prophylactic sclerotherapy had no effect on survival. In some studies, neither survival rate nor bleeding risk was improved. In this article, the author champions the view that asymptomatic esophageal varices should be endoscopically treated.

  1. New generation of oral mucosal vaccines targeting dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jennifer L; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2013-12-01

    As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust systemic responses can be achieved through mucosal vaccination. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular components of the mucosal immune system have allowed for the development of a novel mucosal vaccine platform utilizing specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides and orally administered lactobacilli to elicit efficient antigen specific immune responses against infections, including Bacillus anthracis in experimental models of disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-stage management with combined tri-endoscopic approach for concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fujing; Zhang, Shutian; Ji, Ming; Wang, Yongjun; Li, Peng; Han, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a single stage with combined tri-endoscopic (duodenoscopy, laparoscopy and choledochoscopy) approach for patients with concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Fifty-three patients with combined gallbladder stones and common bile duct stones from February 2014 to April 2015 were randomized assigned to two groups: 29 patients underwent single-stage surgery with combined duodenoscope, laparoscope and choledochoscope (combined tri-endoscopic group), and 29 patients underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy to remove common bile duct stones followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy several days later (control group). The success rate of complete stone removal, procedure-related complication, hospital stay and the cost of hospitalization were compared between the two groups. Altogether, 53 patients (29 patients in combined tri-endoscopic group and 24 patients in control group) successfully underwent the surgery and ERCP procedure. Three patients in the control group developed post-ERCP pancreatitis. One case of bile leaking and one case of residual stone were noted in the combined tri-endoscopic group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to both complete stone removal [96.6 % (28/29) vs. 100 % (24/24)] and procedure-related complication rate [3.4 % (1/29) vs. 12.5 % (3/24)] (p > 0.05). No open surgery was required in either group. There were significant differences between the two groups with regard to hospital stay (6.72 ± 1.3 days vs. 10.91 ± 1.6 days, p choledocholithiasis was just as safe and successful as the control group. In addition, it resulted in a shorter hospital stay and less cost.

  3. Endoscopic Recurrence 6 Months After Ileocecal Resection in Children With Crohn Disease Treated With Azathioprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubova, Kristyna; Hradsky, Ondrej; Copova, Ivana; Rouskova, Blanka; Pos, Lucie; Skaba, Richard; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-08-01

    Intestinal surgery is an important part of Crohn disease (CD) treatment in children. The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of endoscopic recurrence at the sixth month after ileocecal resection (ICR) in children with CD treated with azathioprine between patients who received prior antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapy and those who were not administered this therapy. Moreover, we tried to identify the potential risk factors for disease recurrence and describe the schedule of long-term follow-up after surgery. We prospectively collected data from pediatric patients with CD, who underwent ICR between October 2011 and June 2015 at our hospital and were treated with azathioprine monotherapy after ICR. We evaluated the endoscopic recurrence (Rutgeerts score) at the sixth month after ICR in all included patients. Among 21 included patients, 13 achieved endoscopic remission (Rutgeerts score factors associated with endoscopic recurrence rate at the sixth month. Prior anti-TNF-α therapy does not seem to be a strong risk factor for endoscopic recurrence within 6 months after ICR. Further studies on large sample of patients are needed to identify potential predictors of disease recurrence.

  4. Safety of flexible endoscopic biopsy of the pharynx and larynx under topical anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenstein, David J; de Witt, Joey K; Schutte, Henrieke W; Honings, Jimmie; van den Hoogen, Frank J A; Marres, Henri A M; Takes, Robert P; van den Broek, Guido B

    2017-09-01

    Recent advancements in transnasal endoscopy enable a shift in diagnostic workup of lesions in the pharynx and larynx, from an examination with biopsy under general anesthesia to an office-based examination with flexible endoscopic biopsy under topical anesthesia. Procedural complications were evaluated to assess the safety of office-based flexible endoscopic biopsy in patients with benign and malignant laryngopharyngeal lesions. Patients who underwent flexible endoscopic biopsy from 2012 to 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. Complications were classified using the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications. A total of 201 flexible endoscopic biopsies were performed in 187 patients. Two Clavien-Dindo grade I (laryngospasm and anterior epistaxis), one grade II (laryngeal bleeding), and one grade IIIb (laryngeal edema) complication were observed. The first complication was self-limiting and the other three required an intervention. All patients fully recovered without sequelae. Flexible endoscopic biopsy appears to be a safe office-based procedure for the diagnosis of benign and malignant laryngopharyngeal lesions.

  5. Evaluating outcomes of endoscopic full-thickness plication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with impedance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renteln, Daniel; Schmidt, Arthur; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2010-05-01

    Endoscopic full-thickness plication allows transmural suturing at the gastroesophageal junction to recreate the antireflux barrier. Multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring (MII) can be used to detect nonacid or weakly acidic reflux, acidic swallows, and esophageal clearance time. This study used MII to evaluate the outcome of endoscopic full-thickness plication. In this study, 12 subsequent patients requiring maintenance proton pump inhibitor therapy underwent endoscopic full-thickness plication for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. With patients off medication, MII was performed before and 6-months after endoscopic full-thickness plication. The total median number of reflux episodes was significantly reduced from 105 to 64 (p = 0.016). The median number of acid reflux episodes decreased from 73 to 43 (p = 0.016). Nonacid reflux episodes decreased from 23 to 21 (p = 0.306). The median bolus clearance time was 12 s before treatment and 11 s at 6 months (p = 0.798). The median acid exposure time was reduced from 6.8% to 3.4% (p = 0.008), and the DeMeester scores were reduced from 19 to 12 (p = 0.008). Endoscopic full-thickness plication significantly reduced total reflux episodes, acid reflux episodes, and total reflux exposure time. The DeMeester scores and total acid exposure time for the distal esophagus were significantly improved. No significant changes in nonacid reflux episodes and median bolus clearance time were encountered.

  6. Endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic hemoclip placement for patients with Mallory-Weiss syndrome and active bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Seok; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Sung-Soo; Han, Sok-Won; Choi, Kyu-Yong

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the hemostatic efficacy and safety of two mechanical endoscopic methods: endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and endoscopic hemoclip placement (EHP) in patients with actively bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS).

  7. Smell preservation following endoscopic unilateral resection of esthesioneuroblastoma: a multi-institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D; Kuan, Edward C; Schwartz, Joseph S; Suh, Jeffrey D; Wang, Marilene B; Palmer, James N

    2016-10-01

    The gold standard of treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma consists of en bloc craniofacial resection with postoperative therapy dictated by histology and tumor extent. Numerous studies have shown fully endoscopic approaches to provide comparable survival and recurrence rates with decreased patient morbidity. Here we report the first multi-institutional series assessing smell outcomes of patients who underwent unilateral endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma with preservation of the contralateral olfactory bulb. A multi-institutional retrospective review was performed identifying patients who underwent endoscopic unilateral resection of esthesioneuroblastoma with preservation of 1 olfactory bulb between 2003 and 2015. After completion of postoperative radiation, patients were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to assess olfactory function. Fourteen patients (7 males, 7 females) were identified and tested for posttreatment olfactory function. All 14 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and 4 patients received additional chemotherapy. Mean follow-up time was 51.7 months. There was no disease recurrence. Six patients (43%) were found to have residual smell function with 2 patients (14%) having normal or mildly reduced smell function. Here we report the first multi-institutional series demonstrating smell preservation after unilateral endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma. In carefully selected patients, this approach can yield comparable survival with decreased patient morbidity. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. Endoscopic Treatment of Intrauterine Device Migration into the Bladder with Stone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masayuki; Nemoto, Kaoru; Miura, Takafumi; Suzuki, Yasutomo

    2017-01-01

    Background: An intrauterine device is commonly used for contraception globally. Although intrauterine device placement is an effective and safe method of contraception, migration into the bladder with stone formation is a rare and serious complication. The management approaches for an intrauterine device embedded in the bladder include endoscopic procedures and open surgical removal. In this study, we report the case of a patient with recurrent urinary tract infection associated with intrauterine device migration and urolithiasis, who successfully underwent endoscopic treatment combined with laser fragmentation. Case Presentation: A 22-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of lower abdominal pain, hematuria, and pain on urination. Transvaginal ultrasound showed a hyperechoic lesion in the bladder. A plain abdominal radiograph showed the presence of a T-shaped intrauterine device with calculus formation in the pelvis. CT revealed a vesical stone fixed to the top of the bladder wall, and there was no vesicovaginal fistula formation. She had undergone intrauterine device insertion several years previously. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent endoscopic lithotripsy, and the intrauterine device was extracted from the bladder wall. Repair of the bladder wall and disappearance of symptoms were confirmed. Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment combined with laser fragmentation of stones surrounding a migrated intrauterine device should be considered as a minimally invasive approach, which can be performed safely.

  9. Anesthesia for Routine and Advanced Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Christopher D; Tayler, Ezekiel; Ginsberg, Gregory G

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to detail the breadth and depth of advanced upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. It will focus on sedation and airway management concerns pertaining to this emerged and emerging class of minimally invasive interventions. The article will also cover endoscopic hemostasis, endoscopic resection, stenting and Barrett eradication therapy plus endoscopic ultrasound. It additionally will address the nuances of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and new natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures including endoscopic cystgastrostomy and the per-oral endoscopic myotomy procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral presentation of an oesophageal mucosal tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, S.; De P, R

    1999-01-01

    Tears of the oesophageal wall following sudden forceful vomiting are well documented in literature. In Boerhaave's syndrome there is transmural rupture associated with complications including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, surgical emphysema and shock. In Mallory-Weiss syndrome mucosal tears are associated with haematemesis and shock. In neither of these conditions has intraluminal obstruction been described as an aetiological factor. We present a case with similar pathophysiology where oesophageal obstruction by a meat bolus followed by forceful vomiting led to an oesophageal mucosal tear and presentation of a band of oesophageal mucosa in the oral cavity. The patient did not develop any complications and made an uneventful recovery following conservative management.


Keywords: Boerhaave's syndrome; oesophageal wall rupture; vomiting; Mallory-Weiss syndrome PMID:10621906

  11. Brain-gut axis and mucosal immunity: a perspective on mucosal psychoneuroimmunology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    The role of the brain-gut axis has traditionally been investigated in relation to intestinal motility, secretion, and vascularity. More recently, the concept of brain-gut dialogue has extended to the relationship between the nervous system and mucosal immune function. There is compelling evidence for a reciprocal or bi-directional communication between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system. This is mediated, in part, by shared ligands (chemical messengers) and receptors that are common to the immune and nervous systems. Although the concept of psychoneuroimmunology and neuroimmune cross-talk has been studied primarily in the context of the systemic immune system, it is likely to have special significance in the gut. The mucosal immune system is anatomically, functionally, and operationally distinct from the systemic immune system and is subject to independent regulatory signals. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosal immune system operates in a local milieu that depends on a dense innervation for its integrity, with juxtaposition of neuroendocrine cells and mucosal immune cells. An overview of evidence for the biologic plausibility of a brain-gut-immune axis is presented and its potential relevance to mucosal inflammatory disorders is discussed.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided endoscopic necrosectomy of the pancreas: is irrigation necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Christian; Neser, Frank; Boese-Landgraf, Joachim; Schuppan, Detlef; Stölzel, Ulrich; Fritscher-Ravens, Annette

    2012-05-01

    Findings have shown endoscopic necrosectomy to be beneficial for patients with symptomatic pancreatic necrosis accessible for an endoscopic approach. The available studies show that endoscopic necrosectomy requires a multitude of subsequent procedures including repeat irrigation for removal of the necrotic material. This study aimed to investigate the need for additional irrigation in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis treated by endoscopic necrosectomy. The study enrolled 35 consecutive patients (27 men) with a median age of 59 years who had pancreatic necrosis treated with endoscopic necrosectomy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided internal drainage and consecutive endoscopic necrosectomy was combined with interval multistenting of the cavity. Neither endoscopic nor external irrigation was part of the procedure. An average of 6.2 endoscopy sessions per patient were needed for access, necrosectomy, and stent management. The in-hospital mortality rate was 6% (2/35), including one procedure-related death resulting from postinterventional aspiration. The immediate morbidity rate was 9% (3/35). It was possible to achieve clinical remission for all the surviving patients with no additional surgery needed for management of the necroses. The median follow-up period was 23 months. Neither endoscopic nor external flushing is needed for successful endoscopic treatment of symptomatic necroses. Even without irrigation, the outcome for patients treated with endoscopic necrosectomy is comparable to that described in the published data.

  13. Robot-assisted endoscope guidance versus manual endoscope guidance in functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Klaus Wolfgang; Westphal, Ralf; Rilk, Markus; Last, Carsten; Bootz, Friedrich; Wahl, Friedrich; Jakob, Mark; Send, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Having one hand occupied with the endoscope is the major disadvantage for the surgeon when it comes to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Only the other hand is free to use the surgical instruments. Tiredness or frequent instrument changes can thus lead to shaky endoscopic images. We collected the pose data (position and orientation) of the rigid 0° endoscope and all the instruments used in 16 FESS procedures with manual endoscope guidance as well as robot-assisted endoscope guidance. In combination with the DICOM CT data, we tracked the endoscope poses and workspaces using self-developed tracking markers. All surgeries were performed once with the robot and once with the surgeon holding the endoscope. Looking at the durations required, we observed a decrease in the operating time because one surgeon doing all the procedures and so a learning curve occurred what we expected. The visual inspection of the specimens showed no damages to any of the structures outside the paranasal sinuses. Robot-assisted endoscope guidance in sinus surgery is possible. Further CT data, however, are desirable for the surgical analysis of a tracker-based navigation within the anatomic borders. Our marker-based tracking of the endoscope as well as the instruments makes an automated endoscope guidance feasible. On the subjective side, we see that RASS brings a relief for the surgeon.

  14. Mucosal delivery of vaccines: role of mucoadhesive/biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeraj K; Mangal, Sharad; Khambete, Hemant; Sharma, Pradeep K; Tyagi, Rajeev K

    2010-06-01

    Majority of infectious microorganism make their gateway to the host through mucosal surfaces, such as gastrointestinal tract, nasal and vaginal tract. Mucosal immune response structured as sIgA can effectively prevent the attachment and invasion of the microorganism from mucosal surface and thereby serves as an efficient tool against infectious disease. There has been an increased demand for the development of novel vaccine that leads to the induction of immune response in systemic circulation as well as at mucosal surfaces against infectious disease. Mucosal delivery of vaccine provides basis for induction of both mucosal as well as systemic immune responses against the infectious organisms. However, a variety of factors such as mucociliary clearance, presence of deteriorating enzymes, pH extremes (GIT), low permeation and metabolic degradation limit the mucosal delivery of vaccine. Numerous strategies have been explored in the meadow of mucosal vaccination for the purpose of efficient antigen delivery through mucosal route(s). Polymeric carrier(s) such as nanoparticles and microparticles loaded with the antigen can serve as the basis for creation of important formulations for improved vaccine. Biodegradable and mucoadhesive polymeric carrier(s) seems to be most promising candidate for mucosal vaccine delivery. Several polymers from natural and synthetic origin, such as polylactide-co-glycolide, chitosan, alginate, carbopol, gelatin etc., have been explored for the efficient mucosal vaccine delivery and significant results have been obtained. This review outlines the polymers used in mucosal vaccine delivery with special reference to mucoadhesive/biodegradable polymers. This article also covers the recent patent granted in the field on polymeric carrier mediated mucosal vaccination.

  15. Endoscopic internal biliary drainage in a child with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tadao; Yoshida, Hideo; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kouchi, Katunori; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Ohnuma, Naomi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    We describe a 13-year-old girl who underwent insertion of a Flexima biliary stent for obstructive jaundice due to compression of the extrahepatic bile duct by an enlarged lymph node secondary to neuroblastoma. This novel endoscopic internal biliary drainage procedure was safe and effective even for a child, and improved her quality of life. We further review other treatment options available for malignant obstructive jaundice in children. (orig.)

  16. Endoscopic internal biliary drainage in a child with malignant obstructive jaundice caused by neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tadao; Yoshida, Hideo; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kouchi, Katunori; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Ohnuma, Naomi [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Chiba University, School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8677 (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu [First Department of Internal Medicine, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    We describe a 13-year-old girl who underwent insertion of a Flexima biliary stent for obstructive jaundice due to compression of the extrahepatic bile duct by an enlarged lymph node secondary to neuroblastoma. This novel endoscopic internal biliary drainage procedure was safe and effective even for a child, and improved her quality of life. We further review other treatment options available for malignant obstructive jaundice in children. (orig.)

  17. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia cardia: outcomes in over 400 consecutive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, Zaheer; Ramchandani, Mohan; Chavan, Radhika; Kalapala, Rakesh; Darisetty, Santosh; Rao, Guduru Venkat; Reddy, Nageshwar

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims?Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has emerged as an efficacious treatment modality for the management of achalasia cardia (AC) and non-achalasia spastic esophageal motility disorders. Initial results are encouraging. We analyzed the safety and efficacy of POEM in a large cohort of patients with AC. Patients and methods?The data from patients who underwent POEM (from January 2013 to June 2016) was prospectively collected and analyzed. Clinical success was defined as ...

  18. Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer to Thyroid Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Aziz, Yousef; Hammad, Tariq; Nawras, Mohamad; Abdulwahid, Hayder; Nawras, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Medical literature about the role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in identifying thyroid lesions is limited. We present a case of secondary thyroid cancer from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis, diagnosed by thyroid EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) approach that was done for staging of esophageal adenocarcinoma, in a patient with 11-year history of complete right nephrectomy for RCC. An 81-year-old female patient underwent EUS for the evaluation of a newly discovered distal esophageal canc...

  19. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF L-MENTHOL IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE

    OpenAIRE

    KIKUCHI, HITOMI; HIKICHI, TAKUTO; TAKAGI, TADAYUKI; SUZUKI, REI; WATANABE, KO; NAKAMURA, JUN; SUGIMOTO, MITSURU; WARAGAI, YUICHI; KONNO, NAOKI; ASAMA, HIROYUKI; TAKASUMI, MIKA; WATANABE, HIROSHI; OBARA, KATSUTOSHI; OHIRA, HIROMASA

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Peppermint oil, which suppresses gastric peristalsis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is effective for determining the margin of a gastric tumor. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of an L-menthol preparation for suppressing gastric peristalsis and for diagnosing gastric tumors. Methods: The study examined 124 patients who underwent EGD between January and April 2012. After 20 mL of 0.8% L-menthol was sprayed directly onto the mucosal surface of the gastric antrum, ...

  20. RESEARCH Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. 884 November 2012, Vol. 102, No. 11 SAMJ. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices in children with intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal venous ... Progress has been made in developing newer endoscopic techniques ... a sclerosant, usually 0.5 - 0.75 ml per injection, at multiple (up to.

  1. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stap, N.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Background The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now

  2. Duodenal diverticular bleeding: an endoscopic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Valdivielso-Cortázar

    Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.

  3. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in idiopathic normal pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of endoscopic fenestration of the third ventricle in the treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Methods: 16 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This study lasted three years. All patients were over 50 ...

  4. Gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy with antropyloromyotomy in the treatment of refractory gastroparesis: clinical experience with follow-up and scintigraphic evaluation (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jean-Michel; Lestelle, Valentin; Benezech, Alban; Cohen, Jonah; Vitton, Véronique; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Barthet, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic, debilitating condition. We report an experience conducting gastric per-oral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (G-POEM) with objectives to assess clinical efficacy, gastric emptying evolution, and procedural adverse events. This was a clinical pilot series on 12 consecutive patients who underwent G-POEM for refractory gastroparesis in our tertiary center between February 2014 and August 2015. Patients included had severe disease as defined by elevated Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptoms Index (GCSI) score and delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES). G-POEM was performed by mucosal incision upstream the pylorus followed by submucosal tunnel and antropyloromyotomy with subsequent access closure. Efficacy was assessed at 5 days, 1 month, and 3 months, based on GCSI score, and individualizing (Likert scale) the main symptoms (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, early satiety, and anorexia). GES was performed 2 months after the procedure. G-POEM was successfully performed in all 12 patients, yielding a technical success rate of 100%. Significant improvements in GCSI were observed: 3.5 ± .8 versus .9 ± .9 (1 month) and 1.1 ± 1.5 (3 months), respectively (P < .001), as well as the severity of main symptoms at 3 months. Clinical efficacy was 85% (10/12). GES normalized in 75% of cases, with improvement of half emptying time (222 ± 90 minutes vs 133 ± 90 minutes; P = .03) and retention at 2 hours (76% ± 20% vs 44% ± 26%; P = .009). There were no adverse events related to the procedure. We report a single-center study evaluating G-POEM for refractory gastroparesis, demonstrating its feasibility, reproducibility, and safety with promising clinical and scintigraphic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic full-thickness resection of a lateral spreading rectal tumor after unplanned injection of dilute hyaluronic acid into the subserosal layer (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, H; Fu, K I; Konuma, I; Ueyama, H; Takahashi, T; Ogura, K; Miyazaki, A; Watanabe, S

    2012-06-01

    A 74-year-old woman underwent colonoscopy for investigation of a liver tumor. A lateral spreading tumor of the non-granular type (LST-NG), 25 mm in diameter, was detected at the rectosigmoid junction. As magnifying image-enhanced colonoscopy suggested a tubulovillous adenoma, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was chosen for removal of the LST-NG. The lesion was effectively and evenly lifted after injection of 0.4% hyaluronic acid diluted with glycerol in the ratio of 1:1. A small amount of indigo-carmine dye was also added for coloration of the plane of resection. The lesion was completely removed en bloc. Although a blue-colored layer was identified in the resection defect, a small amount of a whitish layer was detected above the blue layer. The muscle layer was clearly located on the underside of the resected polyp. A total of 14 endoclips were used to close the defect completely. The patient was successfully treated conservatively without surgery. Histology of the resected specimen showed that it contained a tubulovillous adenoma with the submucosal layer and both layers of the muscularis propria. The surgical margin was free of neoplastic change horizontally and vertically. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of full-thickness resection associated with EMR after unplanned injection of dilute hyaluronic acid into the subserosal layer rather than the intended submucosal layer. We describe how to promptly recognize this complication during colonoscopy, in order to achieve immediate closure of the defect, with the identification of a "mirror target sign" on the colonic wall.

  6. [Short-term efficacy observation on Chinese traditional medicine used after functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qinghua; Qin, Guanduan; Hou, Tao; Liang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Wenjin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of chinese traditional treatment after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for patients with chronic sinusitis. Eighty-eight cases of patients with chronic sinusitis were randomly divided into control group and treatment group after FESS and followed for 3 months. The control group received routine treatment. The treatment group received Chinese traditional treatment on the basis of routine treatment. VAS scores, Lund-Kennedy scores and Lund-Mackay scores were employed to conduct the subjective and objective assessment, comprehensively evaluate the clinical efficacy before and after treatment. (1) After 3 months of treatment, the two groups of VAS scores and Lund-Mackay scores were significantly improved before treatment (Ppostoperative mucosal edema and promote the postoperative recovery of sinus mucosal inflammation, is effective in preventing the recurrence of postoperative.

  7. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  8. Endoscopic palliation in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivieso, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The integral search for improved living conditions for those patients with gastric cancer who have not received curative surgical treatment continues to challenge the knowledge, dexterity and ethical foundations of medical teams. The justification for palliative treatment must be based on a thorough consideration of the available options and the particular situation in each case. This article reviews endoscopic therapy with auto expandable prosthetics for palliative treatment of gastric cancer, as well as the scientific evidence that supports its use and the factors that determine its indication.

  9. Sacral nerve stimulation enhances early intestinal mucosal repair following mucosal injury in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brégeon, Jérémy; Coron, Emmanuel; Da Silva, Anna Christina Cordeiro; Jaulin, Julie; Aubert, Philippe; Chevalier, Julien; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Meurette, Guillaume; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Reducing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions is recognized as being of major therapeutic interest for various intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability. Here, we report in a pig model that SNS enhances morphological and functional recovery of IEB following mucosal injury induced via 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. These effects are associated with an increased expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1 and FAK. These results establish that SNS enhances intestinal barrier repair in acute mucosal injury. They further set the scientific basis for future use of SNS as a complementary or alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of gut disorders with IEB dysfunctions such as inflammatory bowel diseases or irritable bowel syndrome. Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunctions, such as increased permeability or altered healing, are central to intestinal disorders. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to reduce IEB permeability, but its ability to modulate IEB repair remains unknown. This study aimed to characterize the impact of SNS on mucosal repair following 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced lesions. Six pigs were stimulated by SNS 3 h prior to and 3 h after TNBS enema, while sham animals (n = 8) were not stimulated. The impact of SNS on mucosal changes was evaluated by combining in vivo imaging, histological and functional methods. Biochemical and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the IEB and mucosal inflammatory response. We observed that SNS enhanced the recovery from TNBS-induced increase in transcellular permeability. At 24 h, TNBS-induced alterations of mucosal morphology were significantly less in SNS compared with sham animals. SNS reduced TNBS-induced changes in ZO-1 expression and its epithelial pericellular distribution, and also increased pFAK/FAK expression compared with sham. Interestingly, SNS increased the mucosal density of neutrophils

  10. Surgical mistake causing an high recto-vaginal fistula. A case report with combined surgical and endoscopic approach: therapeutic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) have multiple causes, size and location on which the surgical treatment depends. Description The Authors consider different approaches to RVFs and describe a clinical case of recurrent high RVF. Conclusions Most RVFs can be successfully repaired, although many interventions may be necessary. A colostomy with delayed repair may improve RVFs outcome. Moreover, several authors indicate Mucosal Advancement Flap and Babcock-Bacon technique as the treatments of choice respectively for low and high RVFs (complex and recurrent) and emphasize the placement of endoscopic prothesis in cases of difficult healing of the anastomosis. PMID:24266908

  11. Endoscopic biopsy of foramen of Monro and third ventricle lesions guided by frameless neuronavigation: usefulness and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inmaculada

    2009-09-01

    To describe our institution experience regarding the usefulness and limitations of frameless neuronavigation in the endoscopic biopsy of foramen of Monro and third ventricle lesions. We report our experience with 22 patients harbouring intraventricular lesions located in the region of the foramen of Monro or the third ventricle who underwent endoscopic biopsy guided by the neuronavigation system. Nine lesions were located on the posterior aspect of the third ventricle or at the pineal region, and thirteen lesions were located at the foramen of Monro or anterior third ventricle region. The endoscopes were introduced via an operating sheath, which had previously been inserted with a trocar under neuronavigational control. After approaching the foramen of Monro from the planned angle, surgery was continued under direct visualisation until the lesion was reached, if it was located on the third ventricle. In cases where the lesion was located at the foramen of Monro, an excellent view of the lesion was obtained and neuronavigation was used to determine the location of critical areas. Histological examination of biopsy specimens obtained endoscopically was diagnostic in all cases. Open surgery following endoscopic biopsy was only needed in 1 patient out of 22. In our experience, image-guided neuroendoscopy can improve the accuracy of the endoscopic approach, minimising brain trauma. It can be particularly helpful when performing a brain biopsy in the absence of clear intraventricular landmarks or in the event of adverse visual conditions such as intraventricular bleeding.

  12. Nonradiation ERCP with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy plus papillary balloon dilation for the treatment of choledocholithiasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Galip; Turan, Ilker; Tekin, Fatih; Ozutemiz, Omer; Tekesin, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is currently the treatment of choice for symptomatic choledocholithiasis in pregnant patients. We aimed to present our experience with pregnant patients who underwent nonradiation ERCP and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new technique. A retrospective analysis of nonradiation ERCP in 22 pregnant patients with symptomatic choledocholithiasis between January 2002 and December 2013 was performed. The bile aspiration technique with wire-guided sphincterotome was used to confirm selective biliary cannulation. Transpapillary pancreatic septotomy was performed in cases with difficult biliary cannulation (n = 3). After endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation was performed with a 6- or 8-mm dilation balloon in all patients to reduce the risk of recurrent cholangitis because of residual or additional stones. Stones were extracted by balloon sweeping after dilation. All patients were followed for 6 months after the ERCP procedure. Biliary cannulation was achieved in all patients. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation was performed with a 6-mm balloon in 17 patients and an 8-mm balloon in five patients. The stones were extracted in 18 of the 22 patients by balloon sweeping, but no stones were extracted in the remaining four patients. There were two cases of mild post-ERCP pancreatitis. All patients delivered at term, and none experienced recurrence of choledocholithiasis and/or cholangitis during the 6-month follow-up. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy plus endoscopic papillary balloon dilation in nonradiation ERCP is a safe and effective treatment method for symptomatic choledocholithiasis during pregnancy.

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic recanalization of malignant hilarobstruction: A possible rescue for early failure of endoscopic y-stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hoon; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Kim, Dong Uk; Jeon, Ung Bae; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is well known as an optimal method of management of malignant hilar obstruction, but sometimes the result is not satisfactory, with early stent failure. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) has a distinct advantage over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy in that with ultrasound guidance one or more appropriate segments for drainage can be chosen. We evaluated the effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic stenting as a rescue of early failure of endoscopic stenting. Ten patients (4 men, 6 women; age range, 52-78 years; mean age, 69 years) with inoperable biliary obstruction (2 patients with gall bladder cancer and hilar invasion, and 8 patients with Klatskin tumor) and with early endoscopic stent failure were included in our study. All of the patients underwent PTBD and percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Metallic stents were placed in all patients for internal drainage. Percutaneous rescue stenting was successful in all the patients technically and clinically. Mean time for the development of biliary obstruction was 13.5 days after endoscopic stenting. The mean patency of the rescue stenting was 122 days. The mean survival time for percutaneous transhepatic rescue stenting was 226.3 days. In early failure of endoscopic biliary stenting, percutaneous transhepatic recanalization can be a possible solution.

  14. Sublingual Delivery of Vaccines for the Induction of Mucosal Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choi, Youngjoo; Cheon, In Su

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to incoming pathogens which can cause infections that result in severe morbidity and/or mortality. Studies have reported that mucosal immunity is important for providing protection against these pathogens and that mucosal vaccination is effective in preventing local infections. For many years, the sublingual mucosa has been targeted to deliver immunotherapy to treat allergic hypersensitivities. However, the potential of vaccine delivery via sublingual mucosal has received little attention until recently. Recent studies exploring such potential have documented the safety and effectiveness of sublingual immunization, demonstrating the ability of sublingual immunization to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses against a variety of antigens, including soluble proteins, inter particulate antigens, and live-attenuated viruses. This review will summarize the recent findings that address the promising potential of sublingual immunization in proving protection against various mucosal pathogens. PMID:23885221

  15. Probiotic supplements and debridement of peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Lindgren, Susann; Widén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplements in adjunct to conventional management of peri-implant mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with peri-implant mucositis were consecutively recruited...... debridement and oral hygiene reinforcement resulted in clinical improvement of peri-implant mucositis and a reduction in cytokine levels. Probiotic supplements did not provide added benefit to placebo....

  16. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  17. The probiotic VSL#3 has anti-inflammatory effects and could reduce endoscopic recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N; Feagan, Brian G; Hotte, Naomi; Leddin, Des; Dieleman, Levinus A; Petrunia, Denis M; Enns, Robert; Bitton, Alain; Chiba, Naoki; Paré, Pierre; Rostom, Alaa; Marshall, John; Depew, William; Bernstein, Charles N; Panaccione, Remo; Aumais, Guy; Steinhart, A Hillary; Cockeram, Alan; Bailey, Robert J; Gionchetti, Paolo; Wong, Cindy; Madsen, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Probiotic formulations of single species of bacteria have not been effective in preventing the recurrence of Crohn's disease after surgery. We investigated the ability of VSL#3, a mixture of 8 different bacterial probiotic species, to prevent Crohn's disease recurrence after surgery in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Within 30 days of ileocolonic resection and re-anastomosis, patients with Crohn's disease were randomly assigned to groups given 1 sachet of VSL#3 (900 billion viable bacteria, comprising 4 strains of Lactobacillus, 3 strains of Bifidobacterium, and 1 strain of Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus) (n = 59) or matching placebo (n = 60). Colonoscopy was performed at days 90 and 365 to evaluate the neoterminal ileum for disease recurrence and obtain mucosal biopsies for cytokine analysis. Patients from both groups with either no or mild endoscopic recurrence at day 90 received VSL#3 until day 365. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with severe endoscopic recurrence at day 90. At day 90, the proportion of patients with severe endoscopic lesions did not differ significantly between VSL#3 (9.3%) and placebo (15.7%, P = .19). The proportions of patients with non-severe lesions at day 90 who had severe endoscopic recurrence at day 365 were 10.0% in the early VSL#3 group (given VSL#3 for the entire 365 days) and 26.7% in the late VSL#3 group (given VSL#3 from days 90 through 365) (P = .09). Aggregate rates of severe recurrence (on days 90 and 365) were not statistically different, 20.5% of subjects in the early VSL#3 group and 42.1% in the late VSL#3 group. Patients receiving VSL#3 had reduced mucosal inflammatory cytokine levels compared with placebo at day 90 (P < .05). Crohn's disease activity index and inflammatory bowel disease quality of life scores were similar in the 2 groups. There were no statistical differences in endoscopic recurrence rates at day 90 between patients who received VSL#3

  18. [Therapeutic aspects of endoscopic polypectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, K H; Stibenz, J; Fürstenau, M; Winkelvoss, H; Büttner, W; Jacobasch, K H; Gütz, H J; Irro, F

    1980-02-15

    466 endoscopic polypectomies of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were analysed according to their curative value. In 254 removed polyps of the upper gastrointestinal tract the result of the histological examination was twice a proof of a carcinoma. One it had to be after-resected, once a carcinoid, five times bleeding polyps were removed. Four times prolapsing gastric polyps were removed in the bulbus duodeni. In these cases intermittent disturbances of the passage could be repaired. Thus the endoscopic polypectomy in the upper gastrointestinal tract was of therapeutic value in 4.3%. In the lower intestinal tract in 204 polypectomies 16 focal carcinomas or invasive carcinomas removed in the healthy tissue, 1 carcinoid and 98 bleeding adenomas were cut away. Thus the coloscopic polypectomy was connected with a therapeutic use in 56.3%. 81.8% of the polyps was tubular, papillary or villous adenomas. Taking into consideration the "adenoma-cancer-sequence", the coloscopic polypectomy must thus be regarded as a prophylactic and curative method, while in the polypectomy in the upper gastrointestinal tract the diagnostic value is in the first place.

  19. Current status of endoscopic balloon dilation for Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihito Hirai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic target in Crohn's disease (CD has been raised to the achievement of mucosal healing. Although effective treatments that target cytokines and other molecules has been widely used for CD, intestinal strictures are still a major cause of surgery. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD is known to be an effective and safe intervention for intestinal strictures in CD. Since frequent intestinal resection often results in short bowel syndrome and can decrease the quality of life, EBD can help avoid surgery. EBD with a conventional colonoscope for Crohn's strictures of the colon and ileo-colonic anastomosis has established efficacy and safety. In addition, EBD using balloon-assisted enteroscopy has recently been applied for small bowel Crohn's strictures. Although the evidence is not strong, EBD may become an alternative to surgery in small bowel strictures in CD. EBD and other new methods such as self-expanding stent implantation for Crohn's strictures may be useful and safe; however, it is important to address several issues regarding these interventions and to establish a protocol for combined therapies.

  20. Mallory-Weiss syndrome: clinical and endoscopic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Anning; Li, Yi; Jiang, Yingan; Liu, Jun; Luo, Hesheng

    2012-06-01

    Mallory-Weiss syndrome is defined by upper gastrointestinal bleeding from vomiting-induced mucosal lacerations at the esophago-gastric junction. This study was purposed to investigate the incidence, location, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and effectiveness of treatment (including endoscopic treatment and conservative medical treatment) of Mallory-Weiss syndrome in China. All patients who received emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy due to Mallory-Weiss syndrome from September 2007 to August 2011 at gastrointestinal endoscopy center of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were included in this study. The clinical presentation, medical history, location and characteristics of Mallory-Weiss syndrome methods and effectiveness of therapy of patients with Mallory-Weiss syndrome were retrospectively analyzed by chart reviews. Long-term follow-up data were collected at outpatient clinics or telephone interviews. Sixteen patients were diagnosed with Mallory-Weiss syndrome, which account for 3.08% of 519 patients with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Common comorbidities were found in one patient with hepatic cirrhosis. Conservative medical treatment, local injection, hemoclipping, or multipolar electrocoagulation produced primary hemostasis in 87.5% (14/16) of patients. Mallory-Weiss syndrome is uncommon in China in comparison with reported experience in the west when the same group of patients is selected. Different approaches to treatment are to be recommended depending on whether or not active hemorrhage is present. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  2. Bilateral same-day endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshi, Ahmad; Jahandideh, Hesam; Daneshvar, Ali; Safdarian, Mahdi

    Same-day closure of bilateral tympanic membrane perforations is a quick and more comfortable procedure for the patients. However, conventional bilateral same-day tympanoplasty or myringoplasty has been rarely performed because of the theoretical risk of postoperative complications. To evaluate the advantages and outcomes of bilateral simultaneous endoscopic cartilage tympanoplasty in patients with bilateral tympanic membrane perforations. From February 2012 to March 2013, patients with bilateral dry tympanic membrane perforations who had some degree of hearing loss corresponding to the size and location of the perforation entered the study. There was no suspicion to disrupted ossicular chain, mastoid involvement or other middle or inner ear pathology. Endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty was done using the underlay (medial) technique. The graft was harvested from cymba cartilage in just one ear with preservation of perichondrium in one side. A 1.5cm×1.5cm cartilage seemed to be enough for tympanoplasty in both sides. Nine patients (4 males and 5 females) with the mean age of 37.9 years underwent bilateral transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty in a same-day surgery. The mean duration of follow up was 15.8 months. There were detected no complications including hearing loss, otorrhea and wound complication with no retraction pocket or displaced graft during follow-up period. The grafts take rate was 94.44% (only one case of unilateral incomplete closure). The mean of air-bone gap overall improved from 13.88dB preoperatively to 9.16dB postoperatively (p<0.05). Bilateral endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty can be considered as a safe minimally invasive procedure that can be performed in a same-day surgery. It reduces the costs and operation time and is practical with a low rate of postoperative complications. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  3. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbeih, F.; Aljohani, M.; Altraif, I.; Khan, H.

    1998-01-01

    While the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in the diagnosis and management of choledocholithiasis is well established, this study evaluates the usefulness of ERCP and EST patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis and suspected choledocholithiasis before undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), and the role of ERCP-EST in the management of complications resulting from LC. This paper reviews retrospectively our experience from 1992 to 1995. A total of 1221 LCs and 717 ERCPs were performed on 225 patients who underwent LC (230 ERCPs before and 27 after). The age range was 10-85 years (mean 43.5. The study group comprised 148 (66%) females and 77 males (34%). The overall success rate for ERCP was 92% (96% for diagnostic and 88% for therapeutic). Choledocholithiasis was found at preoperative ERCP in 45% cases. Prediction of cholecoledocholithiasis was accurate in 46%, based on abnormal liver chemistry, and 70% when based on a combination of abnormal liver tests and dilated main bile duct (>7 mm) by ultrasound. In 40 cases of acute biliary pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis was found at ERCP in eight cases (20%). In the post LC-group, all eight cases with residual stones and seven of eight cases with bile leaks were successfully treated endoscopically. There were four cases with major duct injuries that required surgical management. The complications related to ERCP-EST included two cases of bleeding post-EST (one was controlled with injection therapy and the second one was managed surgically) and three cases of mild pancreatitis. ERCP and EST are effective and safe in the diagnosis and management of choledocholithiasis and facilitate LC for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The procedures are also valuable in the diagnosis and management of most complications resulting from LC. (author)

  4. Update on endoscopic endonasal resection of skull base meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunworth, Joseph; Padhye, Vikram; Bassiouni, Ahmed; Psaltis, Alkis; Floreani, Stephen; Robinson, Simon; Santoreneos, Stephen; Vrodos, Nick; Parker, Andrew; Wickremesekera, Agadha; Wormald, Peter-John

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to report success rates as well as potential obstacles in transnasal endoscopic resection of anterior skull base meningiomas. The study design was a case series with chart review at tertiary referral centers in South Australia and New Zealand. The patients were 37 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic resection of skull-base meningiomas between 2004 and 2013. Review of patient charts and operative details were performed. Outcomes including complications are reported. Eighty-four percent of patients were women. There were 28 primary and 9 revision cases. Tumor locations were as follows: 14 olfactory groove/subfrontal; 12 planum/jugum sphenoidale; 7 tuberculum sellae; 3 clinoidal; and 1 clival. Vision change was the most common presenting symptom. Mean tumor volume was 33.68 cm(3) , mean diameter was 2.78 cm. Average operating times decreased with an initial learning curve and then plateaued. Primary tumors larger than 60 cm(3) took an average of 10 hours to resect. Gross total removal was achieved in 29 patients. There were no perioperative deaths. Two deaths occurred within 1 year of surgery. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks occurred in 13 patients. Seventy-five percent of patients presenting with visual loss reported visual improvement. Of the 29 patients considered to have had complete resection at surgery, one was found to have residual disease on a postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and another one later developed radiological evidence of recurrence. Using a 2-team approach, meningiomas of the skull base were successfully removed via an intranasal endoscopic technique. Although complete resection is typically possible even with large tumors, the lengthy resection required time for tumors larger than 60 cm(3) (diameter ≥4 cm) may obviate some of the advantages of this approach. The rate of postoperative CSF leak decreases when a synthetic dural substitute is added but does not approach zero.

  5. Diazepam during endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric epithelial neoplasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Yosuke; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Yoshida, Takeichi; Moribata, Kosaku; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Tamai, Hideyuki; Kato, Jun; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors and adverse events related to high-dose diazepam administration during endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasias. METHODS: Between February 2002 and December 2009, a total of 286 patients with gastric epithelial neoplasia underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection in our hospital. To achieve moderate sedation, 5-7.5 mg of diazepam was administered intravenously by non-anesthesiologists. Intermittent additional administration of 2.5-5 mg diazepam was performed if uncontrollable body movement of the patient was observed. All patients were classified into groups based on the required diazepam dose: low-dose (≤ 17.5 mg, n = 252) and high-dose (> 17.5 mg, n = 79). RESULTS: Differences between the low- and high-dose diazepam groups were observed in lifetime alcohol consumption (0.30 ± 0.48 vs 0.44 ± 0.52 tons, P = 0.032), body weight (58.4 ± 10.3 vs 62.0 ± 9.9 kg, P = 0.006), tumor size (15 ± 10 vs 23 ± 18 mm, P < 0.001), lesion location (P < 0.001) and the presence of ulcerative findings (14/238 vs 18/61, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified all five variables as independently related to required diazepam dosage. In terms of adverse reactions to diazepam administration, paradoxical excitement was significantly more frequent in the high-dose diazepam group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Intermittent administration of diazepam enabled safe completion of gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection except in patients who were alcohol abusers or obese, or who showed complicated lesions. PMID:22442745

  6. Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2006-03-01

    Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

  7. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K. (Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Saene, H.K.F. van (Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool (UK)); Vermey, A. (Department of Surgery Oncology Division, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Mehta, D.M. (Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author).

  8. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K.; Saene, H.K.F. van; Vermey, A.; Mehta, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author)

  9. Predictive factors for intractability to endoscopic hemostasis in the treatment of bleeding gastroduodenal peptic ulcers in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Mizuno, Mari; Masui, Ryuta; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshiharu; Yanamoto, Kenichiro; Noda, Hisatsugu; Okaniwa, Noriko; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    Despite improvements in endoscopic hemostasis and pharmacological therapies, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) ulcers repeatedly bleed in 10% to 20% of patients, and those without early endoscopic reintervention or definitive surgery might be at a high risk for mortality. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for intractability to initial endoscopic hemostasis. We analyzed intractability among 428 patients who underwent emergency endoscopy for bleeding UGI ulcers within 24 hours of arrival at the hospital. Durable hemostasis was achieved in 354 patients by using initial endoscopic procedures. Sixty-nine patients with Forrest types Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb at the second-look endoscopy were considered intractable to the initial endoscopic hemostasis. Multivariate analysis indicated that age ≥70 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 4.03), shock on admission (OR, 5.26; 95% CI, 2.43 to 11.6), hemoglobin <8.0 mg/dL (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.39 to 5.91), serum albumin <3.3 g/dL (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.89), exposed vessels with a diameter of ≥2 mm on the bottom of ulcers (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.25 to 7.01), and Forrest type Ia and Ib (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.00) predicted intractable endoscopic hemostasis. Various factors contribute to intractable endoscopic hemostasis. Careful observation after endoscopic hemostasis is important for patients at a high risk for incomplete hemostasis.

  10. Interactive navigation-guided ophthalmic plastic surgery: navigation enabling of telescopes and their use in endoscopic lacrimal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali,1 Swati Singh,1 Milind N Naik,1 Swathi Kaliki,2 Tarjani Vivek Dave1 1The Institute of Dacryology, 2The Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Purpose: The aims of this study were to report the preliminary experience of using telescopes, which were enabled for navigation guidance, and their utility in complex endoscopic lacrimal surgeries. Methods: Navigation enabling of the telescope was achieved by using the AxiEM™ malleable neuronavigation shunt stylet. Image-guided dacryolocalization was performed in five patients using the intraoperative image-guided StealthStation™ system in the electromagnetic mode. The “look ahead” protocol software was used to assist the surgeon in assessing the intraoperative geometric location of the endoscope and what lies ahead in real time. All patients underwent navigation-guided powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. The utility of uninterrupted navigation guidance throughout the surgery with the endoscope as the navigating tool was noted. Results: Intraoperative geometric localization of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct could be easily deciphered. Constant orientation of the lacrimal drainage system and the peri-lacrimal anatomy was possible without the need for repeated point localizations throughout the surgery. The “look ahead” features could accurately alert the surgeon of anatomical structures that exists at 5, 10 and 15 mm in front of the endoscope. Good securing of the shunt stylet with the telescope was found to be essential for constant and accurate navigation. Conclusion: Navigation-enabled endoscopes provide the surgeon with the advantage of sustained stereotactic anatomical awareness at all times during the surgery. Keywords: telescope, endoscope, image guidance, navigation, lacrimal surgery, powered endoscopic DCR

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori CagA gene and Its Association with Endoscopic Appearance in Balinese Dyspepsia Patients

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    I Ketut Mariadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection causes various abnormalities in the stomach. Only particular strain can cause severe problems in the stomach. CagA is a microbial virulent factor which is associated with more severe stomach problems, such as: peptic ulcer and stomach cancer. We would like to know the prevalence of CagA in Balinese population, and the association of H. Pylori CagA status with the severity of endoscopic appearance in dyspepsia patients. Method: Study design being used was analytic cross sectional study, involving 71 dyspepsia patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination in Surya Husada Hospital and Balimed Hospital in June-December 2013. Sample was chosen in consecutive manner. Later, polymerase chain reaction (PCR examinations of the stomach mucous biopsy tissue to determine H. pylori infection status and CagA status were performed. Further, Chi square test was used to identify the difference in proportion of H. pylori and CagA between mild and severe endoscopic appearance. Results: In this study, we found that the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.5% using PCR examination. Prevalence of CagA positive in H. pylori positive was 62.5%. There was significant association between status of H. Pylori infection and severity of endoscopic appearance (p = 0.038; OR= 2.67; 95% CI = 1.18-6.05. Status of CagA in H. pylori infected patients was not associated with the severity of endoscopic appearance. Additionally, there was significant association between patients’ age and severity of endoscopic appearance. Conclusion: The prevalence of CagA in H. pylori positive was 62.5%. H. pylori infection was associated with severity of endoscopic appearance and CagA status in H. pylori infected patients was not associated with severity of endoscopic appearance.

  12. Experience with endoscopic holmium laser in the pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merguerian, Paul A.; Reddy, Pramod P.; Barrieras, Diego; Bagli, Darius J.; McLorie, Gordon A.; Khoury, Antoine E.

    1999-06-01

    Introduction: Due to the unavailability of suitable endoscopic instruments, pediatric patients have not benefited fully from the technological advances in the endoscopic management of the upper urinary tract. This limitation may be overcome with the Holmuim:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet(Ho:YAG) laser delivered via small instruments. To date, there is no published report on the use of this modality in children. Purpose: We evaluated the indications, efficacy, and complications of endourological Ho:YAG laser surgery in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis, posterior urethral valves, ureterocele and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Methods: The patient population included 10 children with renal, ureteral and bladder calculi, 2 children with posterior urethral valves, 2 children with obstructing ureteroceles, 2 children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction and 1 child with a urethral stricture. Access to the lesions was either antegrade via a percutaneous nephrostomy tract or retrograde via the urethra. A solid state Ho:YAG laser with maximum output of 30 watts (New Star lasers, Auburn, CA) was utilized as the energy source. Results: A total of 10 patients underwent laser lithotripsy. The means age of the patients was 9 yrs (5-13 yrs). The average surface area of the calculi as 425.2 mm2 (92-1645 mm2). 8 of the patients required one procedure to render them stone free, one patient had a staghorn calculus filling every calyx of a solitary kidney requiring multiple treatments and one other patient with a staghorn calculus required 2 treatments. There were no complications related to the laser lithotripsy. Two newborn underwent successful ablation of po sterious urethral valves. Two infants underwent incision of obstructing ureteroceles with decompression of the ureterocele on postoperative ultrasound. Two children underwent endypyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. One was successful an done required an open procedure to correct the obstruction. One child

  13. Per rectal endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of adult Hirschsprung's disease: First human case (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapaye, Amol; Wagholikar, Gajanan; Jog, Sameer; Kothurkar, Aditi; Purandare, Shefali; Dubale, Nachiket; Pujari, Rajendra; Mahadik, Mahesh; Vyas, Viral; Bapaye, Jay

    2016-09-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the hindgut; and presents with constipation, intestinal obstruction and/or megacolon. HD commonly involves the rectosigmoid region (short segment HD), although shorter and longer variants of the disease are described. Standard treatment involves pull-through surgery for short segment HD or posterior anorectal myotomy in selected ultrashort segment candidates. Third space endoscopy has evolved during the past few years. Per oral endoscopic myotomy and per oral pyloromyotomy are described for treatment of achalasia cardia and refractory gastroparesis, respectively. Using the same philosophy of muscle/sphincter disruption for spastic bowel segments, per rectal endoscopic myotomy could be considered as a treatment option for short segment HD. A 24-year-old male patient presented with refractory constipation since childhood, and habituated to high-dose laxative combinations. Diagnosis was confirmed as adult short segment HD by barium enema, colonoscopic deep suction mucosal biopsies and anorectal manometry. Histopathology confirmed aganglionosis in the distal 15 cm. By implementing principles of third space endoscopy, per rectal endoscopic myotomy 20 cm in length was successfully carried out. At 24-week follow up, the patient reported significant relief of constipation and associated symptoms. Sigmoidoscopy, anorectal manometry and barium enema confirm improved rectal distensibility and reduced rectal pressures. The present case report describes the first human experience of per rectal endoscopic myotomy for successful treatment of adult short segment HD. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. Dextranomer Based Implant (Deflux) for Endoscopic Treatment of Post-Prostatectomy Incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-El-Azayem, Khaled M.; Abdel-Meguid, Taha A.; Soliman, S.

    2006-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment for post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence has gained popularity using several inject-able bulking materials. The current study reports our experience with endoscopic submucosal injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer for treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence due to sphincteric deficiency. A total of 14 patients with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence; 13 post-trans urethral resection of prostate (TURP) and 1 post-open prostatectomy, were enrolled. The patients aged between 59-85 years. Preoperative evaluation included multi-channel video urodynamics. Patients who had verified intrinsic sphincteric deficiency, adequate bladder capacity, absent unhibited detrusor contractions and minimal or no post void residual (PVR) urine were selected for injection therapy. The standard 4 quadrant sub-mucosal injection technique was utilized. Follow-up was scheduled at 1 month after each injection and at 6-months interval thereafter. A total of 25 procedures were done. Seven patients (50%) received single injection, 3 patients (21.4%) required 2 injections and 4 patients (28.6%) needed 3 injections. The mean volume of injected material was 3.7 mL per procedure (range 2-8). The mean operative time was 30 minutes (range 15-60). The procedure was performed without intraoperative adverse events or significant postoperative complications. The overall cure rate, significant improvement rate and failure rate were 28.6%, 35.7% and 35.7%.respectively, with a total of 64.3% considered as success (cured or significantly improved). At 1 year of follow-up, 71.4% of the patients (cured or improved) demonstrated persistence of the favourable outcome. Endoscopic treatment of post prostatectomy incontinence due sphinteric deficiency is a minimally invasive, safe and successful procedure. Endoscopic submucosal injection of dextranomer has shown a durable favorable outcome at 1 year of follow-up. (author)

  15. Helicobacter pylori coinfection is a confounder, modulating mucosal inflammation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity has been considered a potential reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori , from where the organism causes recurrent gastric infections. Aim: With this case-control study we tried to evaluate the role of H pylori in the etiology of mucosal inflammation, a condition that compounds the morbid state associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. Materials and Methods : Subjects ( n = 150 were selected following institutional regulations on sample collection and grouped into test cases and positive and negative controls based on the presence of mucosal fibrosis and inflammation. The negative controls had none of the clinical signs. All patients underwent an oral examination as well as tests to assess oral hygiene/periodontal disease status; a rapid urease test (RUT of plaque samples was also done to estimate the H pylori bacterial load. We used univariate and mutivariate logistic regression for statistical analysis of the data and calculated the odds ratios to assess the risk posed by the different variables. Results : The RUT results differed significantly between the groups, reflecting the variations in the bacterial loads in each category. The test was positive in 52% in the positive controls (where nonspecific inflammation of oral mucosa was seen unassociated with fibrosis, in 46% of the test cases, and in 18% of the negative controls (healthy volunteers (χ2 = 13.887; P < 0.01. A positive correlation was seen between the oral hygiene/periodontal disease indices and RUT reactivity in all the three groups. Conclusions: The contribution of the H pylori in dental plaque to mucosal inflammation and periodontal disease was significant. Logistic regression analysis showed gastrointestinal disease and poor oral hygiene as being the greatest risk factors for bacterial colonization, irrespective of the subject groups. A positive correlation exists between RUT reactivity and the frequency of mucosal inflammation.

  16. Clinical, Immune, and Microbiome Traits of Gingivitis and Peri-implant Mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schincaglia, G P; Hong, B Y; Rosania, A; Barasz, J; Thompson, A; Sobue, T; Panagakos, F; Burleson, J A; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A; Diaz, P I

    2017-01-01

    Tissues surrounding dental implants and teeth develop clinical inflammation in response to microbial stimuli. However, the literature suggests that differences exist in the microbial insult and inflammatory responses leading to gingivitis and peri-implant mucositis. In this pilot study, the authors use for the first time a systems biology approach to comprehensively evaluate clinical parameters, selected inflammatory markers, and the microbiome of subject-matched tooth and implant sites during native inflammation and in response to experimental plaque accumulation. Fifteen subjects with 2 posterior implants and corresponding contralateral teeth were examined at enrollment; at day 0, after reinstitution of gingival/mucosal health; at days 7, 14, and 21, during stent-mediated oral hygiene (OH) abstention; and at day 42, after resumption of OH. The subgingival microbiome was evaluated via 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 8 selected inflammatory markers measured in crevicular fluid. Comparison of teeth and implants via general linear models based on orthogonal polynomials showed similar responses in clinical parameters, inflammatory mediators, and proportions of individual microbial taxa during OH abstention. Implants, however, accumulated less plaque and underwent more heterogeneous shifts in microbiome structure. A multilevel, within-group, sparse partial least squares analysis of covariation of microbial, inflammatory, and clinical parameters throughout all study visits found inflammation around teeth and implants positively correlated with IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta and with the proportions of Selenomonas, Prevotella, and 5 species-level phylotypes. Gingivitis, however, showed a stronger positive correlation with lactoferrin and IL-1ra and a stronger negative correlation with Rothia. Peri-implant mucositis, on the contrary, correlated positively with certain microbial taxa not associated with gingivitis by a previous study or the current one. In summary, differences

  17. Measurement of Mucosal Thickness in Denture-bearing Area of Edentulous Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The thickness of the alveolar mucosa influences the probability of the occurrence of denture-induced irritations. Thick denture-supporting tissues offer relief from mucosal tenderness and ulcers; however, the uniformity of the thickness across the entire mandibular alveolar mucosa cannot be accurately determined in edentulous patients. This study aimed to assess the mucosal thickness of the denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible. Methods: Twenty-seven edentulous patients underwent cone-beam computed tomography scanning, wherein the patients wore a record base to retract soft tissues away from the alveolar mucosa. The measured regions were the central incisor (IC, lateral incisor (IL, canine (Ca, first premolar (P1, second premolar (P2, first molar (M1, and second molar (M2 regions. The thickness was measured in the alveolar ridge crest (T, buccal (B1-B4, and lingual (L1-L4 alveolar ridge mucosa. The average thickness of the mucosa at buccal sides (B and lingual sides (L were also assessed. Results: The differences in the mucosal thickness between the left and right sides were not significant. In the Ca-M2 regions, T was the thickest, and L3 was the thinnest of all the measured points in the same regions. L was significantly less than B in posterior regions (P < 0.01. On the other hand, M2 at L4 was thinnest of all the measured regions from Ca to M2 (P < 0.01, and was thicker than IC, IL, P1, and P2 at B2. Conclusions: Since the mucosal thickness of denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible is not uniform; the tissue surface of the denture base or custom tray should be selectively relieved, which may reduce the risk of denture-induced irritations.

  18. Uma nova abordagem para a dacriocistorrinostomia endoscópica A new approach to endoscopic DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pal Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma técnica composta de dacriocistorrinotomia (DCR endoscópica à técnica convencional. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo no Departamento de Otorrinolaringologia da Faculdade de Medicina Maulana Azad. Trinta pacientes selecionados para DCR endoscópica foram divididos em dois grupos, um submetido à DCR endoscópica convencional e outro tratado com uma técnica mais nova com o uso de cautere, instrumentação fria e laser em diferentes etapas da DCR endoscópica. Os pacientes foram seguidos por nove meses. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÃO: Com o uso do cautere, instrumentação fria e laser em diferentes etapas da DCR endoscópica, fomos capazes de obter taxa de sucesso de cerca de 94% com a técnica composta em comparação a 83,3% da DCR endoscópica convencional.AIM: To compare a composite technique of Endoscopic Dacrocystorhinostomy with the conventional technique. METHODS: A randomised prospective study was carried in the department of Otolaryngology Maulana Azad Medical College. Thirty patient selected for Endoscopic DCR were divided into two groups, one of which underwent conventional Endoscopic DCR and the other group were treated with a newer technique using cautery, cold instrumentation and laser at different steps of Endoscopic DCR. The patients were followed up for Nine months. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: By using cautery, cold instrumentation and laser at different steps of Endoscopic DCR we were able to achieve a success rate of around 94% with this composite technique as compared to 83.3% in conventional Endoscopic DCR surgery.

  19. Flexible Ultrathin Endoscope Integrated with Irrigation Suction Apparatus for Assisting Microneurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Morimoto, Yuji; Fujii, Kazuya; Toyooka, Terushige; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2017-12-01

    Endoscopy can observe the anatomical components in a deeply located and/or hidden area during neurosurgical procedures under the operating microscope. We have newly developed a flexible ultrathin endoscope integrated with irrigation suction apparatus (FUEISA) to visualize deeply located and/or hidden areas for assisting microneurosurgery. The present study investigated the usefulness of the FUEISA system for direct clipping surgery of cerebral aneurysms. Twenty-one patients underwent microneurosurgery assisted with the FUEISA system for direct clipping of cerebral aneurysms. The flexible ultrathin endoscope (outer diameter 0.75mm) consists of an image guide (6000 dpi) and a light guide, integrated with the irrigation suction apparatus. This endoscopic system was inserted before and after clipping to observe the anatomical conditions surrounding the lesions. In all cases, handling and operation of the FUEISA was technically successful during the surgical procedure. The ultrathin endoscope was adequately integrated with the irrigation suction apparatus in all cases. General anatomy visualization including the lenticulostriate arteries, medial striate arteries, and/or internal carotid artery perforators was possible, and the correct clip positioning and vessel conditions were easily checked. The endoscope revealed that the clip had been positioned incorrectly in one case. No complications associated with the endoscopic system occurred. The FUEISA system can be applied with safe manipulation, which was remarkably useful for confirmation of the presence of perforators and cranial nerves behind the lesions, particularly anatomical components located in deep and/or hidden areas during clipping of cerebral aneurysms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility study of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwinter, Danny A; Eckstein, Jeremy G

    2009-07-01

    A potentially less-invasive technique, transluminal surgery, may reduce or eliminate pain and decrease time to full return of activities after abdominal operations. Inguinal hernia repair is perfectly suited to the transgastric endoscopic approach and has not been previously reported. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of transgastric bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy (BIH). Feasibility study with a nonsurvival canine model. Under general anesthesia, male mongrel dogs weighing 20 to 30 kg had a dual-channel endoscope introduced into the peritoneal cavity over a percutaneously placed guidewire. An overtube with an insufflation channel was used. Peritoneoscopy was performed, and bilateral deep and superficial inguinal rings were identified. The endoscope was removed, premounted with a 4 x 6 cm acellular human dermal implant and then readvanced intraperitoneally through the overtube. The implant was then deployed across the entire myopectineal orifice and draped over the cord structures. Bioglue was then applied endoscopically, and the implant was attached to the peritoneum. After completion of bilateral repairs, the animals were killed and necropsy performed. Five dogs underwent pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) BIH. Accurate placement and adequate myopectineal coverage was accomplished in all subjects. At necropsy no injuries to the major structures were noted but Bioglue misapplication with contamination of unintended sites did occur. Our study involved only a small number of subjects in nonsurvival experiments, and no gastric closure was used. Many of the characteristics of inguinal hernia repair are especially well suited to the transgastric approach. The repair is in line with the transgastric endoscope vector, bilateral defects are adjacent, and the IPOM technique does not require significant manipulation or novel instrumentation.

  1. Endonasal endoscopic repair of anterior skull-base fistulas: the Kuala Lumpur experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendeh, B S; Mazita, A; Selladurai, B M; Jegan, T; Jeevanan, J; Misiran, K

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the pattern of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea presenting to our tertiary referral centre in Kuala Lumpur and to assess the clinical outcomes of endonasal endoscopic surgery for repair of anterior skull base fistulas. Sixteen patients were treated between 1998 and 2004. The aetiology of the condition was spontaneous in seven and acquired in nine patients. In the acquired category, three patients had accidental trauma and this was iatrogenic in six patients (five post pituitary surgery), with one post endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Imaging included computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Endoscopic repair is less suited for defects in the frontal sinuses with prominent lateral extension and defects greater than 1.5 cm in diameter involving the skull base. Fascia lata, middle turbinate mucosa, nasal perichondrium and ear fat ('bath plug') were the preferred repair materials in the anterior skull base, whereas fascia lata, cartilage and abdominal fat obliteration was preferentially used in the sphenoid leak repair. Intrathecal sodium flourescein helped to confirm the site of CSF fistula in 81.3 per cent of the patients. Ninety per cent of the patients who underwent 'bath plug' repair were successful. The overall success rate for a primary endoscopic procedure was 87.5 per cent, although in two cases a second endoscopic procedure was required for closure. In the majority of cases endoscopic repair was successful, and this avoids many of the complications associated with craniotomy, particularly in a young population. Therefore it is our preferred option, but an alternative procedure should be utilized should this prove necessary.

  2. Measuring Oral Mucositis of Pediatric Patients with Cancer: A Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese Version of the Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Karis Kin Fong; Ip, Wan Yim; Lee, Vincent; Li, Chak Ho; Yuen, Hui Leung; Epstein, Joel B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Oral mucositis is a frequent clinical condition that has been shown to affect pediatric cancer patients. Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire (OMDQ) is one of the few available patient-reported outcome measures to assess the extent and impact of oral mucositis. The objectives of the study were to translate the Mouth and Throat Soreness-Related Questions of the OMDQ into Chinese (OMDQ MTS-Ch) for children and adolescents aged 6–18 years receiving chemotherapy and to evaluate its psych...

  3. Endoscopic management of bleeding peptic ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peptic ulcers account for more than half of the cases of non variceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and therefore, are the focus of most of the methods of endoscopic hemostasis. Surgical intervention is now largely reserved for patients in whom endoscopic hemostasis has failed. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been employed to stop bleeding and reduce the risk of rebleeding, with no major differences in outcome between these methods. These include injection therapy, fibrin injection, heater probe, mono polar electrocautery, bipolar electrocautery, lasers and mechanical hemo clipping. The most important factor in determining outcome after gastrointestinal bleeding is rebleeding or persistent bleeding. The endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, however, provides the most useful prognostic information for bleeding. Recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis occurs in 15-20% of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The best approach to these patients remains controversial; the current options are repeat endoscopic therapy with the same or a different technique, emergency surgery or semi elective surgery after repeat endoscopic hemostasis. The combination of epinephrine injection with thermal coagulation may be more effective than epinephrine injection alone. Newer modalities such as fibrin injection or the application of hemo clips appear promising and comparative studies are awaited. (author)

  4. Endoscopic approaches to treatment of achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The two most commonly utilized endoscopic interventions are large balloon pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin injection (BTI). These interventions have been extensively scrutinized and compared with each other as well as with surgical disruption (myotomy) of the LES. PD is generally more effective in improving dysphagia in achalasia than BTI, with the latter reserved for infirm older people, and PD may approach treatment results attained with myotomy. However, PD may need to be repeated. Small balloon dilation and endoscopic stent placement for achalasia have only been used in select centers. Per oral endoscopic myotomy is a newer endoscopic modality that will likely change the treatment paradigm for achalasia. It arose from the field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and represents a scarless endoscopic approach to Heller myotomy. This is a technique that requires extensive training and preparation and thus there should be rigorous accreditation and monitoring of outcomes to ensure safety and efficacy. PMID:23503707

  5. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis / Mucositis

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    Özlem Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aims of our study were to determine the frequency of positive patch reactions and the most common allergens in patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD and/or mucositis(M who underwent with T.R.U.E. “Thin-layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous” test and evaluate supplemantal series used with T.R.U.E. test effect on patch test results.Material and Method: In this study 161 ACD, 5 ACM, 1 ACD and ACM were enrolled. While 139 of all patients were patch tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,out of 28 patients were tested for T.R.U.E. test and also with supplemental series that included textile colours (9 of tested patients, plastic and glues (9, dental screening (6, backery (2, cosmetic (1 and plastic and glues and dental screening (1. Supplemental series were chosen according to patient’s occupation and clinic presentation. The data from our patients were analyzed as percentage. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic status was evaluated with Yate’s correlation x2 test.Results: Eighty-six male, 81 female were taken into this study. The median age was 36.5.While 25.9% of 139 patients tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,46.4% of 28 patients applied supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test showed positive reaction to one or more allergens. The most common allergens were nickel sulphate (14.4%, potassium dichromate (4.8%, fragrance mix (2.9% and colophony (2.9%. The most common supplemental allergens were octil gallat (50% in bakery and copper sulphate, goldsodiumthiosulphate (42.8% in dental screening. Positive patch reactions were detected 83.3% in 6 patients with AKM, 80% of these positive reactions was againts dental screening. The rate of contact sensitization between atopics and non-atopics was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: We suggest in presence of mucositis and/or occupational dermatoses using supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test would be more beneficial in identifing the

  6. Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilation Versus Endoscopic Sphincterotomy for Retrieval of Large Choledocholithiasis: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohammed A; Abdelshafy, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed Yousef; Rezk, Asmaa Gaber; Taha, Abdallah M; Hussein, Hamdy M

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the standard technique for common bile duct (CBD) stone removal. Recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for the removal of large CBD stone. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic outcomes and safety of EPLBD compared with ES for large CBD stone extraction. One hundred twenty-four patients with large bile duct stones were randomized into two groups, the first group included 61 patients subjected to EPLBD and the second group included 63 patients who underwent ES. We compared the success rate of stone removal, frequency of mechanical lithotripsy requirement, morbidity, and mortality. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different. The overall ductal clearance rate was ultimately similar between the EPLBD group (96.7%) and the ES group (93.7%) (P = .53), the one session ductal clearance rate was significantly different (86.9% versus 71.4%; P = .01). Requirement of mechanical lithotripsy was significantly different between the EPLBD and ES group (9.8% versus 17.5%, P = .04). There were no differences in complication rates between the EPLBD and ES group; pancreatitis, 4.9% versus 6.3%; minor hemorrhage, 1.6% versus 6.3%; acute cholangitis, 3.3% versus 1.9%; and recurrent stones, 3.3% versus 3.2%. The therapeutic outcomes of EPLBD for removal of large bile duct stones are better than those of ES with comparable complication rate. EPLBD is also recommended for removal of large CBD stone in patients with an underlying coagulopathy or need for anticoagulation following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography.

  7. [Submucosal endoscopic dissection in the treatment of early esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughelli, Liliana; Miranda, Carolina; Galeano, Carlos; Blasco, María Del Carmen; Boselli, Guliano; Cubilla, Antonio; Sakai, Paulo; Blasco, Carmelo

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a male patient, 80 years old, with a history of dyspepsia and no family history of neoplasias. In the upper digestive endoscopy in the distal esophagus, a flat depressed lesion with the appearance of early carcinoma, type IIC of Paris classification, was diagnosed by biopsy as a squamous carcinoma in situ, infiltrating, moderately differentiated non-keratinizing grade II carcinoma. He underwent submucosal endoscopic dissection without complications. Histopathology concluded: carcinoma of squamous cells, predominantly in situ of distal esophagus, measuring 0.6 cm, with focus of 0.1 cm of infiltration in the own lamina; absence of angiolymphatic or perineural invasion. The histopathology specimen had margins of surgical resection free of neoplasia. Stage pT1a. Three months later, in the endoscopy control with biopsy of the area, there was no evidence of carcinoma. We present the case because it is still a challenge to establish the diagnosis of esophageal cancer at an early stage, especially in patients without symptoms, highlighting the importance of chromoendoscopy and a good endoscopic examination to reach the diagnosis. Submucosal endoscopy dissection could be considered as a safe and effective alternative treatment to radical surgery.

  8. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy. PMID:27462190

  9. Endoscopic colostomy with percutaneous colopexy: an animal feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Alfonso Bustamante-López

    Full Text Available Background: Indications for colostomy in colorectal diseases are obstruction of the large bowel, such as in cancer, diverticular disease in the acute phase, post-radiotherapy enteritis, complex perirectal fistulas, anorectal trauma and severe anal incontinence. Some critically ill patients cannot tolerate an exploratory laparotomy, and laparoscopic assisted colostomy also requires general anesthesia. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of performing colostomy assisted by colonoscopy and percutaneous colopexy. Materials and methods: Five pigs underwent endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy. Animals were evaluated in post-operative days 1, 2, 5 and 7 for feeding acceptance and colostomy characteristics. On day 7 full colonoscopy was performed on animals followed by exploratory laparotomy. Results: Average procedure time was 27 minutes (21-54 min. Postoperative mobility and feeding of animals were immediate after anesthesia recovery. Position of the colostomy, edges color, appearance of periostomal area, as well as its function was satisfactory in four animals. Retraction of colostomy was present in one pig. The colonoscopy and laparotomy control on the seventh day were considered as normal. A bladder perforation that was successfully repaired through the colostomy incision occurred in one pig. The main limitation of this study is its experimental nature. Conclusion: Endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy proves to be a safe and effective method with low morbidity for performing colostomy in experimental animals, with possible clinical application in humans.

  10. Endoscopic approach for a laryngeal neoplasm in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets; some piece of information on their disease behavior, therapy and evolution are limited. Neoplasms in this area are a diagnostic challenge. In many cases, they can be biopsied and excised using endoscopic instruments, but there is no report of this in canines. The goal of this study is to report a successful case of a laryngeal neoplasm removal through endoscopy. A head and neck radiogram revealed a mass in the laryngeal lumen protruding into the trachea. The patient then underwent an endoscopy to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and to surgically remove the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated carcinoma. The most appropriate treatment for laryngeal tumors is the resection of the submucosa or a partial laryngectomy however, partial and total laryngectomies are associated with many postoperative complications. In contrast, the endoscopic approach allows for highly magnified visualization of the lesion in situ, which facilitates the surgical removal of the mass through videosurgery. With little manipulation of the affected area, the chances of postoperative complications are reduced, leading to a more rapid recovery.

  11. Robotic endoscope motor module and gearing design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jillian M; Chen, Yi; Hunter, Ian W

    2011-01-01

    Actuation of a robotic endoscope with increased torque output is presented. This paper will specifically focus on the motor module section of a robotic endoscope, which comprises of a pair of motors and gear reduction assemblies. The results for the endoscope and biopsy tool stiffness, as well as the stall force and force versus speed characteristics of the motor module assembly are shown. The scope stiffness was found to be 0.006 N/degree and additional stiffness of the biopsy tools were found to be in the range of 0.09 to 0.13 N/degree. Calculations for worm gearing and efficiency are discussed.

  12. [PACS-based endoscope image acquisition workstation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J B; Zhuang, T G

    2001-01-01

    A practical PACS-based Endoscope Image Acquisition Workstation is here introduced. By a Multimedia Video Card, the endoscope video is digitized and captured dynamically or statically into computer. This workstation realizes a variety of functions such as the endoscope video's acquisition and display, as well as the editing, processing, managing, storage, printing, communication of related information. Together with other medical image workstation, it can make up the image sources of PACS for hospitals. In addition, it can also act as an independent endoscopy diagnostic system.

  13. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty - A New Tool to Manage Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepanshu; Bhandari, Bharat Singh; Arora, Ankit; Singhal, Shashideep

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a growing pandemic across the world. Dietary restrictions and behavior modifications alone have a limited benefit. Bariatric surgery, despite being the current gold standard, has limited acceptance by patients due to cost and associated morbidity. In our review, we have discussed nine original studies describing endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG). A total of 172 subjects successfully underwent ESG. Of 65 subjects with follow up data, 95.4% (62/65) had intact gastric sleeve confirmed via esophagogastroduodenoscopy or oral contrast study at the end of study specific follow up interval (the longest being 6 months). Individual studies reported a technical success rate for intact gastric sleeve from as low as 50% to as high as 100%. A statistically significant p ESG an attractive option to consider among other bariatric therapies.

  15. Small neuroendocrine tumor of the duodenal bulb: Endoscopic submucosal dissection, laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery or surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos V Chrysanthos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastric tube are less common than adenocarcinomas. Topography includes stomach, small intestine, Vater ampulla, and gross intestine. They are graded as neuroendocrine tumors grade I and II (NETs GI and GII and neuroendocrine carcinomas GIII based on Ki-67 index and mitotic count. [1] Endoscopic treatment for GI NETs ≤1 cm that does not extend beyond the submucosal layer and does not demonstrate lymph node metastasis is recommended. Tumors ≥2 cm, with lymph node metastasis, are indicated for surgical treatment. The treatment strategy for tumors between 10 and 20 mm in size remains controversial. [2] We present a rare case of a 60-year-old male patient with end-stage renal failure who underwent a screening pretransplantation endoscopic control. Colonoscopy had no pathological findings. Gastroscopy reveals an abnormal mucosa in the anterior upper part of the duodenal bulb that was described as a micronodular mucosa and a central nodule of 6 mm with erythematous mucosa. Histology of the micronodular mucosa reveals a heterotopic gastric mucosa and a small hyperplastic polyp. Biopsies from the nodule reveal a carcinoid tumor (NET GI. Immunohistochemistry: Positive chromogranin levels, low mitotic index (1/10 HPF, and Ki-67 index 2 cm and those of the duodenal bulb with histological extensions and the lack of assessing depth invasion.

  16. Non-endoscopic and endoscopic adhesiolysis in post-lumbar laminectomy syndrome: a one-year outcome study and cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, L; Pampati, V; Bakhit, C E; Pakanati, R R

    1999-10-01

    Post lumbar laminectomy syndrome with its resultant chronic low back pain is estimated to occur in 20% to 50% of the patients. Among various procedures available, lysis of epidural adhesions is considered as one of the effective therapeutic modalities of management in these patients, and may be performed either non-endoscopically or endoscopically. This retrospective evaluation included 120 post lumbar laminectomy patients who underwent either non-endoscopic adhesiolysis (Group I) or endoscopic adhesiolysis (Group II) with 60 consecutive patients in each group. The quality of pain relief when greater than 50% was considered significant. Results showed all patients experienced significant relief following both procedures even though the number of patients experiencing significant relief decreased with both techniques over a time period. Overall relief with the first procedure (mean + SEM) was 12 + 3.2 weeks for Group I, and it was 20 + 2.9 weeks for Group II with significantly longer improvement in Group II than Group I. At one year follow up, the results showed that with repeat procedures, 72% in Group I and 40% in Group II experienced significant relief at 6 months, whereas at 12 months, it decreased to 52% in Group I and 22% in Group II, with a significantly greater number of patients experiencing relief at 6 months and 12 months in Group I, than Group II, even though Group I patients underwent a greater number of procedures. Cost effectiveness analysis showed Group I patients experiencing significant relief at a cost of $40 per week, with one year quality of life improvement for $2,080, whereas it was $135 per week improvement in Group II with a one year quality of life improvement at a cost of $7,020 with significant difference noted in cost effectiveness. In conclusion, non-endoscopic epidural adhesiolysis and administration of corticosteroids and hypertonic saline is a safe and cost effective procedure for relieving chronic intractable pain in post lumbar

  17. Prophylaxis of mucosal toxicity by oral propantheline and cryotherapy in children with malignancies undergoing myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Masue; Saisho-Hattori, Takako; Koizumi, Yoshitsugu; Iinuma, Kazuie; Minegishi, Masayoshi

    2006-01-01

    Mucosal toxicity is an incapacitating complication of intensive chemo-radiotherapy for children with malignant disorders, and is physically and psychologically distressful. It is therefore important to minimize mucosal toxicity in those patients. In this report, the effects of the combined prophylaxis of oral cooling (cryotherapy) and administration of propantheline, an anticholinergic drug, were studied in patients (aged 2-16 year) with acute leukemias or solid tumors, who underwent myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue from 1993 to 1997. Patients were pretreated with the combined prophylaxis (n=12) or single prophylaxis (n=5), or left untreated (n=7). The combined prophylaxis significantly reduced the severe mucositis (combined, 8.3%; single, 20.0%; and untreated, 42.9%) and severe diarrhea (combined, 16.7%; single, 60.0%; and untreated, 57.1%). Moreover, the combined prophylaxis tended to shorten the periods of febrile episodes defined as temperature >38 deg C (combined, 3.8 days; single, 4.6 days; and untreated, 5.6 days). Therefore, the combination of propantheline and oral cryotherapy may be feasible and effective for reduction of mucosal toxicity in patients with malignancy who undergo high-dose chemotherapy. (author)

  18. Endoscopic endonasal surgery for giant pituitary adenomas: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H

    2013-03-01

    Giant pituitary adenomas (> 4 cm in maximum diameter) represent a significant surgical challenge. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been introduced as a treatment option for these tumors. The authors present the results of EES for giant adenomas and analyze the advantages and limitations of this technique. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical files and imaging studies of 54 patients with giant pituitary adenomas who underwent EES and studied the factors affecting surgical outcome. Preoperative visual impairment was present in 45 patients (83%) and partial or complete pituitary deficiency in 28 cases (52%), and 7 patients (13%) presented with apoplexy. Near-total resection (> 90%) was achieved in 36 patients (66.7%). Vision was improved or normalized in 36 cases (80%) and worsened in 2 cases due to apoplexy of residual tumor. Significant factors that limited the degree of resection were a multilobular configuration of the adenoma (p = 0.002) and extension to the middle fossa (p = 0.045). Cavernous sinus invasion, tumor size, and intraventricular or posterior fossa extension did not influence the surgical outcome. Complications included apoplexy of residual adenoma (3.7%), permanent diabetes insipidus (9.6%), new pituitary insufficiency (16.7%), and CSF leak (16.7%, which was reduced to 7.4% in recent years). Fourteen patients underwent radiation therapy after EES for residual mass or, in a later stage, for recurrence, and 10 with functional pituitary adenomas received medical treatment. During a mean follow-up of 37.9 months (range 1-114 months), 7 patients were reoperated on for tumor recurrence. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Endoscopic endonasal surgery provides effective initial management of giant pituitary adenomas with favorable results compared with traditional microscopic transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches.

  19. A Study on Oral Mucosal Lesions in 3500 Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence rate of oral mucosal lesions in patients with dermatological diseases was relatively low. However, predominant oral mucosal lesions observed in the study were autoimmune in origin with a high morbidity and mortality index. Hence, multidisciplinary approach will definitely help in the prognosis ...

  20. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.E. Koning, de (Barbara)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order to gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used. Chapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- treatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood cancer,

  2. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Early Infancy: Monitoring and Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hol (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe mucosal immune system of infants is dependent on the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Homeostasis results from the interaction between the mucosa and exogenous factors such as dietar and microbial agents. Induction and maintenance of homeostasis is a highly regluated system that

  3. Antimicrobial therapy to prevent or treat oral mucositis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, J.P.; Bellm, L.A.; Epstein, J.B.; Sonis, S.T.; Symonds, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Oral mucositis represents a significant source of morbidity after chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Since infection may have an important role in the pathophysiology of oral mucositis, several antimicrobial agents have been investigated for their efficacy in preventing and treating this disease.

  4. Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux in Infants. Can We Do It and Should We Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sara; Gómez-Fraile, Andrés; Carrillo-Arroyo, Isabel; Tordable-Ojeda, Cristina; Cabezalí-Barbancho, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) performed on infants, and to discuss the possible role of this approach in selected cases. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients who underwent endoscopic injection of a bulking substance for VUR in our institution, and a comparison was made with patients treated during infancy and those treated later in life. A total of 463 ureteral units were included (296 children), of whom 47 were patients less than 1 year of age (infants, INF group); the remaining 416 were included in a second group (children, CHL). In this study, the percentage of high-grade VUR and presence of reflux nephropathy were significantly higher in younger patients. Both early failure and recurrence rate were significantly higher in the INF group when compared with the CHL group. No complications were observed in the INF group. Endoscopic treatment of VUR is feasible in patients less than 1 year of age. The effectiveness is lower than when patients are treated at a later age but was still over 80% in our series. There were no complications reported related to the procedure itself or to the general anesthesia. Once it is known that endoscopic treatment of VUR can be performed, controversy arises about the indication of treating patients with VUR. Careful selection of VUR cases that are less likely to spontaneously resolve, presence of breakthrough infections, and parental preference, all play a role in the decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The last innovation in achalasia treatment; per-oral endoscopic myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Fatih; Akpınar, Zehra; Alper, Emrah; Atay, Aynur; Yurtlu, Derya Aslan; Çekiç, Cem; Bor, Serhat; Ünsal, Belkis

    2015-05-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a minimally invasive endoscopic treatment option for patients with achalasia and has been performed since 2010. It is less invasive than Heller myotomy and its use is spreading rapidly worldwide. We present our results of POEM that, to the best of our knowledge, are the first cases in Turkey. We enrolled patients between May 2014 and September 2014; 8 patients with achalasia whose complaints recurred after pneumatic balloon dilatation underwent POEM. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia at the endoscopy unit of the gastroenterology clinic. Demographic data was recorded before the procedure, and the results of the procedure were recorded prospectively. The median age of the patients was 42.5 (30-72) years. Preoperative and postoperative median Eckardt scores were 10 (8-12) and 1 (0-2), respectively. The median total duration of the procedure was 101 (71-158) min, and the median myotomy length was 13.5 (10-16) cm. Postoperative oral intake started on median day 1 (1-2) and the length of hospital stay was 4 (3-6) days. In 2 patients, capnoperitoneum developed during the procedure and was treated with a Veress needle. POEM is a safe endoscopic treatment modality for patients with achalasia in centers that are experienced in advanced endoscopic techniques.

  6. Combined transnasal and transoral endoscopic approach to a transsphenoidal encephalocele in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sien Hui; Mun, Kein Seong; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Manuel, Anura Michelle; Prepageran, Narayanan; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports an unusual case of a transsphenoidal encephalocele and discusses our experience with a minimally invasive management. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of a combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral approach to a transsphenoidal encephalocele in an infant. A 17-day-old boy, who was referred for further assessment of upper airway obstruction, presented with respiratory distress and feeding difficulties. Bronchoscopy and imaging revealed a transsphenoidal encephalocele. At the age of 48 days, he underwent a combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral excision of the nasal component of the encephalocele. This approach, with the aid of neuronavigation, allows good demarcation of the extra-cranial neck of the transsphenoidal encephalocele. We were able to cauterize and carefully dissect the sac prior to excision. The defect of the neck was clearly visualized, and Valsalva manoeuvre was performed to exclude any CSF leak. As the defect was small, it was allowed to heal by secondary intention. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he tolerated full feeds orally on day 2. Postoperative imaging demonstrated no evidence of recurrence of the nasal encephalocele. Endoscopic follow-up showed good healing of the mucosa and no cerebrospinal fluid leak. The surgical management of transsphenoidal encephalocele in neonates and infants is challenging. We describe a safe technique with low morbidity in managing such a condition. The combined endoscopic transnasal and transoral approach with neuronavigation is a minimally invasive, safe and feasible alternative, even for children below 1 year of age.

  7. Endoscopic urethroplasty with a free graft on a biodegradable polyglycolic acid spiral stent. A new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, W; Talja, M

    2000-01-01

    Explore the possibility of an endoscopic urethroplasty with a free graft on a biodegradable, self-reinforced polyglycolic acid spiral stent. Urethral strictures, failures of previous urethrotomies, which still can be incised endoscopically are selected. Strong fibrotic strictures which are bad indications for the use of a free graft are excluded. A free graft (skin on mucosa) is sutured around the stent and brought at the place of the endoscopically opened stricture where the graft is fixed with a suture through skin, bulbar muscles and spongiosum. A suprapubic diversion is left for 10 days. The stent keeps the graft in contact with surrounding well vascularized tissue where it can take. Other parts of the graft become necrotic. The stent hydrolyses in about 3 weeks. 10 patients with bulbar strictures from 2 to 4 cm in length and failed previous urethrotomies were treated successfully with this technique. The follow-up varies from 39 to 3 months (mean: 21 months). After 2 years 1 stricture recurred in a man who underwent regular endoscopies for recurrent bladder tumors. All other patients were successful until now. One stent got lost in the bladder during the procedure but could be brought at the right place. Other complications were 1 hematuria, 1 urosepsis, 1 perineal pain, 1 painful evacuation of a part of the stent 16 days after operation, and 1 difficult micturition. The preliminary experiences indicate that this technique is a possible treatment of short bulbar strictures after failure of endoscopic treatment.

  8. Renal ultrasound studies after endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer for vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Richard N; Jones, Eric A; Roth, David R

    2006-10-01

    To examine the outcomes of renal ultrasound studies after subureteral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and provide recommendations for postoperative management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Pediatric patients aged 15 years or younger with uncomplicated primary VUR were recruited for endoscopic treatment with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid gel. After undergoing the procedure, patients were instructed to continue prophylactic antibiotic treatment until a follow-up voiding cystourethrogram was obtained 2 weeks or more after treatment. VUR resolution was defined as grade 0. Repeat endoscopic injection was offered to patients with persistent VUR. Postoperative renal ultrasound scans were obtained on the same day as the voiding cystourethrogram. Of 120 patients treated, 6 were lost to follow-up and 14 had not yet undergone the posttreatment evaluation. The 100 remaining patients (efficacy population) had a mean age of 4.2 years (range 0.5 to 15), and the median reflux grade was 2 (range 1 to 5). The overall VUR resolution rate for the patients was 87% after endoscopic injection. Of 100 patients, 88 achieved complete resolution after a single injection and 19 required a repeat injection. Of the 100 patients who underwent postoperative ultrasound examination, none demonstrated renal ultrasound changes consistent with significant ureteral obstruction or renal parenchymal changes. Renal ultrasound studies after endoscopic treatment with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid gel are unnecessary after determination of reflux resolution by voiding cystourethrography.

  9. Efficacy of endoscopic treatment for primary vesico-ureteric reflux in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, M.A.; Jamil, M.I.; Muhammad, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Akhtar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common anomaly affecting 1-3% of all children and 30-50% of those with urinary tract infection (UTI). In the past febrile vesicoureteric reflux on chronic antibiotic prophylaxis were treated by open surgery. Now a day's endoscopic injection of a bulking material has replaced open surgical procedure in cases of primary VUR. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of endoscopic treatment for primary vesico-ureteric reflux in children. Methods: This was a descriptive case series. One hundred and five patients with either unilateral or bilateral VUR (181 ureters) underwent endoscopic treatment for primary VUR between January 2011 and January 2014. Children from 1 to 12 years of age with grade-II to IV reflux on preoperative voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) were enrolled through consecutive non-probability sampling. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated at three months post injection by a standard VCUG. Ureters with no or grade-I reflux were considered successful treatment. Results: Out of 105 patients 76 had bilateral while 29 had unilateral reflux. Mean age was 5.7 years (SD±.7). Among 181 refluxing ureters, 116 (64%) were free of reflux, while 49 (27%) showed down gradation and 16 (8.8%) showed no response to treatment on postoperative VCUG. Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment for VUR is a viable option for patients with primary VUR and may be considered in management of such cases. (author)

  10. Effect of endoscopic brow lift on contractures and synkinesis of the facial muscles in patients with a regenerated postparalytic facial nerve syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, Gregor M; Börjesson, Pontus K E; Boahene, Kofi D; Gosepath, Jan; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2014-01-01

    Delayed recovery after facial palsy results in aberrant nerve regeneration with symptomatic movement disorders, summarized as the postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors present an alternative surgical approach for improvement of periocular movement disorders in patients with postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors proposed that endoscopic brow lift leads to an improvement of periocular movement disorders by reducing pathologically raised levels of afferent input. Eleven patients (seven women and four men) with a mean age of 54 years (range, 33 to 85 years) and with postparalytic facial nerve syndrome underwent endoscopic brow lift under general anesthesia. Patients' preoperative condition was compared with their postoperative condition using a retrospective questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of endoscopic brow lift and botulinum toxin type A. Mean follow-up was 52 months (range, 22 to 83 months). No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. During follow-up, patients and physicians observed an improvement of periorbital contractures and oculofacial synkinesis. Scores on quality of life improved significantly after endoscopic brow lift. Best results were obtained when botulinum toxin type A was adjoined after the endoscopic brow lift. Patients described a cumulative therapeutic effect. These findings suggest endoscopic brow lift as a promising additional treatment modality for the treatment of periocular postparalytic facial nerve syndrome-related symptoms, leading to an improved quality of life. Even though further prospective investigation is needed, a combination of endoscopic brow lift and postsurgical botulinum toxin type A administration could become a new therapeutic standard.

  11. Endoscopic-assisted treatment of trigonocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J

    2012-09-01

    Minimally invasive, endoscopic repair of metopic craniosynostosis has emerged as a potentially efficacious, safe, and aesthetically acceptable alternative to open procedures. Potential advantages of an early endoscopic approach to repair metopic craniosynostosis include a reduction in blood loss and consequent decreases in transfusion volumes, decreased hospital costs, shorter operative times, and limited duration of hospitalization. Other benefits of minimally invasive techniques would be avoidance of anaesthetic surgical scarring, decrease in postoperative swelling and discomfort, and lower rate of complications such as duramater tears, postoperative hyperthermia, or infection. However, a concern is usually raised about the achievements of the "endoscopic" techniques when compared to "standard" open approaches. The indications for endoscopic-assisted surgery in the treatment of trigonocephaly remain controversial and further series and follow-up of these patients are necessary to set up the role of these approaches.

  12. Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of severe acute gallstone pancreatitis discovered at diag~osticlaparotomy. ... in these cases Included cholecystectomy and Ttube drainage (2 patients) cholecystostomy drainage (3 patients), and closure of the abdomen without drainage (2 patients).

  13. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L.I.; Van den Heule, B.; Van Houtte, P.; Engelholm, L.; Balikdjan, D.; Bleiberg, H.

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  14. Vagal withdrawal during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Schulze, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are at risk of developing cardiorespiratory complications, but the mechanism is still unknown. Treatment with metoprolol 2 h before the endoscopy has been shown to decrease the incidence of myocardial ischaemia...

  15. Diagnosis and management of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc

    2014-01-01

    center implements a written policy regarding the management of iatrogenic perforation, including the definition of procedures that carry a high risk of this complication. This policy should be shared with the radiologists and surgeons at each center. 2 In the case of an endoscopically identified......This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each...... management should be based on the estimated success of the endoscopic closure and on the general clinical condition of the patient. In the case of no or failed endoscopic closure of the iatrogenic perforation, and in patients whose clinical condition is deteriorating, hospitalization and surgical...

  16. The analysis of bacterial culture in radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zunbei; Su Deqing; Liang Yuxue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate pathogen dose existing or not in patients with radiation mucositis. Methods: From Juanary 2004 to August 2005, from 46 patients with radiation mucositis some pharynx secretion were taken for culture. Then they were treated with antibiotics selected by the cultured results and gargle. Results: 5 patients with grade 0 of radiation mucositis were with no cultured pathogen, and the results of some other patients with radiation mucositis include 8 cases of epiphyte, 1 cases of p. vulgaris and 3 cases of Staphylococcus. the positive rate is 29.2% (12/41); Conclusion: Some patients with radiation mucositis do exist pathogen, and we must slect antibiotics by the bacterial cultured results. (authors)

  17. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    , studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from...... the luminal acid to near neutrality at the surface of the epithelial cells, thereby acting as an important mucosal defence mechanism. The regulation of bicarbonate secretion is a complex process related to motility and neural activity. Stimulation is by acid, PGE2, NO, VIP, cAMP, and mucosal protective agents....... Bicarbonate secretion is inhibited by atropine, muscarinic antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, indomethacin, bile acids, tobacco smoking, and probably also by infection by Helicobacter pylori. Apart from mucus and bicarbonate, the mucosal defence is supported by a hydrophobic epithelial lining, rapid...

  18. TV endoscope system for composite clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Noriaki; Shimura, Yasushi

    1994-01-01

    Toshiba developed a third-generation TV endoscope system in 1992, model TRE-3000, featuring high image quality. The concept of 'pursuit of a system for composite clinical application' was fully taken into account in the development of the system. This paper describes the new system, which has the capability to display both endoscopic images and X-ray images on the same TV monitor. (author)

  19. Endoscopic approaches to treatment of achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Stavropoulos, Stavros N.; Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The two most commonly utilized endoscopic interventions are large balloon pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin injection (BTI). These interventions have been extensively scrutinized and compared with each other as well as with surgical disruption (myotomy) of the LES. PD is generally more effective in improving dysphagia in achalasia than BTI, with the latter reserved for infir...

  20. An unusual experience with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is known for its varied diagnostic and therapeutic utility for a variety of disorders. However it has greater likelihood of procedure related complications among the endoscopic procedures of gastrointestinal tract. The extraluminal hemorrhagic complications following ERCP are potentially life threatening though relatively rare. We present a 50 year patient with choledocholithiasis and cholelithiasis developing rare complication of subcapsular hepatic hematoma, following ERCP due to guide wire injury.

  1. Management of esophageal varices in children by endoscopic variceal ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M R; Sartorelli, K H; Karrer, F M; Narkewicz, M R; Sokol, R J; Lilly, J R

    1996-08-01

    Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) has been considered the mainstay of therapy for bleeding esophageal varices in adults. However, recent data have shown that endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is just as efficacious and has fewer complications than EVS. Although there are many reports concerning EVL in adults, only a few studies have been done in children. This report describes experience with EVL in 22 children with esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Eighty-seven EVL procedures were performed during a 9-year period in 22 children. The causes of portal hypertension were biliary atresia (10), portal vein thrombosis (8), chronic active hepatitis (1), cirrhosis secondary to cystic fibrosis (2), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (1). The age range at the onset of variceal bleeding was 8 months to 19 years. Twelve patients had EVS before EVL treatment was begun. Distal esophageal varices (one to four per session) were mechanically ligated using an elastic band ligature device attached to a flexible endoscope. The aim of therapy was obliteration of distal esophageal varices by EVL, every 2 to 4 weeks, until eradication. Subsequent EVL was dictated by the status of the varices. Outcome was assessed with respect to survival, rebleeding, status of varices, and complications. The patients underwent a mean of four sessions of EVL (range, one to eight). Four patients subsequently underwent liver transplantation. Of the 18 patients remaining (average follow-up period, 5.3 years), 12 had their varices eradicated (average of four EVL sessions), four are still in treatment, one has not been evaluated in the past 4 years, and one died of liver failure. Complications included bleeding between sessions (6 patients), cervical esophageal perforation (1 patient), and transient fever (2 patients). No child has experienced symptoms of esophageal stenosis or gastroesophageal reflux. Two patients died of liver disease, unrelated to bleeding from portal hypertension. EVL is effective in

  2. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was

  3. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Deborah P.; Epstein, Joel B.; Elad, Sharon; Allemano, Justin; Bossi, Paolo; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Rao, Nikhil G.; Potting, Carin; Cheng, Karis K.; Freidank, Annette; Brennan, Michael T.; Bowen, Joanne; Dennis, Kristopher; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted. The body

  4. Mucosal pattern in the diagnosis of gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhold, A.; Polterauer, P.; Fruehwald, F.; Neuhold, N.; Seidl, G.; Vienna Univ.; Vienna Univ.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of radiology in diagnosis of gastritis within 2 hours endoscopy and biopsy of the stomach and double contrast barium meal were performed. The diagnosis was established of the morphologic picture of the areae gastricae, which were sufficient visible in 33 out of 50 cases (66%). In 7 patients radiologic findings were normal, 13 patients showed superficial gastritis, 10 patients had superficial gastritis with signs of atrophy and in 3 patients there was an erosive gastritis. In all 33 patients (100%) there was a complete correlation of radiologic and endoscopic findings, in 24 out of 33 cases (73%) even correlation between radiologic and histologic classification. These results are discussed and confrontated with literatures. (orig.) [de

  5. Animal Models of Chemotherapy-induced Mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T; Shen, René Liang; Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    2018-01-01

    of CIM, and how to prevent it. Animal models allow highly controlled experimental conditions, detailed organ (e.g. GIT) insights, standardized, clinically-relevant treatment regimens and discovery of new biomarkers. Still, surprisingly few results from animal models have been translated into clinical CIM......Chemotherapy for cancer patients induces damaging tissue reactions along the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs and several animal models of CIM have been developed to help understand the progression...... mangement and treatments. The results obtained from specific animal models can be difficult to translate to the diverse range of CIM manifestations in patients that vary according to the antineoplastic drugs, dose, underlying (cancer) disease and patient characteristics (e.g. age, genetics, body...

  6. Oral mucosal melanoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlal Gantala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is most deadly of all primary skin cancers. Over 90% of melanomas occur on the skin. Half of such melanomas occur in the oral cavity, followed by nasal cavity (44% and sinuses (8%. In the oral cavity, the most frequent sites of occurrence are hard palate and maxillary gingiva. Mucosal melanomas represent a diagnostic challenge than the more common cutaneous melanomas because oral melanomas demonstrate significant heterogeneity in morphological features, developmental process, and biological behaviour. This case report highlights an exophytic, lobulated oral malignant melanoma involving maxillary gingiva and is presented to reemphasize the fact that any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity should be examined with suspicion; proper investigation should be carried out to rule out any untoward experiences later.

  7. The utility and yield of endoscopic ultrasonography for suspected choledocholithiasis in common gastroenterology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispel, Rutger; van Driel, Lydi M W J; Veldt, Bart J; van Haard, Paul M M; Bruno, Marco J

    2016-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is an established diagnostic modality for diagnosing common bile duct (CBD) stones. Its use has led to a reduction in the number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures performed for suspected choledocholithiasis. We aimed to explore the role of EUS in detecting CBD stones and/or sludge in common gastroenterology practice. We reviewed case records of 268 consecutive patients who underwent (EUS) procedures performed to confirm or rule out the presence of CBD stones and/or sludge between November 2006 and January 2011 in the Reinier de Graaf Hospital, Delft, The Netherlands, which is a nonacademic community hospital. On the basis of EUS findings, 169 of 268 (63%) patients did not undergo ERCP and were therefore not exposed to its risk of complications. Patients with positive findings on EUS (n=99) all underwent ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy. Only 57 of 99 (58%) had positive findings at ERCP. The main contributing factors to this finding seem to be time interval between EUS and ERCP and the type of CBD content (i.e. sludge, one CBD stone or more than one CBD stone) described. In our common gastroenterology practice, EUS plays an important role in selecting patients suspected to have CBD stones or sludge for ERCP. Much is to be learned about the probability of spontaneous passage of CBD stones and sludge into the duodenum.

  8. Endoscopic Cauterization of the Sphenopalatine Artery to Control Severe and Recurrent Posterior Epistaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Gandomi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epistaxis is one of the most common medical emergencies, making the management of posterior epistaxis a challenging problem for the ear, nose, and throat (ENT surgeon. In the cases of conservative management failure, ligation of the major arteries or percutaneous embolization of the maxillary artery is performed routinely in most units, but rates of failure and complications are high.The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery (SPA cauterization in patients with refractory posterior epistaxis.   Materials and Methods: Between April 2011 and January 2012, 27 patients (15 males and 12 females with refractory posterior epistaxis underwent endoscopic SPA cauterization in two tertiary referral hospitals in Shiraz. Three patients underwent bilateral cauterization.   Results: Four patients (from 30 arteries had new epistaxis after surgery, three experienced subsequent epistaxis requiring medical treatment, and one patient had a minor epistaxis not needing treatment.   Conclusion:  The SPA electrocoagulation technique seems to be safe, simple, fast, and effective with low rates of morbidity and complications for the management of refractory posterior epistaxis. Endoscopic SPA cauterization should be considered as an immediate second-line management when conservative treatment as first-line management fails. 

  9. Endoscopic application of EGF-chitosan hydrogel for precipitated healing of GI peptic ulcers and mucosectomy-induced ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Bang, Byoung Wook; Lee, Eunhye; Kim, Jungju; Kim, Hyung Gil; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2014-02-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has become a standard diagnostic tool for GI ulcers and cancer. In this study we studied endoscopic application of epidermal growth factor-containing chitosan hydrogel (EGF-CS gel) for treatment of GI ulcer. We hypothesized that directional ulcer-coating using EGF-CS gel via endoscope would precipitate ulcer-healing. EGF-CS gel was directly introduced to the ulcer-region after ulceration in acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced gastric ulcer (MRU) rabbit and pig models. The ulcer dimensions and mucosal thicknesses were estimated and compared with those in the control group. Healing efficacy was more closely evaluated by microscopic observation of the ulcer after histological assays. In the AAU model, the normalized ulcer size of the gel-treated group was 2.3 times smaller than that in the non-treated control group on day 3 after ulceration (P < 0.01). In the MRU model, the normalized ulcer size of the gel-treated group was 5.4 times smaller compared to that in the non-treated control group on day 1 after ulceration (P < 0.05). Histological analysis supported the ability of EGF-CS gel to heal ulcers. The present study suggests that EGF-CS gel is a promising candidate for treating gastric bleeding and ulcers.

  10. Sex hormones and mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Christopher G; Sabzehei, Bahareh; Marucha, Phillip T

    2009-07-01

    Wound healing studies, which have chiefly examined dermal tissues, have reported a female advantage in healing rates. In contrast, our laboratory recently demonstrated women heal mucosal wounds more slowly than men. We hypothesized sex hormones influence wound healing rates, possibly through their modulating effects on inflammation. This study involved 329 younger subjects aged 18-43 (165 women, 164 men) and 93 older subjects aged 50-88 (60 women, 33 men). A 3.5mm diameter wound was created on the hard oral palate and videographed daily to assess wound closure. Blood collected at the time of wounding was used to assess circulating testosterone, progesterone and estradiol levels, and in vitro cytokine production in response to LPS. No strong associations were observed between healing times and estradiol or progesterone levels. However, in younger subjects, lower testosterone levels related to faster wound closure. Conversely, in older women higher testosterone levels related to (1) lower inflammatory responses; and (2) faster healing times. No such relationships were seen in older men, or in women taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy [HRT]. Older women (50-54 years) not yet experiencing menopause healed similarly to younger women and dissimilarly from age-matched post-menopausal women. This suggests that the deleterious effects of aging on wound healing occur secondary to the effects of menopause. Supporting this, there was evidence in post-menopausal women that HRT augmented wound closure. Overall, this study suggests that human mucosal healing rates are modulated by testosterone levels. Based upon when between-group differences were observed, testosterone may impact upon the proliferative phase of healing which involves immune processes such as re-epithelialization and angiogenesis.

  11. Infliximab Concentration Thresholds During Induction Therapy Are Associated With Short-term Mucosal Healing in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Van Stappen, Thomas; Vande Casteele, Niels; Gils, Ann; Billiet, Thomas; Tops, Sophie; Claes, Karolien; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Severine; Ferrante, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Mucosal healing is an independent predictor of sustained clinical remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with infliximab. We investigated whether infliximab concentrations during induction therapy are associated with short-term mucosal healing (STMH) in patients with UC. We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis of data collected from a tertiary referral center from 101 patients with UC who received scheduled induction therapy with infliximab at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and had an endoscopic evaluation at baseline and after induction therapy. STMH was defined as Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≤1, assessed at weeks 10-14, with baseline sub-score ≥2. Infliximab concentrations were evaluated in serum samples collected at weeks 0, 2, 6, and 14 of infliximab therapy by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we developed. Fifty-four patients (53.4%) achieved STMH. Patients with STMH had a higher median infliximab concentration at weeks 2, 6, and 14 than patients without STMH. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified infliximab concentration thresholds of 28.3 (area under the ROC curve [AUROC], 0.638), 15 (AUROC, 0.688), and 2.1 μg/mL (AUROC, 0.781) that associated with STMH at weeks 2, 6, and 14, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified infliximab concentration ≥15 at week 6 (P = .025; odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-17.1) and ≥2.1 μg/mL at week 14 (P = .004; odds ratio, 5.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-18) as independent factors associated with STMH. In an analysis of data from real-life clinical practice, we associated infliximab concentrations during the induction therapy with STMH in patients with UC. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oncostatin M promotes mucosal epithelial barrier dysfunction and is elevated in eosinophilic mucosal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Kathryn L.; Norton, James E.; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Suh, Lydia A.; Carter, Roderick G.; Rocci, Erin; Harris, Kathleen E.; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Conley, David B.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Liu, Mark C.; Kato, Atsushi; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Grammer, Leslie C.; Peters, Anju T.; Kern, Robert C.; Bryce, Paul J.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epithelial barrier dysfunction is thought to play a role in many mucosal diseases including asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the role of OSM in epithelial barrier dysfunction in human mucosal disease. Methods OSM expression was measured in tissue extracts, nasal secretions, and BAL. Effects of OSM stimulation on barrier function of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and nasal epithelial cells (NEC) cultured at air liquid interface (ALI) were assessed using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and FITC dextran flux. Dual color immunofluorescence was used to evaluate integrity of tight junction structures in cultured epithelial cells. Results Analysis of CRS samples showed that OSM mRNA and protein were highly increased in nasal polyps compared to control uncinate tissue (p<0.05). OSM was also elevated in BAL of allergic asthmatics following segmental allergen challenge and in esophageal biopsies from EoE patients. OSM stimulation of ALI cultures resulted in reduced barrier function measured by decreased TEER and increased FITC dextran flux (p<0.05). Alterations in barrier function by OSM were reversible, and the viability of epithelial cells was unaffected. OSM levels in lysates of nasal polyps and UT positively correlated with α2-macroglobulin, a marker of epithelial leak, in localized nasal secretions (r=0.4855, p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that OSM may play a role in epithelial barrier dysfunction in CRS and other mucosal diseases. PMID:25840724

  13. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tients underwent conscious sedation with an opiate and benzodiazepine. Heart rate, blood pressure, respirations, ... trol and sedation monitoring similar to our home institu- tion. Patient selection was in part self-referral, ... exam questions were different to avoid memory recall bias. At the end of the course, participants ...

  14. Foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder for endoscopic sinus surgery: A cadaveric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason Y K; Leung, Iris; Navarro-Alarcon, David; Lin, Weiyang; Li, Peng; Lee, Dennis L Y; Liu, Yun-hui; Tong, Michael C F

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a unique prototype foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder (FREE) in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cadaveric study. Using human cadavers, we investigated the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of the robotic endoscope holder in performing endoscopic sinus surgery with two hands in five cadaver heads, mimicking a single nostril three-handed technique. The FREE robot is relatively easy to use. Setup was quick, taking less than 3 minutes from docking the robot at the head of the bed to visualizing the middle meatus. The unit is also relatively small, takes up little space, and currently has four degrees of freedom. The learning curve for using the foot control was short. The use of both hands was not hindered by the presence of the endoscope in the nasal cavity. The tremor filtration also aided in the smooth movement of the endoscope, with minimal collisions. The FREE endoscope holder in an ex-vivo cadaver test corroborated the feasibility of the robotic prototype, which allows for a two-handed approach to surgery equal to a single nostril three-handed technique without the holder that may reduce operating time. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its safety profile and use in other areas of endoscopic surgery. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:566-569, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Role of endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic resection for the treatment of gastric schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Liu, Xiang; Ge, Nan; Wang, Sheng; Guo, Jintao; Wang, Guoxin; Sun, Siyu

    2017-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic resection play an important role in gastric submucosal tumor. However, there were few articles regarding EUS and endoscopic resection of gastric schwannomas. Our aim was to evaluate the role of EUS and endoscopic resection in treating gastric schwannomas.We retrospectively reviewed 14 patients between March 2012 and April 2016 with gastric schwannomas and who received EUS and endoscopic resection. EUS characteristics, endoscopic resection, tumor features, and follow-up were evaluated in all the patients.Fourteen patients were enrolled in the present study. The patients' ages ranged from 25 to 72 years (mean age, 52.6 years). On EUS, all tumors were originating from muscularis propria and hypoechoic. Ten tumors have the extraluminal growth patterns and 4 tumors have the intraluminal growth patterns. Marginal halos were observed in 7 lesions. No cystic change and calcification were found inside the lesions. Complete endoscopic resection was performed in all the patients with no complications occurring in any patients. No recurrence or metastases was found in all patients during the follow-up period.Gastric schwannoma has some characteristics on EUS, but it is difficult to differentiate gastric schwannoma from gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Endoscopic resection is an effective and safe treatment for gastric schwannoma with an excellent follow-up outcome.

  16. Adverse events during and after per-oral endoscopic myotomy: prevention, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Zaheer; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has surfaced as an effective endoscopic treatment modality for achalasia cardia (AC). Promising results in short- and mid-term follow-up studies have increased the use of POEM for the management of AC. POEM can be safely performed in an endoscopy suit, and major adverse events (AEs) are uncommon. AEs encountered during POEM or during the perioperative period principally include insufflation-related AEs, mucosal injuries, bleeding, pain, and aspiration pneumonia. Most insufflation-related AEs do not require an active intervention and therefore should not be considered as AEs in the true sense. When management of AEs is required, most intraoperative AEs can be managed at the same time without untoward consequences. Occurrences of AEs lessen after completion of the learning curve. However, experience alone does not ensure "zero" incidence of AEs, and early recognition remains essential. Postoperative AEs, like leaks, delayed bleeding, and delayed mucosal perforations, may pose special challenges for diagnosis and management. There is no standardized classification system for grading the severity of AEs associated with POEM, resulting in wide variation in their reported occurrences. Uniform reporting of AEs is not only crucial to comprehensively analyze the safety of POEM but also for comparison with other established treatment modalities like Heller's myotomy. GERD is an important long-term AE after POEM. Unlike the perioperative AEs, little is known regarding the intraoperative or patient-related factors that influence the occurrence of post-POEM GERD. Large prospective studies with long-term follow-up are required to determine the procedural factors associated with GERD after POEM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Using external magnet guidance and endoscopically placed magnets to create suture-free gastro-enteral anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Christopher; Yellen, Benjamin; Evans, John; DeMaria, Eric; Pryor, Aurora

    2010-05-01

    To facilitate endolumenal and natural orifice procedures, this study evaluated a novel technique using external and endoscopically placed magnets to create suture-free gastroenteral anastomoses. Seven anesthetized adult swine underwent endoscopic placement of magnets into the small bowel and stomach. Using external magnets, the endoscopically placed internal magnets were brought into opposition under endoscopic view. After 1-2 weeks, the pigs were killed and analyzed. At laparotomy and under sterile conditions, peritoneal cultures were obtained. The anastomoses were evaluated endoscopically and tested using an air insufflation test. Finally, the anastomoses were resected and evaluated microscopically. The average operative time for endoscopic placement of the magnets was 34.3 +/- 14.8 min. Successful placement and creation of anastomoses occurred in six of the pigs. One pig did not form an anastomosis because the magnets were too large to pass through the pylorus at the time of attempted magnet placement. Six swine experienced uncomplicated postoperative courses. One pig's postoperative course involved constipation for several days, requiring additional fluids and fiber supplementation. The findings at endoscopy showed that the magnets were adhered to the anastomosis, which were easily freed, or within the stomach. The air insufflation test results were negative for all the pigs. At laparotomy, there was no evidence of infection, abscess, or leak, but two peritoneal culture results were positive with scant growth of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus, presumably contaminants. Microscopically, the anastomoses illustrated granulation and fibrous connective tissue without evidence of infection or leak. Endoscopically placed magnets with external magnet guidance is a feasible and novel approach to creating patent gastroenteral anastomoses without abdominal incisions or sutures.

  18. Complete mucosal healing of distal lesions induced by twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam promoted clinical remission of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation: double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Makoto; Aoyama, Nobuo; Tada, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kiyonori; Hirai, Fumihito; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2017-08-04

    Budesonide foam is used for the topical treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. This phase III study was performed to confirm mucosal healing and other therapeutic effects of twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis including left-sided colitis and pancolitis. This was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 126 patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with active inflammation in the distal colon were randomized to two groups receiving twice-daily budesonide 2 mg/25 ml foam or placebo foam. The primary endpoint was the percentage of complete mucosal healing of distal lesions (endoscopic subscore of 0) at week 6. Some patients continued the treatment through week 12. Drug efficacy and safety were evaluated. The percentages of both complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission were significantly improved in the budesonide as compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0035). Subgroup analysis showed similar efficacy of budesonide foam for complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission regardless of disease type. The clinical remission percentage tended to be higher in patients achieving complete mucosal healing of distal lesions than in other patients. There were no safety concerns with budesonide foam. This study confirmed for the first time complete mucosal healing with twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation. The results also indicated that complete mucosal healing of distal lesions by budesonide foam promotes clinical remission of ulcerative colitis. Clinical trial registration no.: Japic CTI-142704.

  19. Endoscopic suture fixation is associated with reduced migration of esophageal fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew; Chang, Andrew; Bedi, Aarti Oza; Wamsteker, Erik-Jan; Elta, Grace; Kwon, Richard S; Carrott, Phillip; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Law, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Esophageal fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) are indicated for the management of benign and malignant conditions of the esophagus including perforations, leaks, and strictures. FCSEMS are resistant to tissue ingrowth and are removable; however, stent migration occurs in 30-55% of cases. Endoscopic suture fixation of FCSEMS has been utilized to decrease the risk of stent migration though data supporting this practice remain limited. The primary aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and migration rate of patients who underwent placement of esophageal FCSEMS with and without endoscopic suture fixation. Our single-center, retrospective, cohort study includes patients who underwent esophageal FCSEMS placement with and without endoscopic suture fixation between January 1, 2012, and November 11, 2015. Baseline patient characteristics, procedural details, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Logistic regression was performed to identify clinical and technical factors associated with outcomes and stent migration. A total of 51 patients underwent 62 FCSEMS placements, including 21 procedures with endoscopic suture fixation and 41 without. Suture fixation was associated with reduced risk of stent migration (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.47). Prior stent migration was associated with significantly higher risk of subsequent migration (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.6-26.0). Stent migration was associated with lower likelihood of clinical success (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.69). There was a trend toward higher clinical success among patients undergoing suture fixation (85.7 vs. 60.9%, p = 0.07). Endoscopic suture fixation of FCSEMS was associated with a reduced stent migration rate. Appropriate patient selection for suture fixation of FCSEMS may lead to reduced migration in high-risk patients.

  20. Surgical outcome in headache due to mucosal contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Yabe, Haruna; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Headaches is classified as primary and secondary, with secondary originating in head and neck conditions, the most important etiology being acute sinusitis. Headache due to mucosal contact, rarely encountered by otorhinolaryngologists, is an important secondary headache, whose criteria are defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders to include intermittent pain localized in the periorbital and medial canthal or temporozygomatic regions, evidence that pain is attributable to mucosal contact and the presence of mucosal contact in the absence of acute rhinosinusitis, obtained using clinical examinations, nasal endoscopy, and/or computed tomography (CT). After mucosal contact is surgically corrected pain usually disappears permanently within 7 days. We reviewed mucosal contact headaches in 63 subjects undergoing nasal or paranasal surgery from April 2007 to March 2008. Of those 7 were diagnosed with headaches due to contact points in nasal mucosa, ranging from canthal to the temporozygomatic. The most common contact, between the middle turbinate and nasal septum, was seen in 6 of the 7. Surgery eliminated symptoms in 4 and ameliorated them in 3 indicating effective headache management. Subjects with severe headaches or localized periorbital and medial canthal pain regions, mucosal contact involvement is ruled out when CT allows no lesions. When mucosal contact headache is suspected, however surgery should be considered as a last resort. (author)

  1. Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host’s defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed.

  2. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  3. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyono, Hiroshi; Azegami, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases.

  4. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  5. A Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Surgery for Infectious Spondylodiscitis of the Thoracic and Upper Lumbar Spine in Immunocompromised Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chuan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the safety and effectiveness of computed tomography- (CT- assisted endoscopic surgery in the treatment of infectious spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and upper lumbar spine in immunocompromised patients. From October 2006 to March 2014, a total of 41 patients with infectious spondylodiscitis underwent percutaneous endoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and 13 lesions from 13 patients on the thoracic or upper lumbar spine were selected for evaluation. A CT-guided catheter was placed before percutaneous endoscopic surgery as a guide to avoid injury to visceral organs, major vessels, and the spinal cord. All 13 patients had quick pain relief after endoscopic surgery without complications. The bacterial culture rate was 77%. Inflammatory parameters returned to normal after adequate antibiotic treatment. Postoperative radiographs showed no significant kyphotic deformity when compared with preoperative films. As of the last follow-up visit, no recurrent infections were noted. Traditional transthoracic or diaphragmatic surgery with or without posterior instrumentation is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, or immunocompromised patients. Percutaneous endoscopic surgery assisted by a CT-guided catheter provides a safe and effective alternative treatment for infectious spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and upper lumbar spine.

  6. Surgical Evacuation of Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Stereotactic Aspiration, Endoscopic Surgery, and Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqian; Yang, Ruixin; Li, Zhihong; Yang, Yanping; Tian, Bo; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Bao; Lu, Dan; Guo, Shaochun; Man, Minghao; Yang, Yang; Luo, Tao; Gao, Guodong; Li, Lihong

    2017-09-01

    The safety and efficacy of craniotomy, endoscopic surgery, and stereotactic aspiration for surgical evacuation of spontaneous supratentorial lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is yet uncertain. The present study analyzed the clinical and radiographic data from 99 patients with spontaneous supratentorial lobar ICH, retrospectively, to address this issue. Patients who underwent craniotomy, endoscopy surgery, or stereotactic aspiration were assigned to the craniotomy group (n = 31), endoscopy surgery group (n = 32), or stereotactic aspiration group (n = 36), respectively. The characteristics of all the enrolled patients at the time of admission were assimilated. Also, the therapeutic effects of the three surgical procedures were evaluated based on short-term outcomes within 30 days and long-term outcomes at 6 months after the ictus. The results showed that stereotactic aspiration and endoscopic surgery were associated with a superior clinical therapeutic effect in both short-term and long-term outcomes than craniotomy for the treatment of spontaneous supratentorial lobar ICH. Notably, severely affected patients with hematoma volume > 60 mL or Glasgow Coma Scale score 4-8 may benefit more from endoscopic surgery than the two other surgical procedures. The current findings demonstrate that both stereotactic aspiration and endoscopic surgery possess an apparent advantage over craniotomy for the evacuation of spontaneous supratentorial lobar ICH. The endoscopic surgery might be more safe and effective with higher evacuation rate, better functional neurological outcomes, and lower complication and mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PRESENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI WITH INFLAMMATORY ENDOSCOPIC CHANGES IN GASTRODUODENAL MUCOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Irma Cláudia Saboya; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernandao; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Ribeiro, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya; Veras, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Neppel, Aline

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in inflammatory disorders of the digestive mucosa has been the subject of several studies since socioeconomic, personal and environmental factors were implicated in the bacteria transmission. To correlate the inflammatory endoscopic findings with HP infection and the onset of mucosal diseases mucous of the upper digestive tract. Comparative observational study, in which were collected data from 2247 patients who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsies for HP with urease test. The patients were divided into two groups: HP+ and HP- (control) in which endoscopic findings were observed for the following changes: esophagitis, esophageal ulcer, gastritis, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer, bulboduodenitis, bulbar ulcer and without disease. As for esophagitis, there was little disparity in the distribution favorable to HP+ group (HP+ =67.11% and HP- =69.89%) and esophageal ulcer (HP+ =0% and HP- =0, 21%). Gastritis was favorable to HP- group (HP+ =78.34% and HP- =73.63%), as well as erosive gastritis (HP+ = 67,11% and HP- = 64,55%), in bulboduodenitis (HP+ =1,87% and HP- 1,23%), in gastric ulcer (HP+ =2,14% and HP- =2,03%) and in the absence of alterations in the HP+ group (4.81%) with the HP- control group (6,30%), in which there was little disproportion in favor of HP- group, but without statistical significance. As for the bulbar ulcer (HP +=10.16% and HP- =4.48%), there was statistically significant (p=0.00001). There is no difference between HP+ and HP- groups in inflammatory changes in endoscopic gastroduodenal mucosa, except for the relationship between HP and bulbar ulcer. A influência do Helicobacter pylori (HP) nas alterações inflamatórias das mucosas digestivas tem sido objeto de vários estudos uma vez que fatores socioeconômicos, pessoais e ambientais são implicados na transmissão da bactéria, facilitando-a. Relacionar os achados inflamatórios endoscópicos com a infecção pelo HP e o aparecimento de doen

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound guided injection of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for liver and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungureanu, Bogdan Silviu; Pirici, Daniel; Margaritescu, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma are two of the most aggressive types of cancer with limited therapeutic options in stages of advanced disease. Our objective is to assess the safety and feasibility of injecting iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) via endoscopic ultrasound (EUS......)-guidance, both systemically and locally in the liver and pancreas in order to study new potential therapies for liver and pancreatic tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six domestic pigs were used for our study design, and divided into three groups: two were injected in the portal vein, and other four were subjected...... to local exposure of IONs in the liver and pancreas, two each. The pigs were on a 7 days follow-up and necropsy was performed with their organs harvested. A 3T MRI scan was also performed. RESULTS: All animals underwent an endoscopic ultrasound fine needle injection (EUS-FNI) procedure without any...

  9. Sudden death after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)--case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Goran; Milosevic, Marko; Zelić, Marko; Stimac, Davor

    2014-12-01

    There are only a few cases found in literature regarding air embolism in endoscopic procedures, especially in connection to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old female patient who suffered from non-Hodgkin lymphoma located in her right groin. She was also diagnosed with choledocholithiasis and underwent ERCP to remove the gallstones. Immediately after the procedure she went into sudden cardiac arrest and subsequently died, despite all of our efforts. We reviewed literature in order to identify possible causes of death because fatal outcome following an uneventful and successful procedure was not expected. It is important to bear in mind all possible complications of ERCP. Our focus during the literature search was on air embolism.

  10. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2013-10-01

    The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.

  11. The Impact Of Oral Vitamin E In Preventing Mucositis (Bucal Mucous Inflammation Resulting From The Radiotherapy In Tumors Of Head And Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucositis [bucal Mucous inflamation] is the most common complication resulting from the radiotherapy in tumors of head and neck. These malignancies are often curable through radiotherapy. This complication, however, may impair the treatment process and cause malnutrition. So far no medicine has been Known to prevent this complication. Vitamin E is a stabilizer of cell membrane and is also used in mucositis treatment. The survey of oral vitamin E effect on mucositis prophylaxis in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients afflicted with head and neck malignancies referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital were randomly divided into 2groups, two of whom died during treatment process. The first group (The case group consisting of 34 patients Consumed oral vitamin E 200 mg daily for seven days. The second group (The control group did not use any medicine at all. The two group underwent radiotherapy. They were compared and contrasted as to mucositis severity and dysphagia during treatment. Results: In the first group, since the fourth week up to the end of the treatment, there was a lower frequency and grade of mucositis in contrast with the control group. In the fourth week, the grade two mucositis in the first group (Case group was 20.6% and 47.5% in the control group the difference was statistically significant (P=0.024. There was also a lower frequency and grade of dysphagia in the case group since the fourth week versus the control group. In the fourth week, moderate dysphagia was 29.4% in the case group and 55.9% in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.023. Conclusion: Oral vitamin E has Proved to be effective in the Prophylaxis of Moderate and severe mucositis and dysphagia resulting from radiotherapy. It is advisable to conduct more research with more cases, lengthier duration and heavier doses.

  12. Factors associated with acute oral mucosal reaction induced by radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A retrospective single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhenchao; Gao, Jin; Qian, Liting; Huang, Yifan; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Liping; He, Jian; Yang, Jing; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Yangyang

    2017-12-01

    To investigate risk factors for acute oral mucosal reaction during head and neck squamous cell carcinoma radiotherapy.A retrospective study of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radiotherapy from November 2013 to May 2016 in Anhui Provincial Cancer Hospital was conducted. Data on the occurrence and severity of acute oral mucositis were extracted from clinical records. Based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading of acute radiation mucosal injury, the patients were assigned into acute reaction (grades 2-4) and minimum reaction (grades 0-1) groups. Preradiotherapy characteristics and treatment factors were compared between the 2 groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to detect the independent factors associated with acute oral mucosal reactions.Eighty patients completed radiotherapy during the study period. Oral mucosal reactions were recorded as 25, 31, and 24 cases of grades 1, 2, and 3 injuries, respectively. Significant differences between acute reaction and minimum reaction groups were detected in cancer lymph node (N) staging, smoking and diabetes history, pretreatment platelet count and T-Helper/T-Suppressor lymphocyte (Th/Ts) ratio, concurrent chemotherapy, and total and single irradiation doses.Multivariate analysis showed that N stage, smoking history, single dose parapharyngeal irradiation, and pretreatment platelet count were independent risk factors for acute radiation induced oral mucosal reaction. Smoking history, higher grading of N stage, higher single dose irradiation, and lower preirradiation platelet count may increase the risk and severity of acute radiation oral mucosal reaction in radiotherapy of head and neck cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoscopic treatment of prepatellar bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chih; Yeh, Wen-Lin

    2011-03-01

    Operative treatment of prepatellar bursitis is indicated in intractable bursitis. The most common complication of surgical treatment for prepatellar bursitis is skin problems. For traumatic prepatellar bursitis, we propose a protocol of outpatient endoscopic surgery under local anaesthesia. From September 1996 to February 2001, 60 cases of failed nonoperative treatment for prepatellar bursitis were included. The average age was 33.5 ± 11.1 years (range 21-55). The average operation duration was 18 minutes. Two to three mini-arthroscopic portals were used in our series. No sutures or a simple suture was needed for the portals after operation. After follow-up for an average of 36.3 months, all patients are were symptom-free and had regained knee function. None of the population had local tenderness or hypo-aesthesia around their wound. Their radiographic and sonographic examinations showed no recurrence of bursitis. Outpatient arthroscopic bursectomy under local anaesthesia is an effective procedure for the treatment of post-traumatic prepatellar bursitis after failed conservative treatments. Both the cosmetic results and functional results were satisfactory.

  14. Training in Endoscopy: Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang Min

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been recently established as an indispensable modality for the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. EUS proficiency requires both cognitive and technical abilities, including an understanding of the appropriate indications, the performance of appropriate evaluations before and after the procedure, and the management of procedure-related complications. An increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures and a continual shortage of EUS training programs are two major obstacles for EUS training. Acquiring the skills necessary to comprehend and conduct EUS often requires training beyond the scope of a standard GI fellowship program. In addition to traditional formal EUS training and preceptorships, regular short-term intensive EUS training programs that provide training at various levels may help EUS practitioners improve and maintain EUS-related knowledges and skills. Theoretical knowledge can be acquired from lectures, textbooks, atlases, slides, videotapes, digital video discs, interactive compact discs, and websites. Informal EUS training is generally based on 1- or 2-day intensive seminars, including didactic lectures, skills demonstrated by expert practitioners through live video-streaming of procedures, and hands-on learning using animal or phantom models.

  15. Endoscopic closure of septal perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobid, Isam

    2017-05-26

    The management of septal perforations is a challenge for the surgeon. A wide variety of surgical techniques have been described, with different approaches. There is no scientific evidence to support a particular approach. The objective of this review is to present a practical guide on the technique of choice for each case of septal perforation. Inspection of the nasal mucosa, the size of the perforation, the location and especially the osteo-cartilaginous support, are the pillars of a successful surgery. For the sliding or rotating flaps of the mucosa of the septum it is essential to know in advance if the elevation of the mucopericondrio or mucoperiosteo of the septum is possible, otherwise the use of these flaps would not be indicated. The flaps of the lateral wall or nasal floor are the alternative. The pericranial flap may be indicated in total or near total perforations. The remnant of the nasal septum and status of osteo-cartilaginous support are the determining factors in the management of septal perforations. Each case should be evaluated individually and the approach chosen according to the size and location of the perforation, mucosal quality, personal history, previous surgery and the experience of the surgeon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison Between Endoscopic Biliary Stenting and Nasobiliary Drainage in Patients with Acute Cholangitis due to Choledocholithiasis: Is Endoscopic Biliary Stenting Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Keisuke; Ueki, Toshiharu; Matsumura, Keiichiro; Maruo, Toru; Minoda, Ryohei; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Kawamoto, Kenichiro; Noma, Ejiro; Mitsuyasu, Tomoko; Matsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    To clarify whether or not use of an endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) is superior to endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) in cases of acute cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis. Of 447 patients with choledocholithiasis who were treated in the Department of Gastroenterology, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital between January 1994 and September 2006, the subjects were 99 moderate acute cholangitis patients who underwent endoscopic drainage as initial treatment. Clinical efficacy, complications and patient satisfaction (meal intake rete) were investigated in the EBS group (67 patients) and the ENBD group (32 patients). There were no significant differences in the improvement in inflammation, total bilirubin, or biliary enzymes between the EBS and ENBD groups. Catheter occlusion was seen in three patients (4%) in the EBS group, and the catheter was self-extracted by three patients (10%) in the ENBD group. In moderate acute cholangitis due to choledocholithisis, the treatment efficacy and safety of EBS are equal to those of ENBD, and EBS appears to be a better choice in elderly patients in particular.

  17. Pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing endoscopic, transnasal, transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbe, D; Semple, P

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the importance of pre-operative ear, nose and throat assessment in patients undergoing endoscopic, transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours. Literature pertaining to the pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment and management of patients undergoing endoscopic anterior skull base surgery is sparse. We describe two cases from our series of 59 patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary surgery. The first case involved a young male patient with a large pituitary macroadenoma. His main complaint was visual impairment. He had no previous history of sinonasal pathology and did not complain of any nasal symptoms during the pre-operative neurosurgical assessment. At the time of surgery, a purulent nasal discharge was seen emanating from both middle meati. Surgery was abandoned due to the risk of post-operative meningitis, and postponed until the patient's chronic rhinosinusitis was optimally managed. The second patient was a 47-year-old woman with a large pituitary macroadenoma, who presented to the neurosurgical department with a main complaint of diplopia. She too gave no history of previous nasal problems, and she underwent uneventful surgery using the endoscopic, transnasal approach. Two weeks after surgery, she presented to the emergency unit with severe epistaxis. A previous diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia was discovered, and further surgical and medical intervention was required before the epistaxis was finally controlled. Pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment is essential prior to endoscopic pituitary or anterior skull base surgery. A thorough otorhinolaryngological history will determine whether any co-morbid diseases exist which could affect the surgical field. Nasal anatomy can be assessed via nasal endoscopy and sinusitis excluded. Computed tomography imaging is a valuable aid to decisions regarding additional procedures needed to optimise access to the pituitary fossa.

  18. Transforaminal endoscopic decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis: A novel surgical technique and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ha; Bae, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Keum, Han-Joong; Kim, Ho-Jin; Jang, Won-Seok

    2018-03-23

    Transforaminal endoscopic treatment has been reported to be an effective treatment option in patients with lumbar disc herniation. However, it is rarely performed for spinal stenosis because of the limitation of endoscopic working mobility due to the exiting nerve root and foraminous bony structure. The objective of the present study was to describe a novel transforaminal endoscopic decompression technique for spinal stenosis and report the clinical results. From October 2015 to October 2016, 30 consecutive cases were diagnosed as lateral recess stenosis in our institution and underwent transforaminal endoscopic decompression. The visual analog scales(VAS) of back and leg pain and the Oswestry disability index were measured preoperatively and at the follow-up RESULTS: The mean±standard deviation value of the preoperative VAS score for leg pain was 7.6±1.17. The score improved to 2.2±1.11 at 1 week postoperatively, 1.73±0.96 at 4 weeks postoperatively, and 1.63±0.95 at 26 weeks postoperatively (Pvalue of the preoperative ODI was 65.69±14.22. The score improved to 24.29±11.89 at 1 week postoperatively, 21.25±9.25 at 4 weeks postoperatively, and 15.62±10.49 at 26 weeks postoperatively (P<0.01). There were no patients with postoperative infection, dural tear, delayed neurological deterioration, or conversion to open surgery. Transforaminal endoscopic decompression under the local anesthesia could be an effective treatment method for the selected group of patients with spinal stenosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trans-oral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy does not worsen the speech after cleft palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Khalifa, Badawy; Shawky, Ahmed; Rashed, Mohammed; Naguib, Nader; Abdel-Hameed, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy may play a role in velopharyngeal closure especially in patients with palatal abnormality; adenoidectomy may lead to velopharyngeal insufficiency and hyper nasal speech. Patients with cleft palate even after repair should not undergo adenoidectomy unless absolutely needed, and in such situations, conservative or partial adenoidectomy is performed to avoid the occurrence of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Trans-oral endoscopic adenoidectomy enables the surgeon to inspect the velopharyngeal valve during the procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy on the speech of children with repaired cleft palate. Twenty children with repaired cleft palate underwent transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy to relieve their airway obstruction. The procedure was completely visualized with the use of a 70° 4mm nasal endoscope; the upper part of the adenoid was removed using adenoid curette and St. Claire Thompson forceps, while the lower part was retained to maintain the velopharyngeal competence. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of speech was performed, subjectively by auditory perceptual assessment, and objectively by nasometric assessment. Speech was not adversely affected after surgery. The difference between preoperative and postoperative auditory perceptual assessment and nasalance scores for nasal and oral sentences was insignificant (p=0.231, 0.442, 0.118 respectively). Transoral endoscopic partial adenoidectomy is a safe method; it does not worsen the speech of repaired cleft palate patients. It enables the surgeon to strictly inspect the velopharyngeal valve during the procedure with better determination of the adenoidal part that may contribute in velopharyngeal closure. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of urine and bladder or urethral mucosal biopsy culture obtained by transurethral cystoscopy in dogs with chronic lower urinary tract disease: 41 cases (2002 to 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycamore, K F; Poorbaugh, V R; Pullin, S S; Ward, C R

    2014-07-01

    To compare aerobic bacterial culture of urine to cystoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the lower urinary tract in dogs. Retrospective review of case records from dogs that had transurethral cystoscopy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2002 and 2011. Dogs that had culture results from cystocentesis obtained urine and transurethral cystoscopically obtained mucosal samples were included in the study. Pathogens identified were compared between sampling methods. Forty dogs underwent transurethral cystoscopy for lower urinary tract disease on 41 occasions. There was significant (P = 0 · 0003) agreement between urine and mucosal biopsy cultures. Both cultures were negative in 66% and positive in 17% of dogs. There was a 17% disagreement between the sampling methods. Although not statistically significant, more mucosal samples than urine cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. There was a good agreement between pathogen identification from urine and lower urinary tract mucosal cultures. These results do not support the utilisation of transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsy samples for culture in dogs with urinary tract infection and positive urine culture. Individual cases with possible chronic urinary tract infection and negative urine culture may benefit from transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsies for culture. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Protective effect of perioperative recombinant human growth hormone application on intestinal mucosal barrier function in patients with intestinal obstruction and the assessment of immune inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yi Jia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effect of perioperative recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH application on intestinal mucosal barrier function in patients with intestinal obstruction and the influence on the immune inflammatory response. Methods: 60 patients with intestinal obstruction who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital between February 2013 and July 2016 were selected as the research subjects and divided into the control group (n=34 who received conventional surgical treatment and the observation group (n=26 who received surgery combined with perioperative r-hGH treatment. The serum levels of intestinal mucosal barrier indexes, immunoglobulin and inflammatory response indicators were compared between two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, differences in serum levels of intestinal mucosal barrier indexes, immunoglobulin and inflammatory response indicators were not statistically significant between the two groups of patients. After treatment, serum intestinal mucosal barrier indexes Endotoxin, D-Lactate and DAO levels in observation group were lower than those in control group, immunoglobulin IgA, IgM and IgG levels were higher than those in control group, and inflammatory response indicators IL-1, IL-6, PCT and TNF-α levels were lower than those in control group patients. Conclusion: Perioperative r-hGH application in patients with intestinal obstruction can protect the intestinal mucosal barrier, also optimize the humoral immunity and suppress the systemic inflammatory response.

  2. Prior mucosal exposure to heterologous cells alters the pathogenesis of cell-associated mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavell Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of research suggest that exposure to cellular material can alter the susceptibility to infection by HIV-1. Because sexual contact often includes exposure to cellular material, we hypothesized that repeated mucosal exposure to heterologous cells would induce an immune response that would alter the susceptibility to mucosal infection. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV model of HIV-1 mucosal transmission, the cervicovaginal mucosa was exposed once weekly for 12 weeks to 5,000 heterologous cells or media (control and then cats were vaginally challenged with cell-associated or cell-free FIV. Results Exposure to heterologous cells decreased the percentage of lymphocytes in the mucosal and systemic lymph nodes (LN expressing L-selectin as well as the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ T cells. These shifts were associated with enhanced ex-vivo proliferative responses to heterologous cells. Following mucosal challenge with cell-associated, but not cell-free, FIV, proviral burden was reduced by 64% in cats previously exposed to heterologous cells as compared to media exposed controls. Conclusions The pathogenesis and/or the threshold for mucosal infection by infected cells (but not cell-free virus can be modulated by mucosal exposure to uninfected heterologous cells.

  3. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özülkü

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results: The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump as compared to Group 2 (off-pump. But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893, P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006. Conclusion: Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  4. Dysphagia among Adult Patients who Underwent Surgery for Esophageal Atresia at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Huynh-Trudeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and/or anatomical anomalies.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage...

  6. Endoscopic management of a rare granulation polyp in a colonic diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayagi, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-12-28

    There are many case reports on colon diverticula that cause irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, bleeding, diverticulitis, stricture due to multiple recurrences of diverticulitis, and perforation. However, few articles have examined neoplasms that arise from a diverticulum, such as adenoma and adenocarcinoma, and there have been no reports of granulation polyps that arise from a colon diverticulum after recurrent diverticulitis. We observed a rare granulation polyp that arose from a diverticulum as a result of repeated episodes of local diverticulitis. Narrow band imaging magnified colonoscopy was very useful to diagnose the polyp as a granulation polyp because of the absence of a pit pattern on the surface of the polyp. We successfully resected the polyp using endoscopic mucosal resection. We inverted the diverticulum, and the resected stalk of the polyp was used to close the diverticulum with an over-the-scope clip. If a granulomatous polyp could arise from a diverticulum, differential diagnosis between a colon neoplasm and a granulomatous polyp would not only be difficult but also necessary for suitable endoscopic treatment.

  7. Diagnostic potential of endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography for gastric submucosal tumors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuichiro; Kusano, Chika; Gotoda, Takuji; Itokawa, Fumihide; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Sofuni, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagao, Toshitaka; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative diagnosis for gastric submucosal tumors (SMT) is not easy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in combination with EUS-elastography (EUS-EG) is reported useful for qualitatively diagnosing pancreatic tissues. We prospectively studied whether EUS-EG could be useful in qualitative diagnosis of gastric SMT. We prospectively registered 25 consecutive patients with gastric SMT diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and carried out qualitative evaluations using EUS-EG (May 2013 to March 2015) followed by histopathological diagnosis using EUS-FNA or endoscopic mucosal cutting biopsy. Elastic scores of gastric SMT were compared to the cytological diagnosis. Of 25 patients, 22 had a confirmed cytological diagnosis. Regarding the Giovannini elastic score, of three patients with aberrant pancreas, one was score 1 and two were score 2; of eight patients with leiomyoma, seven were score 2 and one was score 3. Both of two patients with schwannoma were score 4. Of nine patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, six were score 4 and three were score 5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is harder than other types of gastric SMT, and our study's findings suggested the usefulness of EUS-EG, which can also assess tumor hardness of gastric SMT. EUS-EG might be helpful for the differential diagnosis of gastric SMT, especially to differentiate GIST from other SMT. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. Novel method to prevent gastric antral strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection: using triamcinolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Noriko; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Oryu, Makoto; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-09-07

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of large gastric lesions often leads to severe gastric strictures, especially in cases of large ESD in the antrum of the stomach. It has recently been reported that balloon dilation, mucosal incision, and local steroid injections can successfully treat gastric strictures. However, there are some complications with existing methods and decreasing the quality of life. We have developed a novel method to prevent severe gastric strictures that does not involve balloon dilation, mucosal incision, or steroid injections after circumferential ESD. Our original method involves the submucosal injection of a mixed solution composed of triamcinolone acetonide and a general solution of glycerol, hyaluronic acid, and a small amount of indigo carmine and epinephrine during the ESD procedure; this mixture is called a mixed solution of triamcinolone (MST). According to standard ESD procedures, several milliliters of MST are injected into the submucosal layer for the purpose of elevating the submucosa during ESD resulting in prevention of severe strictures. Our method using MST take several advantages such as MST method suppress inflammation in ulcer from initial phase, prevention of stricture without obstructive symptoms, and does not require several ballooning. Therefore, MST method is safe and gentle, shorten the hospitalization duration. Here, we described two cases in which we prevented severe strictures of the gastric antrum after completing a circumferential ESD using MST without any complications.

  9. Validation of Fujinon intelligent chromoendoscopy with high definition endoscopes in colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Jiménez, Alejandro; Rembacken, Björn; González, Nicolás; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Carrillo-Palau, Marta; Matsuda, Takahisa; Quintero, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To validate high definition endoscopes with Fujinon intelligent chromoendoscopy (FICE) in colonoscopy. METHODS: The image quality of normal white light endoscopy (WLE), that of the 10 available FICE filters and that of a gold standard (0.2% indigo carmine dye) were compared. RESULTS: FICE-filter 4 [red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelengths of 520, 500, and 405 nm, respectively] provided the best images for evaluating the vascular pattern compared to white light. The mucosal surface was best assessed using filter 4. However, the views obtained were not rated significantly better than those observed with white light. The “gold standard”, indigo carmine (IC) dye, was found to be superior to both white light and filter 4. Filter 6 (RGB wavelengths of 580, 520, and 460 nm, respectively) allowed for exploration of the IC-stained mucosa. When assessing mucosal polyps, both FICE with magnification, and magnification following dye spraying were superior to the same techniques without magnification and to white light imaging. In the presence of suboptimal bowel preparation, observation with the FICE mode was possible, and endoscopists considered it to be superior to observation with white light. CONCLUSION: FICE-filter 4 with magnification improves the image quality of the colonic vascular patterns obtained with WLE. PMID:19908333

  10. [Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.

  11. Endoscopic techniques in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroletti, Fred; Johnson, Brad S; McCain, Joseph P

    2010-02-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery is entering a new era. Surgeons can use the latest technological advances in equipment in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. Minimally invasive surgery with the use of the endoscope has improved in recent years because of technological advancements in optics and associated instrumentation. Trauma, orthognathic, sialoendoscopy, and temporomandibular joint surgery are commonly performed with the assistance of the endoscope. From an educational standpoint, surgical anatomy and various other principles can easily be taught to trainees with the assistance of the endoscope. The operating surgeon can visualize an area via the endoscope, and instruct regarding the surgical maneuvers on the monitor, without obstructions to view. This technique also allows others in and out of the room to view the image. Endoscopically assisted surgery is gaining popularity and is becoming a tool frequently used by surgeons to assist in and simplify some of the more difficult techniques that often require more extensive surgical exposure for visualization. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasal encephalocele: endoscopic excision with anesthetic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha

    2010-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranas