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Sample records for underweight subjects bmi

  1. Afkapwaarden van de 'body-mass index' (BMI) voor ondergewicht van Nederlandse kinderen [Body-mass index cut-off values for underweight in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the cut-off values for the body-mass index (BMI) for underweight and serious underweight in children up to 18 years of age based on the Dutch growth standards of 1980, and to determine the prevalence of underweight and serious underweight in the 1997 Dutch growth-study

  2. Underweight and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Keeho; Ahn, Song Vogue; Kang, Dae Ryong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Willett, Walter C; Suh, Il

    2016-07-01

    According to most prospective studies, being underweight (BMICorporation study with 14 years of follow-up. After excluding deaths within the first 5 years of follow-up (1993-1997) to minimize reverse causation and excluding participants without information about smoking and health status, 94 133 men and 48 496 women aged 35-59 years in 1990 were included. We documented 5411 (5·7 %) deaths in men and 762 (1·6 %) in women. Among never smokers, hazard ratios (HR) for underweight individuals were not significantly higher than those for normal-weight individuals (BMI=18·5-22·9 kg/m2): HR=0·87 (95 % CI 0·41, 1·84, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=1·12 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·65, P=0·58) for underweight women. Among ex-smokers, HR=0·86 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·93, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=3·77 (95 % CI 0·42, 32·29, P=0·24) for underweight women. Among current smokers, HR=1·60 (95 % CI 1·28, 2·01, Pmen and HR=2·07 (95 % CI 0·43, 9·94, P=0·36) for underweight women. The present study does not support that being underweight per se is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Korean men and women.

  3. Factors associated with BMI, underweight, overweight, and obesity among adults in a population of rural south India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Matthew; Humphries, Sally; Patel, Kirit; Dewey, Cate

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases are becoming serious public health concerns in rural areas of India. Compounded with the existing issue of underweight, such concerns expose the double burden of disease and may put stress on rural healthcare. The purpose of this article was to present the prevalence and factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in an area of rural south India. Methods During 2013 and 2014, a random sample of adults aged 20?80 yea...

  4. Subjective social status, life course SES, and BMI in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Kent, Blake Victor; Henderson, W Matthew; Setar, Anna Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with many aspects of health and well-being, including body mass index (BMI). Most research in this area has focused on objective indicators of SES such as education and income, but recent work suggests that subjective social status (SSS) is also important. This study contributes to a growing body of research on SSS and BMI. Data from Waves I and IV the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a study of 14,780 individuals followed from adolescence to young adulthood, were analyzed. Analyses showed that (a) SSS was inversely associated with BMI among young adults, (b) objective SES in both adulthood and early life explained about half of this relationship, (c) SSS appeared to offer a partial explanation for the association between SES (in both adulthood and early life) and BMI, (d) health behaviors, psychological characteristics, self-rated health, and perceived stress explained part of the relationship between SSS and BMI after controlling for SES and other covariates, and (e) SSS had a residual association with BMI that was not accounted for by any of the variables in the full model. This work shows that SSS is important because it (a) has an independent association with BMI net of SES, which suggests that it captures unique aspects of social and economic conditions missed by objective indicators of SES and (b) may help link SES with BMI through perceptions of one's place in the status hierarchy of society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The relationship between preterm birth and underweight in Asian women.

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    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2015-08-15

    Although vast improvements have been made in the survival of preterm infants, the toll of preterm birth (PTB) is particularly severe in Asia, with the Indian subcontinent leading the preterm birth rate. Despite the obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence in developing countries. An association between maternal underweight and preterm birth has been reported in developed countries. A review of epidemiological studies in Asian women in whom association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of PTB was measured, indicated no significant association between low maternal BMI and preterm birth. A hindrance in comparison of these studies is the use of different cut-off point for BMI in defining maternal underweight. As a commentary on published studies it is proposed that that country-specific BMI cut points should be applied for defining underweight for Asian women for the purpose of evaluating the association between maternal underweight and preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects) and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects). Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%). Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level of undernutrition was still high in 2005. The shifts of underweight to overweight were most obvious among population groups with higher food expenditure levels. PMID:21276266

  7. The use of Stunkard's figure rating scale to identify underweight and overweight in Chinese adolescents.

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    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of Stunkard's current body size (CBS) with self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in predicting weight status in Chinese adolescents, and to determine the CBS cutoffs for overweight/obesity and underweight. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 5,418 secondary school students (45.2% boys; mean age 14.7 years). Height and weight were measured by trained teachers or researchers. Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Subjects were asked to select the figure that best resembled their CBS on the Stunkard's figure rating scale. Self-reported height, weight, WC and WSR were also obtained. The performance of CBS, self-reported BMI, WC and WSR as a weight status indicator was analysed by sex-specific receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal CBS cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined based on the Youden Index. Apart from self-reported BMI, CBS had the greatest area under curve (AUC) for underweight in boys (0.82) and girls (0.81). For overweight/obesity, CBS also had a greater AUC (0.85) than self-reported WC and WSR in boys, and an AUC (0.81) comparable to self-reported WC and WSR in girls. In general, CBS values of 3 and 5 appeared to be the optimal cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity, respectively, in different sex-age subgroups. CBS is a potentially useful indicator to assess weight status of adolescents when measured and self-reported BMI are not available.

  8. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

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    Mai Le B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects. Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%. Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI 2 of 20.9% in 2005 was lower than the rate of 25.0% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight as compared to men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were clearer among the higher food expenditure levels. Conclusions The double nutrition burden was clearly present in Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level

  9. Only severe COPD is associated with being underweight: results from a population survey

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    Berne Eriksson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Low body mass index (BMI and malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are associated with a poor prognosis. The prevalence of underweight, as well as overweight, in severity grades of COPD is sparsely investigated in studies of the general population and the associated patterns of risk factors are not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between severity grades of airflow limitation in COPD, and both underweight and obesity when corrected for possible confounding factors. The study is based on pooled data from the OLIN (Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies. Complete records with lung function, BMI and structured interview data were available from 3942 subjects (50.7% women and 49.3% men. COPD and severity grading were defined using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. In sensitivity analyses, the lower limit of normal was used. The prevalence of underweight was 7.3% in severe COPD (grades 3 and 4 versus 2.0% in those with normal spirometry. The prevalence of obesity increased from 9.7% in grade 1, to 16.3% in grade 2 and 20.0% in severe COPD, versus 17.7% in those with normal spirometry. In adjusted analysis, of the COPD severity grades, only severe COPD was associated with underweight (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.0004–10.5, while the COPD severity grades tended to be inversely associated with overweight.

  10. Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study

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    Nagayama D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Daiji Nagayama,1,2 Haruki Imamura,2 Yuta Sato,2 Takashi Yamaguchi,2 Noriko Ban,2 Hidetoshi Kawana,2 Masahiro Ohira,2 Atsuhito Saiki,2 Kohji Shirai,3 Ichiro Tatsuno2 1Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama-City, 2Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, Sakura-City, Japan Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Subjects and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2 who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis. Results: Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 0.804 (0.720–0.899], older age [15.6 (14.0–17.4], male gender [2.26 (2.03–2.51], hypertension [2.28 (2.06–2.54], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01–1.37], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669–1.06] as independent factors. Conclusion: We demonstrated an

  11. Underweight among rural Indian adults: burden, and predictors of incidence and recovery.

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    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Fawzi, Wafaie Wahib; Bromage, Sabri; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2018-03-01

    To study the magnitude and predictors of underweight, incident underweight and recovery from underweight among rural Indian adults. Prospective cohort study. Each participant's BMI was measured in 2008 and 2012 and categorized as underweight (BMIBirbhum Health and Demographic Surveillance System, West Bengal, India. Predominantly rural individuals (n 6732) aged ≥18 years enrolled in 2008 were followed up in 2012. In 2008, the prevalence of underweight was 46·5 %. From 2008 to 2012, 25·8 % of underweight persons transitioned to normal BMI, 12·9 % of normal-weight persons became underweight and 0·1 % of overweight/obese persons became underweight. Multivariable models reveal that people aged 25-49 years, educated and wealthier people, and non-smokers had lower odds of underweight in 2008 and lower odds of incident underweight. Odds of recovery from underweight were lower among people aged ≥36 years and higher among educated (Grade 6 or higher) individuals. The current study highlights a high incidence of underweight and important risk factors and modifiable predictors of underweight in rural India, which may inform the design of local nutrition interventions.

  12. Impact of Obesity and Underweight on Surgical Outcome of Lumbar Disc Herniation

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    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between underweight and lumbar spine surgery is still unknown. Aim. To evaluate the effect of underweight versus obesity based on surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation. Material and Method. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 206 patients (112 male and 94 female with a mean age of 37.5±3.1 years old (ranged 20–72 who have been surgically treated due to the refractory simple primary L4-L5 disc herniation. We followed them up for a mean period of 42.4±7.2 months (ranged 24–57. We used Body Mass Index (BMI, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for categorization, disability, and pain assessment, respectively. We used Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests for statistics. Results. Surgical discectomy in all weight groups was associated with significant improvement in pain and disability, but intergroup comparison showed these improvements in both underweight and obese groups and they were significantly lower than in normal weight group. Excellent and good satisfaction rate was also somewhat lower in both these ends of weight spectrum, but statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Both obesity and underweight may have adverse prognostic influences on the surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation, although their impact on subjective satisfaction rate seems to be insignificant.

  13. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  14. Unemployment, underweight, and obesity: Findings from Understanding Society (UKHLS).

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    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena

    2017-04-01

    Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. What is the impact of underweight on self-reported health trajectories and mortality rates: a cohort study.

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    Lorem, Geir Fagerjord; Schirmer, Henrik; Emaus, Nina

    2017-10-02

    Utilizing a cohort study design combining a survey approach with repeated physical examinations, we examined the independent effects of BMI on mortality and self-reported health (SRH) and whether these independent effects change as people grow older. The Tromsø Study consists of six surveys conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, with large representative samples of a general population. In total, 31,985 subjects participated in at least one of the four surveys administered between 1986 and 2008. Outcomes of interest were SRH and all-cause mortality. Overweight and underweight subjects reported significantly lower levels of SRH, but age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. The SRH trajectory of underweight subjects at age 25 was slightly above the other categories (0.08), but it fell to -.30 below the reference category at age 90. For obese subjects, the difference was -0.15 below the reference category at age 25 and -0.18 below at age 90. This implies that even though a low BMI was slightly beneficial at a young age, it represented an increasing risk with age that crossed the reference curve at age 38 and even crossed the obese trajectory at age 67 in the full fitted model. The proportional hazard ratio for those who were underweight was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.38-2.06) for all-cause death as compared to 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02-1.23) for obese subjects. BMI affected SRH and all-cause mortality independently from comorbidity, mental health, health-related behaviors and other biological risk factors. Being underweight was associated with excess mortality as compared to all others, and age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. Weight increase was beneficial for mortality but not for SRH among the underweight. The rapid decline of SRH with increasing age suggests that particular attention should be paid to underweight after 38 years of age.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of rural Uttarakhand, India.

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    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Khandelwal, Ritika; Khenduja, Preetika; Sareen, Neha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2018-03-15

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of India. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and anthropometric parameters. Weight and height measurements were utilized for calculation of BMI. Nutrient intake data were collected using 24 h dietary recall. High-altitude region of Nainital District, Uttarakhand State, North India. Community-dwelling geriatric subjects (n 981) aged 60 years or above. We found that 26·6 % of the elderly subjects were underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI 25·0-29·9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30·0 kg/m2) was seen among 18·0 % and 4·6 %, respectively. After controlling for potential cofounders, risk factors such as low level of education and income, chewing problems and lower number of daily meals were found to be associated with underweight. On the other hand, risk factors for overweight/obesity were lower age, high income and unskilled work. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to prevent underweight, overweight and obesity among the geriatric population of India.

  17. Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status

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    Spencer Moore

    2010-01-01

    Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8% and obesity (9.3% most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Underweight among black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and underweight according to body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat, among Black South African children in rural areas from the North-West Province. The sample ...

  19. Underweight in ski jumping: The solution of the problem.

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    Müller, W; Gröschl, W; Müller, R; Sudi, K

    2006-11-01

    Underweight is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sports. Among world class ski jumpers, the body mass index BMI has decreased by 4 units since 1970. The BMI ignores different body properties of individuals. Particular care should be taken in groups with unusual leg length to avoid classifying them inappropriately as thin or overweight (WHO). The improved measure MI (mass index) for relative body weight overcomes this shortcoming. Anthropometric data of ski jumpers was collected during the Olympic Games in Salt Lake City (2002; participation 81 %, n = 57), during the Summer Grand Prix in Hinterzarten (2000; participation 100 %, n = 92), and during the World Cup in Planica (2000; n = 56). The BMI and the MI were determined. The MI considers the individual leg length: A person with longer legs than average has an MI > BMI, and vice versa: MI = 0.28 m/s2 (m: mass in kg, s: sitting height in meters). BMI classes of ski jumpers in the season 2004/2005 were calculated from their official individual ski length limitation which is a function of their BMI. BMI means were 19.84 in Planica, 19.58 in Hinterzarten, and 19.43 kg m(-2) in SLC. Lowest BMI was 16.4 kg m(-2). The percentage of underweight ski jumpers (BMI ski jumping regulations. The ratio s/h = C (s = sitting height, h = height, C = cormic index) ranged from 0.49 to 0.57. Accordingly, the MI values (which are leg length corrected BMI values according to MI = BMI (C /C) (k) with k = 2 and C = 0.53) deviated remarkably from BMI values. For the 49 cases with BMI or MI or both below 18.5 kg m(-2), the classification to be underweight or not changed in 69 % when the MI was used instead of the BMI. Underweight or overweight is not only a question of cut-off points; the measure used determines the classification accuracy. A substantial improvement of weight analyses in sports medicine, public health, and general medicine as well can be obtained by using the MI instead of the BMI.

  20. Growth Tracking in Severely Obese or Underweight Children.

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    Chambers, Melissa; Tanamas, Stephanie K; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Kapadia, Chirag R; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-12-01

    To illustrate the difficulties in optimal growth monitoring of children with severe obesity or underweight by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 age- and sex-specific BMI percentile growth charts. We also aimed to examine the utility of a new modified CDC BMI z score chart to monitor growth in children with normal and extreme BMI percentiles by using real-life clinical scenarios. Modified BMI z score charts were created by using the 2000 CDC algorithm. Three cases of children with extreme BMI values and abnormal growth patterns were plotted by using the standard CDC 2000 clinical growth chart, the modified BMI z score chart, and the CDC BMI percentile chart, modified to include the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ) curves. Children with severe obesity could not be plotted on the standard CDC BMI percentile chart because their BMI points lay above the chart cutoff. Children with a low BMI (chart. The addition of the %BMI p95 scale to the standard BMI percentile chart allowed tracking of severely obese children; however, it did not address severely underweight children and required a change of units within the chart when transitioning from normal to obese BMIs. The modified BMI z score chart allowed uniform tracking. The modified CDC z score chart is suitable for growth tracking of children with normal and extreme growth patterns; the measures correlate well with the %BMI p95, and the chart can be incorporated easily into existing electronic health record systems for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Preserved C-peptide levels in overweight or obese compared with underweight children upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Hyeoh Won Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe hypothesized that overweight or obese children might develop type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM early despite residual beta-cell function. Factors independently associated with preservation of C-peptide level were analyzed.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical data of 135 children aged 2.1-16.5 years with autoimmune T1DM. Body mass index (BMI, pubertal stage, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and C-peptide levels were evaluated. Patients were assigned to underweight (22.2%, normal weight (63.7%, and overweight or obese (14.1% groups according to their BMI.ResultsPreservation of serum C-peptide levels (≥0.6 ng/mL was found in 43.0% of subjects. With increasing BMI, the proportions of children with preserved C-peptide levels increased from 33.3% to 41.9% to 63.2%, with marginal significance (P=0.051. Interaction analysis indicated no effect of BMI score on age at onset associated with serum C-peptide levels. The lower the C-peptide level, the younger the age of onset (P<0.001, after adjustment for BMI z-score and HbA1c level. However, no significant relationship between BMI z-score or category and onset age was evident. Upon multivariate-adjusted modeling, the odds that the C-peptide level was preserved increased by 1.2 fold (P=0.001 per year of life, by 3.1 folds (P=0.015 in children presenting without (compared to with ketoacidosis, and by 5.0 folds (P=0.042 in overweight or obese (compared to underweight children.ConclusionOverweight or obese children had slightly more residual beta-cell function than did underweight children. However, we found no evidence that obesity temporally accelerates T1DM presentation.

  2. Effect of Obesity and Underweight Status on Perioperative Outcomes of Congenital Heart Operations in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: An Analysis of Data From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

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    O'Byrne, Michael L; Kim, Sunghee; Hornik, Christoph P; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Matsouaka, Roland A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L; Jonas, Richard A

    2017-08-22

    Extreme body mass index (BMI; either very high or very low) has been associated with increased risk of adverse perioperative outcome in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. The effect of BMI on perioperative outcomes in congenital heart disease patients has not been evaluated. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed studying patients 10 to 35 years of age undergoing a congenital heart disease operation in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. The primary outcomes were operative mortality and a composite outcome (1 or more of operative mortality, major adverse event, prolonged hospital length of stay, and wound infection/dehiscence). The associations between age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles and these outcomes were assessed, with adjustment for patient-level risk factors, with multivariate logistic regression. Of 18 337 patients (118 centers), 16% were obese, 15% were overweight, 53% were normal weight, 7% were underweight, and 9% were severely underweight. Observed risks of operative mortality ( P =0.04) and composite outcome ( P obese subjects. Severely underweight BMI was associated with increased unplanned cardiac operation and reoperation for bleeding. Obesity was associated with increased risk of wound infection. In multivariable analysis, the association between BMI and operative mortality was no longer significant. Obese (odds ratio, 1.28; P =0.008), severely underweight (odds ratio, 1.29; P Obesity and underweight BMI were associated with increased risk of composite adverse outcome independently of other risk factors. Further research is necessary to determine whether BMI represents a modifiable risk factor for perioperative outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25

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    Zeynab Hatami Zargaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects. Methods: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group continued their normal diet, while the intervention group was required to follow a 6 isocaloric meal diet instead of their previous meal pattern (3 meals and 2 snacks. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical, except for meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed prior to and at the end of the study for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, leptin, and adiponectinn concentrations. Paired t-test was used for comparison of the measurements before and after the study in each group. Besides, independent t-test was used for comparison of the measurements between the groups. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.38 ± 9.7 in the intervention group and 37.6 ± 10.9 in the control group. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P < 0.001, LDL-C (P < 0.001, BMI (P < 0.001, triglyceride (P < 0.001, and leptin (P = 0.002 and a significant increase in HDL (P < 0.001 and adiponectin (P = 0.031. Conclusions: The 6 isocaloric meal pattern led to a reduction in BMI, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride, and leptin concentrations and an increase in HDL and adiponectin compared to the normal diet.

  4. Health ratings for underweight, overweight and obese adolescents: disparities between adolescent's own report and the parent's report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Christy; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2010-01-01

    In many Asian countries, overweight and obese children are sometimes considered healthier than their underweight or normal weight counterparts. Using Taiwan as an example, this research aims to examine the relationship between inappropriate weight and self-rated health (SRH) for adolescents, and inappropriate weight and the parent's impression of their adolescent's general health. We analyzed data from 1,879 adolescents (933 boys and 946 girls) from the third year (2003) of a panel survey conducted by the Academia Sinica of Taiwan. Adolescents were identified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese using body mass index (BMI). Kappa statistic was used to determine agreements between adolescent's own report and their health as reported by their parent. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of reporting reduced health by adolescents with inappropriate weight. A separate regression was carried out using the parent's reports for these adolescents. We found that underweight boys were more likely to report reduced health (OR=2.15, pOverweight girls had lower odds of reporting reduced health compared with normal weight girls (OR=0.42, phealth for underweight girls (OR=2.10, phealth for overweight boys compared with reports for normal weight subjects (OR=0.51, phealth by both the adolescents and their parents. This contrasts with overweight and obesity, which are not. Health educational programs could help in adjusting perceptions concerning the health consequences associated with overweight and obesity.

  5. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami Zargaran, Zeynab; Salehi, Moosa; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Babajafari, Siavash

    2014-04-01

    It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet. The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects. The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group continued their normal diet, while the intervention group was required to follow a 6 isocaloric meal diet instead of their previous meal pattern (3 meals and 2 snacks). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical, except for meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed prior to and at the end of the study for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, leptin, and adiponectinn concentrations. Paired t-test was used for comparison of the measurements before and after the study in each group. Besides, independent t-test was used for comparison of the measurements between the groups. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean age of the participants was 36.38 ± 9.7 in the intervention group and 37.6 ± 10.9 in the control group. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P meal pattern led to a reduction in BMI, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), and leptin concentrations and an increase in HDL and adiponectin compared to the normal diet.

  6. Association between underweight and hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality among patients in community medical homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi.1 Jennifer L St Sauver,2 Timothy C Olson,1 Jill M Huber,1 Stephen S Cha,2 Jon O Ebbert11Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: In older adults, underweight (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5 has been associated with increased mortality. This increased mortality risk may be associated with increased health care utilization. We evaluated the relationship between underweight and hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality.Methods: An analysis of a retrospective cohort study was conducted at a multisite academic primary care medical practice in Minnesota. The patients were ≥60 years of age, impaneled within primary care on January 1, 2011, and had a BMI measurement recorded between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011. Individuals were excluded if they refused review of their medical record. The primary measurement was BMI, which was categorized as underweight (BMI < 18.5 or normal and obese (BMI ≥ 18.5. The outcomes were hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality in the 2011 calendar year. Associations between underweight and each outcome were calculated using logistic regression. Interactions between underweight and gender were assessed in the logistic regression models. The final results were adjusted for age, gender, comorbid health conditions, and single living status.Results: The final cohort included 21,019 patients, of whom 220 (1% were underweight. Underweight patients had a higher likelihood of hospitalization compared with patients with higher BMI (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–2.22. Underweight patients were also more likely to visit the emergency room (adjusted OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.28–2.25 or to die (adjusted OR 3.64; 95% CI 2.33–5.69. Men with a BMI < 18.5 compared with those having a BMI ≥ 18.5 had the highest odds of hospitalization (OR 3.45; 95% CI 1.59–7

  7. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  8. Maternal BMI during Pregnancy: Effect on trace elements Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal BMI was significantly positively related to age, parity and socioeconomic status. While a negative relationship was found between plasma copper and maternal BMI, significantly (p < 0.05) lower zinc levels were found in underweight and obese women when compared to women with normal BMI. Maternal anaemia ...

  9. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI...

  10. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese. INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high...

  11. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and quality of life in underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Chih; Huang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Kuo-Liang; Wu, Yao-Kuang

    2011-02-01

    An estimated 20-40% of COPD patients are underweight. We sought to confirm the physiological and psychosocial benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes (PRP) in underweight compared with non-underweight patients with COPD. Twenty-two underweight COPD patients with BMI patients, who were matched for FEV(1) and age, were studied. All patients had moderate-to-very severe COPD. All patients participated in 12-week, hospital-based outpatient PRP consisting of two sessions per week. Baseline and post-PRP status were evaluated by spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, ventilatory muscle strength and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). At baseline, the age distribution and airflow obstruction were similar in underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD. Baseline exercise capacity, inspiratory muscle strength and SGRQ total and symptoms scores were significantly lower in the underweight patients (all P patients (mean increase 0.8 kg, P = 0.01). There were also significant improvements in peak oxygen uptake, peak workload and the SGRQ total, symptoms, activity and impact scores in both underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD (all P patients with COPD have impaired exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Exercise training with supplemental oxygen may result in significant weight gains and improvements in exercise capacity and HRQL. Exercise training is indicated for underweight patients with COPD. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  13. Nutritional status in sick children and adolescents is not accurately reflected by BMI-SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Raja, Preeya; Dung, Nguyen Quang; Karaolis-Danckert, Nadina; Barr, Ronald; Fusch, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional status provides helpful information of disease severity and treatment effectiveness. Body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) provide an approximation of body composition and thus are frequently used to classify nutritional status of sick children and adolescents. However, the accuracy of estimating body composition in this population using BMI-SDS has not been assessed. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the accuracy of nutritional status classification in sick infants and adolescents using BMI-SDS, upon comparison to classification using percentage body fat (%BF) reference charts. BMI-SDS was calculated from anthropometric measurements and %BF was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for 393 sick children and adolescents (5 months-18 years). Subjects were classified by nutritional status (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), using 2 methods: (1) BMI-SDS, based on age- and gender-specific percentiles, and (2) %BF reference charts (standard). Linear regression and a correlation analysis were conducted to compare agreement between both methods of nutritional status classification. %BF reference value comparisons were also made between 3 independent sources based on German, Canadian, and American study populations. Correlation between nutritional status classification by BMI-SDS and %BF agreed moderately (r (2) = 0.75, 0.76 in boys and girls, respectively). The misclassification of nutritional status in sick children and adolescents using BMI-SDS was 27% when using German %BF references. Similar rates observed when using Canadian and American %BF references (24% and 23%, respectively). Using BMI-SDS to determine nutritional status in a sick population is not considered an appropriate clinical tool for identifying individual underweight or overweight children or adolescents. However, BMI-SDS may be appropriate for longitudinal measurements or for screening purposes in large field studies. When accurate nutritional

  14. Body mass index (BMI) in patients attending the anaesthesia clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) ranged between 16.3 kg/m2 and 44.4 kg/m2. The mean BMI was 26.16 kg/m2 with a standard deviation of 4.65. Overall, 43.2 patients had a normal BMI, 35.4% of patients were overweight, 20.3% of patients were obese and 1.2% were underweight. Amongst males, 62.2% had a normal BMI, ...

  15. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynab Hatami Zargaran; Moosa Salehi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Siavash Babajafari

    2014-01-01

    Background: It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects. Methods: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The co...

  16. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca-Gómez, Leandra; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Acuin, Cecilia; Adams, Robert J.; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afsana, Kaosar; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Ajlouni, Kamel; Akhtaeva, Nazgul; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Buhairan, Fadia; Al Dhukair, Shahla; Ali, Mohamed M.; Ali, Osman; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Andrade, Dolores S.; Ängquist, Lars H.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araújo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Arveiler, Dominique; Aryal, Krishna K.; Aspelund, Thor; Assah, Felix K.; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Aung, May Soe; Avdicová, Mária; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahijri, Suhad; Baker, Jennifer L.; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Banach, Maciej; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, José R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batista, Rosangela L.; Batyrbek, Assembekov; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Benedics, Judith; Benet, Mikhail; Bennett, James E.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bi, HongSheng; Bi, Yufang; Biehl, Anna; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bista, Bihungum; Bjelica, Dusko J.; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Björkelund, Cecilia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Boddy, Lynne M.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boeing, Heiner; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bongard, Vanina; Bovet, Pascal; Braeckevelt, Lien; Braeckman, Lutgart; Bragt, Marjolijn C. E.; Brajkovich, Imperia; Branca, Francesco; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Breda, João; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Brian, Garry R.; Brinduse, Lacramioara; Bruno, Graziella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. As; Bugge, Anna; Buoncristiano, Marta; Burazeri, Genc; Burns, Con; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Cai, Hui; Cama, Tilema; Cameron, Christine; Camolas, José; Can, Günay; Cândido, Ana Paula C.; Capanzana, Mario; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chan, Angelique W.; Chan, Queenie; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Huashuai; Chen, Shuohua; Chen, Zhengming; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chetrit, Angela; Chikova-Iscener, Ekaterina; Chiolero, Arnaud; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Christensen, Kaare; Christofaro, Diego G.; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Cinteza, Eliza; Claessens, Frank; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Confortin, Susana C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Coppinger, Tara C.; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Craig, Cora L.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Cucu, Alexandra; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Danaei, Goodarz; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dastgiri, Saeed; Dauchet, Luc; Davletov, Kairat; de Backer, Guy; de Bacquer, Dirk; de Curtis, Amalia; de Gaetano, Giovanni; de Henauw, Stefaan; de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; de Ridder, Karin; de Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Hélène; Delpeuch, Francis; Deschamps, Valérie; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Diaz, Alejandro; Dika, Zivka; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Ha T. P.; Dobson, Annette J.; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Döring, Angela; Dorobantu, Maria; Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Duan, Jia Li; Duante, Charmaine; Duleva, Vesselka; Dulskiene, Virginija; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Egbagbe, Eruke E.; Eggertsen, Robert; Eiben, Gabriele; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Elliott, Paul; Engle-Stone, Reina; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Eriksson, Johan G.; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandes, Romulo A.; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Finn, Joseph D.; Fischer, Krista; Flores, Eric Monterubio; Föger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Fujita, Yuki; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gafencu, Mihai; Galeone, Daniela; Galvano, Fabio; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli; Gareta, Dickman; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Geiger, Harald; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gill, Tiffany K.; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Giwercman, Aleksander; Godos, Justyna; Gogen, Sibel; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.; Goltzman, David; Gonçalves, Helen; González-Leon, Margot; González-Rivas, Juan P.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Graça, Antonio Pedro; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grafnetter, Dušan; Grajda, Aneta; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grøntved, Anders; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruden, Gabriella; Grujic, Vera; Gu, Dongfeng; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudmundsson, Elias F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Xiuhua; Guo, Yin; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gupta, Rajeev; Gureje, Oye; Gurzkowska, Beata; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hadaegh, Farzad; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A.; Si-Ramlee, Khairil; Halkjær, Jytte; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hassapidou, Maria; Hata, Jun; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; Heidinger-Felso, Regina; Heinen, Mirjam; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Cadena, Leticia Hernandez; Herrala, Sauli; Herrera, Victor M.; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Heshmat, Ramin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Hopman, Wilma M.; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Hu, Yonghua; Huerta, José María; Huidumac, Petrescu Constanta; Huisman, Martijn; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Hyska, Jolanda; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibarluzea, Jesús M.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ivkovic, Vanja; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jackson, Rod T.; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jaddou, Hashem; Jafar, Tazeen; Jamil, Kazi M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Jarani, Juel; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Ana; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jennings, Garry; Jeong, Seung-Lyeal; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jiménez-Acosta, Santa Magaly; Joffres, Michel; Johansson, Mattias; Jonas, Jost B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Jovic, Dragana P.; Józwiak, Jacek; Juolevi, Anne; Jurak, Gregor; Jureša, Vesna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kafatos, Anthony; Kajantie, Eero O.; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kapantais, Efthymios; Karki, Khem B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Boker, Lital Keinan; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Kelleher, Cecily; Kemper, Han C. G.; Kengne, Andre P.; Kerimkulova, Alina; Kersting, Mathilde; Key, Timothy; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khang, Young-Ho; Khateeb, Mohammad; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khouw, Ilse M. S. L.; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Klimont, Jeannette; Klumbiene, Jurate; Knoflach, Michael; Koirala, Bhawesh; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Kos, Jelena; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Kovacs, Viktoria A.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Koziel, Slawomir; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kriemler, Susi; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steinar; Kromhout, Daan; Kruger, Herculina S.; Kubinova, Ruzena; Kuciene, Renata; Kuh, Diana; Kujala, Urho M.; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Kumar, R. Krishna; Kunešová, Marie; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kyobutungi, Catherine; La, Quang Ngoc; Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Laugsand, Lars E.; Lauria, Laura; Laxmaiah, Avula; Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen; Le, Tuyen D.; Lebanan, May Antonnette O.; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimäki, Terho; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Liu, Jing; Loit, Helle-Mai; Lopes, Luis; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, José Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Jun; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Magriplis, Emmanuella; Mahaletchumy, Alagappan; Maire, Bernard; Majer, Marjeta; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rahul; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Malyutina, Sofia; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim I.; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Markaki, Anastasia; Markey, Oonagh; Marques, Larissa P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Marrugat, Jaume; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Martin, Rosemarie; Martorell, Reynaldo; Martos, Eva; Marventano, Stefano; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mazur, Artur; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McKee, Martin; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McLean, Scott B.; McNulty, Breige A.; Yusof, Safiah Md; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Medzioniene, Jurate; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisfjord, Jørgen; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Mensink, Gert Bm; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Haakon E.; Mi, Jie; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Michels, Nathalie; Mikkel, Kairit; Miller, Jody C.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mirkopoulou, Daphne; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Mistretta, Antonio; Mocanu, Veronica; Modesti, Pietro A.; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohanna, Salim; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Molbo, Drude; Møllehave, Line T.; Møller, Niels C.; Molnár, Dénes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monterrubio, Eric A.; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.; Moon, Jin Soo; Moreira, Leila B.; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Mu, Thet Thet; Muc, Magdalena; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil; Mursu, Jaakko; Murtagh, Elaine M.; Musil, Vera; Nabipour, Iraj; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Nakamura, Harunobu; Námešná, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Nankap, Martin; Narake, Sameer; Nardone, Paola; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Neal, William A.; Nenko, Ilona; Neovius, Martin; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Chung T.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis E.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nishtar, Sania; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Norat, Teresa; Norie, Sawada; Noto, Davide; Nsour, Mohannad Al; O'Reilly, Dermot; Obreja, Galina; Oda, Eiji; Oehlers, Glenn; Oh, Kyungwon; Ohara, Kumiko; Olafsson, Örn; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Oltarzewski, Maciej; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ong, Sok King; Ono, Lariane M.; Ordunez, Pedro; Ornelas, Rui; Ortiz, Ana P.; Osler, Merete; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Ostovar, Afshin; Otero, Johanna A.; Overvad, Kim; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Padez, Cristina; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palli, Domenico; Palloni, Alberto; Palmieri, Luigi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandey, Arvind; Panza, Francesco; Papandreou, Dimitrios; Park, Soon-Woo; Parnell, Winsome R.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Pascanu, Ionela M.; Patel, Nikhil D.; Pecin, Ivan; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peeters, Petra H.; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Perez-Farinos, Napoleon; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Peters, Annette; Petkeviciene, Janina; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Peykari, Niloofar; Pham, Son Thai; Pierannunzio, Daniela; Pigeot, Iris; Pikhart, Hynek; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Pistelli, Francesco; Pitakaka, Freda; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Plans-Rubió, Pedro; Poh, Bee Koon; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Pop, Raluca M.; Popovic, Stevo R.; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen Lp; Posch, Georg; Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Pouraram, Hamed; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prashant, Mathur; Price, Jacqueline F.; Puder, Jardena J.; Pudule, Iveta; Puiu, Maria; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Bao, Tran Quoc; Radic, Ivana; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mahmudur; Raitakari, Olli; Raj, Manu; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramke, Jacqueline; Ramos, Elisabete; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rampal, Sanjay; Rascon-Pacheco, Ramon A.; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Riboli, Elio; Rigo, Fernando; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Rito, Ana; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Daniela; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, María; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Romaguera, Dora; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Rosengren, Annika; Rouse, Ian; Roy, Joel G. R.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rühli, Frank J.; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Russo, Paola; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Salanave, Benoit; Martinez, Eduardo Salazar; Salmerón, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Sandjaja, N. N.; Sans, Susana; Marina, Loreto Santa; Santos, Diana A.; Santos, Ina S.; Santos, Osvaldo; dos Santos, Renata Nunes; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas; Savy, Mathilde; Scazufca, Marcia; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Schargrodsky, Herman; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schipf, Sabine; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Schmidt, Ida Maria; Schultsz, Constance; Schutte, Aletta E.; Sein, Aye Aye; Sen, Abhijit; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serra-Majem, Luis; Shalnova, Svetlana A.; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Shiri, Rahman; Siani, Alfonso; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Silva, Antonio M.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Sjöström, Michael; Skovbjerg, Sine; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Smith, Margaret C.; Snijder, Marieke B.; So, Hung-Kwan; Sobngwi, Eugène; Söderberg, Stefan; Soekatri, Moesijanti Ye; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Song, Yi; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Soric, Maroje; Jérome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Spinelli, Angela; Spiroski, Igor; Staessen, Jan A.; Stamm, Hanspeter; Starc, Gregor; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Staub, Kaspar; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stieber, Jutta; Stöckl, Doris; Stocks, Tanja; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stratton, Gareth; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Sun, Chien-An; Sundström, Johan; Sung, Yn-Tz; Sunyer, Jordi; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Swinburn, Boyd A.; Sy, Rody G.; Szponar, Lucjan; Tai, E. Shyong; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tan, Eng Joo; Tang, Xun; Tanser, Frank; Tao, Yong; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarp, Jakob; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Braunerová, Radka Taxová; Taylor, Anne; Tchibindat, Félicité; Theobald, Holger; Theodoridis, Xenophon; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Topór-Madry, Roman; Tormo, María José; Tornaritis, Michael J.; Torrent, Maties; Toselli, Stefania; Traissac, Pierre; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trinh, Oanh Th; Trivedi, Atul; Tshepo, Lechaba; Tsigga, Maria; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tullu, Fikru; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Turley, Maria L.; Tynelius, Per; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice E.; Ukoli, Flora A. M.; Ulmer, Hanno; Unal, Belgin; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Vale, Susana; Valvi, Damaskini; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; van Herck, Koen; van Minh, Hoang; van Rossem, Lenie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Veidebaum, Toomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Velika, Biruta; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Victora, Cesar G.; Viegi, Giovanni; Viet, Lucie; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Vineis, Paolo; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vlasoff, Tiina; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Voutilainen, Sari; Vrijheid, Martine; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Waldhör, Thomas; Walton, Janette; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wanderley, Rildo S.; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Ying-Wei; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wareham, Nicholas; Weber, Adelheid; Wedderkopp, Niels; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Wong, Justin Yy; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, JianFeng; Wu, Shouling; Xu, Haiquan; Xu, Liang; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yardim, Nazan; Ye, Xingwang; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yngve, Agneta; Yoshihara, Akihiro; You, Qi Sheng; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Faudzi; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M.; Zaccagni, Luciana; Zafiropulos, Vassilis; Zainuddin, Ahmad A.; Zambon, Sabina; Zampelas, Antonis; Zamrazilová, Hana; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zeng, Yi; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zholdin, Bekbolat; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Dan; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Zimmermann, Esther; Cisneros, Julio Zuñiga; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bilano, Ver; Bixby, Honor; Zhou, Bin; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Taddei, Cristina; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Savin, Stefan; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Zhu, Aubrianna; Ezzati, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children

  17. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016 : a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity

  18. Longitudinal trends in nutritional status and the relation between lung function and BMI in cystic fibrosis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anne L; Mannik, Lisa A; Walsh, Shirley; Brotherwood, Michelle; Robert, Ronalee; Darling, Pauline B; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Moerman, Joost; Stanojevic, Sanja

    2013-04-01

    A high-calorie diet has been a standard of care in cystic fibrosis (CF) for >3 decades. However, energy requirements may have changed with new treatments and milder genotypes. The objectives of this study were to describe longitudinal trends in nutritional status and to evaluate the relation between nutritional status and lung function. This longitudinal cohort study included 909 individuals followed at the Adult CF Clinic in Toronto from 1985 to 2011. Nutritional status was classified on the basis of WHO BMI guidelines. Multivariable linear regression with the use of generalized estimating equations was applied to evaluate the relation between BMI and lung function. The proportion of underweight individuals decreased from 20.6% before 1990 to 11.1% in the most recent decade, whereas the proportion of overweight and obese subjects increased from 7.0% to 18.4% (P underweight group, an increase in BMI resulted in improved lung function, whereas this effect was half of that in overweight individuals. The greatest advantage of improved nutrition on lung function was observed in the underweight group and in pancreatic- insufficient patients. Modification to a high-fat diet may be required in some individuals with CF to optimize nutritional health. Higher BMI is associated with improvements in lung function, although the lung function benefit of increasing one's BMI (in kg/m(2)) to >25 is small and needs to be balanced against the known health risks of obesity.

  19. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey. ... Introduction: Overweight and obesity are significant causes of increased morbidity and premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, particularly in ...

  20. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Passos, Valéria M A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda F

    2003-01-01

    The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m ) and underweight (BMI Bambu , Minas Gerais State, using multinomial logistic regression. 1,451 (85.5%) of the town's elderly participated. Mean BMI was 25.0 (SD = 4.9kg/m ) and was higher for women and decreased with age. Prevalence of obesity was 12.5% and was positively associated with female gender, family income, hypertension, and diabetes and inversely related to physical activity. Underweight affected 14.8% of participants, increased with age, and was higher among men and low-income families. It was negatively associated with hypertension and diabetes and directly associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection and > or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.

  1. Tracking for underweight, overweight and obesity from childhood to adolescence: a 5-year follow-up study in urban Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, M; van Weissenbruch, M M; Prawirohartono, E P; Surjono, A; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2008-01-01

    To assess tracking of body mass index (BMI) of urban Indonesian children from childhood to adolescence and to compare the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children from two surveys: years 1999 and 2004. A longitudinal study assessing BMI tracking of 308 urban children followed from age 6-8 to 11-13 years and two cross-sectional surveys comparing the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children: year 1999 (n = 1,524) and 2004 (n = 510). Childhood BMI determined 52.3% variation of later BMI. After 5.1 (0.6) years the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 4.2 and 1.9% in childhood to 8.8 and 3.2% in adolescence. The prevalence of underweight decreased from 27.3 to 18.8%. All obese children remained obese, 84.6% overweight children stayed overweight, 56.0% underweight children remained underweight. In cross-sectional comparison the prevalence of overweight and obesity raised from 5.3 to 8.6% and from 2.7 to 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of underweight remained constant. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increases as children grow into adolescence. Overweight or obese children are more likely to remain overweight or obese. Cross-sectional comparison shows, while the prevalence of underweight stays constant, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥ 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and normal weight in French youth from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Baudelet, Jean-Benoît; Fardy, Paul S; Béghin, Laurent; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zékya

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in French youth from 2009 to 2013 and to determine if there are differences in weight categories according to socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study performed in different regions of France. Physical measures included weight, height and BMI. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined according to age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points from the International Obesity Task Force. France. Children and adolescents (n 9670; 4836 boys, 4834 girls) from the French national BOUGE Program between 2009 and 2013. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than girls (P0·05) and remained unchanged in boys (7·1-7·3 %) between 2009 and 2013. Overweight and obesity were higher in low socio-economic families (Pobesity increased significantly. Changes in underweight, although not significant, were high in girls and merit further attention. Improving public health interventions, especially in high-risk low socio-economic populations, may help to modify the behaviour that contributes to underweight, overweight and obesity in young boys and girls.

  4. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  5. South Africa's nutritional transition: Overweight, obesity, underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- ...

  6. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p overweight individuals (p overweight (p adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  7. One-fourth of the prisoners are underweight in Northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Semaw Ferede; Adane, Kelemework

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site. The outcome of this study was underweight defined as body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5 kg/m 2 . Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of underweight at a p-value of less than 0.05. The prevalence of underweight was 25.2% (95% CI; 22.3%- 28.3%). Khat Chewing (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.70) and longer duration of incarceration (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14) were associated with a significantly increased risk of underweight. Additionally, previous incarceration (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.42) was a relevant determinant of underweight with a borderline significance. In contrast, family support (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.43, 0.85) and farmer occupation (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.98) compared to those who were unemployed were important protective determinants significantly associated with lower risk of underweight. In summary, the burden of underweight was higher among prisoners in Tigray region who had respiratory tract infections. The study has enhanced our understanding of the determinants of underweight in the prison population. We strongly recommend that nutritional support, such as therapeutic feeding programs for severely or moderately underweight prisoners, and environmental health interventions of the prison setups should be urgently implemented to correct the uncovered nutritional problem and its associated factors for improving the health status of prisoners.

  8. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...... cohorts: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Prepregnancy BMI was classified as underweight (BMI BMI 18.5–22.9), upper normal weight (BMI 23.0–24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), and obese (BMI ≥30). CP diagnoses were obtained from...... the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  9. What factors are related to recurrent preterm birth among underweight women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsen, Anna I; Mayo, Jonathan A; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Gould, Jeffrey B; Carmichael, Suzan L; Stevenson, David K; Lyell, Deirdre J; Shaw, Gary M

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with recurrent preterm birth among underweight women. Maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of deliveries in California between 2007 and 2010 were used. Consecutive singleton pregnancies of women with underweight body mass index (BMI preterm; preterm-term and preterm-preterm. We analyzed 4971 women with underweight BMI in the first pregnancy. Of these, 670 had at least one preterm birth. Among these 670, 86 (21.8%) women experienced a recurrent preterm birth. Odds for first term - second preterm birth were decreased for increases in maternal age (aOR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.95-0.99) whereas inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth (aOR:1.66, 95%CI: 1.21-2.28) and first preterm birth - second term birth (aOR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.04-1.96). Factors associated with recurrent preterm birth were: negative or no change in pre-pregnancy weight between pregnancies (aOR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.07-2.60), inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth among underweight women was associated with younger age, short inter-pregnancy interval, and negative or no weight change between pregnancies.

  10. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016:a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 milli...

  11. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemont, S.; Reymond, A.; Zufferey, F.; Harewood, L.; Walters, R.G.; Kutalik, Z.; Martinet, D.; Shen, Y.; Valsesia, A.; Beckmann, N.D.; Thorleifsson, G.; Belfiore, M.; Bouquillon, S.; Campion, D.; Leeuw, N. de; Vries, L.B.A. de; Esko, T.; Fernandez, B.A.; Fernandez-Aranda, F.; Fernandez-Real, J.M.; Gratacos, M.; Guilmatre, A.; Hoyer, J.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Kooy, R.F.; Kurg, A.; Caignec, C. Le; Mannik, K.; Platt, O.S.; Sanlaville, D.; Haelst, M.M. van; Villatoro Gomez, S.; Walha, F.; Wu, B.L.; Yu, Y.; Aboura, A.; Addor, M.C.; Alembik, Y.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Arveiler, B.; Barth, M.; Bednarek, N.; Bena, F.; Bergmann, S.; Beri, M.; Bernardini, L.; Blaumeiser, B.; Bonneau, D.; Bottani, A.; Boute, O.; Brunner, H.G.; Cailley, D.; Callier, P.; Chiesa, J.; Chrast, J.; Coin, L.; Coutton, C.; Cuisset, J.M.; Cuvellier, J.C.; David, A.; Freminville, B. de; Delobel, B.; Delrue, M.A.; Demeer, B.; Descamps, D.; Didelot, G.; Dieterich, K.; Disciglio, V.; Doco-Fenzy, M.; Drunat, S.; Duban-Bedu, B.; Dubourg, C.; El-Sayed Moustafa, J.S.; Elliott, P.; Faas, B.H.W.; Faivre, L.; Faudet, A.; Fellmann, F.; Ferrarini, A.; Fisher, R.; Flori, E.; Forer, L.; Gaillard, D.; Gerard, M.; Gieger, C.; Gimelli, S.; Gimelli, G.; Grabe, H.J.; Guichet, A.; Guillin, O.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Heron, D.; Hippolyte, L.; Holder, M.; Homuth, G.; Isidor, B.; Jaillard, S.; Jaros, Z.; Jimenez-Murcia, S.; Helas, G.J.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI)

  12. Prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight, and obesity among school children in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2016-10-03

    The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.

  13. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Underweight, Markers of Cachexia, and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study of Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, Emily M; Krumholz, Hannah A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-04-01

    Underweight patients are at higher risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than normal weight patients; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is explained by confounding due to cachexia or other factors associated with low body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) does comprehensive risk adjustment for comorbid illness and frailty measures explain the higher mortality after AMI in underweight patients, and (2) is the relationship between underweight and mortality also observed in patients with AMI who are otherwise without significant chronic illness and are presumably free of cachexia? We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a cohort-based study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for AMI between January 1994 and February 1996 with 17 y of follow-up and detailed clinical information to compare short- and long-term mortality in underweight and normal weight patients (n = 57,574). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association of low BMI with 30-d, 1-y, 5-y, and 17-y mortality after AMI while adjusting for patient comorbidities, frailty measures, and laboratory markers of nutritional status. We also repeated the analyses in a subset of patients without significant comorbidity or frailty. Of the 57,574 patients with AMI included in this cohort, 5,678 (9.8%) were underweight and 51,896 (90.2%) were normal weight at baseline. Underweight patients were older, on average, than normal weight patients and had a higher prevalence of most comorbidities and measures of frailty. Crude mortality was significantly higher for underweight patients than normal weight patients at 30 d (25.2% versus 16.4%, p underweight patients had a 13% higher risk of 30-d death and a 26% higher risk of 17-y death than normal weight patients (30-d hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20; 17-y HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.23-1.30). Survival curves for underweight and normal weight patients separated early

  15. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Background Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m 2 ) and BMI SDS are summarised by percentiles. Differences according to sex, age, height, weight, initial BMI and weight status on the BMI and BMI SDS increments were assessed with multiple linear regression. Conditional change in BMI SDS was based on the correlation between annual BMI measurements converted to SDS. Results BMI increments depended significantly on sex, height, weight and initial BMI. Changes in BMI SDS depended significantly only on the initial BMI SDS. The distribution of conditional change in BMI SDS using a two-correlation model was close to normal (mean = 0.11, SD = 1.02, n = 1167), with 3.2% (2.3-4.4%) of the observations below -2 SD and 2.8% (2.0-4.0%) above +2 SD. Conclusion Conditional change in BMI SDS can be used to detect unexpected large changes in BMI SDS. Although this method requires the use of a computer, it may be clinically useful to detect aberrant weight development.

  16. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim: To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods: The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m2) and BMI SDS are summarised by...

  17. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  18. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, general and central obesity among 8-15-years old Bulgarian children and adolescents (Smolyan region, 2012-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of underweight, overweight, the general and central obesity in 8-15-year-old Bulgarian children and adolescents, through the use of the anthropometric indices BMI and WHtR. Subject of this study are 878 children and adolescents (437 boys and 441 girls) of Smolyan region, Bulgaria, at the age of 8 to 15 years. The study is cross-sectional and was conducted in the period 2012-2014. The body height, weight and waist circumference were measured. In addition, the body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut-off points of BMI, recommended of IOTF and developed by Cole et al. (2000; 2007). The central obesity was defined according to the discriminatory values of 0.500 of WHtR. The collected data were analysed by statistical software packages STATISTICA 10.0 and SPSS 16. Overweight occurs among 18.8% of the boys and 17.0% of the girls, and obesity occurs among 7.6% of boys and 3.7% of the girls. The underweight are 8.0% of the boys and 10.4% of the girls. Central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) occur among average 12.75% of all investigated children independently of their nutritional status (16.2% of boys and 9.3% of girls). With central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are on average 2.7% of all boys and girls with normal weight (n = 96) and an average 46.82% of all participants with overweight and with obesity (n = 205). With increased health risk (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are total of 2.01% (n=16) of all surveyed children (n = 793) from categories normal weight. There has been an increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Bulgarian children and adolescents from Smolyan region during the over one last decade. The relatively high percentage of underweight children, especially among in group of the girls alter puberty. The central obesity, as well as its combination with overweight or general obesity is more frequent in boys than in girls

  19. Prevalence of overweight and underweight and its associated factors among male and female university students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle habits of Thai society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obese and underweight along with associated factors in a sample of Thai university students. Using a cross-sectional survey, we assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among university students selected by stratified random sampling. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand (27.3% males), with age ranging from 18 to 25 years (M=20.1, SD=1.3 years). Results indicated that the median BMI was 20.2, which was higher in men than in women. Overall, 21.5% were underweight (overweight (7.8% overweight [≥23 BMI] and 13% obese [≥25 BMI]). More men than women were overweight and obese, whereas more women than men were underweight. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that among men, older age, trying to eat fibre, and trying to lose weight were associated with overweight or obesity and among women trying to lose weight, depression symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with overweight or obesity. The risk of underweight was greater among men living off campus, having a high income background, and short sleep duration and among women with low physical activity and who were not trying to lose weight. Considering the large percentage of overweight and underweight found in this study and the associated possible negative health consequences, it is suggested to include information on the assessment of adequate weight in health promotion programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  1. Haplotypes in the CRP gene associated with increased BMI and levels of CRP in subjects with type 2 diabetes or obesity from Southwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Calleja, América; Quiróz-Vargas, Irma; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco A; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Cruz, Miguel; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG) was associated with increased levels of CRP (β = 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P = 0.005) and haplotype 7 (TGGG) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  2. Haplotypes in the CRP Gene Associated with Increased BMI and Levels of CRP in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity from Southwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Martínez-Calleja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. Methods. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. Results. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG was associated with increased levels of CRP (β=0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P=0.005 and haplotype 7 (TGGG with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P<0.001. The risk score for coronary heart disease was associated with increased levels of CRP, but not with any polymorphism or haplotype. Conclusions. The association between the TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 with obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  3. Energy and Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Protein and Amino Acid Kinetics or Pregnancy Outcomes in Underweight Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Hsu, Jean W; Tang, Grace J; Anand, Pauline; Thomas, Tinku; Thomas, Annamma; Sheela, C N; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-02-01

    In India, the prevalence of low birth weight is high in women with a low body mass index (BMI), suggesting that underweight women are not capable of providing adequate energy and protein for fetal growth. Furthermore, as pregnancy progresses, there is increased need to provide methyl groups for methylation reactions associated with the synthesis of new proteins and, unlike normal-BMI American women, low-BMI Indian women are unable to increase methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates as pregnancy progresses from trimester 1 to 3. This also negatively influences birth weight. The aim was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with energy and protein from 12 ± 1 wk of gestation to time of delivery compared with no supplement on pregnancy outcomes, protein kinetics, and the fluxes of the methyl group donors serine and glycine. Protein kinetics and serine and glycine fluxes were measured by using standard stable isotope tracer methods in the fasting and postprandial states in 24 pregnant women aged 22.9 ± 0.7 y with low BMIs [BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≤18.5] at 12 ± 1 wk (trimester 1) and 30 ± 1 wk (trimester 3) of gestation. After the first measurement, subjects were randomly assigned to either receive the supplement (300 kcal/d, 15 g protein/d) or no supplement. Supplementation had no significant effect on any variable of pregnancy outcome, and except for fasting state decreases in leucine flux (125 ± 7.14 compared with 113 ± 5.06 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.04) and nonoxidative disposal (110 ± 6.97 compared with 101 ± 3.69 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.02) from trimesters 1 to 3, it had no effect on any other leucine kinetic variable or urea, glycine, and serine fluxes. We conclude that in Indian women with a low BMI, supplementation with energy and protein from week 12 of pregnancy to time of delivery does not improve pregnancy outcome, whole-body protein kinetics, or serine and glycine fluxes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were considerably more underweight adolescent boys than adolescent girls (17.3% boys to 9.9% girls), and double the frequency of overweight adolescent girls than adolescent boys (7.7% girls to 3.5% boys). The 14-year-old boys had the highest prevalence of underweight (55.2%), and the 17-year-old girls the ...

  5. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    The burden caused by the coexistence of obesity and underweight in Low and Middle Income Countries is a challenge to public health. While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in seven African countries were used for this study. The survey used a clustered design to obtain a representative sample (n = 23496) from randomly selected schools. 53.6% of the sample was male, and participants ranged in age from 11-17 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using age and sex adjusted self-reported heights and weights. Classification of weight status was based on the 2007 World Health Organization growth charts (BMI-for-age and sex). Multivariable Logistic Regression reporting Odds Ratios was used to assess potential risk factors on BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and country. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata with an alpha of 0.05 and reporting 95% confidence intervals. Unadjusted rates of being underweight varied from 12.6% (Egypt) to 31.9% (Djibouti), while being overweight ranged from 8.7% (Ghana) to 31.4% (Egypt). Obesity rates ranged from 0.6% (Benin) to 9.3% (Egypt). Females had a higher overweight prevalence for every age group in five of the countries, exceptions being Egypt and Malawi. Overall, being overweight was more prevalent among younger (≤12) adolescents and decreased with age. Males had a higher prevalence of being underweight than females for every country. There was a tendency for the prevalence of being underweight to increase starting in the early teens and decrease between ages 15 and 16. Most of the potential risk factors captured by the GSHS were not significantly associated with weight status. The prevalence of both overweight and underweight was relatively high, demonstrating the

  6. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  7. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: underweight is associated with several negative health outcomes, including nutritional deficiency, osteoporosis, and unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. However, evidence which would help deal with this problem from a public health perspective is scarce. Here, we aimed to identify the dietary characteristics of underweight female university students, particularly those with a desire for thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits.

  8. Socio-demographic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Huruy; Belachew, Tefera; Negash, Legesse

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual's life. There are different factors that affect nutritional status of adolescents. Socio Economic Status, age, sex and mothers' educational level are among the important determinants factors of nutritional status of adolescents. Younger adolescents tend to be more undernourished than older adolescents, and, contrary to expectations that boys are almost twice as undernourished as girls. In this study, we test the competing hypothesis about the correlates of nutritional status among Ethiopian adolescents. We report a total of 2084 adolescents from the second round of a 5-year longitudinal study in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Univariate and Multivariable linear regression were used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with Underweight and Stunting among Adolescents in Jimma zone. Age, highest grade completed, job and last attended in community school were positively associated with BMI for Age z-score and highest grade completed, household income and job were positively associated with Height for Age z-score. However, male gender was negatively associated with BMI for Age z-score and male gender, last attended in community school, abdominal pain and household size were negatively associated with Height for Age z-score. Age of the adolescents, gender, educational status, employment status and type of last school attended are associated with underweight; and gender, place of residence, household size, household income, educational status, employment status, type of last school attended and abdominal pain are associated with stunted. The findings reflect socio-demographic characteristics are associated with underweight and stunting.

  9. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  10. Underweight/overweight and the risk of long-term care: follow-up study using data of the Japanese long-term care insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Akiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Seki, Nao; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Both being underweight and overweight can lead to reduced activity of daily living, which subsequently can require long-term care. The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between underweight/overweight and the subsequent risk of long-term care introduction. We tracked the data of long-term care insurance for 1580 men and women aged ≥65 years who had participated in the official population-based health check-up program in 2001 in Tsunan town and Sekikawa village, Japan. The health check-up data and medical expenditure data for the fiscal year 2001 were used as baseline data. Participants were classified into underweight (body mass index (BMI) overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ); the normal range was used as a reference category in Cox proportional hazards models. During the average 5.8 years of follow up, 156 participants were identified to start using long-term care services. Among the young-old elderly (65-74 years-of-age), underweight was significantly associated with the risk of long-term care introduction (multivariable-adjusted HR 4.26, 95% CI 1.69-10.72), whereas overweight was not (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.69-3.06). Neither underweight nor overweight were significantly associated with long-term care introduction among the old-old elderly (≥75 years-of-age). Underweight could be a good predictor of long-term care introduction in the young-old elderly. We should pay attention to underweight in the elderly, as it might be a manifestation of some physical or mental problems related to future long-term care introduction. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas

  12. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L.; de Ridder, J. Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South African studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are

  13. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L; de Ridder, J Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C G

    2015-01-22

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%-66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%-32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are faced

  14. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, Milla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-03-16

    Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20), satisfaction with leisure time, work, and family relationships, and satisfaction with sex life in young adulthood in the 1975-79 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5240). We studied the relationship between indicators of subjective well-being and BMI both in full birth cohorts and in subgroups stratified by lifetime DSM-IV eating disorders. We found an inverse U-shaped relationship between all indicators of subjective well-being and BMI in men. There was no overall association between BMI and subjective well-being in women. However, there was an inverse U-shaped relationship between BMI and indicators of subjective well-being in women with a lifetime eating disorder and their healthy female co-twins. Subjective well-being was optimal in the overweight category. Both underweight and obesity are associated with impaired subjective well-being in young men. The BMI reflecting optimal subjective well-being of young men may be higher than currently recognized. Categorization of body weight in terms of BMI may need to be reassessed in young men. BMI and subjective well-being are related in women with a lifetime eating disorder, but not in the general population of young women.

  15. Desire to Be Underweight: Exploratory Study on a Weight Loss App Community and User Perceptions of the Impact on Disordered Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikey, Elizabeth Victoria; Reddy, Madhu C; Booth, Kayla M; Kvasny, Lynette; Blair, Johnna L; Li, Victor; Poole, Erika S

    2017-10-12

    Mobile health (mHealth) apps for weight loss (weight loss apps) can be useful diet and exercise tools for individuals in need of losing weight. Most studies view weight loss app users as these types of individuals, but not all users have the same needs. In fact, users with disordered eating behaviors who desire to be underweight are also utilizing weight loss apps; however, few studies give a sense of the prevalence of these users in weight loss app communities and their perceptions of weight loss apps in relation to disordered eating behaviors. The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of users' body mass indices (BMIs) in a weight loss app community and examples of how users with underweight BMI goals perceive the impact of the app on disordered eating behaviors. We focused on two aspects of a weight loss app (DropPounds): profile data and forum posts, and we moved from a broader picture of the community to a narrower focus on users' perceptions. We analyzed profile data to better understand the goal BMIs of all users, highlighting the prevalence of users with underweight BMI goals. Then we explored how users with a desire to be underweight discussed the weight loss app's impact on disordered eating behaviors. We found three main results: (1) no user (regardless of start BMI) starts with a weight gain goal, and most users want to lose weight; (2) 6.78% (1261/18,601) of the community want to be underweight, and most identify as female; (3) users with underweight BMI goals tend to view the app as positive, especially for reducing bingeing; however, some acknowledge its role in exacerbating disordered eating behaviors. These findings are important for our understanding of the different types of users who utilize weight loss apps, the perceptions of weight loss apps related to disordered eating, and how weight loss apps may impact users with a desire to be underweight. Whereas these users had underweight goals, they often view the app as helpful in reducing

  16. GRAVIDARY HOMEOSTASIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH UNDERWEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Владимировна Рудаева

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable success has been achieved in reducing obstetric and perinatal complications in various pathological conditions during pregnancy and childbirth. However, many aspects of obstetrics, theoretical and practical, remain unresolved. A promising direction are the new methodological approaches to clinical research methods of physiological and complicated pregnancy. One of such directions is the study of the gravidary homeostasis. The study of the gravidary homeostasis in pregnant women with underweight opens up fundamentally new ways to reduce the obstetric and perinatal complications. The aim – was to study the gravidar homeostasis in pregnant women with a body weight deficit. Materials and methods. A survey of 50 pregnant women with a deficit of body weight and their fetuses (the main group. The comparison group consisted of 50 pregnant women with normal body weight and their fruits. Neurovegetative regulation of the heart rhythm of the mother and fetus was studied by the method of spectral and mathematical analysis of the variability of the heart rhythm. Results. When registering the initial profile of the heart rhythm, only 16 % of women with body weight deficit of the cardiothoracic wave SPM were within the conditional norm (92 %; p < 0,001. An increase in the SPM waves of cardiac rhythm (hyperadaptive state due to VLF and LF-components of the spectrum was recorded in 48 % of women (6 %; p < 0,001. In 36 % of pregnant SPM waves, cardiac rhythm was characterized by a general depression of the spectrum (2 %; p < 0,001. In carrying out the functional loading test (hyperventilation, hyperadaptive stress responses (10 %; p < 0,001 prevailed in 50 % of cases. During the recovery period, 60 % of pregnant women showed a decrease in the adaptive mechanisms of the mother's body (12 %; p < 0,001. The indices of the cardiac rhythm wave fetal wave in a mother with a body weight deficit in 60 % were characterized

  17. BMI Trajectories Associated With Resolution of Elevated Youth BMI and Incident Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Thomson, Russell J; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S A; Jokinen, Eero; Tossavainen, Paivi; Laitinen, Tomi; Raitakari, Olli T; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-01-01

    Youth with high BMI who become nonobese adults have the same cardiovascular risk factor burden as those who were never obese. However, the early-life BMI trajectories for overweight or obese youth who avoid becoming obese adults have not been described. We aimed to determine and compare the young-childhood BMI trajectories of participants according to their BMI status in youth and adulthood. Bayesian hierarchical piecewise regression modeling was used to analyze the BMI trajectories of 2717 young adults who had up to 8 measures of BMI from childhood (ages 3-18 years) to adulthood (ages 34-49 years). Compared with those with persistently high BMI, those who resolved their high youth BMI by adulthood had lower average BMI at age 6 years and slower rates of BMI change from young childhood. In addition, their BMI levels started to plateau at 16 years old for females and 21 years old for males, whereas the BMI of those whose high BMI persisted did not stabilize until 25 years old for male subjects and 27 years for female subjects. Compared with those youth who were not overweight or obese and who remained nonobese in adulthood, those who developed obesity had a higher BMI rate of change from 6 years old, and their BMI continued to increase linearly until age 30 years. Efforts to alter BMI trajectories for adult obesity should ideally commence before age 6 years. The natural resolution of high BMI starts in adolescence for males and early adulthood for females, suggesting a critical window for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Recent trends in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Korean adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1998 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Young Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent obesity studies have reported that the rising trend in obesity has stabilized or leveled off. Our study aimed to update estimates of the recent prevalence trend in obesity based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998–2014. Methods: A total of 66,663 subjects were included and defined as being either underweight, overweight, or obese, in accordance with a BMI of 18.5 kg/m2 or lower, 23 kg/m2 or higher, and 25 kg/m2 or higher, respectively. Results: The prevalence of underweight in KNHANES I through VI surveys was 5.4%, 6.1%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.6%, and 7.5%, respectively, in men (p for trend = 0.04, β = 0.003 and 4.7%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.3%, 2.7%, and 2.6%, respectively, in women (p for trend = 0.03, β = −0.002. Also for KNHANES I through VI, the respective prevalence of overweight/obesity was 50.3%, 57.2%, 62.5%, 62.3%, 61.4%, and 61.3% in men (p for trend<0.01, β = 0.009 and 48.3%, 50.3%, 50.0%, 47.8%, 47.0%, and 45.3% in women (p for trend<0.01, β = −0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The obesity occurrence in men was trending upward with respect to overweight/obesity and for grade 1 and 2 obesity, but not for abdominal obesity. However, the obesity trends in women were leveling off from overweight/obesity, grade 1 obesity, and abdominal obesity measures. Further studies are required with data on muscle mass and adiposity for effective obesity control policies.

  19. Influence of premorbid BMI on clinical characteristics at presentation of adolescent girls with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-03-31

    Considering the prevalence of obesity in society it can be expected that some adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) start weight loss from an overweight and present at a near-normal weight. Presently, the influence of premorbid BMI on clinical characteristics of adolescent girls presenting with an ED has ben studied. Premorbid growth charts were available for 275 postmenarcheal adolescent girls presenting with an ED (anorexia nervosa = 27, (subthreshold) bulimia nervosa = 9, restrictive EDNOS = 239). Initial assessment included measurement of weight and length, physical examination, blood sampling and administration of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire youth version (EDE-Q). Despite greater weight loss girls with a high premorbid body mass index (BMI) had a higher BMI at presentation compared to those with a lower premorbid BMI. Although not underweight some presented with clinical and laboratory signs of starvation. These signs were related to not only low BMI but also to rapid and large weight loss. Their EDE-Q scores did not differ from those of girls who presented with an underweight. Girls with a restrictive ED and premorbid overweight may present with a near-normal BMI. They can nevertheless be medically compromised and have eating disturbed cognitions at the level of underweight girls. They should not be regarded as having a less severe ED but merit full assessment and a start of treatment.

  20. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  1. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 95% of similarly aged boys in this reference population – and he would be considered to have obesity. For more information and to access the CDC Growth Charts For adults, the interpretation of BMI does ...

  2. Overweight, obesity and underweight in nurses in Vhembe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In South Africa, anecdotal evidence concerning the prevalence of overweight and obesity in nurses is alarming, but no scientific studies have confirmed this notion. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in black nurses practising in South Africa. Method: A ...

  3. Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults Nigerian living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At action level II, there was no obese male. Conclusion: This study revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity exist in young adults, but overweight and obesity are more prevalent. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to control this in young adults for their present well-being and to possibly avoid the risk of ...

  4. The double burden of underweight and overweight in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to national statistics, 8.5% of youth aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus in 2013.13 Food insecurity may also play a role in underweight.14 The study results confirm the high prevalence of combined overweight and obesity in adolescent girls reported in the SANHANES.5 South.

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. Underweight and malnutrition in home care: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Nils A; Tannen, Antje; Suhr, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to provide representative figures about the prevalence of underweight and malnutrition among home care clients, and to determine the associated risk factors and the provided nutritional nursing interventions. In 2012, a multicenter point prevalence study was conducted among 878 randomly selected clients from 100 randomly selected home care services across Germany. Following a standardized study protocol, demographics, nutritional assessments (Body Mass Index, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini nutritional Assessment - short form (MNA-sf), nurses' clinical judgment on nutritional status) and interventions were assessed. Common nutritional risk factors for underweight and malnutrition were analyzed in a logistic regression model. Malnutrition figures varied between 4.8% (MNA-sf) and 6.8% (MUST), underweight between 8.7% (BMI malnutrition assessments (MNA-sf 48.8%, MUST 39.1%) due to a lack of information on many clients' loss of weight within the past 3-6 months. Regular weighing was performed in 33.6-57.3% of all clients, depending on weight and nutritional status. Mental overload (OR 8.1/4.4), needs help with feeding (OR 5.0/2.8) and loss of appetite (OR 3.6/3.9) were highly associated with malnutrition/underweight. Malnutrition and underweight are important issues in home care clients. Regular weighing should be performed in all home care clients so that a potential weight loss can be detected in time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. INFLUENCE OF LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH INTENSITY OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY, AND SELECTED HEALTH RELATED FITNESS VARIABLES AMONG UNDERWEIGHT MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaukab Azeem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Underweight (UW individuals face lot of problems in increasing muscle size and also increasing body weight and fitness levels. Resistance training (RT plays a very important role in increasing hypertrophy of the muscles one and all in general. (ACSM, 2009 stated that the resistance exercise for healthy adults provides program design recommendations for muscle hypertrophy [3]. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of low, Medium and high intensity of (RT on the muscular hypertrophy and selected health related fitness variables among the underweight males.  Method: A group of (N=40 subjects was selected randomly to participate in this study.  The age of the participants was in the range of 18-24 years, (RT program was employed for 12 weeks, two days in a week, 45 minutes of training per session. The subjects were segregated into two groups namely Group-A (n=20, experimental group, Group –B (n=20 control group. The (RT was employed on experimental group. Control group was not given any above mentioned special training program. The tests (pre and post considered for this study was health related fitness variables are as follows; body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, Flexibility and cardio-vascular endurance. And test for muscular hypertrophy i.e. (neck, shoulders, chest, arms,  waist, hips, thigh and calf; To compare the mean differences from pre to post test, mean, standard deviation, and t-test was computed by the help of statistica software.  Results & Discussion: 12 weeks of training protocol had revealed significant performance from pre to posttest among the subjects with regard to the selected fitness variables and presented by percentages i.e. BMI (4.45%, bench press (35.12%, sit-ups test (22.34%, sit & reach test (26.83%, and 12 min run & walk test (26.94%. Furthermore the muscular hypertrophy was enhance among the underweight students i.e. Neck (2.61%, shoulder (2.95%, chest (6

  8. [Evaluation of the nutrition mode in children during the pubertal period with BMI < or = 5 percentile in the city of Szczecin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluation of the method of nutrition in the children aged 13 during the period of pubertal spurt who had their body mass, body weight and this values led to calculation of BMI indicator which was related to centile distribution of children from Warszawa. From the group 1464 children selected 79 persons (5.4% the whole of investigated) with BMI < or = 5 percentile with underweight and considerable underweight. Their menus of three chosen at random weekdays were obtained. Analysis of the nutrition method of children with underweight and considerable underweight showed low energy value of the diet, cellulose, mineral components (K, Ca, Mg) also liquids deficiency at simultaneously occurrent the general and animal protein, the fat, the cholesterol, mineral components (Na, P, Fe, Cu, Zn), vitamins A, C, E (girls) and from the group B. The children have undergone a special pro health education in the form "live" workshop.

  9. Do burdens of underweight and overweight coexist among lower socioeconomic groups in India?1234

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, SV; Perkins, Jessica M; Khan, Kashif T

    2009-01-01

    Background: The coexistence of underweight and overweight in rapidly developing economies is well recognized. However, less is known about the socioeconomic patterning of underweight and overweight as economies move through the epidemiologic transition.

  10. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  11. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Il; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Healt...

  12. The Impact of Waiting List BMI Changes on the Short-term Outcomes of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomphe, Valérie; Mailhot, Geneviève; Damphousse, Véronic; Tahir, Muhammad-Ramzan; Receveur, Olivier; Poirier, Charles; Ferraro, Pasquale

    2018-02-01

    Obesity and underweight are associated with a higher postlung transplantation (LTx) mortality. This study aims to assess the impact of the changes in body mass index (BMI) during the waiting period for LTx on early postoperative outcomes. Medical records of 502 consecutive cases of LTx performed at our institution between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. Patients were stratified per change in BMI category between pre-LTx assessment (candidate BMI) and transplant BMI as follows: A-candidate BMI, less than 18.5 or 18.5 to 29.9 and transplant BMI, less than 18.5; B-candidate BMI, less than 18.5 and transplant BMI, 18.5 to 29.9; C-candidate BMI, 18.5 to 29.9 and transplant BMI, 18.5 to 29.9; D-candidate BMI, 30 or greater and transplant BMI, 18.5 to 29.9; and E-candidate BMI, 30 or greater or 18.5 to 29.9 and transplant BMI, 30 or greater. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were length of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS and postoperative complications. BMI variation during the waiting time was common, as 1/3 of patients experienced a change in BMI category. Length of mechanical ventilation (21 days vs 9 days; P = 0.018), intensive care unit LOS (26 days vs 15 days; P = 0.035), and rates of surgical complications (76% vs 44%; P = 0.018) were significantly worse in patients of group E versus group D. Obese candidates who failed to decrease BMI less than 30 by transplant exhibited an increased risk of postoperative mortality (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-6.48) compared with patients in group C. Pre-LTx BMI evolution had no impact on postoperative morbidity and mortality in underweight patients. Our results suggest that obese candidates with an unfavorable pretransplant BMI evolution are at greater risk of worse post-LTx outcomes.

  13. The geographical distribution of underweight children in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Nubé, Maarten; Sonneveld, Benjamin G. J. S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study geographical patterns of underweight children in Africa by combining information on prevalence with headcounts at a subnational level. METHODS: We used large-scale, nationally representative nutrition surveys, in particular the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, which have been designed, analysed and presented according to largely similar protocols, and which report at the national and subnational levels. FINDINGS: We found distinct ...

  14. Trends in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and their related lifestyle factors in Korean young adults, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-05-05

    This study aimed to assess trends of underweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity and related lifestyle factors in young Korean adults. The analysis focused on adults aged 19-39 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I-V (1998-2012). Underweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) obesity as BMI≥30kg/m 2 ; and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥90cm in men and ≥85cm in women. We evaluated trends by analyzing the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and the proportions and ORs of lifestyles. As compared with KNHANES I, the ORs for obesity were higher in III, IV, and V and the ORs for abdominal obesity were higher in IV and V in men, which showed an increasing trend (P for trendobesity showed a significant increasing tendency (P for trendobesity in young men and women, and abdominal obesity in young men is needed. Meanwhile, management of underweight in young women is simultaneously required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  16. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Body Mass Index, Underweight and Obesity among English Children, 2007-2008 to 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, James; Rehkopf, David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity have been reported in most developed countries, with obesity more common in deprived groups. Whether inequalities are found in the prevalence of underweight, the rest of the body mass index (BMI) distribution, or have changed across time...... Deprivation at the lower super output area) as a measure of socioeconomic deprivation. From 2007-2008 to 2011-2012 inequalities in obesity between the most compared to least deprived group increased (from 7.21% to 8.30%; pinequalities in the prevalence of underweight (1.50% to 1.21%; p = 0.......15) were stable during this period. There were no differences by age group or by sex, but a three-way interaction suggested inequalities in obesity had increased at a faster rate for 10 to 11 year old girls, than 4 to 5 year old boys, (2.03% vs 0.07%; pinequalities...

  17. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  18. Overweight and Underweight Prevalence Trends in Children from Romania - Pooled Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies between 2006 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Cinteza, Elena Eliza; Chesaru, Bianca Ioana; Gafencu, Mihai; Mocanu, Veronica; Pascanu, Ionela M; Tatar, Simona Alexandra; Balgradean, Mihaela; Dobre, Michaela; Fica, Simona Vasilica; Ichim, Gabriela Edita; Pop, Raluca; Puiu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015. Children's BMI was classified using the current WHO, IOTF, and CDC references. 25,060 children from 8 Romanian counties were included in the analysis. The prevalence of underweight children was 5%/4.5%/8.5% (WHO/IOTF/CDC), while the prevalence of overweight (including obese) children was 28.3%/23%/23.2% (WHO/IOTF/CDC). The prevalence of overweight children did not change significantly over the last decade (chi-square test p = 0.6). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; 95% CI 1.29-1.45, compared to female); prepubertal age (OR = 3.86; 95% CI 3.41-4.36,compared to postpubertal age), and urban environment (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.26, compared to rural environment) had higher risk for overweight. While the prevalence of underweight children was low, almost one in four children in Romania was overweight or obese (according to WHO criteria) between 2006 and 2015. This prevalence remained relatively stable over the last decade. Male gender, prepubertal age, and urban environment, were the most relevant risk factors associated with overweight status in Romanian children. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  19. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor - incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMIobesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) incidence was calculated after BMI conversion using the international cut-off by Cole et al. (2000, 2007). The reference group were adolescents with low SESI (OR=1.00). 11% of the adolescents were underweight, 14% were overweight and 3% were obese. The odds ratio of underweight incidence for the average SESI adolescent was 0.33 (95%CI: 0.15, 0.73; padolescents - 1.05 (95%CI: 0.78, 1.42; p>0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio

  20. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R; McCrae, Robert R; Deiana, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Costa, Paul T

    2009-07-01

    Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. More than half of the population from four towns in Sardinia, Italy (n = 5693; age = 14-94 years; mean +/- standard deviation = 43 +/- 17 years) were assessed on multiple anthropometric measures and 30 facets that comprehensively cover the five major dimensions of personality, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. High Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness were associated with being underweight and obese, respectively. High Impulsiveness (specifically eating-behavior items) and low Order were associated with body mass index categories of overweight and obese, and with measures of abdominal adiposity (waist and hip circumference). Those scoring in the top 10% of Impulsiveness were about 4 kg heavier than those in the bottom 10%, an effect independent and larger than the FTO genetic variant. Prospective analyses confirmed that Impulsiveness and Order were significant predictors of general and central measures of adiposity assessed 3 years later. Overweight and obese individuals have difficulty resisting cravings and lack methodical and organized behaviors that might influence diet and weight control. Although individuals' traits have limited impact on the current obesogenic epidemic, personality traits can improve clinical assessment, suggest points of intervention, and help tailor prevention and treatment approaches.

  1. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and their related socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among adult women in Myanmar, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Lwin, Kyi Tun; Aung, La Seng

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. Material and methods In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18–49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (23.0–27.4 kg/m2), and obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2). Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and weight status. Results The prevalence of underweight was 14.1%, overweight 28.1% and obesity 13.1%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of underweight was the highest among 18 to 29 year-olds (20.2%), while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 49 years (around 50%). In multinomial logistic regression, being 30 to 49 years old, poorer and richer wealth status, living in all the other regions of Myanmar and ever contraceptive use were inversely and current tobacco use, not working and having less than two children ever born were positively associated with underweight relative to normal weight. Older age, having secondary education, urban residence, wealthier economic status, living with a partner, living in the Northern and Southern regions of Myanmar, having less than two children ever born and having ever used contraceptives were positively and current tobacco use was negatively associated with overweight or obesity relative to normal weight. Conclusions A dual burden of both underweight and overweight or obesity among female adults was found in Myanmar. Sociodemographic and health risk behaviour factors were identified for underweight and overweight or obesity that can guide public health interventions to

  2. Low leptin levels predict amenorrhea in underweight and eating disordered females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpp, W; Blum, W F; von Prittwitz, S; Ziegler, A; Lübbert, H; Emons, G; Herzog, W; Herpertz, S; Deter, H C; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

    1997-07-01

    Evidence that leptin plays an important role in reproductive function is accumulating rapidly. We hypothesized that low leptin synthesis is associated with amenorrhea. We therefore determined serum leptin levels in 43 underweight female students, who were screened for lifetime occurrence of amenorrhea. We assessed the predictive value of leptin, body mass index (BMI), fat mass and percent body fat, respectively, for lifetime occurrence of amenorrea. Factors predicting amenorrhea were tested for their capability to predict current amenorrhea in a second cohort of 63 inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). Furthermore, the relationships between serum leptin levels and of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone, respectively, were evaluated. Only leptin predicted lifetime occurrence of amenorrhea in the student cohort. The critical leptin level was in the range of 1.85 micrograms L-1. This level served to largely separate anorectic from bulimic patients. In patients with AN mean serum log10 leptin levels over the first 4 weeks of inpatient treatment were correlated with mean FSH, LH and estradiol levels, respectively. Evidently, a critical leptin level is needed to maintain menstruation. In affluent populations eating disorders are likely to be a major cause of a low leptin synthesis.

  3. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  4. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China. PMID:24453807

  5. Overweight and underweight coexist within households in Brazil, China and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, C M; Adair, L S; Monteiro, C; Popkin, B M

    2000-12-01

    The possibility that underweight and overweight coexist within households and understanding such an occurrence have not been studied sufficiently. In fact, underweight and overweight are thought of as resulting from very different environmental, behavioral and individual risk factors. This study identified households in which overweight and underweight coexist and explored household-level associations such as urban residence and income. Using three large national surveys from Brazil, China and Russia, the prevalence of such households ranged from 8% in China and Russia to 11% in Brazil. Even more important from the public health perspective is the finding that these under/over households accounted for a high proportion of all households with an underweight member in China (23%), Brazil (45%), and Russia (58%). The prevalence of the underweight/overweight household was highest in the urban environment in all three countries. There was no clear pattern in the prevalence of the underweight/overweight household type by income. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the significance of the association of household type with urban residence and income while controlling for household size and household demographics by gender. Further analysis was done to consider the age relationships within the underweight/overweight pair. The underweight child coexisting with an overweight nonelderly adult was the predominant pair combination in all three countries. These findings illustrate the need for public health programs that are able to address underweight and overweight simultaneously.

  6. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Proper, Karin I; Hoeven-Mulder, Henriëtte B; Bemelmans, Wanda J E

    2012-10-04

    Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13-16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE) analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50) and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12). Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49) and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69), and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83). Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. Longitudinal analyses are recommended to explore the

  7. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldwijk Jorien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50 and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12. Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49 and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69, and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83. Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and

  8. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMIBMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  10. Maternal underweight and obesity and risk of orofacial clefts in a large international consortium of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutbi, Hebah; Wehby, George L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Romitti, Paul A; Carmichael, Suzan; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; DeRoo, Lisa; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T; Munger, Ronald G

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent. Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates. Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (≥ 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI. In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  11. Underweight, overweight, and pediatric bone fragility: impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialo, Shara R; Gordon, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal health is modulated by a variety of factors, including genetic makeup, hormonal axes, and environment. Across all ages, extremes of body weight may exert a deleterious effect on bone accretion and increase fracture risk. The incidence of both anorexia nervosa and obesity, each involving extreme alterations in body composition, is rising among youth, and secondary osteoporosis is increasingly being diagnosed among affected children and adolescents. Compared with the elderly, the definition of osteoporosis that stems from any underlying condition differs for the pediatric population and special precautions are required with regard to treatment of young patients. Early recognition and management of both underweight and overweight youth and the accompanying consequences on bone and mineral metabolism are essential for preservation of skeletal health, although prevention of bone loss and optimization of bone mineral accrual remain the most important protective measures.

  12. Analysis of the prognostic value of BMI and the difference in its impact according to age and sex in DLBCL patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasa, Yusuke; Shimoyama, Tatsu; Sasaki, Yuki; Tamura, Miho; Sawada, Takeshi; Omuro, Yasushi; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Maeda, Yoshiharu

    2018-02-01

    Studies that have evaluated the prognostic value of body mass index (BMI) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have recently been reported. However, the impact of BMI on survival outcomes remains controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 406 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like regimens. The number (%) of patients that were categorized into 1 of 4 groups according to BMI were underweight (BMI (BMI (≥25 kg/m 2 ) (5-y OS, 61.5% vs 85.7%; P = .039). In contrast, in young female patients (BMI had significantly better OS than those with a high BMI (5-y OS, 88.6% vs 46.4%; P BMI on OS between young and elderly patients. In this study, we demonstrated that being underweight and obese were independent prognostic factors compared with being normal weight. In female patients, BMI had a different impact on the prognosis of young and elderly patients, whereas in male patients, there was no difference in the effect of BMI on prognosis according to age. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. BMI change during puberty and the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindblom, J M; Bygdell, M; Sondén, A; Célind, J; Rosengren, A; Ohlsson, C

    2018-03-12

    Hospitalization for heart failure amongst younger men has increased. The reason for this is unknown but it coincides with the obesity epidemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between childhood BMI (Body Mass Index) and BMI change during puberty for risk of adult heart failure in men. Using the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST), a population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, we collected information on childhood BMI at age 8 years and BMI change during puberty (BMI at age 20 - BMI at 8) for men born 1945-1961, followed until December 2013 (n = 37 670). BMI was collected from paediatric growth charts and mandatory military conscription tests. Information on heart failure was retrieved from high-quality national registers (342 first hospitalizations for heart failure). BMI change during puberty was independently of childhood BMI associated with risk of heart failure in a nonlinear J-shaped manner. Subjects in the upper quartile of BMI change during puberty (Q4) had more than twofold increased risk of heart failure compared with subjects in Q1 [HR (Hazard Ratio) = 2.29, 95% CI (Confidence Interval) 1.68-3.12]. Childhood BMI was not independently associated with risk of heart failure. Boys developing overweight during puberty (HR 3.14; 95% CI 2.25-4.38) but not boys with childhood overweight that normalized during puberty (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00) had increased risk of heart failure compared with boys without childhood or young adult overweight. BMI change during puberty is a novel risk factor for adult heart failure in men. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... adults and children.1 Internationally, secular trends of body mass index (BMI) in children in developed ... For this reason, international trends in childhood weight should be closely monitored, and early ..... in adolescent boys) in our study is in keeping with many studies in other low- and middle-income ...

  15. Earlier BMI rebound and lower pre-rebound BMI as risk of obesity among Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Ono, A; Yokomichi, H; Yamagata, Z; Tanaka, S; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Chida, S; Hosoya, M; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal growth data of children were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the timing of body mass index (BMI) rebound and obesity risk in later ages. Of 54 558 children born between April 2004 and March 2005 and longitudinally measured in April and October every year in the preschool period, 15 255 children were analyzed wherein no longitudinal measurement is missing after 1 year of age. BMI rebound age was determined as the age with smallest BMI value across longitudinal individual data after 1 year of age. Rebound age was compared between overweight and non-overweight groups. The subjects were divided into groups based on the timing of rebound. The sex- and age-adjusted mean of the BMI, height and weight s.d. scores for age group, along with 6 months weight and height gain, were compared among groups using analysis of covariance. Among those who were overweight at 66-71 months of age, BMI rebound age obtained at approximately 3 years of age was compared with the non-overweight group, whose BMI rebound age was utmost 66 months or later (PBMI age group showed that earlier BMI rebound results in larger BMI (PBMI rebound earlier than 30 months of age, low BMI was observed (PBMI rebound among groups with rebound age earlier than 60 months of age (PBMI rebound timing with pre-rebound low BMI leads to greater childhood obesity risk; hence, early detection and prevention is necessary for such cases.

  16. Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, O Jin Ee; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the ...

  17. Trajectories of BMI change impact glucose and insulin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E I; Shaw, J; Cherbuin, N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine, in a community setting, whether trajectory of weight change over twelve years is associated with glucose and insulin metabolism at twelve years. Participants were 532 community-living middle-aged and elderly adults from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life study. They spanned the full weight range (underweight/normal/overweight/obese). Latent class analysis and multivariate generalised linear models were used to investigate the association of Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) trajectory over twelve years with plasma insulin (μlU/ml), plasma glucose (mmol/L), and HOMA2 insulin resistance and beta cell function at follow-up. All models were adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, pre-clinical diabetes status (normal fasting glucose or impaired fasting glucose) and physical activity. Four weight trajectories were extracted; constant normal (mean baseline BMI = 25; follow-up BMI = 25), constant high (mean baseline BMI = 36; follow-up BMI = 37), increase (mean baseline BMI = 26; follow-up BMI = 32) and decrease (mean baseline BMI = 34; follow-up BMI = 28). At any given current BMI, individuals in the constant high and increase trajectories had significantly higher plasma insulin, greater insulin resistance, and higher beta cell function than those in the constant normal trajectory. Individuals in the decrease trajectory did not differ from the constant normal trajectory. Current BMI significantly interacted with preceding BMI trajectory in its association with plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and beta cell function. The trajectory of preceding weight has an independent effect on blood glucose metabolism beyond body weight measured at any given point in time. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier

  18. Foot morphology of normal, underweight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, M; Grau, S; Krauss, I; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that there is a global increase in obesity, knowledge about the impact of obesity on the development of a child's foot is of great importance for orthopaedic and paediatric physicians with regard to prevention, clinical treatment and management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass on the development of a child's foot based on a foot type classification. The feet of 1450 boys and 1437 girls aged 2-14 years were measured using a three-dimensional (3D) foot scanner (Pedus, Human Solutions Inc., Germany) in a bipedal upright position. Twelve relevant 3D foot measures were recorded, as well as the children's age, gender, height and mass. Factor analysis of principal components was used to obtain a smaller number of independent and standardized variables. The variables were used for cluster analysis to classify the children's feet. Five foot types were identified: flat, robust, slender, short and long feet. There were significant differences among foot types with respect to the children's body mass index. Normal weight children displayed an almost equal distribution of all foot types throughout childhood. Flat and robust feet were more common in overweight children, whereas underweight children showed more slender and long feet. The influence of excess, as well as deficient mass could be verified for the comprehensive foot morphology based on a foot type classification. Subsequently, foot discomfort as a result of various musculoskeletal disorders may develop. In turn, this might keep the children from being active and therefore reinforce the risk of developing obesity. However, there is still a lack of information regarding these relationships, which needs to be determined. This knowledge may help prevent orthopaedic foot problems and injuries.

  19. Effect of inhaled corticosteroid use on weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer; Nguyen, John; Kim, Yuna; Geng, Bob; Romanowski, Gale; Alejandro, Lawrence; Proudfoot, James; Xu, Ronghui; Leibel, Sydney

    2018-04-19

    Assess the relationship between inhaled corticosteroid use (ICS) and weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma. Assess if the number of emergency department (ED) visits correlates with overall BMI trajectory. Assess the trend of prescribing biologic therapy in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma and determine its relationship with weight (BMI). A retrospective chart review was performed on 93 pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma to determine the relationship between ICS use and weight (BMI), biologic therapy and BMI, and number of ED visits and BMI trajectory. A mixed effects model was employed with the correlation between repeated measures accounted for through the random effects. There is a statistically significant increase of 0.369 kg/m 2 in BMI trajectory per year in subjects on high-dose steroids compared to an increase of 0.195 kg/m 2 in the low dose group (p BMI of subjects initiated on biologic therapy (omalizumab or mepolizumab) had a statistically significant decrease in BMI trajectory of 0.818 kg/m 2 per year (p BMI trajectory (p BMI trajectory; the higher the dose, the greater the projected BMI increase per year. Initiation of biologic therapy decreased BMI trajectory over time. Lastly, those with frequent ED visits had a higher BMI trend. Future prospective studies are warranted that further evaluate the potential metabolic impacts of ICS and assess the effects of biologic therapy on BMI.

  20. Associations Between Parental BMI and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Environment in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joel E; Helsel, Brian; Griffin, Sarah F; Liang, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64.3%) of high (indicating a healthier family environment) FNPA scores and families with an overweight or obese parent had a smaller proportion (45.2%) of high FNPA scores (χ 2  = 5.247, P = 0.022). Families with a parent who was overweight or obese had 2.18 times the odds (95% CI 1.11-4.27) of being in the low FNPA ("less healthy" environment) group. Further, underweight/normal weight parents reported higher levels of monitoring of child diet (Z = -3.652, P authoritative parenting behaviors were associated with a less obesogenic home environment and a positive parenting style related to child eating and physical activity behaviors.

  1. Decomposing race and gender differences in underweight and obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Association between BMI and Different Frailty Domains: A U-Shaped Curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, M L; van der A, D L; van Oostrom, S H; Picavet, H S J; Dollé, M E T; van Steeg, H; Verschuren, W M M; Spijkerman, A M W

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies showed a U-shaped association between BMI and (physical) frailty. We studied the association between BMI and physical, cognitive, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, the overlap between and prevalence of these frailty domains was examined. Cross-sectional study. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a longitudinal population-based study starting in 1987-1991 examining men and women aged 20-59 with follow-up examinations every 5 yrs. For the current analyses, we used data from round 5 (2008-2012) with 4019 participants aged 41-81 yrs. Physical frailty was defined as having ≥ 2 of 4 frailty criteria from the Frailty Phenotype (unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, physical activity, handgrip strength). Cognitive frailty was defined as the BMI was divided into four classes. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, level of education, and smoking. A U-shaped association was observed between BMI and physical frailty, a small linear association for BMI and cognitive frailty and no association between BMI and psychological and social frailty. The four frailty domains showed only a small proportion of overlap. The prevalence of physical, cognitive and social frailty increased with age, whereas psychological frailty did not. We confirm that not only underweight but also obesity is associated with physical frailty. Obesity also seems to be associated with cognitive frailty. Further, frailty prevention should focus on multiple domains and target individuals at a younger age (<65yrs).

  3. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  4. Physical activity and BMI in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene E; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2012-02-01

    To examine objectively measured physical activity levels by age, sex, and BMI for children and adolescents in a nationally representative sample. Data were from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which included physical activity assessment by accelerometer and measured height and weight. The authors calculated minutes of moderate and vigorous activity. Boys were more active than girls, and activity levels were lower at older ages. Younger children met daily recommendations for physical activity, whereas older children, especially girls, did not. Typically, weight status was inversely related to activity, though differences were less apparent among boys. Underweight children were not always more active than heavier peers.

  5. Relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and dental maturation: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development stage of patient is essential to be understood by orthodontist as it can be used as principle in determining initiation time of treatment. Bjork (2012 states that the right time to perform orthodontic therapy is when a person has entered the peak period of growth spurt. Entry time of this period can be determined by predicting maturation stage using dental maturation assessment. This parameter is considered mostly effective and accurate in determining development stage of a person. On the other hand, dental maturation generally vary although in same group of age. Body Mass Index (BMI is closely suspected to cause variation onset of dental maturation. The objective of this review is to determine the relationship between BMI with the dental maturation. Dental maturation can be estimated using Demirjian method through assessing panoramic radiographs. While BMI is a value level of adiposity in the body obtained by calculating body weight and height. BMI categories consist of underweight, normal, overweight, and obesity. Generaly, dental maturation of each person is different even within the same chronological age. Some studies showed that the greater the BMI, the more quickly the teeth undergo maturation. Conversely, the smaller the BMI, the more slowly the teeth undergo maturation. Acceleration of tooth maturation allegedly associated with increased secretion of free IGF-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding protein (major circulating mediator of growth hormone. someone with a great BMI value has a decreased growth hormone levels. The decreased growth hormone secretion was significantly resulting in increased secretion of IGF-1, which plays a role in accelerating the growth process. The role of IGF-1 is what will indirectly affect facial growth including dental maturation. Conclusion: there is a relationship between body mass index and dental maturation. Increased BMI indicating accelerated of dental maturation while

  6. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  7. BMI-for-age graphs with severe obesity percentile curves: tools for plotting cross-sectional and longitudinal youth BMI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Yu, Liyang; DuPont, Nicholas C; Clark, B Ruth

    2017-05-24

    Severe obesity is an important and distinct weight status classification that is associated with disease risk and is increasing in prevalence among youth. The ability to graphically present population weight status data, ranging from underweight through severe obesity class 3, is novel and applicable to epidemiologic research, intervention studies, case reports, and clinical care. The aim was to create body mass index (BMI) graphing tools to generate sex-specific BMI-for-age graphs that include severe obesity percentile curves. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention youth reference data sets and weight status criteria to generate the percentile curves. The statistical software environments SAS and R were used to create two different graphing options. This article provides graphing tools for creating sex-specific BMI-for-age graphs for males and females ages 2 to obesity classes 2 and 3, the ability to plot individual data for thousands of children and adolescents on a single graph, and the ability to generate cross-sectional and longitudinal graphs. These new BMI graphing tools will enable investigators, public health professionals, and clinicians to view and present youth weight status data in novel and meaningful ways.

  8. Does BMI influence hospital stay and morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Gromov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality in such pat......Background and purpose - Body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range possibly affects the perioperative morbidity and mortality following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in traditional care programs. We determined perioperative morbidity and mortality...... in such patients who were operated with the fast-track methodology and compared the levels with those in patients with normal BMI. Patients and methods - This was a prospective observational study involving 13,730 procedures (7,194 THA and 6,536 TKA operations) performed in a standardized fast-track setting....... Complete 90-day follow-up was achieved using national registries and review of medical records. Patients were grouped according to BMI as being underweight, of normal weight, overweight, obese, very obese, and morbidly obese. Results - Median length of stay (LOS) was 2 (IQR: 2-3) days in all BMI groups. 30...

  9. The effects of eccentric exercise on muscle function and proprioception of individuals being overweight and underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Deli, Chariklia K; Raso, Vagner; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of being overweight or underweight on proprioception at rest and after muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Twelve lean, 12 overweight, and 8 underweight female participants performed an eccentric exercise session using the knee extensor muscles of the dominant leg. Muscle damage indices and proprioception were assessed up to 3 days postexercise. The results indicated that proprioception at baseline of the lean individuals was superior to that of the other 2 groups. The overweight individuals exhibited a smaller knee joint reaction angle to release than did the lean group, whereas the underweight individuals exhibited a larger reaction angle to release than did the lean group. After eccentric exercise, proprioception was affected more in the overweight and the underweight groups than in the lean group. The greater exercise-induced muscle damage appeared in the overweight group, and the deficient muscle mass of the underweight participants could explain in part the greater disturbances that appeared in proprioception in these 2 groups than for the lean counterparts. In conclusion, deviating from the normal body mass is associated with significant disturbances in the proprioception of the legs at rest and after participation in activities involving eccentric actions.

  10. High prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia: a nationwide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Takuro; Suzuki, Yutaro; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Ozeki, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Minami, Yoshitake; Okamoto, Kurefu; Sagae, Toyoaki; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity, and laboratory data for nutritional status in Japanese outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A questionnaire conducted in inpatient and outpatient facilities in Japan. Participants The population of adult patients with schizophrenia in Japan (N=23 116). Main outcome measures The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia. Results We conducted a large-scale investigation of the prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association between January 2012 and July 2013. There were 7655 outpatients and 15 461 inpatients with schizophrenia. There was a significant difference in the distribution of three body mass index levels between outpatients and inpatients (punderweight inpatients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that among outpatients (punderweight individuals aged ≥40 years was higher in inpatients than in outpatients and in the general Japanese population. The proportion of individuals with hypocholesterolaemia was significantly higher in inpatients with schizophrenia than in outpatients (punderweight between outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia; the proportion of severe underweight in inpatients was twofold higher than in outpatients. Conclusions The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia was higher than in outpatients and the general population. Therefore, the physical risk of inpatients should be carefully considered in clinical practice. PMID:26656016

  11. Changes in BMI before and during economic development and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality: a 35-year follow-up study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yao; Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Bin; Li, Lan Sun; Sun, Dong Ling; Wu, Lei; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shan Shan; Wang, Yi Yan; Tobias, Deirdre K; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B

    2014-09-01

    It is unclear whether changes in BMI during rapid economic development influence subsequent mortality. We analyzed whether BMI in 1976 and 1994 and changes in BMI during 1976-1994 predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a 35-year follow-up cohort of 1,696 Chinese (1,124 men and 572 women, aged 35-65 years) in Xi'an, China. Participants were categorized as underweight (economic development was associated with elevated risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Higher BMI measured before economic development was associated with lower mortality risk, whereas BMI measured afterward was associated with increased mortality. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Almenara, Carlos A.; Jezek, Stanislav; Erriu, Michela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed developmental trajectories from childhood to adolescence of internalizing/externalizing problems, limited attention has been given to underweight children. Two groups were recruited for this study from a community sample: underweight (Ug, N?=?80, 50% female) and normal weight (NWg, N?=?80, 50% female) to examine the developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children from the age two years, and thei...

  13. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Samaghabadi, Razieh O; Hughes, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mental disorders in motherhood according to prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy-related weight changes-A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an association between prepregnancy BMI and postpartum depression, but little is known about this association beyond one year postpartum and the influence of postpartum weight retention (PPWR). METHODS: We used data from 70355 mothers from the Danish National...... Birth Cohort to estimate the associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and PPWR, respectively, and incident depression/anxiety disorders until six years postpartum. Outcome was depression or anxiety diagnosed clinically or filling a prescription for an antidepressant. Cox regression was used......-weight, though the associations were attenuated after adjustments (HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.06-1.45], 1.05 [95% CI 0.96-1.15] and 1.07 [95% CI 0.95-1.21] for underweight, overweight and obese, respectively). Compared to mothers who had returned to their prepregnancy BMI, risk of depression/anxiety disorders...

  15. Nutritional status (BMI in children suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research encompassed 708 children of both genders, aged 6 to 15. Three hundred and fifty four of the total number had been diagnosed with Asthma bronchiale, whereas the other half of the children were healthy and served as a control group. Their nutritional condition was determined on the basis of the percentile value of their BMI. Recent studies on the level of nutrition and its connection to asthma have shown contradictory results. This paper was aimed at estimating the nutritional level of sick children in relation to healthy ones. The data were analyzed in relation to group, gender and age by means of descriptive methods, univariate (analysis of variance - ANOVA and multivariate (multivariate analysis of variance - MANOVA, whereas the results were tested by Roy’s test (Pearson contingency coefficient χ, coefficient of multiple correlation R. It was determined that male children more frequently suffer from this disease than female children do. Both healthy and sick children were normally nourished. However, as regards the sick, the number of normally nourished was considerably lower, whereas the number of underweight was considerably higher, as well as those that were overweight. Intergroup differences in the distribution of certain levels of nutrition of male and female children occurred in only two non-sequential age groups, being later in boys than in girls. This uneven distribution is probably a consequence of the joint effects of environment factors, sickness and therapy.

  16. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height ...

  17. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  18. Risk Factors of Underweight in Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia

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    Deneke Tosheno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undernutrition in early childhood has irreversible and long-lasting implications. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing risk factors of child undernutrition. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 households with mothers to children pairs aged 6–59 months selected by a multistage systematic random sampling method. Child anthropometric measurements on weight were recorded using standardized and calibrated weighing scales. Weight-for-age was compared to the 2007 WHO growth reference by WHO Anthro software. Data were entered using Epi-Info and analyzed using SPSS. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between underweight children and their predictors; both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were reported. Results. One-fourth (25% of the children were underweight. Child age (AOR: 2.36, gender (AOR: 1.82, illness (AOR: 0.09, maternal decision making power (AOR: 0.07, maternal education (AOR: 0.19, employment/occupation (AOR: 5.29, and household income (AOR: 4.16 were found to be independent and significant predictors of underweight children. Conclusion. Significant proportion of the children were underweight. Maternal decision-making power persists as a strong predictor of children’s weight. Therefore, intervention programs focusing on improving mothers’ decision-making power on child nutrition would contribute to the efforts towards alleviating the problem.

  19. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Larissa S; Gaya, Anelise R; Petersen, Ricardo D S; Gaya, Adroaldo

    2013-01-01

    To describe and analyze the trends of occurrence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren. This was a longitudinal study of trends conducted in a voluntary sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. The sample was grouped by year of collection (period I: 2005 and 2006; period II: 2007 and 2008, and period III: 2009-2011), age category (children: 7 to 10 years, and adolescents: 11 to 14 years), and stratified by gender. The body mass index was used to classify the nutritional profile. Trend analysis was verified using multinomial logistic regression (p<0.05). Mean occurrences were 2.11% for underweight, 22.27% for overweight, and 6.8% for obesity. There was a decrease of underweight in male adolescents from period I to II, as well as an increase in female children from period II to III. Regarding overweight, there was an increase followed by a decrease in male children. Regarding obesity, there was an increase from period I to II in all age groups and for both genders. The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Underweight, overweight and obesity among zaboli adolescents: A comparison between international and Iranians′ national criteria

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    Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Almost all definitions revealed coexistence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among Zaboli adolescents. Huge differences exist between different criteria. To understand the best appropriate criteria for Iranian adolescents, future studies should focus on the predictability of obesity-related co-morbidities by these criteria.

  1. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa S. Flores

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: : The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates.

  2. Underweight, overweight and obesity in paediatric dialysis and renal transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Alonso Melgar, Ángel; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Mendes, Patricia; Molchanova, Elena A.; Paripović, Dušan; Peco-Antic, Amira; Printza, Nikoleta; Rees, Lesley; Rubik, Jacek; Stefanidis, Constantinos J.; Sinha, Manish D.; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Jager, Kitty J.; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight is rising worldwide, but in children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) a poor nutritional status is still the primary concern. We aimed to study the prevalence of, and factors associated with, underweight and overweight/obesity in the European paediatric RRT

  3. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mihui; Mo, Shuming; Lv, Yubao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients' constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P underweight (P underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity. PMID:29234426

  4. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method. Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results. The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients’ constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.10 for all. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion. Our study revealed significant negative correlations between the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity.

  5. Role of Underweight and Overweight in the Development of Vertebral Pain Syndrome in Systemic Osteoporosis

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    V.V. Povorozniuk

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion. Underweight in women of older age groups with systemic osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk and severity of pain syndrome in the thoracic region. Overweight promotes pain in the back, but did not affect the course of pain syndrome in this region of the spine in systemic osteoporosis.

  6. Development of relative body mass (BMI of students from Łódź, depending on the selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors

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    Pruszkowska-Przybylska Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19-26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05 was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject

  7. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria

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    Blessing J. Akombi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0–59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0–59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight. The prevalence of wasting was 18% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 17.1, 19.7 and severe wasting 9% (95% CI: 7.9, 9.8. The prevalence of underweight was 29% (95% CI: 27.1, 30.5 and severe underweight 12% (95% CI: 10.6, 12.9. Multivariable analysis revealed that the most consistent factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight are: geopolitical zone (North East, North West and North Central, perceived birth size (small and average, sex of child (male, place/mode of delivery (home delivery and non-caesarean and a contraction of fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. In order to meet the WHO’s global nutrition target for 2025, interventions aimed at improving maternal health and access to health care services for children especially in the northern geopolitical zones of Nigeria are urgently needed.

  8. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akombi, Blessing J; Agho, Kingsley E; Merom, Dafna; Hall, John J; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-01-08

    Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0-59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0-59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight. The prevalence of wasting was 18% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 17.1, 19.7) and severe wasting 9% (95% CI: 7.9, 9.8). The prevalence of underweight was 29% (95% CI: 27.1, 30.5) and severe underweight 12% (95% CI: 10.6, 12.9). Multivariable analysis revealed that the most consistent factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight are: geopolitical zone (North East, North West and North Central), perceived birth size (small and average), sex of child (male), place/mode of delivery (home delivery and non-caesarean) and a contraction of fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. In order to meet the WHO's global nutrition target for 2025, interventions aimed at improving maternal health and access to health care services for children especially in the northern geopolitical zones of Nigeria are urgently needed.

  9. Trends in underweight and overweight/obesity prevalence in Chinese youth, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Niu, Jingjing

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of recent data on Chinese childhood overweight and underweight prevalence especially since 2004. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in underweight and overweight/obesity ("overweight" hereafter) prevalence and energy balance-related behaviors of Chinese youth from 2004 to 2009. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2004-2009 (N = 4,061 students aged 6-18 years), were analyzed. Trained health workers took anthropometric measures at the participant's house or at a local clinic following a reference protocol recommended by the World Health Organization. The international age- and sex-specific body mass index reference standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force was used to define underweight and overweight children in this study. Among 6- to 11-year-old boys, underweight prevalence increased from 14.5% (2004) to 20.1% (2009, p = 0.068). Among 12- to 18-year-old boys, however, overweight prevalence increased from 7.5 to 12.6% (p = 0.034). From 2004 to 2009, after-school sedentary behavior increased from 2.3 to 3.4 h/day for 6- to 11-year-olds (p Chinese students are increasing, with underweight increases more pronounced in 6- to 11-year-olds and overweight increases more pronounced in 12- to 18-year-olds. Nationwide efficacious interventions are needed that improve the diet, decrease sedentary behavior, and encourage a healthy and realistic body image in Chinese youth.

  10. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Tasnim Tasnim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. Methods This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3. Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor. The statistical analysis used Cox regression. Results A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; p<0.001, a lack of latrine availability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001, and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02 significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively. Conclusions Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children’s nutritional status. Children’s health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  11. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Tasnim; Dasvarma, Gouranga; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3). Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor). The statistical analysis used Cox regression. A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; pavailability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001), and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02) significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively). Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children's nutritional status. Children's health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  12. Weight and body mass index (BMI): current data for Austrian boys and girls aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Gleiss, Andreas; Häusler, Gabriele; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Köstl, Gerhard; Lassi, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Schmitt, Klaus; Blümel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BMI reference charts are widely used to diagnose overweight, obesity and underweight in children and adolescents. To provide up-to-date national reference values for Austria. A cross-sectional sample of over 14 500 children and adolescents (4-19 years) stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions was drawn via schooling institutions (kindergartens, schools and vocational colleges). The generalized additive models for location, scale and shape were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. Austrian boys and girls have higher average weight compared with previous prevalence data. BMI centiles matching BMI values at age 18 years, which are used for defining thinness, overweight and obesity in adults, were calculated. In Austria, using reference values as thresholds, ∼18% of boys and 12% of girls are overweight (with thresholds passing through BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m(2) in adults) and 5% of boys and 3% of girls are obese (with thresholds passing through BMI ≥30.00 kg/m(2) in adults). Overweight and obesity are common in Austria and their prevalence is increasing (using the same IOTF reference for international comparison). Up-to-date national BMI reference values are provided to classify children and adolescents according to the proposed overweight and obesity thresholds.

  13. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Werner, Bo

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged seven years to 19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height. We used height and weight data on 6572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes. Of the 6572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and BMI reduction of 10% or more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height. Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Physical activity modifies the FTO effect on BMI change in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Keiko; Okuda, Masayuki; Okayama, Naoko; Kunitsugu, Ichiro

    2018-04-14

    Evidence of the effects of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variation and long-term effects of physical activity (PA) on adiposity in adolescents is largely scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity modulates the effects of the FTO gene on body mass index (BMI) changes in Japanese adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Data of 343 subjects (156 boys; 187 girls) who were enrolled in 2006 and 2007 from schools on Shunan City, Japan, were collected. Genotyping (rs1558902) was conducted, and anthropometric measurements and blood test results were recorded for subjects in the eighth grade. A second survey involving self-reporting of anthropometric measurements was conducted when the subjects were in the twelfth grade. PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in this survey. BMI and the standard deviation score for BMI (BMI-SDS) were calculated. BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes were compared among FTO genotypes using a multivariate model. The effect of the interaction between PA and the FTO genotype on BMI changes was significant among boys but not girls. Among boys, PA had a significant negative influence on BMI-SDS changes in those with the AA genotype and a significant positive influence on BMI and BMI-SDS changes in those with the TT genotype. These data suggest that the influence of PA on BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes varied on the basis of genotype. PA modified the effect of the FTO gene on BMI changes in Japanese boys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The U-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality contrasts with a progressive increase in medical expenditure: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Likwang; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    The U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality has generated uncertainty about optimal BMI. For clarification, we have related BMI to both mortality and medical expenditure. The MJ Health examination cohort of 111,949 examinees established during 1994-1996 was followed with endpoint information derived from death certificates and National Health Insurance records from 1996 to 2007. Age- and gender-specific relative risks between BMI groups were estimated by Cox and logistic regressions. The BMI and all-cause mortality relationship is U-shaped with the concave regions sitting in the region of BMI 22-26, butshifted rightward for the elderly. After excluding smokers and cancer patients at baseline, the low mortality region moved leftward to BMI 20-22. Cause-specific mortalities from respiratory disease, injury, and senility increased in the underweight group (BMI mortality from respiratory diseases and senility, but not with others. In contrast, irrespective of age and gender, the overall median and mean medical expenditures progressively increased with BMI, particularly beyond 22. Expenditures for injury, respiratory, circulatory diseases and senility all increased with BMI. The U-shaped BMI-mortality relation was a result of elevated death rate at both ends of the BMI scale. Increased mortality at the low end did not contribute to higher medical expenditure, maybe because the lean and frail deceased tend to die abruptly before large amount of medical expenditure was consumed. Our findings suggest that current recommendations to maintain BMI at the lower end of the desirable range remain tenable for the apparently healthy general public.

  16. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... a significant association between urine osmolality and body mass index (BMI), creatinine clearance, as well as serum ... protein, 24-h urine protein, spot urine creatinine, serum HDL, and CD4 cell count predicted concentrated urine. ... Nigeria, underweight and obesity, urine osmolality. Urine Osmolality in ...

  17. Waist circumference is a better predictor of risk for frailty than BMI in the community-dwelling elderly in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuju; Zheng, Zheng; Xiu, Shuangling; Chan, Piu

    2018-03-27

    Obesity is found to be associated with frailty. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are the commonly used measures for obesity, the former is more closely related to general obesity and body weight; the latter can more accurately reflect abdominal obesity and is more closely associated with metabolic disorders. In this study, we intend to study the relationship between frailty, BMI and WC among older people. Data were derived from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging II Cohort, which included 6320 people 65 years or older from three urban districts in Beijing. A Frailty Index derived from 33 items was developed according to Rockwood's cumulative deficits method. A Frailty Index ≥ 0.25 was used as the cut-off criteria. BMI was classified as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese (BMI (≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 , 22.6%) or a larger WC (18.5%) were more likely to be frail. People with normal BMI and overweight people do not suffer from higher prevalence for frailty. In comparison with individuals with normal BMI (18.5-BMI and large WC (odds ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.33-2.12), have overweight and large WC (odds ratio 1.58; 95% CI 1.23-1.96), or have obesity and large WC (odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI 1.79-2.89). In people with normal WC, only those who are underweight have a higher risk for frailty (odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.52). In comparison with BMI, the relation of WC with the risk for frailty was much closer. Abdominal obesity is more closely associated with incidence of frailty than general obesity in the elderly. Older adults with large waist circumference are more likely to be frail. Frailty in the elderly might be more closely related to metabolic disorders. WC might be a better measurement to detect frailty than BMI, given its relationship with metabolic disorders.

  18. The Report Card on BMI Report Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah R; Madsen, Kristine A

    2017-06-01

    Half of states in the USA have legislation requiring that schools conduct body mass index (BMI) screening among students; just under half of these states report results to parents. The effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity is not established and the practice has raised concerns about the potential for increased weight-based stigmatization. Recent experimental studies of BMI screening and reporting have not demonstrated a positive impact on students' weight status. However, the language and formatting of BMI reports used in studies to date have been suboptimal and have likely limited the potential effectiveness of the practice. This article reviews the recent literature on school-based BMI screening and reporting and highlights important areas for future inquiry. The present review suggests that evidence to date is not sufficient to support definitive conclusions about the value of school-based BMI screening and reporting as a childhood obesity prevention tool.

  19. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagh A. Sahasrabuddhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications.

  20. Brain-machine interface (BMI) in paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, U; Birbaumer, N; Curado, M R

    2015-02-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) use brain activity to control external devices, facilitating paralyzed patients to interact with the environment. In this review, we focus on the current advances of non-invasive BMIs for communication in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and for restoration of motor impairment after severe stroke. BMI represents a promising strategy to establish communication with paralyzed ALS patients as it does not need muscle engagement for its use. Distinct techniques have been explored to assess brain neurophysiology to control BMI for patients' communication, especially electroencephalography (EEG) and more recently near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Previous studies demonstrated successful communication with ALS patients using EEG-BMI when patients still showed residual eye control, but patients with complete paralysis were unable to communicate with this system. We recently introduced functional NIRS (fNIRS)-BMI for communication in ALS patients in the complete locked-in syndrome (i.e., when ALS patients are unable to engage any muscle), opening new doors for communication in ALS patients after complete paralysis. In addition to assisted communication, BMI is also being extensively studied for motor recovery after stroke. BMI for stroke motor recovery includes intensive BMI training linking brain activity related to patient's intention to move the paretic limb with the contingent sensory feedback of the paretic limb movement guided by assistive devices. BMI studies in this area are mainly focused on EEG- or magnetoencephalography (MEG)-BMI systems due to their high temporal resolution, which facilitates online contingency between intention to move and sensory feedback of the intended movement. EEG-BMI training was recently demonstrated in a controlled study to significantly improve motor performance in stroke patients with severe paresis. Neural basis for BMI-induced restoration of motor function and perspectives for future

  1. Trends in Child Obesity and Underweight in Spain by Birth Year and Age, 1983 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Sánchez-Cruz, José Juan; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-08-01

    The prevalences of child obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and are a significant public health issue, particularly in terms of long-term cardiovascular risk profiles, which continue into adulthood unless obesity is reversed. Accurately identifying trends and at-risk subgroups is crucial to correctly target public health initiatives. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalences of child obesity and underweight in Spain from 1983 to 2011 taking into consideration both age and birth year. A series of cross-sectional studies representative of the pediatric population in Spain between 1987 and 2011 was used to calculate the prevalence and trends of excess weight and underweight in girls and boys aged 2 to 14 years per survey year and per birth year. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity remained relatively stable. The prevalence of overweight in boys aged 10 to 14 years increased from 13.9% to 22.2%. The prevalence of obesity in girls aged 2 to 5 years decreased from 30% to 19.8%, whereas the prevalence of underweight in this group increased from 13.7% to 22.6%. Child obesity trends in Spain over the last 2 decades appear to be stable with some fluctuations, but the trends differ depending on age and sex, and have stabilized at too high a level. The prevalence of underweight also appears to have increased and should be considered alongside excess weight when designing and implementing child health and weight measures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower fertility associated with obesity and underweight: the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that body weight predicts the number of children that a person will have: obese and underweight persons are hypothesized to have fewer children than do their normal-weight counterparts. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between body weight in young adulthood and achieved fertility in later life. A representative national sample of 12 073 American young adults (aged 17-24 y in 1981) were followed through 2004 (19 survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth). Obese young women and men were less likely to have their first child by the age of 47 y than were their normal-weight counterparts [relative risk (RR) = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.78 in women; RR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.84 in men). Obesity also predicted a lower probability of having more than one child, particularly for women. These associations were partly explained by a lower probability that obese participants will marry. Underweight men were less likely to have the first, second, third, and fourth child than were normal-weight men (RRs = 0.75-0.88; 95% CIs: 0.61, 0.95). These associations were largely explained by the lower marriage probability of underweight men. Obese women and men and underweight men were less likely to have as many children in adulthood as they had desired as young adults. Obesity may be an important risk factor for lower fertility because of its social and possibly biological effect on reproductive behavior. Further data are needed to assess whether this association holds in more recent cohorts.

  3. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.F.; Hashmi, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  4. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all Poverweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  5. Childhood underweight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan-José; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2011-07-01

    To assess associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Participants were asked to select which of nine body images most closely represented their body shape at ages 5 and 20 years, and it was used as a proxy of BMI. An incident case of MetS was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult MetS were estimated by multiple-adjusted odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals. University of Navarra, Spain. The study included 5317 university graduates, followed-up for a median of 6·1 years. The incidence of MetS was 2·9 % (1·7 % in women and 5·1 % in men). Among men, body shape at age 5 years was inversely related to adult MetS (OR = 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97), whereas weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood was directly associated with adult MetS (OR = 1·49, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·18); both childhood underweight (OR = 5·20, 95 % CI 1·87, 14·50) and childhood obesity (OR = 4·66, 95 % CI 1·40, 15·51) increased the likelihood of adult MetS. No association was apparent among women. These results support treating childhood underweight and weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood as part of comprehensive adult MetS prevention efforts in men.

  6. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: Are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapop; Strydom, Gert; Twisk, Jos; Kemper, Han

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Underweight and overweight are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with undernutrition and overnutrition in children. In line with the health promotion strategies, periodical tracking of underweight and overweight in children as well as promotion of government feeding scheme policies are recommended to improve children nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to review available literature regarding the prevalence’s of underweight and overweight and evaluate government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. Methods: The electronic search included PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and library catalogue journal for prospective longitudinal or cross-sectional studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African children within the age ranges of 0 to 14 between 1990 and 2013. Results: Fourteen cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Data synthesis revealed the small number of prospective studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. Overall, a higher percentage of the studies (ten) were reported in the rural areas compared to two studies in urban areas. The remaining four studies were a mixed of rural and urban. In this review, a high percentage of underweight (0.7-66%) was reported among children in rural areas compared to a similarly higher proportion of overweight (3.1-32.4%) in urban areas. Similarly, all studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight affected the adolescent’s performances in many forms including physical activity and fitness, academic performance and

  7. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing J. Akombi; Kingsley E. Agho; Dafna Merom; John J. Hall; Andre M. Renzaho

    2017-01-01

    Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0?59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0?59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe ...

  8. Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

  9. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Sedeaud

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71 and BMI (r = 0.71 in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39. Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  10. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than

  11. Good oral health, adequate nutrient consumption and family support are associated with a reduced risk of being underweight amongst older Malaysian residents of publicly funded shelter homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Renuka; Ahmad, Zaiton

    2006-01-01

    A low body mass index in older people has been associated with increased mortality. The main objective of this study was to identify factors associated with low body mass indices [ BMIs] (Malaysia. 1081 elderly people (59% M) over the age of 60 years were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well being. Body mass index was also determined. Subjects were recruited from publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. 14.3% of residents had BMIs age and sex) revealed that having no family (RR 1.98[95%CI 1.40-2.82], p<0.001) and negative responses to statement 3 [I eat few fruits or vegetables or milk products] (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.90]; P= 0.013) and statement 5 [I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard for me to eat] (RR 0.69 [95%CI 0.50-0.96]; P= 0.023) of the ' Determine Your Nutritional Health Checklist' were independently associated with low BMIs (<18.5 kg/m2). Older people with no family support were at risk of becoming underweight. Older people who consumed fruits, vegetables or milk or had good oral health were less likely to be underweight. Nutrient intake, oral health and social support were important in ensuring healthy body weight in older Malaysians.

  12. The influence of underweight and obesity on the diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marjolijn E. W.; Groen, Henk; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M. A.

    The impact of lower body mass index (BMI) on appendicitis has never been addressed. We investigated whether different BMIs affect the diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis in children. The correlation between BMI and diagnosis accuracy and treatment quality was evaluated by retrospective analysis

  13. Body Mass Index and Mortality in the General Population and in Subjects with Chronic Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Cohort Study (2002-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and mortality is not conclusive, especially in East Asian populations. Furthermore, the association has been neither supported by recent data, nor assessed after controlling for weight changes.We evaluated the relationship between BMI and all-cause or cause-specific mortality, using prospective cohort data by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, which consisted of more than one million subjects. A total of 153,484 Korean adults over 30 years of age without pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline were followed-up until 2010 (mean follow-up period = 7.91 ± 0.59 years. Study subjects repeatedly measured body weight 3.99 times, on average.During follow-up, 3,937 total deaths occurred; 557 deaths from cardiovascular disease, and 1,224 from cancer. In multiple-adjusted analyses, U-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality from any cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and weight change. Subjects with a BMI < 23 kg/m2 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality compared with the reference group (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2. The lowest risk of all-cause mortality was observed in subjects with a BMI of 25-26.4 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.97. In subgroup analyses, including the elderly and those with chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, subjects with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 (moderate obesity had a lower risk of mortality compared with the reference. However, this association has been attenuated in younger individuals, in those with higher socioeconomic status, and those without chronic diseases.Moderate obesity was associated more strongly with a lower risk of mortality than with normal, underweight, and overweight groups in the general population of South Korea

  14. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI), a simple anthropometric measure, is the most frequently used measure of adiposity and has been instrumental in documenting the worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity witnessed during the last decades. Although this increase in overweight and obesity is thought...... to be mainly due to environmental changes, i.e., sedentary lifestyles and high caloric diets, consistent evidence from twin studies demonstrates high heritability and the importance of genetic differences for normal variation in BMI. We analysed self-reported data on BMI from approximately 37,000 complete twin...... pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...

  15. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... try to prevent adult obesity through changes in eating and exercise habits. What the Figures Mean BMI percentiles show how kids' measurements compare with others the same gender and age. For example, if a child has ...

  16. BMI Trajectories from Birth to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Shannon M; Osganian, Stavroula K; Feldman, Henry A; Milliren, Carly E; Field, Alison E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to compare BMI trajectories from childhood to early adulthood in those with overweight and/or obesity versus severe obesity. Longitudinal BMI values (2,542 measurements) were calculated from measured heights and weights for 103 children, adolescents, or young adults with overweight, obesity, or severe obesity. Segmented regression with splines was used to model BMI trajectories. Sixty-nine participants were classified as ever having severe obesity versus 34 who never had severe obesity. Trajectories and slopes did not differ by sex or race/ethnicity. Compared with those who never had severe obesity, BMI was higher in the group with severe obesity at all ages, and BMI slope was higher for those with severe obesity at age 14 (P = 0.002), with peak slope occurring later (18 years vs. 16 years) and higher (4.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y; P BMI fell below zero by the mid-20s (-0.3 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 /y); in those with severe obesity, BMI slope never reached zero (0.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y). Youth with severe obesity, compared with their peers without, started with higher BMIs, had more rapid rates of BMI increase beginning at age 14, as well as a higher peak and longer period of increase, and never achieved weight stabilization. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  17. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-03-19

    Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant. Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed

  18. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S

    2018-01-22

    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  19. Underweight, Stunting and Wasting among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania; a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgongo, Melina; Chotta, Nikolas A. S.; Hashim, Tamara H.; Uriyo, Jacqueline G.; Damian, Damian J.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia E.; Wandel, Margareta; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0–24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status. A total of 1870 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of children classified as underweight was 46.0%, stunting was 41.9%, and wasting was 24.7%. About 33% were both underweight and stunted, and 12% had all three conditions. In a multivariate logistic regression, child age, child being ill and birth weight were associated with all anthropometric indices. Child being breastfed was associated with being underweight and wasting. Mother’s education was associated with being underweight and stunting. Fathers aged 35+ years, and living in the Hai district was associated with stunting, and being female was associated with wasting. The prevalence of child undernutrition is high in this region. Strategies that target each risk factor for child undernutrition may help to reduce the problem in the region. PMID:28489043

  20. Is the economic crisis affecting birth outcome in Spain? Evaluation of temporal trend in underweight at birth (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Carlos; Terán, José Manuel; Bernis, Cristina; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the impact of the current European economic crisis on health. In Spain, since 2008, there have been increasing levels of impoverishment and inequality, and important cuts in social services. The objective is to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on underweight at birth in Spain. Trends in underweight at birth were examined between 2003 and 2012. Underweight at birth is defined as a singleton, term neonatal weight lesser than -2 SD from the median weight at birth for each sex estimated by the WHO Standard Growth Reference. Using data from the Statistical Bulletin of Childbirth, 2 933 485 live births born to Spanish mothers have been analysed. Descriptive analysis, seasonal decomposition analysis and crude and adjusted logistic regression including individual maternal and foetal variables as well as exogenous economic indicators have been performed. Results demonstrate a significant increase in the prevalence of underweight at birth from 2008. All maternal-foetal categories were affected, including those showing the lowest prevalence before the crisis. In the full adjusted logistic regression, year-on-year GDP per capita remains predictive on underweight at birth risk. Previous trends in maternal socio-demographic profiles and a direct impact of the crisis are discussed to explain the trends described.

  1. Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories in Infancy Differ by Population Ancestry and May Presage Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sani M.; Chesi, Alessandra; Mentch, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Kelly, Andrea; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: No consensus definition exists for excess adiposity during infancy. After age 2 years, high body mass index (BMI) is related to adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Before age 2 years, the utility of BMI as a metric of excess adiposity is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize infant BMI trajectories in a diverse, longitudinal cohort and investigate the relationship between the infancy BMI trajectory and childhood obesity. Subjects: Healthy, nonpreterm infants (n = 2114) in the Genetic Causes for Complex Pediatric Disorders study (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) with six or more BMI measurements in the first 13.5 months participated in the study. Design: For each infant, the BMI trajectory was modeled using polynomial regression. Independent effects of clinical factors on magnitude and timing of peak BMI were assessed. The relationship between infancy BMI and early childhood BMI (age 4 y) was examined (n = 1075). Results: The cohort was 53% male and 61% African-American. Peak BMI was 18.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2 and occurred at 8.6 ± 1.4 months. In multivariate analysis, boys had a higher (0.50 kg/m2, P BMI than girls. The peak was higher (0.53 kg/m2, P ≤ .001) and occurred earlier (by 12 d, P BMI. Conclusions: We demonstrate sex- and ancestry-specific differences in infancy BMI and an association of infancy peak BMI with childhood BMI. These findings support the potential utility of infancy BMI to identify children younger than age 2 years with increased risk for later obesity. PMID:25636051

  2. ERD-based online brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the context of neurorehabilitation: optimizing BMI learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Mellinger, Jürgen; Ramos, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-10-01

    Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of sensori-motor rhythms (SMR) can be used for online brain-machine interface (BMI) control, but yields challenges related to the stability of ERD and feedback strategy to optimize BMI learning.Here, we compared two approaches to this challenge in 20 right-handed healthy subjects (HS, five sessions each, S1-S5) and four stroke patients (SP, 15 sessions each, S1-S15). ERD was recorded from a 275-sensor MEG system. During daily training,motor imagery-induced ERD led to visual and proprioceptive feedback delivered through an orthotic device attached to the subjects' hand and fingers. Group A trained with a heterogeneous reference value (RV) for ERD detection with binary feedback and Group B with a homogenous RV and graded feedback (10 HS and 2 SP in each group). HS in Group B showed better BMI performance than Group A (p learning was significantly better (p learning relative to use of a heterogeneous RV and binary feedback.

  3. BMI, life-style and psychological conditions in a sample of elderly Italian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Gagliardi, C; Malavolta, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2010-08-01

    To identify the relationship among cognitive status, psychological conditions, anthropometric measurements and life-style in a sample of elderly Italian men and women. Three hundred and six volunteers for ZINCAGE Project recruited. The sample was made up of healthy older adults living in the Marche Region aged 65 and over. All elderly were given a complete medical, anthropometric assessment, and psycho-social evaluation. Overall, the participants perceived themselves to be in very good or good (22%) or fair (69%) health; only 9% reported a poor health status. The 46% of the sample fell within the normal body mass index (BMI) range, though 38% were overweight, 12% were obese, and only 4% were underweight. In both sexes, BMI significantly decreased with age (psedentary activities (r=0.188; psedentary (r=0.221; psedentary (r=0.258; p<0.001) leisure activities were positively associated with education level (p<0.05). It was found that lower scores of physical activity were associated to higher scores of Geriatric Depression Scale (r=-0.425; p<0.01), lower scores of Mini Mental State Examination (r=0.266; p<0.001) and higher score of Perceived Stress Scale (r=-0.131; p<0.05). Men and women lead different lifestyles and have a different psychological status, with advancing age consequently stressing the need for healthy lifestyle programmes particularly in the case of overweight and obese elderly people.

  4. Weight status of adolescents in secondary schools in port Harcourt using Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesina Adesuwa F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent weight status is a cumulative effect of health and nutritional problems. Adolescent weight problems often go unnoticed as weight assessment is not considered a priority in adolescents. Objectives To determine the weight status of adolescents using BMI and to identify the contributing factors to adolescent weight problems. Methods In April 2010, 960 adolescents aged 10–19 years in secondary schools in Port Harcourt were selected for the study using a stratified multi-staged sampling method. Structured questionnaires were filled by the investigators while weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated using the formula weight/height2 (kg/m2. Results The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting were 6.4%, 6.3%, 1.8% and 5.4% respectively. Factors which were commoner in overweight adolescents were high socioeconomic class, higher maternal education, spending > 3 hours a day watching television and frequent ingestion of snacks. Conclusion There is a need for periodic weight assessment of adolescents and health education to promote healthy eating habits and regular physical exercise as part of the School Health Programme.

  5. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish......) cohort were used to estimate BMI growth curves for the age span from 14 d to 19 mo by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. BMI growth velocity before peak and age and BMI at peak were derived from the subject-specific models. Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding was assessed from background...

  6. Economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Mannan, Munim; Long, Kurt Z; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    To assess the economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Systematic review of articles published until March 2015. Seventeen suitable articles were found, of which 13 assess the economic burden of overweight/obesity and estimate that it accounts for 1.5-9.9% of a country's total healthcare expenditure. Four articles on the economic burden of underweight estimate it at 2.5-3.8% of the country's total GDP. Using hospital data, and compared to normal weight individuals, four articles estimated extra healthcare costs for overweight individuals of 7-9.8% and more, and extra healthcare costs for obese individuals of 17-22.3% and higher. Despite methodological diversity across the studies, there is a consensus that both underweight and overweight impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of powdered formula and incidence of underweight among infants of educated and uneducated mothers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I A; Afolabi, O A

    1986-01-01

    The duration of usage of a tin of powdered formula and the incidence of underweight among 250 infants 14 days to 12 months old, whose parents were educated and uneducated, are reported. Twenty-two percent of the educated mothers and 42% of the uneducated mothers started their infants on formula from the 14th day of life. Only 6% of all the mothers exclusively breastfed for 1 month, and a meager 2% of the uneducated mothers exclusively breastfed for 3 months. There was a significant (p less than 0.001) increase in the duration of usage of a tin of powdered formula among the uneducated mothers as compared to the educated ones. Of the 250 infants, 93 (37.2%) greater than or equal to 1 month old were assessed as underweight for age. Most of the underweight infants had uneducated mothers. Practical ways of improving feeding practices and curbing early introduction of supplementary feeds are suggested.

  8. Differential models of twin correlations in skew for body-mass index (BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Duncan, Glen E; Dinescu, Diana; Turkheimer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI), like most human phenotypes, is substantially heritable. However, BMI is not normally distributed; the skew appears to be structural, and increases as a function of age. Moreover, twin correlations for BMI commonly violate the assumptions of the most common variety of the classical twin model, with the MZ twin correlation greater than twice the DZ correlation. This study aimed to decompose twin correlations for BMI using more general skew-t distributions. Same sex MZ and DZ twin pairs (N = 7,086) from the community-based Washington State Twin Registry were included. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to decompose twin correlations for BMI into multiple mixture distributions. LPA was performed using the default normal mixture distribution and the skew-t mixture distribution. Similar analyses were performed for height as a comparison. Our analyses are then replicated in an independent dataset. A two-class solution under the skew-t mixture distribution fits the BMI distribution for both genders. The first class consists of a relatively normally distributed, highly heritable BMI with a mean in the normal range. The second class is a positively skewed BMI in the overweight and obese range, with lower twin correlations. In contrast, height is normally distributed, highly heritable, and is well-fit by a single latent class. Results in the replication dataset were highly similar. Our findings suggest that two distinct processes underlie the skew of the BMI distribution. The contrast between height and weight is in accord with subjective psychological experience: both are under obvious genetic influence, but BMI is also subject to behavioral control, whereas height is not.

  9. Frequency of underweight and stunting among children entering school in a small urban locality and their association with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Husain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Medhat, Naila; Farooq, Hadia; Ahmad, Danial; Nasir, Waqar

    2018-01-01

    To determine the frequency of underweight and stunting among the children entering first year of school and to assess its associated factors. This descriptive, analytical study was conducted at 5 schools of Rabwah, Pakistan, from August to September 2015, and comprised all students who got admission in the selected schools during the study period. Name, father's name, gender, weight, height, status of height, and weight on Z-score charts, and marks obtained in the test were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 478 participants, 212(44.4%) were boys and 266(55.6%) were girls. The overall mean age was 66.6±5.966 months (range: 41-129 months). Overall, 53(11.1%) were underweight, 22(4.6%) were severely underweight, 55(11.5%) had stunting and 12(2.5%) had severe stunting. Median marks (Interquartile Range [IQR]) in admission test for obese, overweight, normal, underweight and severely underweight children were 76.3%(37.2-84.7), 65.9%, 66.7%(56.4-72.3), 64.6%(47-71), and 67%(55.3-78), respectively. Median marks (IQR) in admission test for tall, normal height, stunted and severe stunted children were 24.1%, 67%(57.3-73), 57%(31.1-67.8), and 62.6%(49.7-68.3), respectively. Children with stunting scored significantly fewer marks compared to children of normal height (p<0.05). Stunting and underweight were common problems among children starting school. Stunting was found to be associated with lower marks in admission test.

  10. The Role of BMI1 in CRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    12 5. Changes /Problems...….………………………………………………12 6. Products…………………………………….……….….…………….13 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations...that BMI1 is a master regulator of castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. Our objective is to determine how BMI interacts with...oncogenic functions by recruiting AR and distinct binding partners to promote castration- resistance of PCa. Furthermore, we will evaluate the

  11. Correlation of endoscopic severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd) with body mass index (bmi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haq, I.U.; Butt, A.R.; Shafiq, F.; Huda, G.; Mirza, G.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the correlation of endoscopic severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Body Mass Index (BMI). This study was conducted on 203 patients, who presented with upper GI symptoms. Patients who fulfilled the symptom criteria were referred for endoscopy. Classification of GERD was done according to LA Grading classification system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as Body Weight (BW) in kilograms (kg) divided by the square of the body height (BH) in meter (m2). Patient data was analyzed using SPSS 12 software. Statistical evaluation was done using non-parametric Wilcoxon's-sign Rank test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Distribution of GERD was as follows: GERD-A subjects 65 (32%), GERD B subjects 72 (35.4%), GERD-C subjects 23 (11.3%), GERD-D subjects 10 (4.92%), while Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) was present in 33 subjects (16.2%). Mean BMI was 27+5.02SD (range of 18.2-38.3). BMI of patients having NERD was in normal range but patients who were having advanced disease i.e. Grade C-D were in obese range of BMI, while those who were having LA grade A-B were in overweight BMI range. When regrouped as mild GERD (grade A-B) and NERD versus severe GERD (grade C-D), there was a strong significant correlation between severity of GERD and BMI, as detected by Wilcoxon's signed Rank test (p=0.001). Higher BMI seems to be associated with higher degree of endoscopic GERD severity. (author)

  12. Trends in BMI, diet and lifestyle between 1976 and 2005 in North Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australia has increased during the past 30 years, little is known about the dietary and behavioural antecedents of body mass index (BMI). We examined changes in mean BMI, diet, and other lifestyle behaviours between 1976 and 2005 and described the cross-sectional associations between these factors and BMI. A series of biennial biomedical surveys by Sydney Adventist Hospital from 1976 to 2005 allowed examination of BMI trends, while the selection of three surveys enabled detailed examination of likely dietary and lifestyle associations. Subjects included in this study were: 384 men and 338 women in 1976; 160 men and 146 women in 1978; 166 men and 141 women in 1980; 164 men and 142 women in 1982; 177 men and 13 women in 1984; 239 men and 227 women in 1986; 210 men and 225 women in 1988; 165 men and 148 women in 1990; 138 men and 167 women in 1992 and 270 men and 62 women in 2005. Height and weight were measured by hospital staff. Mean BMI increased in the early 1990s. Salt, coffee, cola, alcohol and meat consumption, dieting to lose weight and eating between meals were positively associated with BMI while physical activity, food variety, large breakfasts and consumption of spreads were negatively associated. Food consumption and daily activities have important associations with BMI, though their specific associations differ by sex. "Affluent" lifestyle patterns appear to contribute to higher BMI, while a more "prudent" lifestyle seems to protect from such increases.

  13. A 2-Year Integrated Agriculture and Nutrition Program Targeted to Mothers of Young Children in Burkina Faso Reduces Underweight among Mothers and Increases Their Empowerment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Bliznashka, Lilia; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Dillon, Andrew; Ruel, Marie T; Heckert, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates the benefits of integrated agriculture and nutrition programs for children's health and nutrition outcomes. These programs may also improve mothers' nutrition and empowerment outcomes. However, evidence from rigorous evaluations is scarce. We examined impacts of Helen Keller International's 2-y enhanced-homestead food production (E-HFP) program in Burkina Faso on the secondary impact measures of mothers' nutrition and empowerment. We used a cluster-randomized controlled trial whereby 55 villages with 1767 mothers of young children were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1) control, 2) E-HFP with the behavior change communication (BCC) strategy implemented by older women leaders, or 3) E-HFP with BCC implemented by health committee members. Data for the treatment groups were pooled for this analysis because no differences were found between the 2 groups in key mothers' outcomes. We used difference-in-differences (DID) estimates to assess impacts on mothers' dietary intake, diversity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), prevalence of underweight (BMI empowerment. The E-HFP program significantly increased mothers' intake of fruit (DID = 15.8 percentage points; P = 0.02) and marginally increased their intake of meat/poultry (DID = 7.5 percentage points; P = 0.08) and dietary diversity (DID = 0.3 points; P = 0.08). The prevalence of underweight was significantly reduced among mothers in treatment compared with control villages by 8.7 percentage points (P program also positively affected mothers' overall empowerment score (DID = 3.13 points out of 37 possible points; P empowerment: meeting with women (DID = 1.21 points out of 5 possible points; P program in Burkina Faso substantially improved mothers' nutrition and empowerment outcomes. These positive impacts benefit the mothers themselves and may also improve their ability to care for their children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01825226. © 2016 American Society for

  14. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  15. Underweight, overweight and obesity among a Piedmont (Northern Italy children sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Micheletti Cremasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M. [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in chilhood, is an emergent social problem that can produce adverse health effects in adulthood. It could be prevented encouraging correct eating behaviors and active lifestyle among children.

  16. Prenatal risk factors influencing childhood BMI and overweight independent of birth weight and infancy BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, C S; Ängquist, L; Baker, J L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal risk factors for childhood overweight may operate indirectly through development in body size in early life and/or directly independent hereof. We quantified the effects of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI), maternal age, socioeconomic position (SEP......), parity, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section, birth weight, and BMI at 5 and 12 months on BMI and overweight at 7 and 11 years. METHODS: Family triads with information on maternal, paternal and child BMI at ages 7 (n=29 374) and 11 years (n=18 044) were selected...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information originated from maternal interviews and medical health examinations. Path analysis was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of prenatal risk factors on childhood BMI z-scores (BMIz per unit score of the risk factor). Logistic regression...

  17. BMI from nutritional surveillance of 8-9 years old children in Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Pammolli, A; Simi, R; Pilato, V; Giacchi, M V

    2011-12-01

    The latest increase in childhood obesity focused attention on the important consequences that this phenomenon may have on public health in relationship to the increasing risk that an obese child may become an obese adult. To deal with this problem, there is necessary to assess systematically the distribution of childhood nutritional status at different levels: international, regional and local. In this paper are presented data on underweight, overweight and obesity prevalence in third grade primary school children, aged 8/9 years in Tuscany (2008) and its distribution in relationship to the demographic breadth of their place of residence. Data from statistic sample of 2109 (1.091 males, 1.018 females), 8/9 years school-children were collected; weight and height were measured using standardised personnel and instruments. Exact month age was calculated between the data of measurement and that of birth. Body Mass Index (BMI) classes were calculated using Cole et al.'s epidemiologic cut-off for children and adolescents. Residence areas were divided into four classes based on the number of inhabitants ( 50.000; > 50.000 metropolitan). The prevalence of underweight was 0.88% (0.76% in males and 1.01% in females), the prevalence of overweight was 23.43% (22.33% in males and 24.65% in females), the prevalence of obese was 7.95% (9.08% in males, 6.70% in females). The lowest prevalence of obese (6.46%) was found in towns with over 50.000 residents (metropolitan). The obesity prevalence in Tuscany children is still lower than that of the Italian National Survey, while the overweight prevalence it's the same. Obesity prevalence (10.71%) is higher in municipalities with low residents number (< 10.000).

  18. Postoperative hypoxia and length of intensive care unit stay after cardiac surgery: the underweight paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Ballotta, Andrea; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Castelvecchio, Serenella

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass can be associated with postoperative lung dysfunction. The present study investigates the incidence of postoperative hypoxia after cardiac surgery, its relationship with the length of intensive care unit stay, and the role of body mass index in determining postoperative hypoxia and intensive care unit length of stay. Single-center, retrospective study. University Hospital. Patients. Adult patients (N = 5,023) who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB. None. According to the body mass index, patients were attributed to six classes, and obesity was defined as a body mass index >30. POH was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio intensive care unit. Postoperative hypoxia was detected in 1,536 patients (30.6%). Obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative hypoxia (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.05-2.78, P = 0.001) and postoperative hypoxia was a determinant of intensive care unit length of stay. There is a significant inverse correlation between body mass index and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, with the risk of postoperative hypoxia increasing by 1.7 folds per each incremental body mass index class. The relationship between body mass index and intensive care unit length of stay is U-shaped, with longer intensive care unit stay in underweight patients and moderate-morbid obese patients. Obese patients are at higher risk for postoperative hypoxia, but this leads to a prolonged intensive care unit stay only for moderate-morbid obese patients. Obese patients are partially protected against the deleterious effects of hemodilution and transfusions. Underweight patients present the "paradox" of a better lung gas exchange but a longer intensive care unit stay. This is probably due to a higher severity of their cardiac disease.

  19. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nordenson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anita Nordenson2, Anne Marie Grönberg1,2, Lena Hulthén1, Sven Larsson2, Frode Slinde11Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: Malnutrition is a serious condition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Successful dietary intervention calls for calculations of resting metabolic rate (RMR. One disease-specific prediction equation for RMR exists based on mainly male patients. To construct a disease-specific equation for RMR based on measurements in underweight or weight-losing women and men with COPD, RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry in 30 women and 11 men with a diagnosis of COPD and body mass index <21 kg/m2. The following variables, possibly influencing RMR were measured: length, weight, middle upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance, lung function, and markers of inflammation. Relations between RMR and measured variables were studied using univariate analysis according to Pearson. Gender and variables that were associated with RMR with a P value <0.15 were included in a forward multiple regression analysis. The best-fit multiple regression equation included only fat-free mass (FFM: RMR (kJ/day = 1856 + 76.0 FFM (kg. To conclude, FFM is the dominating factor influencing RMR. The developed equation can be used for prediction of RMR in underweight COPD patients.Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, basal metabolic rate, malnutrition, body composition

  20. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... for refined bread, but not for potatoes, after adjustment for concurrent BMI changes. Among women, but not men, high intakes of beer and spirits were associated with gain in WC in both models. A high intake of coffee for women and moderate to high intake of tea for men were associated with gain in WC...

  1. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.......84) for females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  2. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI, on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.

  3. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87?...

  4. A Survey of Mother BMI Relationship with Cesarean Prevalence Rate in Bam Maternity Hospital, Bam, Iran Mahdyeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Solimanizadeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Abnormality of maternal weight has an important role in reproductive health. High and low BMI play importaxt roles in the development of some pregnancy complications, high birth weight, and cesarean rate increas. Thus, the complications such as sever infection, bleeding, thromboembolism attacks, respiratory pneumonia in pregnant women undergoing cesarean occur more often. The aim of prenatal care is safety in infant birth and one of the conditions in pregnancy health care is normal weight. The present study sought to determine the role of mother BMI on cesarean prevalence rate in women referring to Bam Mahdieh Maternity Hospital in Bam, Iran, in 2005.

    Methods: This attempt was a comparative cross-sectional study done on 294 pregnant women who were divided into three groups: underweight n=111 (BMI<19.8 normal n=145 (19.8<BMI<26 and overweight n=38 (BMI>26. All pregnant women in our study wanted normal vaginal deliveries, and none was willing to undergo cesarean without indication. Data were collected by questionnaire that included three parts. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, ANOVA and . A Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results: The cesarean rate in over weight cases was 28/9%, while in normal weight women it was 15/2%, and in under weight ones, it was 4/5%, showing statistically significant differences. The overweight group had the highest age mean value in comparison with underweight and normal groups. The mean of babies’ weights in over weight group was more than that of the under-and normal-weight groups, but the mean of APGAR Scores at first and fifth minutes in over weight group was low.

    Conclusion: Concerning the findings, it is recommended that obese women be consulted before the pregnancy and during the pregnancy in order to attain

  5. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Awotidebe, A.; Strydom, G.L.; de Ridder, J.H.; Mamabolo, R.L.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available

  6. The Effects of Thin and Heavy Media Images on Overweight and Underweight Consumers: Social Comparison Processes and Behavioral Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); T. Mussweiler (Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines how advertisements containing thin or heavy models influence the self‐esteem of overweight, normal, and underweight consumers. Previous research has mainly examined the influences of variations of the comparison standard on self‐evaluative outcomes, whereas we examine

  7. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  8. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  9. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, Do T.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Deurenberg, P.R.M.; Mai, L.B.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background - In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and

  10. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Monteiro, Carlos; Popkin, Barry M

    2002-06-01

    Few studies have used the same references across countries to examine the trends of over- and underweight in older children and adolescents. Using international references, we examined the trends of overweight and underweight in young persons aged 6-18 y from 4 countries. Nationally representative data from Brazil (1975 and 1997), Russia (1992 and 1998), and the United States (1971-1974 and 1988-1994) and nationwide survey data from China (1991 and 1997) were used. To define overweight, we used the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The sex- and age-specific body mass index fifth percentile from the first US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to define underweight. The prevalence of overweight increased during the study periods in Brazil (from 4.1 to 13.9), China (from 6.4 to 7.7), and the United States (from 15.4 to 25.6); underweight decreased in Brazil (from 14.8 to 8.6), China (from 14.5 to 13.1), and the United States (from 5.1 to 3.3). In Russia, overweight decreased (from 15.6 to 9.0) and underweight increased (from 6.9 to 8.1). The annual rates of increase in the prevalence of overweight were 0.5% (Brazil), 0.2% (China), -1.1% (Russia), and 0.6% (United States). The burden of nutritional problems is shifting from energy imbalance deficiency to excess among older children and adolescents in Brazil and China. The variations across countries may relate to changes and differences in key environmental factors.

  11. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review...... with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm...

  12. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waskey, D.

    2015-01-01

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  13. Impact of BMI on clinical outcomes of NOAC therapy in daily care - Results of the prospective Dresden NOAC Registry (NCT01588119).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, L; Endig, S; Marten, S; Reitter, A; Beyer-Westendorf, I; Beyer-Westendorf, J

    2018-03-14

    Direct acting non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are characterized by a fixed dosing regimen. Despite the potential for relative underdosing due to large distribution volumes, dose adjustments for patients with high body mass index (BMI) are not recommended. Since efficacy and safety data in obese patients are scarce, we evaluated the impact of BMI on clinical outcomes in daily care patients treated with NOAC for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. Using prospectively collected data from a non-interventional registry, cardiovascular (CV), major bleeding events (MB) and all-cause mortality were evaluated according to BMI classes. All outcome events were centrally adjudicated using standard scientific definitions. Between November 1st 2011 and December 31st 2016, 3432 patients were enrolled into the registry (61.3% rivaroxaban; 20% apixaban; 10.1% dabigatran, 8.6% edoxaban; mean follow-up 998.1 ± 542.9 days; median 1004 days). With increasing BMI (range 13.7-57.2 kg/m 2 ), the proportion of patients receiving standard (vs. reduced) NOAC dose increased from 64.7% (underweight) to 78.9% (obesity). Although obese patients had more cardiovascular risk factors compared to normal weight patients, on-treatment rates of clinical outcomes (CV, MB, all-cause-mortality) were lowest in overweight and obese patients. In a large set of real-life NOAC recipients we found no indication that high BMI is associated with inferior NOAC effectiveness or safety, which is in line with recent epidemiological data of a "BMI paradox" that indicates a somewhat protective effect of higher BMI regarding unfavourable outcomes also in patients receiving fixed dose NOAC anticoagulation without dose adjustment for higher BMI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  16. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women's autonomy and their BMI in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.

  17. Upregulation of the proto-oncogene Bmi-1 predicts a poor prognosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Luo, Zi-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Luo, Xue-Qun; Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Ling

    2017-01-25

    Bmi-1, the B cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1, is a member of the Polycomb-group (PcG) family and acts as an oncogene in various tumors; however, its expression related to the prognosis of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has not been well studied. The Bmi-1 expression levels in the bone marrow of 104 pediatric ALL patients and 18 normal control subjects were determined by using qRT-PCR. The association between the Bmi-1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of pediatric ALL patients was analyzed, and the correlation between Bmi-1 and the prognosis of pediatric ALL was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Furthermore, the association between Bmi-1 expression and its transcriptional regulator Sall4 was investigated. Compared to normal control subjects, patients with primary pediatric ALL exhibited upregulated levels of Bmi-1. However, these levels were sharply decreased in patients who achieved complete remission. A significant positive association between elevated Bmi-1 levels and a poor response to prednisone as well as an increased clinical risk was observed. Patients who overexpressed Bmi-1 at the time of diagnosis had a lower relapse-free survival (RFS) rate (75.8%), whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had an RFS of 94.1%. Furthermore, in ALL patients, the mRNA expression of Bmi-1 was positively correlated to the mRNA expression of Sall4a. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 could serve as a novel prognostic biomarker in pediatric primary ALL and may be partially regulated by Sall4a. Our study also showed that Bmi-1 could serve as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of pediatric ALL.

  18. Effect of flow adjustment dialysate (Qd hemodialysis on effectiveness of underweight patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ducuara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available KDOQI guidelines in 2006 using standard dialysis adequacy Kt/V, where V is volume of distributionof urea, underweight patients have lower total body water, lower V, which couldreduce the requirement without affecting Qd the efficiency of dialysis. Objective: to evaluatethe effect on the adequacy of dialysis Qd reduction occurs in patients weighing less than orequal to 60 kg who are on hemodialysis. Methodology: patients with chronic kidney diseaseon hemodialysis regularly with weight less than or equal to 60 kg of a renal clinic to evaluatetwo periods I and II, were continued therapy parameters with decrease of Qd for the secondperiod. The variables were collected directly by the researchers of the history. The values thusobtained would be compared using t test or paired variables, and statistical significance of thetest below 0,05. Results: we included 61 patients, 60.7% female, mean age 57,3 years (SD 14,8.Average age of men 60.1 (SD 13,9 and women was 55,9 (SD 15,4. There were no statisticallysignificant differences for the variables Kt/V, Hemoglobin and there was a significant reductionin the phosphorus levels. Conclusions: this study demonstrates that adequate therapy is achievedwith less than Qd traditional standards, with 400 ml/min in patients with low weight as long asyou keep the other parameters of renal substitution.

  19. The Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight/Obesity and Their Related Lifestyle Factors in Indonesia, 2014–15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supa Pengpid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and its related factors (socio-demographic, health behavior, health status in a national adult population in Indonesia. Material and Methods: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in 2014–15 in Indonesia, 29509 adults (median age 41.0 years, Inter Quartile Range=22.0, age range of 18–103 years completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic, health behavior and health status factors and underweight and overweight or obesity. Results: Of total sample (n = 29509, 11.2% measured underweight (13.5% among men and 9.1% among women (<18.5 kg/m2, 39.8% normal weight (48.1% among men and 32.0% among women and 49.0% had overweight or obesity (≥23 kg/m2 (38.3% among men and 58.9% among women; 24.6% of the overall sample had class I obesity (25–29.9 kg/m2, and 8.5% had class II obesity (30 or more kg/m2. Among different age groups, underweight was the highest among 18–29 year-olds (20.0% and those 70 years and older (29.8%, while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 59 years (more than 53%. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, having less education, living in rural areas and not having chronic conditions were associated with underweight status. While better education, higher economic status, urban residency, dietary behavior (infrequent meals, frequent meat, fried snacks and fast food consumption, physical inactivity, not using tobacco, having chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterol, and better perceived health and happiness status were associated with overweight or obesity. Conclusions: A dual burden of both adult underweight and having overweight or obesity was found in Indonesia. Sociodemographic, health risk behavior and health status risk factors were identified, which can guide

  20. Pattern of BMI among adolescents in secondary schools in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adolescence has been identified as a priority for health monitoring. Adolescents constitute one-fifth of the world's population. According to the 2006 census in Nigeria, adolescents comprised 31.7% of the population. Underweight and obesity coexist in developing countries. Adolescent obesity is a global ...

  1. Impact of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Gastric Emptying Time, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), Ghrelin and Leptin in Non-morbidly Obese Subjects with BMI 30-35.0 kg/m2: a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, B; Wahal, Akshat; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Priyadarshini, Pratyusha; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Yadav, Rajkumar

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 30.0-35.0 kg/m 2 . Possible mechanisms, including alterations in gastric emptying time (GET), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and leptin, were evaluated. Twenty obese patients with T2DM and with a BMI of 30.0-35.0 kg/m 2 underwent LSG during March 2012 to February 2015. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and GET were measured at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. Fasting and post-prandial levels of serum GLP-1, ghrelin and leptin were measured pre-operatively and after 3 and 6 months. The average duration of follow-up was 17.6 months, and 10 patients had completed 2 years of follow-up. After 2 years, the average BMI decreased from 33.4 ± 1.2 to 26.7 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 . The mean HbA1c decreased from 8.7 ± 1.6 to 6.7 ± 1.5 %, respectively. Ten patients achieved complete remission. Insulin could be stopped in all six patients who were on it pre-operatively. Meal-stimulated GLP-1 response and serum insulin at 30 min showed a significant increase following surgery. There was a significant decrease in GET. This prospective study confirms the positive impact of LSG on diabetic status of non-morbidly obese patients. The possible mechanisms include the rise in post-prandial GLP-1 level induced by accelerated gastric emptying, leading to an increase in insulin secretion. LSG also leads to decreased ghrelin and leptin levels which may have a role in improving glucose homeostasis after surgery.

  2. Undernutrition among adults in India: the significance of individual-level and contextual factors impacting on the likelihood of underweight across sub-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which individual-level as well as macro-level contextual factors influence the likelihood of underweight across adult sub-populations in India. Population-based cross-sectional survey included in India's National Health Family Survey conducted in 2005-06. We disaggregated into eight sub-populations. Multistage nationally representative household survey covering 99 % of India's population. The survey covered 124 385 females aged 15-49 years and 74 369 males aged 15-54 years. A social gradient in underweight exists in India. Even after allowing for wealth status, differences in the predicted probability of underweight persisted based upon rurality, age/maturity and gender. We found individual-level education lowered the likelihood of underweight for males, but no statistical association for females. Paradoxically, rural young (15-24 years) females from more educated villages had a higher likelihood of underweight relative to those in less educated villages; but for rural mature (>24 years) females the opposite was the case. Christians had a significantly lower likelihood of underweight relative to other socio-religious groups (OR=0·53-0·80). Higher state-level inequality increased the likelihood of underweight across most population groups, while neighbourhood inequality exhibited a similar relationship for the rural young population subgroups only. Individual states/neighbourhoods accounted for 5-9 % of the variation in the prediction of underweight. We found that rural young females represent a particularly highly vulnerable sub-population. Economic growth alone is unlikely to reduce the burden of malnutrition in India; accordingly, policy makers need to address the broader social determinants that contribute to higher underweight prevalence in specific demographic subgroups.

  3. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  4. International BMI-for-age references underestimate thinness and overestimate overweight and obesity in Bolivian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2010-01-01

    Since no growth standards for adolescents exist and a single reference applicable everywhere is still in debate, it is recognized that the best reference should be derived from the growth pattern of the healthy population that will use it. In 2007 a study developed references for body mass index for 12th to 18th y Bolivian school adolescent (BAP. To compare nutritional status outcomes applying BMI references from the BAP, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 2000, the International Task Force (IOTF), and the 2007 WHO, to determine appropriateness of use in Bolivian adolescents. References were applied in 3306 adolescents, 45.0% male, 55% female, 12th to 18th y selected from a nationally representative sample. Main findings reveal that the CDC and the 2007 WHO underestimate underweight (preferences overestimate overweight (preferences for the use of BAP in Bolivia which reflects its healthy adolescent population growth pattern. International references may lead to incorrect conclusions when applied on Bolivian adolescents. They could deflect efforts from population which need prompt intervention and mislead treatments and budget to unnecessary ones. We recommend validation of international references where appropriate until a standard is released.

  5. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-03-01

    We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study sample comprised 29,633 Korean adolescent girls who are normal weight and underweight. Chi-square tests and correlations were used to assess bivariate relationships between the variables. To assess the mediating effect of body image distortion on the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile and weight loss efforts, a 3-step regression analysis was used. There was a significant correlation between body mass index-for-age percentiles and body image distortion, and both significantly correlated with weight loss efforts. In addition, a distorted perception of being overweight or obese was a significant mediating variable. School-based health education and intervention programs are needed to promote the formation of a positive body image, not only for obese adolescents, but also for normal-weight and underweight adolescent girls. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. Eating-related environmental factors in underweight eating disorders and obesity: are there common vulnerabilities during childhood and early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, I; Villarejo, C; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Perpiñá, C; Vilarrasa, N; Granero, R; Cebolla, A; Botella, C; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabe, M; Penelo, E; Casella, S; Islam, M A; Orekhova, E; Casanueva, F F; Karwautz, A; Menchón, J M; Treasure, J; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between individual, social and family influences and dysfunctional eating patterns early in life and the likelihood of developing a subsequent underweight eating disorder (ED) or obesity. The total sample comprised 152 individuals (underweight ED, n = 45; obese patients, n = 65; healthy controls; n = 42) from Barcelona, Spain. The Cross-Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ) was used to assess early eating influences as well as individual and family eating patterns and attitudes towards food. Even though a few shared eating influences emerged for both groups, unique factors were also observed. Whereas relationship with friends, teasing about eating habits by family members and the mass media were of specific relevance to the underweight ED group, the patient's own physical appearance, body dissatisfaction, teasing about eating habits by friends, teasing about body shape by family members and dysfunctional eating patterns were unique to obesity. Overlapping environmental risk factors provide evidence for integral prevention and intervention approaches that simultaneously tackle a range of weight-related problems. The unique factors might be important for targeting high-risk individuals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  8. Body Mass Index (BMI assessment among Macau students: age group differences and weight management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Walter King Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with being overweight later in life. Therefore, overweight tendencies need to be detected at an appropriate age, and suitable strategies need to be implemented for weight management to achieve optimal long-term health. The objective of this study was to investigate comparisons in BMI status and associated categories in male and female students over ten years in two phases, including 2008-2013 and 2009-2014. Weight and height data were collected to obtain BMI (Body Mass Index over ten years in two phases. The first phase occurred from 2008 to 2013, and the second phase occurred from 2009 to 2014 in a population of 10846 school children (Males: 6970, 64.3%, and females: 3875, 35.7% in Macau. Their ages ranged from 6 years old in 2008 to 11 years old in 2013. The same age range was observed in the second phase, i.e., 2009-2014. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, such as the mean, standard deviation, t-tests to determine gender differences (year-wise and a Chi square test for independence to determine the relationship between BMI (Underweight, Standard, Overweight and Obese and age groups. In the first phase (2008-2013, the findings indicated a higher BMI level among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2008 t = 5.24, 2009 t = 88.25, 2010 t = 11.32, 2011 t = 17.45, 2012 t = 19.70 and 2013 t = 19.92. In the second phase (2009-2014, a higher BMI level was found among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2009 t = 2.68, 2010 t = 2.886, 2011 t = 3.076, 2013 t = 4.228, and 2014 t = 2.405. The results of the two phases combined (2008 to 2014 and 2009 to 2014 revealed that male students in 2008 had a higher BMI level than their counterparts in 2009 in the two age categories (8 years t = 3.025 and 11 years t = 3.377. Female students in the second phase (2009-2014 showed a higher BMI level than their

  9. Association of eating three meals irregularly with changes in BMI and weight among young Japanese men and women: A 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Yoko; Miyakawa, Happei; Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; Hirose, Ayumi Sugawara; Hirasawa, Reiko; Yachi, Yoko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Shimano, Hitoshi; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological longitudinal investigations of the association between not eating three meals regularly and changes in BMI and weight are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not regularly eating three meals was associated with changes in BMI and weight in young Japanese men and women. Study participants were 1241 men and 897 women aged 19.0±1.2 and 18.8±0.8years, respectively, who underwent health checkups at a university in Japan in 2001 as the baseline and subsequently in 2003. Weight and height were measured at baseline and 2years later. Whether an individual ate three meals regularly was determined by a self-report questionnaire in 2001. During the 2-year follow-up, the BMI gain was 0.347 for men and 0.067 for women. In the logistic regression analysis, for men, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI gain (OR 1.60, CI 1.11-2.30), 6% BMI gain (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.63), 4kg weight gain (OR 2.01, CI 1.29-3.13), 6kg weight gain (OR 1.86, CI 1.02-3.37), and incidence of obesity (BMI ≧ 25)(OR 2.96, CI 1.22-7.17). For women, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI loss (OR 1.99, CI 1.01-3.94), 6% BMI loss (OR 2.79, CI 1.29-6.03), 4kg weight loss (OR 3.85, CI 1.62-9.12), 6kg weight loss (OR 7.65, CI 2.06-28.46), and the incidence of underweight (OR 3.95, CI 1.32-11.89). The current results suggested that eating three meals irregularly was associated with subsequent BMI and weight gains for men and subsequent BMI and weight losses for women; both groups were around 20years of age. Self-reported eating behavior in this study might be used to screen and evaluate young Japanese men and women at high risk for changes in BMI and weight in a practical clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual orientation and bias in self-reported BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-08-01

    Our objective was to determine if sexual orientation groups differ in accuracy of BMI (kg/m(2)) calculated from self-reported height and weight and if weight status modifies possible differences. Using gender-stratified multiple linear regression to analyze Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 12,197), we examined the association of sexual orientation with BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight (self-reported BMI), controlling for BMI calculated from objectively measured height and weight (objectively measured BMI) as well as demographic, health, and behavioral variables. We tested for effect modification of the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. The population underestimated their BMI (females: β = 0.87, P Sexual orientation groups differed little in their accuracy of reporting; only gay males had significant underreporting (β = -0.37, P = 0.038) relative to their heterosexual peers. We found no evidence of effect modification of the relationship of sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. With the exception of gay males, sexual orientation groups are consistent in their underreporting of BMI thus providing confidence in most comparisons of weight status based on self-report. Self-reporting of weight and height by gay males may exaggerate the differences in BMI between gay and heterosexual males.

  11. The association of plasma cysteine and gamma-glutamyltransferase with BMI and obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K

    2009-07-01

    We recently reported a strong positive association of plasma total cysteine (tCys) with fat mass in over 5,000 subjects. As gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) enzyme increases cysteine availability by catalyzing glutathione breakdown and is positively associated with BMI and adiposity, we hypothesized that GGT might explain the association of tCys with adiposity. To study whether the associations of tCys and serum GGT with BMI and obesity were interrelated we conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 1,550 subjects recruited from nine European countries in the COMAC project. Multiple linear and logistic regression models and concentration-response curves were used. In age and sex-adjusted analyses, tCys showed strong positive associations with BMI (partial r = 0.19, P < 0.001), and obesity (odds ratio (OR) for 4th vs. 1st tCys quartile: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.0, P < 0.001), both of which remained robust after adjustment for GGT and other metabolic and lifestyle confounders. Serum GGT was also a positive predictor of BMI (partial r = 0.17, P < 0.001) and obesity (OR for 4th vs. 1st GGT quartile: 4.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.5-9.2, P < 0.001), independent of tCys. However, the associations of GGT with BMI and obesity were weakened by adjustment for obesity-related factors such as serum lipids and blood pressure. These results indicate that tCys is a strong positive predictor of BMI and obesity, independent of GGT and other obesity-related factors. We also suggest that the association of serum GGT with BMI and obesity is unrelated to the role of GGT in cysteine turnover. The potential link between cysteine and fat metabolism should be further evaluated.

  12. Longterm Changes in BMI Growth Charts Pattern for Czech Children and Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignerová, J.; Paulová, M.; Brabec, Marek; Bláha, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl 1 (2008), S188-S188 ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity. 14.05.2008-17.05.2008, Geneva] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR7857 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth charts * growth curves * BMI Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  13. Rise in Extracellular Fluid Volume During High Sodium Depends on BMI in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Folkert W.; Krikken, Jan A.; Muntinga, Jaap H. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Navis, Gerjan J.

    A high sodium (HS) intake is associated to increased cardiovascular and renal risk, especially in overweight subjects. We hypothesized that abnormal sodium and fluid handling is involved, independent of hypertension or insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the relation between BMI and

  14. BMI, Income, and Social Capital in a Native Amazonian Society: Interaction between Relative and Community Variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Godoy, R.; Reyes-García, V.; Leonard, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2007), s. 459-474 ISSN 1042-0533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * economic factors * social capital * interaction models * separation of hierarchical effects * random effects models Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2007

  15. A Survey of Mother BMI Relationship with Cesarean Prevalence Rate in Bam Maternity Hospital, Bam, Iran Mahdyeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimanizadeh L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Abnormality of maternal weight has an important role in reproductive health. High and low BMI play importaxt roles in the development of some pregnancy complications, high birth weight, and cesarean rate increas. Thus, the complications such as sever infection, bleeding, thromboembolism attacks, respiratory pneumonia in pregnant women undergoing cesarean occur more often. The aim of prenatal care is safety in infant birth and one of the conditions in pregnancy health care is normal weight. The present study sought to determine the role of mother BMI on cesarean prevalence rate in women referring to Bam Mahdieh Maternity Hospital in Bam, Iran, in 2005.Methods: This attempt was a comparative cross-sectional study done on 294 pregnant women who were divided into three groups: underweight n=111 (BMI26. All pregnant women in our study wanted normal vaginal deliveries, and none was willing to undergo cesarean without indication. Data were collected by questionnaire that included three parts. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, ANOVA and . A Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The cesarean rate in over weight cases was 28/9%, while in normal weight women it was 15/2%, and in under weight ones, it was 4/5%, showing statistically significant differences. The overweight group had the highest age mean value in comparison with underweight and normal groups. The mean of babies’ weights in over weight group was more than that of the under-and normal-weight groups, but the mean of APGAR Scores at first and fifth minutes in over weight group was low.Conclusion: Concerning the findings, it is recommended that obese women be consulted before the pregnancy and during the pregnancy in order to attain normal weight with a suitable diet and the level of necessary activity, so that correct planning and education are performed to reach successful pregnancy outcomes.Keywords: Obesity

  16. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI...1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI...1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Diges...tive_tract.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  17. The Role of BMI in Hip Fracture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Garofolo, Garret; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Homel, Peter; Erez, Orry

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is an oft-cited cause of surgical morbidity and many institutions require extensive supplementary screening for obese patients prior to surgical intervention. However, in the elderly patients, obesity has been described as a protective factor. This article set out to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes and morbidity after hip fracture surgery. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients undergoing 1 of 4 surgical procedures to manage hip fracture between 2008 and 2012. Patient demographics, BMI, and known factors that lead to poor surgical outcomes were included as putative predictors for complications that included infectious, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neurovascular events. Using χ 2 tests, 30-day postoperative complication rates were compared between 4 patient groups stratified by BMI as low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), obese (BMI = 30-40), and morbidly obese (BMI > 40). A total of 15 108 patients underwent surgery for hip fracture over the examined 5-year period. Of these, 18% were low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), 13% were obese (BMI = 30-40), and 2% were morbidly obese (BMI > 40). The low-weight and morbidly obese patients had both the highest mortality rates and the lowest superficial infection rates. There was a significant increase in blood transfusion rates that decreased linearly with increasing BMI. Deep surgical site infection and renal failure increased linearly with increasing BMI, however, these outcomes were confounded by comorbidities. This study demonstrates that patients at either extreme of the BMI spectrum, rather than solely the obese, are at greatest risk of major adverse events following hip fracture surgery. This runs contrary to the notion that obese hip fracture patients automatically require additional preoperative screening and perioperative services, as currently implemented in many institutions.

  18. Elevated BMI is associated with decreased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex using SPECT imaging in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeumier, Kristen C; Taylor, Derek V; Amen, Daniel G

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Excess body fat has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and impulsivity and may be a precursor to decline in attention and executive cognitive function. Here, we investigated the effects of high BMI on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in healthy subjects. A total of 16 adult men and 20 adult women were recruited from the community between January 2003 and July 2009 as part of a healthy brain study (HBS) conducted at the Amen Clinics, a private medical facility. Participants in the study were screened to exclude medical, neurological, and psychiatric conditions, including substance abuse. Subjects were categorized as normal or overweight according to BMI. Using a two sample t-test, we determined the effects of BMI on rCBF in normal vs. overweight subjects. Subjects were matched for age and gender. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) revealed a higher BMI in healthy individuals that is associated with decreased rCBF in Broadmann areas 8, 9, 10, 11, 32, and 44, brain regions involved in attention, reasoning, and executive function (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). We found that an elevated BMI is associated with decreased rCBF in the prefrontal cortex of a healthy cohort. These results indicate that elevated BMI may be a risk factor for decreased prefrontal cortex function and potentially impaired executive function.

  19. Longitudinal weight differences, gene expression, and blood biomarkers in BMI discordant identical twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, Gonneke; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Kluft, Cornelis; Jansen, Rick; Penninx, Brenda W.J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Background BMI discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins allows an examination of the causes and consequences of adiposity in a genetically controlled design. Few studies have examined longitudinal BMI discordance in MZ pairs. Objectives To study the development over time of BMI discordance in adolescent and adult MZ twin pairs, and to examine lifestyle, metabolic, inflammatory, and gene expression differences associated with concurrent and long-term BMI discordance in MZ pairs. Subjects/Methods BMI data from 2775 MZ twin pairs, collected in eight longitudinal surveys and a biobank project between 1991 and 2011, were analyzed to characterize longitudinal discordance. Lifestyle characteristics were compared within discordant pairs (ΔBMI ≥ 3 kg/m2) and biomarkers (lipids, glucose, insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6, TNF-α and sIL-6R and liver enzymes AST, ALT and GGT) and gene expression were compared in peripheral blood from discordant pairs who participated in the NTR biobank project. Results The prevalence of discordance ranged from 3.2% in 1991 (mean age=17, SD=2.4) to 17.4% (N=202 pairs) in 2009 (mean age=35, SD=15), and was 16.5% (N=174) among pairs participating in the biobank project (mean age=35, SD=12). Of 699 MZ with BMI data from 3-5 time points, 17 pairs (2.4%) were long-term discordant (at all available time points; mean follow-up range=6.4 years). Concurrently discordant pairs showed significant differences in self-ratings of which twin eats most (p=2.3×10−13), but not in leisure time exercise activity (p=0.28) and smoking (p>0.05). Ten out of 14 biomarkers showed significantly more unfavorable levels in the heavier of twin of the discordant pairs (p-values BMI discordance is uncommon in adolescent identical pairs but increases with higher pair-mean of BMI at older ages, although long-term BMI discordance is rare. In discordant pairs, the heavier twin had a more unfavorable blood biomarker profile than the genetically matched leaner twin, in support of

  20. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Heather Hayes; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; DuBose, Katrina D; Reeves, Mathew J; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

  2. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight.We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35.Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine.These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  3. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  4. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    , and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared...... environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...... to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI...

  5. The association between consumption of breakfast cereals and BMI in schoolchildren aged 12-17 years: The VYRONAS study

    OpenAIRE

    Kosti, Rena I.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Zampelas, Antonis; Mihas, Costas; Alevizos, Alevizos; Leonard, Clare; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Anargiros

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate whether consumption of breakfast cereals is associated with BMI in a sample of Greek adolescents. Design A cross-sectional health and nutrition survey. Setting and subjects During 2004-5, 2008 schoolchildren aged 12-17 years were selected from twelve schools located in Vyronas region (Athens metropolitan area). Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. A semi-quantitative FFQ was applied and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Results O...

  6. The impact of BMI on non-malignant respiratory symptoms and lung function in arsenic exposed adults of Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Anthony; Ferreccio, Catterina; Acevedo, Johanna; Enanoria, Wayne; Blair, Alden; Smith, Allan H; Balmes, John; Steinmaus, Craig

    2017-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) and arsenic are both associated with cancer and with non-malignant lung disease. Using a unique exposure situation in Northern Chile with data on lifetime arsenic exposure, we previously identified the first evidence of an interaction between arsenic and BMI for the development of lung cancer. We examined whether there was an interaction between arsenic and BMI for the development of non-malignant lung disease. Data on lifetime arsenic exposure, respiratory symptoms, spirometry, BMI, and smoking were collected from 751 participants from cities in Northern Chile with varying levels of arsenic water concentrations. Spirometry values and respiratory symptoms were compared across subjects in different categories of arsenic exposure and BMI. Adults with both a BMI above the 90th percentile (>33.9kg/m 2 ) and arsenic water concentrations ≥11µg/L exhibited high odds ratios (ORs) for cough (OR = 10.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.03, 50.1), shortness of breath (OR = 14.2, 95% CI: 4.79, 52.4), wheeze (OR = 14.4, 95% CI: 4.80, 53.7), and the combined presence of any respiratory symptom (OR = 9.82, 95% CI: 4.22, 24.5). In subjects with lower BMIs, respiratory symptom ORs for arsenic water concentrations ≥11µg/L were markedly lower. In never-smokers, reductions in forced vital capacity associated with arsenic increased as BMI increased. Analysis of the FEV 1 /FVC ratio in never-smokers significantly increased as BMI and arsenic concentrations increased. Similar trends were not observed for FEV 1 alone or in ever-smokers. This study provides preliminary evidence that BMI may increase the risk for arsenic-related non-malignant respiratory disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ghrelin response to hedonic eating in underweight and short-term weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Monteleone, Alessio; Monteleone, Palmiero; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Nigro, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Cimino, Monica; Maj, Mario

    2016-01-30

    Recently, anorexia nervosa (AN) has been conceptualized as a reward-related disorder, and alterations in brain reward processes have been documented in both acute and recovered AN patients. However, the role of endogenous biochemical mediators, such as ghrelin, in the modulation of reward processes has been poorly investigated in this eating disorder. Hedonic eating, that is the consumption of food exclusively for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis, is a useful paradigm to investigate the physiology of food-related reward. Therefore, we assessed the response of peripheral ghrelin to hedonic eating in 7 underweight and 7 recently weight-restored AN patients and compared it to that of previously studied healthy controls. We found that in satiated underweight patients with AN plasma ghrelin levels progressively decreased after the exposure and the consumption of both the favorite and unfavorite food whereas in satiated weight-restored AN patients and satiated healthy controls plasma ghrelin concentrations significantly increased after the exposure to the favorite food and after eating it, but decreased after the unfavorite food. These results suggest a derangement in the ghrelin modulation of food-related pleasurable and rewarding feelings, which might sustain the reduced motivation toward food intake of acute AN patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedir N. Turi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420 and their children (N = 1,099 using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35, and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29 but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78 area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda.

  9. No evidence for involvement of polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in anorexia nervosa, underweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, A; Schneider, J; Ziegler, A; Lehmkuhl, G; Poustka, F; Schmidt, M H; Mayer, H; Siegfried, W; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

    1999-12-15

    Family and twin studies suggest a genetic contribution to the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Genes involved in weight regulation can be considered as candidate genes for AN. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in weight regulation; previous results had suggested a possible involvement of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4). We screened for alleles of two different polymorphisms (13-bp deletion, 48-bp repeat) in the DRD4. For association tests, allele frequencies were compared between 109 inpatients with AN, 82 underweight students, and 327 extremely obese children and adolescents. For application of transmission disequlibrium tests (TDT) we additionally genotyped 57 and 137 trios comprising a patient with AN or an extremely obese child or adolescent, respectively, and both parents. All genotyping was performed with polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism analyses. None of the association tests or TDT rendered nominal P values below 0.1. An influence of alleles of the DRD4 on the development of AN, underweight, or extreme early onset obesity was not detected. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 88:594-597, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. MUC1-C activates BMI1 in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, M; Maeda, T; Bouillez, A; Alam, M; Tagde, A; Hinohara, K; Suzuki, Y; Markert, T; Miyo, M; Komura, K; Ahmad, R; Rajabi, H; Kufe, D

    2017-05-18

    B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) complex that is overexpressed in breast and other cancers, and promotes self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells. The oncogenic mucin 1 (MUC1) C-terminal (MUC1-C) subunit is similarly overexpressed in human carcinoma cells and has been linked to their self-renewal. There is no known relationship between MUC1-C and BMI1 in cancer. The present studies demonstrate that MUC1-C drives BMI1 transcription by a MYC-dependent mechanism in breast and other cancer cells. In addition, we show that MUC1-C blocks miR-200c-mediated downregulation of BMI1 expression. The functional significance of this MUC1-C→︀BMI1 pathway is supported by the demonstration that targeting MUC1-C suppresses BMI1-induced ubiquitylation of H2A and thereby derepresses homeobox HOXC5 and HOXC13 gene expression. Notably, our results further show that MUC1-C binds directly to BMI1 and promotes occupancy of BMI1 on the CDKN2A promoter. In concert with BMI1-induced repression of the p16 INK4a tumor suppressor, we found that targeting MUC1-C is associated with induction of p16 INK4a expression. In support of these results, analysis of three gene expresssion data sets demonstrated highly significant correlations between MUC1-C and BMI1 in breast cancers. These findings uncover a previously unrecognized role for MUC1-C in driving BMI1 expression and in directly interacting with this stem cell factor, linking MUC1-C with function of the PRC1 in epigenetic gene silencing.

  11. Associations between family-related factors, breakfast consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-year-old European children: the cross-sectional ENERGY-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lippevelde, W.; te Velde, S.J.; Verloigne, M.; van Stralen, M.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Manios, Y.; Bere, E.; Vik, F.N.; Jan, N.; Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Kovacs, E.; Brug, J.; Maes, L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations of family-related factors with children's breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children's breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children's BMI-z-score. Subjects: Ten- to twelve-year-old children

  12. BMI may underestimate the socioeconomic gradient in true obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) does not make a distinction between fat mass and lean mass. In children, high fat mass appears to be associated with low maternal education, as well as low lean mass because maternal education is associated with physical activity. Therefore, BMI might underestimate true obesity

  13. Longitudinal Analysis of Genetic Susceptibility and BMI Throughout Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic influence on BMI trajectory throughout adulthood. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 97 adult BMI-associated variants among 9,971 women and 6,405 men of European ancestry. Serial measures of BMI were assessed from 18 (women) or 21 (men) years to 85 years of age. We also examined BMI change in early (from 18 or 21 to 45 years of age), middle (from 45 to 65 years of age), and late adulthood (from 65 to 80 years of age). GRS was positively associated with BMI across all ages, with stronger associations in women than in men. The associations increased from early to middle adulthood, peaked at 45 years of age in men and at 60 years of age in women (0.91 and 1.35 kg/m 2 per 10-allele increment, respectively) and subsequently declined in late adulthood. For women, each 10-allele increment in the GRS was associated with an average BMI gain of 0.54 kg/m 2 in early adulthood, whereas no statistically significant association was found for BMI change in middle or late adulthood or for BMI change in any life period in men. Our findings indicate that genetic predisposition exerts a persistent effect on adiposity throughout adult life and increases early adulthood weight gain in women. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School…

  15. The Impact of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Body Mass Index (BMI): The Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark A; Goodwin, James L; Silva, Graciela E; Behari, Ajay; Newman, Anne B; Punjabi, Naresh M; Resnick, Helaine E; Robbins, John A; Quan, Stuart F

    2011-12-08

    INTRODUCTION: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors. METHODS: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG) and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was categorized using clinical thresholds: sleep apnea), and ≥ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea). Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 62.2 years (10.14), 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD) change of 0.53 (2.62) kg/m(2) (p=0.071). A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m(2) (p=0.055) and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m(2) (plosing weight.

  16. Underweight and overweight among children and adolescents in Tuscany (Italy). Prevalence and short-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Rossi, S; Pammolli, A; Pilato, V; Pozzi, T; Giacchi, M V

    2008-03-01

    The recent increase in both childhood obesity and adolescent anorexia nervosa in developed countries has underlined the important consequences that these trends may have on public health, as there is an increased risk that these conditions may become chronic diseases in adulthood. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor prevalence rates and trends in thinness and overweight (including obesity) among children and adolescents at different levels: international, national and sub-national. Since 2001/2002, a nutritional surveillance system has been implemented in the Tuscany Region to estimate the nutritional status and lifestyles of children and adolescents. The main objectives were to assess the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Tuscan children and adolescents and to provide baseline information on the prevalence of thinness, for the first time calculated according to the new international definitions, for geographical comparisons and descriptions of time trends. Independent cross-sectional sample surveys were conducted in 2002, 2004 and 2006 in Tuscany, North-Central Italy. Data were collected from stratified two-stage cluster samples of children aged 9 years (n = 3,048 in 2002 and n = 1,430 in 2006) and of adolescents aged 11-13-15 years (n = 1,066, n = 1185 and n = 1,160 in 2004 and n = 1,189, n = 1,211 and n = 1,178 in 2006, respectively). Weights and heights of primary school children were measured by means of standardized methods, while those of adolescents were self-reported. Decimal age was calculated from the date of birth to the date of measurement. Body Mass Index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Instead of the term underweight in children, we used the term thinness, which the World Health Organization uses to mean low Body Mass Index for age in adults and adolescents. According to Cole's recently published cut-offs for thinness, we divided our Body Mass Index values below 18.5 into three

  17. Union Transitions and Changes in BMI among Adults in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes nationally representative, longitudinal data from the Mexico Family Life Survey to examine the associations between union transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) among adults in Mexico. Results from change score regression models (N = 11,339) indicate larger BMI gains for those entering a union than for those remaining single, net of baseline weight status and socioeconomic controls. Further, a significant moderating effect of baseline weight status suggests that overweight individuals entering a union gain almost two BMI points more than overweight single individuals during this three-year period. Individuals experiencing a union dissolution gain less BMI than those entering a union, but are predicted to lose BMI (as found in the United States) only if they are overweight before the transition. PMID:22660828

  18. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  19. Maternal nutritional status (as measured by height, weight and BMI) in Bangladesh: trends and socio-economic association over the period 1996 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, Cg Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables. Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data. A total of 16 278 mothers were included. All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs). The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.

  20. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Champagne, Catherine M; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentariness (Sed) in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9-11 years). Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = -0.02 ± 0.002) and BMI (β = -0.005 ± 0.002). Sleep time is related to Sed (β = -0.42 ± 0.04), while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13), biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07), media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08) and healthy (β = -0.09 ± 0.03) and unhealthy (β = -0.07 ± 0.04) diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = -0.97 ± 0.25), playground equipment (β = -0.67 ± 0.20) and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08) were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children's traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  1. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  2. Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Agurs-Collins, Tanya D; McClernon, F Joseph; Kollins, Scott H; Kail, Melanie E; Bergen, Andrew W; Ashley-Koch, Allison E

    2008-02-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that variation in genes associated with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and overweight + obese) in young adulthood and of changes in BMI as adolescents transition into young adulthood. Interactions with gender and race/ethnicity were also examined. Participants were a subsample of individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. The sample analyzed included a subset of 1,584 unrelated individuals with genotype data. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the associations between genotypes and obesity (BMI > 29.9) or overweight + obese combined (BMI > or = 25) with normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) as a referent. Linear regression models were used to examine change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. Significant associations were found between SLC6A4 5HTTLPR and categories of BMI, and between MAOA promoter variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) among men and categories of BMI. Stratified analyses revealed that the association between these two genes and excess BMI was significant for men overall and for white and Hispanic men specifically. Linear regression models indicated a significant effect of SLC6A4 5HTTLPR on change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. Our findings lend further support to the involvement of genes implicated in dopamine and serotonin regulation on energy balance.

  3. Correlates of antenatal body mass index (bmi as a determinant of birth weight – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI in antenatal period and birth weight of child, along with the socio-demographic determinants of birth weight. Methods: A longitudinal study of one-year duration, from June 2010 to May 2011, was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Universal sampling method was employed, including as subjects all pregnant women with minimum two Antenatal Care (ANC visits - and at least one in the third trimester - registered at an urban health centre from June to August 2010. Subjects with any pre-existing co-morbid illness or with past history of giving birth to twins or to any congenitally malformed child, or else, with outcome of still births or home delivery, were excluded. These women were followed up for the next months until delivery. Maternal weight was recorded at each visit and BMI was calculated, or the average BMI, in case of more than one visit in any trimester. Birth weight was recorded using hospital or maternity home records. Results: Prevalence of low birth weight was 26.7%. Correlation between maternal BMI of third trimester and neonatal birth weight was moderately positive. 60.8% of variability in birth weight can be predicted by maternal BMI in third trimester. Conclusions: Third trimester BMI can be used as a predictor of neonatal birth weight. Information, Education and Counseling (IEC activities regarding utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC services can help reducing the incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW.

  4. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  5. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan. Data from 1,329 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study were used in this analysis. At baseline, women ranged in age from 53 to 85 years. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and body fat percent (BF%) greater than 35%, 38%, or 40%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value to evaluate the validity of BMI-defined obesity relative BF%. We further explored the validity of BMI relative to BF% using graphical tools, such as scatterplots and receiver-operating characteristic curves. Youden's J index was used to determine the empirical optimal BMI cut-point for each level of BF% defined obesity. The sensitivity of BMI-defined obesity was 32.4% for 35% body fat, 44.6% for 38% body fat, and 55.2% for 40% body fat. Corresponding specificity values were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The empirical optimal BMI cut-point to define obesity is 24.9 kg/m for 35% BF, 26.49 kg/m for 38% BF, and 27.05 kg/m for 40% BF according to the Youden's index. Results demonstrate that a BMI cut-point of 30 kg/m does not appear to be an appropriate indicator of true obesity status in postmenopausal women. Empirical estimates of the validity of BMI from this study may be used by other investigators to account for BMI-related misclassification in older women.

  6. Faktor-faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Underweight Pada Anak Usia 24-59 Bulan Di Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Nad): Analisis Data Surkesda Nad 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyati, Sri; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Tjandrarini, Dwi Hapsari

    2008-01-01

    Determinant Factors of The Incidence of Underweight Children Ageg 24-59 Month In Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD).Background: Surkesda NAD 2006 as post tsunami household health survey and covering all 21 districts/cities had assessed child nutritional status (underweight) for age 24-59 months, with cut-off point <-2.00 SD. A total sample of 1,437 children aged 0-59 months was included in the assessment.Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze child nutritional status and factors...

  7. BMI1 loss delays photoreceptor degeneration in Rd1 mice. Bmi1 loss and neuroprotection in Rd1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencak, Dusan; Crippa, Sylvain V; Tekaya, Meriem; Tanger, Ellen; Schorderet, Daniel E; Munier, Francis L; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders leading to blindness, which remain untreatable at present. Rd1 mice represent a recognized model of RP, and so far only GDNF treatment provided a slight delay in the retinal degeneration in these mice. Bmi1, a transcriptional repressor, has recently been shown to be essential for neural stem cell (NSC) renewal in the brain, with an increased appearance of glial cells in vivo in Bmi1 knockout (Bmi1-/-) mice. One of the roles of glial cells is to sustain neuronal function and survival. In the view of a role of the retinal Miller glia as a source of neural protection in the retina, the increased astrocytic population in the Bmi1-/- brain led us to investigate the effect of Bmi1 loss in Rd1 mice. We observed an increase of Müller glial cells in Rd1-Bmi1-/- retinas compared to Rd1. Moreover, Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice showed 7-8 rows of photoreceptors at 30 days of age (P30), while in Rd1 littermates there was a complete disruption of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Preliminary ERG results showed a responsiveness of Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice in scotopic vision at P35. In conclusion, Bmi1 loss prevented, or rescued, photoreceptors from degeneration to an unanticipated extent in Rd1 mice. In this chapter, we will first provide a brief review of our work on the cortical NSCs and introduce the Bmi1 oncogene, thus offering a rational to our observations on the retina.

  8. Bmi-1: At the crossroads of physiological and pathological biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Street, Mark; Dey, Anindya; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex1 that mediates gene silencing by regulating chromatin structure and is indispensable for self-renewal of both normal and cancer stem cells. Despite three decades of research that have elucidated the transcriptional regulation, post-translational modifications and functions of Bmi-1 in regulating the DNA damage response, cellular bioenergetics, and pathologies, the entire potential of a protein with such varied function remains to be realized. This review attempts to synthesize the current knowledge on Bmi-1 with an emphasis on its role in both normal physiology and cancer. Additionally, since cancer stem cells are emerging as a new paradigm for therapy resistance, the role of Bmi-1 in this perspective is also highlighted. The wide spectrum of malignancies that implicate Bmi-1 as a signature for stemness and oncogenesis also make it a suitable candidate for therapy. Nonetheless new approaches are vitally needed to further characterize physiological roles of Bmi-1 with the long-term goal of using Bmi-1 as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target. PMID:26448339

  9. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-19

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  10. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C; Grønbaek, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-08-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle. Using data from four follow-ups of the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study, we examined the prospective associations between BMI and sedentary lifestyle in a cohort of 4595 middle-aged men and women who had responded to questionnaires at the ages of 41 (standard deviation 2.3), 44 (2.3), 46 (2.0), and 54 (2.0). BMI was consistently related to increased risk of becoming sedentary in both men and women. The odds ratios of becoming sedentary as predicted by BMI were 1.04 (95% confidence limits, 1.00, 1.07) per 1 kg/m(2) from ages 41 to 44, 1.10 (1.07, 1.14) from ages 44 to 46, and 1.12 (1.08, 1.17) from ages 46 to 54. Controlling for concurrent changes in BMI marginally attenuated the effects. Sedentary lifestyle did not predict changes in BMI, except when concurrent changes in physical activity were taken into account (p sedentary lifestyle but did not provide unambiguous evidence for an effect of sedentary lifestyle on weight gain.

  11. Variations in estimates of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity in children from Argentina comparing three growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Gisel; Seoane, Analía I; Salceda, Susana A

    2012-11-01

    To compare estimates of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity based on three growth charts. Cross-sectional study to estimate weight-for-age, length/height-for-age and weight-for-height comparing the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards ('the WHO standards'), the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) international growth reference ('the NCHS reference') and the 1987 Argentine Pediatric Society Committee of Growth and Development reference ('the APS reference'). Cut-off points were defined as mean values ±2 s d. Epi-Info software version 6·0 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was used for statistical evaluations (χ 2, P ≤ 0·05). Greater La Plata conurbation, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A total of 2644 healthy, full-term children from 0 to 5 years of age. Prevalence of underweight was higher with the WHO standards than with the other references up to the first 6 months. For the rest of the ages, prevalence was lower with the WHO standards. Stunting prevalence was higher with the WHO standards at all ages. Prevalence of wasting was higher with the WHO standards compared with the NCHS reference up to the first 6 months and lower at 2-5 years of age. Overweight and obesity prevalences were higher with the WHO standards at all ages. The new WHO standards appear to be a solid and reliable tool for diagnosis and treatment of nutritional diseases, also being the only one built with infants fed according to WHO recommendations. Therefore, our results support the decision of the National Ministry of Health about the utilization of the new WHO standards to monitor the nutritional status of Argentinean children aged less than 5 years.

  12. The global economic crisis, household income and pre-adolescent overweight and underweight: a nationwide birth cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, P; Kondo, N; Fujiwara, T

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that children from lower income households and in households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008 would be at increased risk of adverse weight status during the subsequent years of economic downturn. Data were obtained from a nationwide longitudinal survey comprising all children born during 2 weeks of 2001. For 16,403 boys and 15,206 girls, information about anthropometric measurements and household characteristics was collected from 2001 to 2011 on multiple occasions. Interactions between the crisis onset (September 2008) and household income group, as well as the crisis onset and a >30% negative income change in connection to the crisis, were assessed with respect to risk of childhood over- and underweight. Adjusted for household and parental characteristics, boys and girls in the lower household income quartiles had a larger increase in risk of overweight after the crisis onset relative to their peers in the highest income group. (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for interaction term in boys=1.23 (1.02-1.24); girls=1.35 (1.23-1.49) comparing the lowest with the highest income group.) Among girls, an interaction between the crisis onset and a >30% negative change in household income with respect to risk of overweight was observed (odds ratio for interaction term=1.23 (1.09-1.38)). Girls from the highest income group had an increased risk of underweight after the crisis onset compared with girls from the lowest income group. Boys and girls from lower household income groups and girls from households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008, may be at increased risk of overweight. Vulnerability to economic uncertainty could increase risk of overweight in preadolescence.

  13. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  14. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Kawase, Toshihiro; Takano, Kouji; Komatsu, Tomoaki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS). We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actions-a grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movement-and added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz) in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12) operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were ~88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs); they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Health Promoting School Initiative on Dietary Habits and BMI of Students in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Mona E; Abdou, Sahar S

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating health promoting schools (HPS) initiative carried out on a sample of schools from all regions in Oman. The evaluation sought to assess the impact of the initiative on students' dietary behavior and body mass index (BMI). The static group comparison design was employed. The study was conducted in 15 health promoting schools comprising grades eight and nine and 15 matching conventional schools (CS). A total sample of 1535 students (752 intervention group-HPS, 783 comparison group-CS) participated in the study. The self administered questionnaire directed to students was used to collect data. Weight and height of each student were measured and BMI was calculated. Male students in HPS showed significant favorable behavior than those in CS regarding eating fruits, consuming fast food and soft drinks. On the other hand, female students in HPS showed significant favorable behavior than those in CS regarding eating breakfast and vegetables. Male and female students in HPS showed significantly higher mean total dietary behavior score than male and female students in CS. Lower percentage of HPS male students were underweight and obese compared to students from CS with significant difference. Positive changes in students' dietary behaviors were achieved by adopting the health promoting school initiatives with obvious difference between male and female students. Expansion of HPS initiative to other schools in Oman is recommended. Innovative nutrition program need to be developed and implemented by HPS to further impact eating behaviors and nutritional status of school children. Given the differences in the effectiveness of HPS initiative between male and female students, there is a need to develop and evaluate separate interventions for each of them.

  16. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial...... cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  17. Is the BMI a Relic of the Past?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used measure of adiposity is to express weight adjusted for height using the body mass index (BMI). However, its limitations such as its inability to distinguish muscle weight from fat weight are well known, leading public health authorities in the UK and US to recommend measuring waist circumference as a complementary diagnostic tool for obesity. Recent attention placed on the syndrome referred to as 'normal weight obesity' – individuals with normal BMI but high body fat cont...

  18. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 childre...

  19. Bmi-1: At the crossroads of physiological and pathological biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Banerjee Mustafi, Soumyajit; Street, Mark; Dey, Anindya; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex1 that mediates gene silencing by regulating chromatin structure and is indispensable for self-renewal of both normal and cancer stem cells. Despite three decades of research that have elucidated the transcriptional regulation, post-translational modifications and functions of Bmi-1 in regulating the DNA damage response, cellular bioenergetics, and pathologies, the entire potential of a protein with such varied function remains to be realized...

  20. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peizhi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-06-10

    The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 %) which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  1. Association Between Perceived Health Care Stigmatization and BMI Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena M. Hansson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study examined the association between experiences of health care stigmatization and BMI changes in men and women with normal weight and obesity in Sweden. Methods: The participants were drawn from a population-based survey in Sweden (1996-2006, and data on their perceived health care stigmatization were measured in 2008. They were categorized in individuals with normal weight (n = 1,064, moderate obesity (n = 1,273, and severe obesity (n = 291. The main outcome measure was change in BMI. Results: Individuals with severe obesity experiencing any health care stigmatization showed a BMI increase by 1.5 kg/m2 more than individuals with severe obesity with no such experience. For individuals with moderate obesity, insulting treatment by a physician and avoidance of health care were associated with a relative BMI increase of 0.40 and 0.75 kg/m2, respectively, compared with their counterparts who did not experience stigmatization in these areas. No difference in experience of any form of health care stigmatizing associated BMI change was observed for men and women with normal weight. Conclusion: In this large, population-based study, perceived health care stigmatization was associated with an increased relative BMI in individuals with severe obesity. For moderate obesity, the evidence of an association was inconclusive.

  2. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. Methods The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Results Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 % which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. Conclusions The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  3. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  4. The recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM for normal and underweight women to reduce the risk of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yieh-Loong Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: For underweight women, it is suggested that they follow the upper range of the IOM recommendation in order to avoid LBW. For normal weight women, although the IOM guidelines provide a good basis, it is suggested that they carefully follow the recommended GWG and the RWG values during the 2nd trimester, which is a very important period for fetal growth.

  5. Overweight, Obesity and Underweight Is Associated with Adverse Psychosocial and Physical Health Outcomes among 7-Year-Old Children: The 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at

  6. Design and Optimization of an EEG-Based Brain Machine Interface (BMI) to an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton for Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Nikunj A.; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Abibullaev, Berdakh; Artz, Edward J.; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Blank, Amy A.; French, James; Karmonik, Christof; Grossman, Robert G.; O'Malley, Marcia K.; Francisco, Gerard E.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain machine interface (BMI). Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II), to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: (1) an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; (2) training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and (3) BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG) activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR) = 62.7 ± 21.4% on day 4 and 67.1 ± 14.6% on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR) across subjects was 27.74 ± 37.46% on day 4 and 27.5 ± 35.64% on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration. PMID:27065787

  7. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on body mass index (BMI: the sleep heart health study (SHHS

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    Robbins JA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors.Methods: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was categorized using clinical thresholds: < 5 (normal, ≥ 5 to <15 (mild sleep apnea, and ³ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea. Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates.Results: Mean (SD age was 62.2 years (10.14, 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD change of 0.53 (2.62 kg/m2 (p=0.071. A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m2 (p=0.055 and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m2 (p<0.001 compared to those with baseline AHI of <5.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is a positive association between severity of SDB and subsequent increased BMI over approximately 5 years. This observation may help explain why persons with SDB have difficulty losing weight.

  8. The growth hormone receptor polymorphism in patients with acromegaly: relationship to BMI and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahat; Akın, Fulya; Ayada, Ceylan; Topsakal, Senay; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Turgut, Günfer

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate association between the frequencies of Growth Hormone receptor (d3GHR) gene polymorphisms and some clinical parameters of acromegalic patients. Total of 35 acromegalic patients were enrolled to study. The d3GHR polymorphism was identified by using polymerase chain reaction from peripheral blood samples. The levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, IGF-I, GH, IGFBP3, triglyceride, HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations were evaluated. The frequencies of d3GHR genotypes were found as follows; 5 (14.3%) subjects had d3/d3, 11 (31.4%) had d3/fl and 19 (54.3%) had fl/fl in patients. The prevalence of the d3 and fl alleles was 30 and 70%, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR was found significantly increased in homozygote d3GHR genotype group compared to d3/fl subjects (P d3GHR gene polymorphism may affect BMI, systolic blood pressure and insulin regulation. At the same time we can say homozygote d3GHR genotype and d3 allele carriers may have more risk than other genotypes for high BMI.

  9. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SOSIAL EKONOMI DAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT KAITANNYA DENGAN MASALAH GIZI UNDERWEIGHT, STUNTED, DAN WASTED DI INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN EKOLOGI GIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Hani Ulfani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Malnutrition is an ecological problem in the sense influenced by various aspects, as explained in the framework of UNICEF (1988. Indonesia as developing country at present still faced such a problem. Eco-nutrition is important to understand related factors affecting malnutrition in Indonesia to find out more effective programs. Eco-nutrition have three key areas : public health (access to quality water, sanitation and health services, socio economic (livelihood assets and malnutrition. The purpose of this research was to study the linkages between socioeconomic and public health factors with the problem of underweight, stunted, and wasted in Indonesia.This research was conducted using cross-sectional study design, analyzed the 424 districts/cities in Indonesia. Data prevalence of underweight, stunted, wasted, level of education and public health factors (access to quality water, hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu, complete immunization coverage, incidence of diarrhea, and the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI obtained from Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007. Socio-economic data (level of poverty and GDP/capita obtained from the Central Statistic Agency (BPS. Statistical test of Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression method were implemented to understand factors affecting underweight, stunted, wasted and correlation among variables. The study shows that factors affecting underweight were educational level, poverty level, hygiene behavior and use of Posyandu. While factors affecting stunted were GDP/capita, education level, poverty level, hygiene behavior, and utilization of Posyandu. Factors affecting wasted were hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu and complete immunization. Key words: underweight,   stunted,   wasted,   socioeconomic   factors,   public   health,                   eco-nutrition

  10. BMI at birth and overweight at age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan D; Taylor, Yhenneko; Mowrer, Lauren; Winter, Katherine M; Dulin, Michael F

    Extensive investigation has established that an elevated weight at birth is associated with subsequent obesity and obesity related negative health outcomes. The significance of overweight at birth, however, remains ill-defined. Historically, it has been difficult to approximate adiposity in infancy in a way that is both simple and meaningful. Body-mass-index (BMI) growth charts for children younger than two years of age only became available in 2006 when published by the WHO. This retrospective cohort analysis utilised anthropometric data extracted from the electronic medical record of a large integrated healthcare system in North Carolina. BMI and weight-for-age (WFA) >85% of WHO growth charts measured newborn overweight and macrosomia respectively. Logistic regression models assessed the associations between newborn macrosomia and overweight and overweight at 4 years of age, as well as associations with maternal BMI. Models included demographic data, gestational age, and maternal diabetes status as covariates. Both BMI and WFA >85% at birth were significantly associated with overweight at age 4 years. However, the greater odds of overweight was associated with newborn BMI >85%, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.08) versus 1.57 (95% CI: 1.08-2.27). Maternal obesity was also more robustly correlated with newborn BMI >85%, AOR of 4.14 (95% CI: 1.6-10.7), than with newborn WFA >85%, AOR of 3.09 (95% CI: 1.41-6.77). BMI >85% at birth is independently associated with overweight at 4 years. Newborn overweight is perhaps superior to newborn macrosomia in predicting overweight at age 4. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GOCS cohort: children's eating behavior scores and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, U; Weisstaub, G; Santos, J L; Corvalán, C; Uauy, R

    2016-08-01

    In Chile, approximately one in three children under 6 years of age reported overweight/obese, while one in four children in elementary school suffer from obesity. There is a paucity of population-based information on the influence of childhood eating behavior on anthropometric measures related to obesity. To assess the association between eating behavior scores and Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores in 7-10-year-old Chilean children. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1058 children aged 7-10 (51% girls) from the 'Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study' (GOCS). Direct measures of weight and height were used to compute BMI z-scores according to World Health Organization (WHO) curves. Children were classified as normal weight (-1obese (⩾2 s.d.). Eating behavior scores were measured through the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ), previously adapted and validated for Chilean children. Multiple linear regressions were carried out using BMI z-score as the outcome and eating behavior scores as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted by age and gender. BMI z-scores were positively associated with pro-intake scores in the subscales 'enjoyment of food', 'emotional overeating' and 'food responsiveness' (Peating' and 'food-fussiness' scores were negatively associated with BMI z-scores (Peating behavior scores and BMI z-scores in Chilean children, showing that BMI in 7-10-year-old Chilean children is positively associated with pro-intake eating behavior scores and negatively associated with anti-intake eating behavior scores. The identification of specific eating behaviors patterns related to obesity will provide important information for the implementation of prevention programs for this disease.

  13. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  14. Use of high-frequency visual stimuli above the critical flicker frequency in a SSVEP-based BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Kawase, Toshihiro; Komatsu, Tomoaki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-machine interface (BMI) using flickering visual stimuli at frequencies greater than the critical flicker frequency (CFF). We first asked participants to fixate on a green/blue flicker (30-70Hz), and SSVEP amplitude was evaluated. Participants were asked to indicate whether the stimulus was visibly flickering and to report their subjective level of discomfort. We then assessed visibly (41, 43, and 45Hz) vs. invisibly (61, 63, and 65Hz) flickering stimulus in an SSVEP-based BMI. Visual fatigue was assessed via the flicker test before and after operation of the BMI. Higher frequency stimuli reduced participants' subjective discomfort. Participants successfully controlled the SSVEP-based BMI using both the visibly and invisibly flickering stimuli (93.1% and 88.0%, respectively); the flicker test revealed a decrease in CFF (i.e., visual fatigue) under the visible condition only (-5.7%, Pflicker stimuli above the CFF were able to induce SSVEPs and may prove useful in the development of BMI-based assistive products. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The trend of BMI values of US adults by deciles, birth cohorts 1882–1986 stratified by gender and ethnicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komlos, J.; Brabec, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2011), s. 234-250 ISSN 1570-677X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * USA * NHANES * obesity * overweight * semiparametric modeling * GAMLSS model * percentile estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.722, year: 2011

  16. Socioeconomic differences in childhood BMI trajectories in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D; Hughes, Rachael A; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Nicoli, Emily; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S; Martin, Richard M

    2018-02-28

    To examine associations of parental socioeconomic position with early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) trajectories in a middle-income country. Overall, 12,385 Belarusian children born 1996-97 and enrolled in a randomised breastfeeding promotion trial at birth, with 3-14 measurements of BMI from birth to 7 years. Cohort analysis in which exposures were parental education (common secondary or less; advanced secondary or partial university; completed university) and occupation (manual; non-manual) at birth, and the outcome was BMI z-score trajectories estimated using multilevel linear spline models, controlling for trial arm, location, parental BMI, maternal smoking status and number of older siblings. Infants born to university-educated mothers were heavier at birth than those born to secondary school-educated mothers [by 0.13 BMI z-score units (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07, 0.19) for girls and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.17) for boys; equivalent for an infant of average birth length to 43 and 38 g, respectively]. Between the ages of 3-7 years children of the most educated mothers had larger BMI increases than children of the least educated mothers. At age 7 years, after controlling for trial arm and location,  children of university-educated mothers had higher BMIs than those born to secondary school-educated mothers by 0.11 z-score (95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) among girls and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.27) among boys, equivalent to differences in BMI for a child of average height of 0.19 and 0.26 kg/m 2 , respectively. After further controlling for parental BMI, these differences attenuated to 0.08 z-score (95% CI: 0, 0.16) and 0.16 z-score (95% CI: 0.07, 0.24), respectively, but changed very little after additional adjustment for number of older siblings and mother's smoking status. Associations were similar when based on paternal educational attainment and highest household occupation. In Belarus, consistent with some middle-income countries, higher socioeconomic

  17. Determination of the energy requirements in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients in different BMI groups using the Harris–Benedict equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Hui Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to studies on calorie requirement in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients are few, and indirect calorimetry (IC is not available in every intensive care unit (ICU. The aim of this study was to compare IC and Harris–Benedict (HB predictive equation in different BMI groups. Methods: A total of 177 mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients (≧65 years old underwent IC for measured resting energy expenditure (MREE. Estimated calorie requirement was calculated by the HB equation, using actual body weight (ABW and ideal body weight (IBW separately. Patients were divided into four BMI groups. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analyses. Results: The mean MREE was 1443.6 ± 318.2 kcal/day, HB(ABW was 1110.9 ± 177.0 kcal/day and HB(IBW was 1101.5 ± 113.1 kcal/day. The stress factor (SFA = MREE ÷ HB(ABW was 1.43 ± 0.26 for the underweight, 1.30 ± 0.27 for the normal weight, 1.20 ± 0.19 for the overweight, and 1.20 ± 0.31 for the obese. The SFI (SFI = MREE ÷ HB(IBW was 1.24 ± 0.24 for the underweight, 1.31 ± 0.26 for the normal weight, 1.36 ± 0.21 for the overweight, and 1.52 ± 0.39 for the obese. MREE had significant correlation both with REE(ABW = HB(ABW × SFA (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001 and REE(IBW = HB(IBW × SFI (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: IC is the best accurate method for assessing calorie requirement of mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients. When IC is not available, using the predictive HB equation is an alternative choice. Calorie requirement can be predicted by HB(ABW × 1.20–1.43 for critically ill elderly patients according to different BMI groups, or using HB(IBW × 1.24–1.52 for patients with edema, ascites or no available body weight data. Keywords: Body Mass Index, Elderly critical care, Harris–Benedict equation, Indirect calorimetry

  18. Determination of the energy requirements in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients in different BMI groups using the Harris-Benedict equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Hui; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Kung, Yu-Chung; Chen, Wei-Ji; Tzeng, Min-Su

    2018-04-01

    Due to studies on calorie requirement in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients are few, and indirect calorimetry (IC) is not available in every intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to compare IC and Harris-Benedict (HB) predictive equation in different BMI groups. A total of 177 mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients (≧65 years old) underwent IC for measured resting energy expenditure (MREE). Estimated calorie requirement was calculated by the HB equation, using actual body weight (ABW) and ideal body weight (IBW) separately. Patients were divided into four BMI groups. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analyses. The mean MREE was 1443.6 ± 318.2 kcal/day, HB(ABW) was 1110.9 ± 177.0 kcal/day and HB(IBW) was 1101.5 ± 113.1 kcal/day. The stress factor (SFA = MREE ÷ HB(ABW)) was 1.43 ± 0.26 for the underweight, 1.30 ± 0.27 for the normal weight, 1.20 ± 0.19 for the overweight, and 1.20 ± 0.31 for the obese. The SFI (SFI = MREE ÷ HB(IBW)) was 1.24 ± 0.24 for the underweight, 1.31 ± 0.26 for the normal weight, 1.36 ± 0.21 for the overweight, and 1.52 ± 0.39 for the obese. MREE had significant correlation both with REE(ABW) = HB(ABW) × SFA (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001) and REE(IBW) = HB(IBW) × SFI (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001). IC is the best accurate method for assessing calorie requirement of mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients. When IC is not available, using the predictive HB equation is an alternative choice. Calorie requirement can be predicted by HB(ABW) × 1.20-1.43 for critically ill elderly patients according to different BMI groups, or using HB(IBW) × 1.24-1.52 for patients with edema, ascites or no available body weight data. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  20. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Cognitive Functions in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah A; Haron, Sharifah A; Hamid, Tengku A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Tanjani, Parisa T

    2018-01-01

    The findings from previous studies exploring the association between BMI and cognitive function in the elderly are conflicting. The purpose of the present study is twofold; to verify the association between BMI and cognitive functions and examine whether this association is impacted by height, when adjusted for possible covariates. The data for this study, consisted of 2287 older adults aged 60 years and above, drawn from a nationally representative population-based survey entitled "Determinants of Wellness among Older Malaysians: A Health Promotion Perspective" conducted in 2009. The mean age of the respondents was 68.7 (SD=6.6) years. The average score of cognitive function, measured by MMSE was 24.5 (SD=5.6). About 40% of the respondents were classified as overweight. Results of the multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between BMI and cognitive function (Beta=.10, pFactorial ANCOVA revealed significant interaction effect between BMI and height on cognitive function (F= 10.8, p<.001), after adjusting for possible covariates. The findings from the current study indicating the positive association between BMI and cognitive function depends on height, therefore it is suggested that short people might be targeted for dementia prevention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. The Obesity Paradox in Cancer-Moving Beyond BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strulov Shachar, Shlomit; Williams, Grant R

    2017-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and simple counts of weight are easy and available tools in the clinic and in research. Recent studies have shown that cancer patients with a low normal BMI (or those with weight loss) have worse outcomes than obese patients. These results suggest that obesity has a protective effect and has been termed the "obesity paradox." In this commentary, we discuss hypothetical explanations and take a step beyond BMI or simple weights alone to present other useful and more specific body composition metrics, such as muscle tissue mass, visceral fat mass, and subcutaneous fat mass. Body composition is highly variable between individuals with significant differences seen between various races and ages. Therefore, it is critical to consider that patients with the exact same BMI can have significantly different body compositions and different outcomes. We encourage further studies to examine body composition beyond BMI and to use other body composition metrics to develop individualized treatments and intervention strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 13-16. ©2017 AACR SEE ALL THE ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "THE OBESITY PARADOX IN CANCER EVIDENCE AND NEW DIRECTIONS". ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Ihsanullah; Rafiq, A.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  3. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase Bmi1/Ring1A controls the proteasomal degradation of Top2alpha cleavage complex - a potentially new drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Alchanati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The topoisomerases Top1, Top2alpha and Top2beta are important molecular targets for antitumor drugs, which specifically poison Top1 or Top2 isomers. While it was previously demonstrated that poisoned Top1 and Top2beta are subject to proteasomal degradation, this phenomena was not demonstrated for Top2alpha.We show here that Top2alpha is subject to drug induced proteasomal degradation as well, although at a lower rate than Top2beta. Using an siRNA screen we identified Bmi1 and Ring1A as subunits of an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in this process. We show that silencing of Bmi1 inhibits drug-induced Top2alpha degradation, increases the persistence of Top2alpha-DNA cleavage complex, and increases Top2 drug efficacy. The Bmi1/Ring1A ligase ubiquitinates Top2alpha in-vitro and cellular overexpression of Bmi1 increases drug induced Top2alpha ubiquitination. A small-molecular weight compound, identified in a screen for inhibitors of Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitination activity, also prevents Top2alpha ubiquitination and drug-induced Top2alpha degradation. This ubiquitination inhibitor increases the efficacy of topoisomerase 2 poisons in a synergistic manner.The discovery that poisoned Top2alpha is undergoing proteasomal degradation combined with the involvement of Bmi1/Ring1A, allowed us to identify a small molecule that inhibits the degradation process. The Bmi1/Ring1A inhibitor sensitizes cells to Top2 drugs, suggesting that this type of drug combination will have a beneficial therapeutic outcome. As Bmi1 is also a known oncogene, elevated in numerous types of cancer, the identified Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitin ligase inhibitors can also be potentially used to directly target the oncogenic properties of Bmi1.

  4. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata

    2016-06-02

    Overweight adversely affects not only the health and development of children and adolescents but also their health in adulthood, increasing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities. The frequency of nutritional disorders among children and adolescents is increasing in many countries worldwide, including Poland. To demonstrate differences in the nutritional well-being of school-age children depending on the school location: rural and urban areas. The study conducted in 2010 covered a total of 1,255 pupils, 627 girls and 628 boys, aged nine, from the area of five provinces of Poland: Pomorskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Podkarpackie and Masovian, representing the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of the country. Based on the height and weight measurements of children, the body mass index was calculated. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Cole et al. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls and boys in separate regions of the country (villages, cities with less than 100,000 residents and cities with more than 100,000 residents) did not differ significantly. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  5. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs.

  6. Mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage and BMI in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Mazas, Carlos A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  7. Dapsone and body mass index in subjects with multibacillary leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fernanda M L; Dias, Rosa M; Araujo, Eliete C; Brasil, Laélia M B F; Ferreira, Michelle V D; Vieira, Jose L F

    2014-04-01

    The physiological changes in obese subjects can modify the pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs influencing the therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the authors compare plasma dapsone trough levels of multibacillary leprosy subjects stratified by body mass index (BMI) to evaluate if obesity plays a significant role on drug levels. The relationship between drug levels and BMI was also determined. Dapsone was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and BMI based on World Health Organization criteria. At steady state, the median plasma dapsone trough level was significantly lower in obesity class 2 group, when compared with other groups, but they were similar between normal weight and preobesity groups. A weak association between drug levels and BMI was observed. Obesity promotes a significant reduction in plasma dapsone trough levels of subjects with multibacillary leprosy with a weak association between drug levels and BMI.

  8. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  9. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-09-08

    Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  10. Processes underlying Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2018-04-01

    To examine potential mediating and moderating factors in the longitudinal association between contextual stressors (economic hardship, ethnic discrimination) and subsequent engagement in risky behaviors and body mass index (BMI) of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Participants were Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) who were recruited from community agencies and high schools in a Southwestern metropolitan area. Contextual stressors and risky behaviors were assessed 3 and 4 years postpartum. Adolescent mothers' BMI was assessed 5-years postpartum. Path analyses assessed moderated mediation with risky behaviors as a mediator of associations between contextual stressors and BMI, and family and friend support as moderators of the mediated pathways. At low levels of family support, economic hardship at 3-years postpartum positively predicted engagement in risky behaviors at 4-years postpartum, which in turn positively predicted BMI at 5-years postpartum. At high levels of family support, all relations were not significant. At low levels of friend support, ethnic discrimination at 3-years postpartum positively predicted engagement in risky behaviors at 4-years postpartum, which in turn positively predicted BMI at 5-years postpartum. At high levels of friend support, all relations were not significant. Among adolescent mothers who receive low levels of family and friend support, engagement in risky behaviors may function as a mechanism through which contextual stressors are linked to adolescent mothers' BMI. Findings have implications for prevention efforts aimed at attenuating unhealthy weight status among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers by reducing engagement in risky behaviors and bolstering family and friend support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Behavioural patterns only predict concurrent BMI status and not BMI trajectories in a sample of youth in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Cooke, Martin; Dubin, Joel A; Brownson, Ross C; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    Youth are engaging in multiple risky behaviours, increasing their risk of overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of engaging in unique clusters of unhealthy behaviours on youths' body mass index (BMI) trajectories. This study used a linked-longitudinal sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (13 to 17 years of age) participating in the COMPASS host study. Students reported obesity-related and other risky behaviours at baseline and height and weight (to derive BMI) at baseline (2012/2013) and annually for 2 years post-baseline (2013/14 and 2014/15). Students were grouped into behavioural clusters based on response probabilities. Linear mixed effects models, using BMI as a continuous outcome measure, were used to examine the effect of engaging in clusters of risky behaviours on BMI trajectories. There were significant differences in BMI of the four behavioural clusters at baseline that remained consistent over time. Higher BMI values were found among youth classified at baseline to be Typical High School Athletes (β = 0.232 kg/m2, [confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.50]), Inactive High Screen-User (β = 0.348 kg/m2, CI: 0.11-0.59) and Moderately Active Substance Users (β = 0.759 kg/m2, CI: 0.36-1.15) compared to students classified as Health Conscious. Despite these baseline differences, BMI appeared to increase across all behavioural clusters annually by the same amount (β = 0.6097 kg/m2, (CI) = 0.57-0.64). Although annual increases in BMI did not differ by behavioural clusters, membership in a particular behavioural cluster was associated with baseline BMI, and these differences remained consistent over time. Results indicate that intervening and modifying unhealthy behaviours earlier might have a greater impact than during adolescence. Health promotion strategies targeting the highest risk youth as they enter secondary school might be promising means to prevent or delay the onset of obesity.

  12. High prevalence of emphysema and its association with BMI: a study of smokers with normal spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratelis, Georgios; Fransson, Sven-Göran; Schmekel, Birgitta; Jakobsson, Per; Mölstad, Sigvard

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate to what extent emphysema was evident, as identified by High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), in smokers with normal lung function and to relate age, gender, smoking history, and body mass index (BMI) to the HRCT results. A secondary aim was to study to what extent emphysema was present in smokers with lower normal values of lung function defined as FEV(1)/FVC ratio percentage of predicted value (89-93% of predicted value for males and 90-93% for females) or FEF(50) smokers without this definition. Fifty-nine smokers, with a mean age of 53 years and with normal lung function, were examined with HRCT. Emphysema evidenced visually by HRCT was present in 43% of the subjects. Using a 0-5 grade scale (0=normal finding; 5=emphysema in most slices), the degree of emphysema was almost exclusively 3-4. The type of emphysema was distributed as centrilobular emphysema predominant in 43.5%, paraseptal emphysema predominant in 43.5%, and as an equal mixture of these types in 13%. The presence of emphysema did not differ between the group of smokers with lower normal values of lung function and the rest of the smokers. Smokers with emphysema had significantly lower BMI than those devoid of emphysema, 24 and 27 respectively (psmokers with normal lung function. The densitometric quantitative analysis method is inadequate for detecting mild emphysema. High prevalence of emphysema was associated with low BMI.

  13. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic...... linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis...... in western countries. Multiple loci showing suggestive linkage were found on chromosome 1 (lod score 2.38 at 242 cM), chromosome 8 (2.48 at 95 cM), and chromosome 14 (2.2 at 89.4 cM). The strong linkage identified in the Chinese subjects that is consistent with that found in populations of European origin...

  14. Integrated genomic and BMI analysis for type 2 diabetes risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrón-Aldea, Dayanara; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Klimentidis, Yann C; Tiwari, Hemant K; Vazquez, Ana I

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease arising from the development of insulin absence or resistance within the body, and a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors. The incidence of T2D has increased throughout the last few decades, together with the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. The consideration of variants identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) into risk assessment models for T2D could aid in the identification of at-risk patients who could benefit from preventive medicine. In this study, we build several risk assessment models, evaluated with two different classification approaches (Logistic Regression and Neural Networks), to measure the effect of including genetic information in the prediction of T2D. We used data from to the Original and the Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, which provides phenotypic and genetic information for 5245 subjects (4306 controls and 939 cases). Models were built by using several covariates: gender, exposure time, cohort, body mass index (BMI), and 65 SNPs associated to T2D. We fitted Logistic Regressions and Bayesian Regularized Neural Networks and then assessed their predictive ability by using a ten-fold cross validation. We found that the inclusion of genetic information into the risk assessment models increased the predictive ability by 2%, when compared to the baseline model. Furthermore, the models that included BMI at the onset of diabetes as a possible effector, gave an improvement of 6% in the area under the curve derived from the ROC analysis. The highest AUC achieved (0.75) belonged to the model that included BMI, and a genetic score based on the 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. Finally, the inclusion of SNPs and BMI raised predictive ability in all models as expected; however, results from the AUC in Neural Networks and Logistic Regression did not differ significantly in their prediction accuracy.

  15. Integrated genomic and BMI analysis for type 2 diabetes risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanara eLebrón-Aldea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 Diabetes (T2D is a chronic disease arising from the development of insulin absence or resistance within the body, and a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors. The incidence of T2D has increased throughout the last few decades, together with the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. The consideration of variants identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS into risk assessment models for T2D could aid in the identification of at-risk patients who could benefit from preventive medicine. In this study, we build several risk assessment models, and evaluated them with two different classification approaches (Logistic Regression and Neural Networks, to measure the effect of including genetic information in the prediction of T2D. We used data from to the Original and the Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, which provides phenotypic and genetic information for 5,245 subjects (4,306 controls and 939 cases. Models were built by using several covariates: gender, exposure time, cohort, body mass index (BMI, and 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. We fitted Logistic Regressions and Bayesian Regularized Neural Network and then assessed their predictive ability by using a ten-fold cross validation. We found that the inclusion of genetic information into the risk assessment models increased the predictive ability by 2%, when compared to the baseline model. Furthermore, the models that included BMI at the onset of diabetes as a possible effector, gave an improvement of 6% in the area under the curve derived from the ROC analysis. The highest AUC achieved (0.75 belonged to the model that included BMI, and a genetic score based on the 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. Finally, the inclusion of SNPs and BMI raised predictive ability in all models as expected; however, results from the AUC in Neural Networks and Logistic Regression did not differ significantly in their prediction accuracy.

  16. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity

  17. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  18. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly G; Reid, Kathryn J; Kern, Andrew S; Zee, Phyllis C

    2011-07-01

    Sleep duration has been linked to obesity and there is also an emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. However, there is a paucity of research evaluating timing of sleep and feeding on weight regulation in humans. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep timing in dietary patterns and BMI. Participants included 52 (25 females) volunteers who completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. Fifty-six percent were "normal sleepers" (midpoint of fast food, full-calorie soda and lower fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher BMI was associated with shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, caloric consumption after 8:00 PM, and fast food meals. In multivariate models, sleep timing was independently associated with calories consumed after 8:00 PM and fruit and vegetable consumption but did not predict BMI after controlling for sleep duration. Calories consumed after 8:00 PM predicted BMI after controlling for sleep timing and duration. These findings indicate that caloric intake after 8:00 PM may increase the risk of obesity, independent of sleep timing and duration. Future studies should investigate the biological and social mechanisms linking timing of sleep and feeding in order to develop novel time-based interventions for weight management.

  19. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However,independent of BMI group, there were significant differences in socioeconomic status (SES) between black and white women (P<0.01). Total CTQ score, as well as the sub-scales, physical and emotional neglect, and physical and sexual abuse were higher in black than white women (all P<0.05), but these scores ...

  20. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse changes in the distribution of BMI in Australia between 1980 and 2000. DESIGN: Data were from the 1980, 1983 and 1989 National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study, the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study...

  1. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  2. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption.

  3. Low birth weight, adult BMI and inflammation in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Avlund, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between birthweight and adult BMI with inflammation in middle age measured by interleukin 6 (IL- 6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 18 (IL-18), high sensitivity Creactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α). The study is based on partic...

  4. BMI predicts exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Wilma J.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Kersten, Elin T. G.; van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G. J.; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Thio, Bernard J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundExercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a frustrating morbidity of asthma in children. Obesity has been associated with asthma and with more severe EIB in asthmatic children. ObjectivesTo quantify the effect of BMI on the risk of the occurrence of EIB in children with asthma.

  5. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. © 2013.

  6. Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain. Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 201-203. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/036/02/0201- ...

  7. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  8. BMI predicts exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Wilma J.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Kersten, Elin T. G.; van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G. J.; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Thio, Bernard J.

    Background: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a frustrating morbidity of asthma in children. Obesity has been associated with asthma and with more severe EIB in asthmatic children. Objectives: To quantify the effect of BMI on the risk of the occurrence of EIB in children with asthma.

  9. Pattern of body mass index (BMI) among adult hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times Asaba – the capital of Delta State, Nigeria – is witnessing a rapid growth in urbanization and fast food eateries. Several studies have shown that Blood Pressure (BP) is directly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, some variations exist in the pattern of the association ...

  10. A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness health related component of sedentary male youth in Terengganu. V Eswaramoorthi, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, A.B.H.M. Maliki, R.M. Musa, N.A. Kosni, N Alias, N.B. Raj, S.M.M. Rasid, A Adnan ...

  11. Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain. Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 201-203. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/036/02/0201- ...

  12. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  13. Impact of physician BMI on obesity care and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bennett, Wendy L; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Cooper, Lisa A

    2012-05-01

    Using a national cross-sectional survey of 500 primary care physicians conducted between 9 February and 1 March 2011, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of physician BMI on obesity care, physician self-efficacy, perceptions of role-modelpan>ing weight-related health behaviors, and perceptions of patient trust in weight loss advice. We found that physicians with normal BMI were more likely to engage their obese patients in weight loss discussions as compared to overweight/obese physicians (30% vs. 18%, P = 0.010). Physicians with normal BMI had greater confidence in their ability to provide diet (53% vs. 37%, P = 0.002) and exercise counseling (56% vs. 38%, P = 0.001) to their obese patients. A higher percentage of normal BMI physicians believed that overweight/obese patients would be less likely to trust weight loss advice from overweight/obese doctors (80% vs. 69%, P = 0.02). Physicians in the normal BMI category were more likely to believe that physicians should model healthy weight-related behaviors-maintaining a healthy weight (72% vs. 56%, P = 0.002) and exercising regularly (73% vs. 57%, P = 0.001). The probability of a physician recording an obesity diagnosis (93% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) or initiating a weight loss conversation (89% vs. 11%, P ≤ 0.001) with their obese patients was higher when the physicians' perception of the patients' body weight met or exceeded their own personal body weight. These results suggest that more normal weight physicians provided recommended obesity care to their patients and felt confident doing so.

  14. Effects of social mobility from childhood to adolescence on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the contribution of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) and social mobility to weight change. The present study evaluated the effect of family SEP during the pre-school years and social mobility on BMI between birth and adolescence. Longitudinal. The SEP of each child's family was classified according to an asset-based wealth index as low, medium or high. Four different categories of childhood-adolescence SEP groups were created in order to examine social mobility: low-medium/high, medium-medium, medium-high and high-high/medium. For each of these categories, BMI was tracked from birth to adolescence. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse the data. Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. A population-based cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 was assessed between 1999 and 2000, and again between 2009 and 2011. A total of 1716 adolescents were followed from childhood to adolescence (71·4 % of baseline). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20·4 % in childhood and 27·7 % in adolescence. A higher SEP in childhood was associated with a greater prevalence of overweight in adolescence. Expressive upward social mobility occurred, mainly in the lowest SEP group. There was a greater rate of change in BMI between birth and adolescence among children with a higher SEP in childhood and children who remained in the higher SEP from childhood to adolescence. Individuals from a higher SEP in childhood and those who remained in the higher social classes showed greater rate of change in BMI. Thus, initial SEP was the major determinant of changes in BMI.

  15. Evidence for a relationship between VEGF and BMI independent of insulin sensitivity by glucose clamp procedure in a homogenous group healthy young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Loebig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first study to experimentally explore the direct relationship between circulating VEGF levels and body mass index (BMI as well as to unravel the role of insulin sensitivity in this context under standardized glucose clamp conditions as the methodical gold-standard. In order to control for known influencing factors such as gender, medication, and arterial hypertension, we examined a highly homogeneous group of young male subjects. Moreover, to encompass also subjects beyond the normal BMI range, low weight and obese participants were additionally included and stress hormones as a main regulator of VEGF were assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Under euglycemic clamp conditions, VEGF was measured in 15 normal weight (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2, 15 low weight (BMI30 kg/m(2 male subjects aged 18-30 years and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated. Since stress axis activation promotes VEGF secretion, concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and catecholamines were monitored. Despite of comparable ACTH (P = 0.145, cortisol (P = 0.840, and norepinephrine (P = 0.065 levels, VEGF concentrations differed significantly between BMI-groups (P = 0.008 with higher concentrations in obese subjects as compared to normal weight (P = 0.061 and low weight subjects (P = 0.002. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between BMI and VEGF levels (r = 0.407; P = 0.010 but no correlation of VEGF with ISI (r = 0.224; P = 0.175. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a positive correlation between concentrations of circulating VEGF levels and BMI in healthy male subjects under highly controlled conditions. This relationship which is apparently disconnected from insulin sensitivity may be part of some pathogenetic mechanisms underlying obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  16. A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Paternal Weight and BMI, and Relationship to Weight and BMI of his Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, RF

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen percent of 9 years old Irish children are overweight; seven percent are obese. Our aims were: to examine whether differences exist between paternal self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in a population representative sample; and to explore paternal perceptions of their own weight status.\\r\

  17. The relationship between physical activity, fitness, physical complaints and BMI in German adults - results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlbach, Susanne A; Jekauc, Darko; Schmidt, Steffen C E; Woll, Alexander; Bös, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    This study's aims were to describe the development of physical activity, physical fitness (PF), subjective (physical complaints (PC)) and objective (Body mass index (BMI)) health measures and to examine the relationship between the development trajectories. In addition, the study also aimed to assess the influence of sociodemographic determinants (age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES)) in German adults over a period of 18 years. The longitudinal study population comprises of 721 men and women, aged 33-76 years over the study period. There was self-report of physical activity and PC and testing of physical fitness and BMI in each study year (1992, 1997, 2002 and 2010). Latent growth curve models were used to analyse the development. Physical activity slightly increased while fitness, PC and BMI worsened over the course of 18 years. Sex, age and SES play important roles concerning physical activity, fitness and health. Several integrative associations could be detected between physical activity, fitness, PC and BMI as well as their trajectories. In particular, high initial levels of physical activity and fitness protect from high PC and BMI.The slope of physical activity was not significantly associated with slopes of fitness, PC and BMI. However, increase of fitness resulted in decrease of PC. A general positive development regarding the amount of physical activity could be detected. However, if it is only an unsystematic increase of physical activity, this is not in itself enough to achieve health benefits. The strengthening of fitness should be focused when increasing physical activity, since only then a health benefit is possible.

  18. Prescreening tools for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia: comparing BMI, waist and waist hip ratio. The D.E.S.I.R. Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkau, B; Sapinho, D; Petrella, A; Mhamdi, L; Cailleau, M; Arondel, D; Charles, M A

    2006-03-01

    To compare the sensitivities of BMI, waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR) in identifying subjects who should be screened for diabetes and/or for obesity-associated dyslipidaemia. Cross-sectional study. Central-western France. More than 3000 men and women, aged 40-64 years, from the French study: data from an epidemiological study on the insulin resistance syndrome (D.E.S.I.R.). Sensitivity and specificity for screened diabetes (fasting plasma glucose>or=7.0 mmol/l) and screened dyslipidaemia (triglycerides>or=2.3 mmol/l and/or HDL-cholesterol women)) according to BMI, waist circumference and WHR. Sensitivities increased as more corpulent subjects were screened, but they increased slowly after screening the top 30%: body mass index (BMI)>or=27/26 kg/m(2) (men/women) or waist >or=96/83 cm or WHR>or=0.96/0.83. These values were chosen as thresholds. In men, BMI had a nonsignificantly higher sensitivity than waist or WHR for both diabetes and dyslipidaemia (77 vs 74 and 66% Pwomen, waist had a slightly higher sensitivity than BMI or WHR (82 vs 77 and 77% PFrench population 40-64 years of age, the more obese 30% of the population, identified either by BMI, waist or WHR be screened for diabetes and obesity-associated dyslipidaemia.

  19. Low BMI at age 20 years predicts gestational diabetes independent of BMI in early pregnancy in Japan: Tanaka Women's Clinic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachi, Y; Tanaka, Y; Nishibata, I; Sugawara, A; Kodama, S; Saito, K; Sone, H

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity and weight gain since early adulthood are known predictors of gestational diabetes in Western countries. However, their impact has not been evaluated well in Asia, where mean BMI levels are generally lower than in Western countries. We therefore examined the associations of BMI at age 20 years and BMI change since age 20 years with the risk of gestational diabetes in Japanese pregnant women. Six hundred and twenty-four consecutive pregnant women without recognized diabetes before pregnancy, whose initial obstetric clinic visit was before 13 weeks' gestation, were prospectively observed. Weight at age 20 years was self-reported. Baseline height and weight measurements were obtained at the initial obstetric visit. Multivariate logistic regression analysis estimated the risk of incident gestational diabetes for BMI change since 20 years and BMI at age 20 years. Twenty-eight women developed incident gestational diabetes. By multivariate logistic regression analysis that adjusted for maternal age, parity and baseline BMI, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between BMI at age 20 years and incidence of gestational diabetes (odds ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.92). Similarly, when we assessed the association of BMI change since age 20 years, adjusted for maternal age and parity, BMI change was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (odds ratio 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.53). When we focused on the threshold of risk of gestational diabetes, women with BMI at 20 years of less than 18 kg/m(2) had a 6.30-fold (2.26-17.59) greater risk than women with both BMI at age 20 years of 18 kg/m(2) or more and BMI change since age 20 years of less than 1.85. Both low BMI at age 20 years and BMI change since age 20 years were significantly associated with increased risk of incident gestational diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  20. Effect of Hospitalization on Percent Median Body Mass Index at One Year, in Underweight Youth With Restrictive Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapphahn, Cynthia J; Graham, Dionne A; Woods, Elizabeth R; Hehn, Rebecca; Mammel, Kathleen A; Forman, Sara F; Fisher, Martin; Robinson, Kelly A; Rome, Ellen S; Hergenroeder, Albert; Golden, Neville H

    2017-09-01

    Data from low-weight patients with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) treated in outpatient adolescent medicine-based ED treatment programs were analyzed to determine whether there was an association between hospitalization and gain to at least 90% median body mass index (mBMI) at 1-year follow-up. Data were retrospectively collected for 322 low-weight (<85% mBMI at intake) patients aged 9-21 years, who presented with restrictive EDs to 14 adolescent medicine-based ED programs in 2010. Positive outcome was defined as being at least 90% mBMI (%mBMI = patient's body mass index/mBMI for age × 100) at 1-year follow-up. Association between treatment at a higher level of care and gain to at least 90% mBMI was analyzed for 140 patients who were <85% mBMI at the time of presentation, had not been previously hospitalized, and had 1-year follow-up data available. For patients presenting at <85% mBMI, those who were hospitalized in the year following intake had 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.6-10.1) times the odds of gain to at least 90% mBMI, compared with patients who were not hospitalized, when controlling for baseline %mBMI. In this national cohort of patients with restrictive EDs presenting to adolescent medicine-based ED programs at <85% mBMI, those who were hospitalized had greater odds of being at least 90% mBMI at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  2. Potential for waist-to-height ratio to detect overfat adolescents from a Pacific Island, even those within the normal BMI range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayon, Stéphane; Cavaloc, Yolande; Wattelez, Guillaume; Cherrier, Sophie; Lerrant, Yannick; Ashwell, Margaret; Galy, Olivier

    2017-12-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is a simple anthropometric proxy for central body fat; it is easy to use from a health education perspective. A WHtR value >0.5 has been proposed as a first level indicator of health risk. The first aim of this study was to compare WHtR with values based on body mass index (BMI) in their prediction of the percentage of body fat (%BF) in a multi-ethnic population of adolescents from New-Caledonia (age 11-16year). Secondly, to see whether WHtR >0.5 could be used to detect overfat subjects whose BMI was in the normal range. Body fat percentage (%BF, based on skinfold measurements), BMI and WHtR were calculated for New Caledonian adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. The relationship between %BF, BMI and WHtR was determined using quadratic models and from linear regression equations. The sensitivity and specificity of WHtR for detecting overfat adolescents (%BF >25% in boys and >30% in girls) were assessed and compared with those from the BMI-based classification. WHtR showed better correlation with %BF than BMI-based measurements. WHtR >0.5 was also more accurate than BMI in detecting overfat adolescents. Moreover, using this boundary value, 8% of adolescents in the normal BMI range were shown to be over-fat. WHtR is a good anthropometric proxy to detect overfat adolescents. Detecting overfat adolescents within the normal BMI range is particularly important for preventing non communicable diseases. We therefore recommend using WHtR for health education programs in the Pacific area and more generally. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of NAFLD cases and its correlation to BMI and metabolic syndrome in healthy blood donors in Kerman

    OpenAIRE

    Lahsaee, Sadroddin; Ghazizade, Alireza; Yazdanpanah, Mahnaz; Enhesari, Ahmad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to review cases of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease cases and to determine the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a cause of elevated alanine aminotransferase in healthy blood donors in the Permian area and also assess risk factors of NAFLD such as BMI and correlation with metabolic syndrome in these subjects. Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been increasingly recognized as the most common pathological conditions affecting the liv...

  4. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool...... to understanding, especially but not exclusively in observational and interview-based studies. Psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approaches to research add an emphasis on unconscious motivational processes in both researchers and research participants that impact research experience and data. Building upon Anglo......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  5. Bmi-1-targeting suppresses osteosarcoma aggressiveness through the NF-κB signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaguo; Luo, Bin; Zhao, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Bone cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and the specific causes of tumor initiation are not well understood. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been reported to be associated with the initiation and progression of osteosarcoma, and as a prognostic indicator in the clinic. In the current study, a full-length antibody targeting Bmi-1 (AbBmi-1) was produced and the preclinical value of Bmi-1-targeted therapy was evaluated in bone carcinoma cells and tumor xenograft mice. The results indicated that the Bmi-1 expression level was markedly upregulated in bone cancer cell lines, and inhibition of Bmi-1 by AbBmi-1 reduced the invasiveness and migration of osteosarcoma cells. Overexpression of Bmi-1 promoted proliferation and angiogenesis, and increased apoptosis resistance induced by cisplatin via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway. In addition, AbBmi-1 treatment inhibited the tumorigenicity of osteosarcoma cells in vivo. Furthermore, AbBmi-1 blocked NF-κB signaling and reduced MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, Bmi-1 promoted osteosarcoma tumor growth, whereas AbBmi-1 significantly inhibited osteosarcoma tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Notably, AbBmi-1 decreased the percentages of Ki67-positive cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in tumors compared with Bmi-1-treated and PBS controls. Notably, MMP-9 and NF-κB expression were downregulated by treatment with AbBmi-1 in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. In conclusion, the data provides evidence that AbBmi-1 inhibited the progression of osteosarcoma, suggesting that AbBmi-1 may be a novel anti-cancer agent through the inhibition of Bmi-1 via activating the NF-κB pathway in osteosarcoma. PMID:28983587

  6. [Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, energy intake and dietary caloric profile in university students from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    University students are a part of the population potentially vulnerable in relation to their nutritional status. To evaluate energy intake, energy profile of the diet and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students. The study was conducted in 223 students (53% female) from the University of Murcia (Spain), mean age 21.4 ± 2.7 years. Dietary intake was estimated by a continuous 7 days dietary record, previously validated. Afterwards, total energy intake and macronutrients distribution were obtained using the software "GRUNUMUR 2.0". Physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated as [weight (kg)/height (m)(2)]. Average energy intake was lower than the recommendations. In relation with the energy profile of the diet, it was higher in protein and fat, and lower in carbohydrates compared with the recommendations in the balanced diet. The prevalence of overweight was of 9.3% in female and of 24.2% in males. However, 10.2% females and 1.1% males were underweight. Only a 35,4% of the studied collective usually practiced physical activity (3-4 hours/week). Significant correlations were found between age and percentage of energy from carbohydrate (negative) and lipids (positive), indicating that older students (young adults) had significantly higher dietary unbalances than younger (adolescents). Students from the University of Murcia have characteristics very similar to those described in other university populations of Spain and other Western countries: low energy intake, unbalances in the energy profile of the diet, and high percentages of overweight and also of underweight. Both physical inactivity and energy unbalance of the diet could be determinants of the overweight observed. Age is a factor in worsening the energy profile of the diet, which presumably will have undesirable consequences on the health of this young population group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES

  7. Maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices: relationship with the BMI of Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uauy Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has experienced the nutritional transition due to both social and economic progress. As a consequence, higher rates of overweight and obesity have been observed in children. In western countries, researchers have tried to determine pathways by which parents influence their children's eating behavior; up to now findings have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional and retrospective relationship between maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices and children's weight status in children who had been subject of an obesity prevention intervention for two years. Methods In 2006, for a cross-sectional study, a random sample of 232 children (125 girls, mean age 11.91 ± 1.56 y and 107 boys mean age 11.98 ± 1.51 y was selected from three primary schools from a small city called Casablanca. Weight and height were determined to assess their nutritional status, using body mass index (BMI z scores. Child-feeding practices and attitudes were determined cross-sectionally in 2006, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. To analyze the relationship between trends in weight change and child-feeding practices and attitudes, BMI z scores of all the 232 children in 2003 were used. Results Cross-sectionally, mothers of overweight children were significantly more concerned (P z score was positively correlated with concern for child's weight (r = 0.28, P z score between age 9 and 12 was positively correlated with concern for child's weight, but only in boys (r = 0.21, P z score at age 12. Conclusion Mothers of overweight children were more concerned with their children's weight; this indicated the Western negative attitude towards childhood overweight. None of the child-feeding practices were significantly correlated with a change in BMI z score.

  8. [Body composition (densitometry-hydrostatics), skinfold thickness, BMI and their relationships in junior high school girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Y; Yukawa, K; Tsunawake, N; Saeki, S; Nishiyama, K; Urata, H; Katsuno, K; Fukuyama, Y

    1993-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate body composition (Hydrostatics = Under-Water Weighing), skinfold thickness, and BMI in 97 junior high school girls, aged 12 to 15, in Nagasaki City. Body density was measured by under-water weighing, and the two compartments--fat weight (Fat) and lean body mass (LBM, or fat free weight: FFW)--were calculated using the formulas of Brozek et al. The results were as follows; 1. Mean values of body density were 1.0501 in first grade girls, 1.0476 in the second grade, and 1.0466 in the third grade. 2. Mean values of percentage body fat (% Fat) were 21.1% in the first grade, 22.1% in the second and 22.5% in the third. 3. Lean body mass (LBM) and LBM/Height increased significantly with advance from the first to the third grade. 4. The correlation coefficient between percent body fat and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, the sum of three skinfold thicknesses, or the sum of seven skinfold thicknesses were 0.81, 0.80, and 0.82 respectively and all statistically significant (p < 0.001). 5. The correlation coefficient between BMI and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, the sum of three skinfold thicknesses (r = 0.841) or the sum of seven skinfold thicknesses were 0.85, 0.84, and 0.84 respectively, and all statistically significant (p < 0.001). 6. Mean values of BMI, WSR, ASR, and WHR in all subjects (n = 97) were 19.6, 0.72, 0.39 and 0.43 respectively.

  9. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients' weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.20), glycemia (r = 0.20), triglycerides (r = 0.32), LDL (r = 0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.21) (p correlation between WC and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.14), triglycerides (r = 0.31), total cholesterol (r = 0.21), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = -0.24) (p correlation with systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.22), total cholesterol (r = 0.20), and triglycerides (r = 0.23) (p correlated with almost all the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed and it might be considered the best predictor of abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk.

  10. Effects of two-months balanced diet in metabolically healthy obesity: lipid correlations with gender and BMI-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Chaterine; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Montorfano, Gigliola; Roderi, Paola; Colombo, Irma; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Fioravanti, Marisa; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Nowadays no researches has been performed on fatty acid profile (FA) and desaturase activity in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The aim of this study was to assessed gender and BMI-related difference in FA, estimated desaturase activities and the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by 2-months well-balance diet in MHO subjects. In 103 MHO subjects (30/73 M/F; age:42.2 ± 9.5) FA, estimated desaturase activity, body composition (by DXA), Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, grelin, glucagon-like peptide-1), insulin resistence (by Homestasis metabolic assessment), C-reactive proteine, Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and Body Shape Index (ABSI) have been assessed. Gender and BMI related difference have been evaluated and the efficacy produced by 2-months well-balance diet has been considered. At baseline, obese subjects, compared to overweight, show a significantly higher oleic (p diet was associated with a significantly increase in arachidonic acid (p = 0.007), eicosapentaenoic acid (p = 0.030), docosahexaenoic acid (p balanced diet intervention was effective in improving metabolic indices.

  11. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age...... and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood...

  12. [Brain-machine interface (BMI) - application to neurological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Hirata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) is a new technology to receive input from the brain which is translated to operate a computer or other external device in real time. After significant progress during the recent 10 years, this technology is now very close to the clinical use to restore neural functions of patients with severe neurologic impairment. This technology is also a strong tool to investigate the mode of neuro-signal processing in the brain and to understand the mechanism of neural dysfunction which leads to the development of novel neurotechnology for the treatment of various sorts of neurological disorders.

  13. Diet, acculturation, and BMI in Hispanics living in southern Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolstad, Anne L; Bungum, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    To examine the association of fruit and vegetable intake, acculturation, and BMI in Hispanics living in southern Nevada. Logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship of acculturation to daily intake of fruit and vegetables. Regression showed that greater acculturation (p = .002) and being male (p = .011) are predictive of lower fruit and vegetable consumption. Our results for the HA population are consistent with national data. To understand the incentives and barriers to healthier eating within southern Nevada Hispanic populations and to effectively address the resource and programming needs, longitudinal research will be required.

  14. Amenorrhea and BMI as independent determinants of patient satisfaction in LNG-IUD users: cross-sectional study in a Central European district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoegerer-Hecher, Eveline; Kirchengast, Sylvia; Huber, Johannes C; Hartmann, Beda

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the satisfaction of women carrying the LNG-IUD and determined influencing factors, especially considering bleeding patterns and body mass index (BMI). Cross sectional study. Gynecological offices in a Central European district. 1825 women aged between 18 and 60 years. While sitting in the waiting room, voluntary patients had to answer a questionnaire about their experiences with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device. One question was used to determine whether the women were current, former or not users of the intrauterine coil. 415 women who had some experiences with Mirena were found. Overall, 266 (65.7%) were "very satisfied," 83 (20.5%) "quite satisfied," 18 (4.4%) "moderate satisfied," 19 (4.7%) "less satisfied," and the same amount "really not satisfied" with the hormonal coil. Women with amenorrhea were more often "very satisfied" in general, than women with hypermenorrhea (178 (67.9%) vs. 3 (1.1%) p Amenorrhea particularly occurred in women who had a significantly lower body mass index (24.4 ± 4.4 kg/m(2) vs. 27.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2) in women with hypermenorrhea, p = 0.018 for α = 0.05). After allocating women to the widely used BMI-categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese class I and II) it was evident, that normally weighted women tend toward amenorrhea as well at the beginning of LNG-IUD use as well after 4-5 years of use. In contrast to this, overweighed and obese women tend more often to amenorrhea at the end of use, but not at the beginning (72.7% and 55.6% vs. 25.0% and 0%). Women with a lower BMI were more often "very satisfied" concerning bleeding patterns, but not concerning the general satisfaction. Our study showed much evidence, that amenorrhea occurs more often in women with lower BMI contrary to women with a higher one-especially at the beginning of LNG- IUD use. Furthermore amenorrhea was mostly considered to be a positive menstrual change.

  15. Design and Optimization of an EEG-Based Brain Machine Interface (BMI) to an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton for Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Nikunj A; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Abibullaev, Berdakh; Artz, Edward J; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Blank, Amy A; French, James; Karmonik, Christof; Grossman, Robert G; O'Malley, Marcia K; Francisco, Gerard E; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain machine interface (BMI). Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II), to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: (1) an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; (2) training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and (3) BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG) activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR) = 62.7 ± 21.4% on day 4 and 67.1 ± 14.6% on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR) across subjects was 27.74 ± 37.46% on day 4 and 27.5 ± 35.64% on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (< 10%). On average, motor intent was detected -367 ± 328 ms before movement onset during closed-loop operation. These findings provide evidence that closed-loop EEG-based BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration.

  16. Design and optimization of an EEG-based brain machine interface (BMI to an upper-limb exoskeleton for stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj Arunkumar Bhagat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG-based brain machine interface (BMI. Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II, to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: 1 an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; 2 training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and 3 BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR = 62.7 +/- 21.4 % on day 4 and 67.1 +/- 14.6 % on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR across subjects was 27.74 +/- 37.46 % on day 4 and 27.5 +/- 35.64 % on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (< 10 %. On average, motor intent was detected -367 +/- 328 ms before movement onset during closed-loop operation. These findings provide evidence that closed-loop EEG-based BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration.

  17. Dietary modification, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk in medical students of a government medical college of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Hussain, M.F.A.; Siddiqui, S.E.; Muhammad, R.; Aziz, S.; Qamar, S.; Saleem, M.A.; Waki, N.; Faruqi, H.; Zia, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of major risk factors including dietary modification, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP) and physical activity in medical students of government teaching hospitals of Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on students of Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan through a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Non-probability purposive sampling was used. Smoking, hypertension, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), overweight and low physical activity levels are risk factors the presence of which can lead to development of CVD. Prevalence of these risk factors was determined by asking appropriate questions and through measurement of BMI and blood pressure for overweight and hypertension respectively. Awareness of risk factors was determined through knowledge of the effect of various food substances on development of CVD and of adoption of dietary changes keeping in mind the risk of developing CVD. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 medical students were included in the study of which 57 (43.2%) and 75 (56.8%) were male and female respectively with mean age of 20.85 +- 1.21 years. About 15.9% of students had elevated blood pressure i.e. > 140/90 mmHg. Twenty eight percent of the total students were found to be underweight and 17.4% were overweight, 5% had some history of CVD, 56.8% had family history of CVD, 9.4% were smokers and 29.5% had high physical activity level. About 87.1% had modified their diet for preventing CVD. Most of the students had adequate knowledge about the cardiovascular risk factors Conclusion: Majority of students were not overweight. A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; family history and elevated blood pressure was present. Awareness in terms of knowledge was satisfactory but implementation in terms of diet modification and adequate physical activity was lacking. (author)

  18. Nutrimetry: BMI assessment as a function of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selem-Solís, Jorge Enrique; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Hattori-Hara, Mónica; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2018-02-01

    Adequate nutritional assessment is required to fight malnutrition (undernutrition and overfeeding) in children and adolescents. For this, joint interpretation of certain indicators (body mass index [BMI], height, weight, etc.) is recommended. This is done clinically, but not epidemiologically. The aim of this paper is to present "nutrimetry", a simple method that crosses anthropometric information allowing for bivariate interpretation at both levels (clinical and epidemiological). Data from 41,001 children and adolescents aged 0-19 years, taken from Mexico's National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, were analyzed. Data crossed were BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) with height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Conditional prevalences were calculated in a 3×3 grid and were compared with expected values. This method identified subgroups in each BAZ category showing heterogeneity of the sample with regard to WHO standards for HAZ and nutritional status. According to the method, nutritional status patterns differed among Mexican states and age and sex groups. Nutrimetry is a helpful and accessible tool to be used in epidemiology. It allows for detecting unexpected distributions of conditional prevalences, its graphical representation facilitates communication of results by geographic areas, and enriched interpretation of BAZ helps guide intervention actions according to their codes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between income, economic freedom, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R A; Murphy, R H; Williamson, C R

    2016-05-01

    What explains increases in BMI (and obesity) over time and across countries? Although many microeconomic forces are likely explanations, increasingly scholars are arguing that macroeconomic forces such as market liberalism and globalization are root causes of the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of economic freedom on obesity conditional on the level of income and other factors. We use an unbalanced pooled cross section of up to 135 countries for 1995 and 2000-2009. Our statistical model specifications include pooled OLS and fixed effects. First, we find that controlling for fixed effects siphons off much of the relationship previously documented between economic freedom and BMI. Second, economic freedom is associated with slightly higher BMIs but only for men in developing nations. Lastly, we show that economic freedom increases life expectancy for both men and women in developing countries. Therefore, policies aimed at reducing obesity that limit economic liberalism may come at the expense of life expectancy in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Bmi-1 helix–turn and ring finger domains are required for Bmi-1 antagonism of (–) epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppression of skin cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Wen; Eckert, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The Bmi-1 Polycomb group (PcG) protein is an important epigenetic regulator of chromatin status. Elevated Bmi-1 expression is observed in skin cancer and contributes to cancer cell survival. (–) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an important green tea-derived cancer prevention agent, reduces Bmi-1 level resulting in reduced skin cancer cell survival. This is associated with increased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, reduced cyclin, and cyclin dependent kinase expression, and increased cleavage of apoptotic markers. These EGCG-dependent changes are attenuated by vector-mediated maintenance of Bmi-1 expression. In the present study, we identify Bmi-1 functional domains that are required for this response. Bmi-1 expression reverses the EGCG-dependent reduction in SCC-13 cell survival, but Bmi-1 mutants lacking the helix–turn–helix–turn–helix–turn (Bmi-1ΔHT) or ring finger (Bmi-1ΔRF) domains do not reverse the EGCG impact. The reduction in Ring1B ubiquitin ligase activity, observed in the presence of mutant Bmi-1, is associated with reduced ability of these mutants to interact with and activate Ring1B ubiquitin ligase, the major ligase responsible for the ubiquitination of histone H2A during chromatin condensation. This results in less chromatin condensation leading to increased tumor suppressor gene expression and reduced cell survival; thereby making the cells more susceptible to the anti-survival action of EGCG. We further show that these mutants act in a dominant-negative manner to inhibit the action of endogenous Bmi-1. Our results suggest that the HT and RF domains are required for Bmi-1 ability to maintain skin cancer cell survival in response to cancer preventive agents. PMID:25843776

  1. Inverse relationship between body mass index and mortality in older nursing home residents: a meta-analysis of 19,538 elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronese, Nicola; Cereda, E; Solmi, M

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and mortality in old adults from the general population have been related in a U-shaped or J-shaped curve. However, limited information is available for elderly nursing home populations, particularly about specific cause of death. A systematic PubMed/EMBASE/CINAHL/SCOPUS sea......Body mass index (BMI) and mortality in old adults from the general population have been related in a U-shaped or J-shaped curve. However, limited information is available for elderly nursing home populations, particularly about specific cause of death. A systematic Pub...... by random-effect model across each BMI category. Out of 342 hits, 20 studies including 19,538 older nursing home residents with 5,223 deaths during a median of 2 years of follow-up were meta-analysed. Compared with normal weight, all-cause mortality HRs were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.26-1.58) for underweight, 0...... and obese than in normal-weight individuals. Like in the general population, underweight is a risk factor for mortality in old nursing home residents. However, uniquely, not only overweight but also obesity is protective, which has relevant nutritional goal implications in this population/setting....

  2. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  3. Can self-reported BMI be used as a valid measure among novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin Serup; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, Sten

    There is an increased risk of running related injuries (RRI) among novice runners with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 25. Information about BMI can be collected through questionnaires, when studies investigate if there is an association between BMI and RRI among novice runners. But can self......-reported BMI be used as a valid measure compared to BMI measured with a calibrated weight. PURPOSE : To determine the validity of self-reported BMI among novice runners. METHODS: Data on BMI was obtained from a prospective follow-up study investigating the link between training exposure and the development...... invited to a test at baseline after meeting the requirements for participation. Information about BMI was obtained in two ways; firstly, from the online based questionnaire where the participants had to report height and weight themselves. Secondly, the weight was measured with calibrated weight (Tanita...

  4. Risk of a venous thromboembolic episode due to caesarean section and BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Ladelund, S; Rasmussen, S

    2014-01-01

    BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery.......BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery....

  5. The association between BMI and different frailty domains : A U-shaped curve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, M. Liset; van der A, D. L.; van Oostrom, S. H.; Picavet, H. S J; Dollé, M. E T; van Steeg, H.; Verschuren, W. M M; Spijkerman, A. M W

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies showed a U-shaped association between BMI and (physical) frailty. We studied the association between BMI and physical, cognitive, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, the overlap between and prevalence of these frailty domains was examined. Design:

  6. Distance from skin to epidural space: Correlation with body mass index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaljit Kaur Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We formulated predictive equation of depth of epidural space from skin in relation to BMI based on linear regression analysis as: Depth (mm = a + b (BMI. Where a = 17.7966 and b = 0.9777.

  7. BMI trajectory groups in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Patricia H; Ning, Yuming; Brandt, Cynthia; Allore, Heather; Haskell, Sally

    2011-09-01

    The study sought to determine BMI trajectories in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans over 6 years and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with BMI trajectory membership. Our study sample included 16,656 veterans post-deployment and entering the Veteran Healthcare Administration (VHA) healthcare system. We used national VHA administrative sociodemographic data, tracked veteran BMI for 6 years, and used trajectory modeling to identify BMI trajectories and sociodemographic characteristics associated with trajectory membership. Five trajectory groups determined in the full sample were primarily differentiated by their post-deployment initial BMI: "healthy" (14.1%), "overweight" (36.3%), "borderline obese" (27.9%), "obese" (15.7%), and "severely obese" (6.0). Being female, younger, and white were associated with lower initial BMI trajectory group membership (p'seducation and white female Veterans were associated with the lowest initial BMI group (p'sEducation level and racial status are differentially related to BMI trajectory by gender. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...

  10. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...

  12. File list: Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. Associations between Three School-Based Measures of Health: Is BMI Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…

  15. File list: Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. GFAP-Cre-Mediated Transgenic Activation of Bmi1 Results in Pituitary Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Bart A.; Blom, Marleen; Tanger, Ellen; van der Valk, Martin; Song, Ji-Ying; van Santen, Marije; Gadiot, Jules; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Prosser, Haydn M.; Uren, Anthony; Aronica, Eleonora; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has

  5. The common FTO variant rs9939609 is not associated with BMI in a longitudinal study on a cohort of Swedish men born 1920-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josefin A; Risérus, Ulf; Axelsson, Tomas; Lannfelt, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Fredriksson, Robert

    2009-12-09

    Common FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene variants have recently been strongly associated with body mass index and obesity in several large studies. Here we set out to examine the association of the FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI in a 32 year follow up study of men born 1920-1924. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of physical activity on the different genotypes. The FTO rs9936609 was genotyped using an Illumina golden gate assay. BMI was calculated using standard methods and body fat was estimated by measuring skinfold thickness using a Harpenden caliper. Physical activity was assessed using a four question medical questionnaire. FTO rs9939609 was genotyped in 1153 elderly Swedish men taking part of a population-based cohort study, the ULSAM cohort. The risk of obesity and differences in BMI according to genotype at the ages of 50, 60, 70, 77 and 82 were investigated. We found no increased risk of obesity and no association with BMI at any age with the FTO rs9939609 variant. We found however interaction between physical activity at the age of 50 years and genotype on BMI levels (p = 0.039) and there was a clear trend towards larger BMI differences between the TT and AA carriers as well as between AT and AA carriers in the less physically active subjects. Here we found that the well established obesity risk allele for a common variant in FTO does not associate with increased BMI levels in a Swedish population of adult men which reached adulthood before the appearance of today's obesogenic enviroment. There is an interaction between physical activity and the effect of the FTO genotype on BMI levels suggesting that lack of physical activity is a requirement for an association of FTO gene variants to obesity.

  6. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  7. BMI and recommended levels of physical activity in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipp Schwarzfischer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA and its health benefits are a continuous point of discussion. Recommendations for children’s daily PA vary between guidelines. To better define the amount of PA necessary to prevent overweight and obesity in children, further research is needed. The present study investigates children’s compliance to physical activity guidelines (PAGs and the association between objectively measured PA and body mass index (BMI. Methods Participating children were 11 years old (n = 419 and part of the European CHOP trial, which was conducted in Germany, Belgium, Poland, Spain, Italy. At least 2 days of PA measurements were collected from each child using a SenseWear™ armband. BMI was calculated from children’s height and weight. Thresholds of min·day−1 in PA needed to differentiate between normal and excess weight (overweight/obesity were determined with Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC analysis. Additionally, adjusted linear and logistic regressions models were calculated for group differences and effects of a 5, 15 and 60 min·day−1 increases in PA on BMI. Results Median time spent in total PA was 462 min·day−1 (25th percentile; 75th percentile: 389; 534 and 75 min·day−1 (41; 115 in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA. Girls spent 36 min·day−1 less in MVPA than boys and overweight/obese children 24 min·day−1 less than normal weight children (linear regression, p < 0.001. 63.2% of the children met PAGs of 60 min·day−1 in MVPA. The optimal threshold for min·day−1 in MVPA determined with ROC analysis was 46 min·day−1. Comparing 5, 15 and 60 min·day−1 increases in PA revealed that an additional 15 min·day−1 of vigorous PA had the same effect as 60 min·day−1 of MVPA. Sedentary time and light PA showed contrary associations to one another, with light PA being negatively and sedentary time being positively associated with excessive weight. Conclusions Current PAGs are

  8. Dose monitoring using the DICOM structured report: assessment of the relationship between cumulative radiation exposure and BMI in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Lanzman, R.S.; Meineke, A.; Heusch, P.; Sawicki, L.M.; Antoch, G.; Kröpil, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To perform a systematic, large-scale analysis using the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine structured report (DICOM-SR) to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and radiation exposure in abdominal CT. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of DICOM-SR of 3121 abdominal CT examinations between April 2013 and March 2014 was performed. All examinations were conducted using a 128 row CT system. Patients (mean age 61 ± 15 years) were divided into five groups according to their BMI: group A <20 kg/m 2 (underweight), group B 20–25 kg/m 2 (normal weight), group C 25–30 kg/m 2 (overweight), group D 30–35 kg/m 2 (obese), and group E > 35 kg/m 2 (extremely obese). CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose–length product (DLP) were compared between all groups and matched to national diagnostic reference values. Results: The mean CTDI vol and DLP were 5.4 ± 2.9 mGy and 243 ± 153 mGy·cm in group A, 6 ± 3.6 mGy and 264 ± 179 mGy• cm in group B, 7 ± 3.6 mGy and 320 ± 180 mGy• cm in group C, 8.1 ± 5.2 mGy and 375 ± 306 mGy• cm in group D, and 10 ± 8 mGy and 476 ± 403 mGy• cm in group E, respectively. Except for group A versus group B, CTDI vol and DLP differed significantly between all groups (p<0.05). Significantly more CTDI vol values exceeded national diagnostic reference values in groups D and E (2.1% and 6.3%) compared to group B (0.5%, p<0.05). Conclusion: DICOM-SR is a comprehensive, fast, and reproducible way to analyse dose-related data at CT. It allows for automated evaluation of radiation dose in a large study population. Dose exposition is related to the patient's BMI and is increased by up to 96% for extremely obese patients undergoing abdominal CT. - Highlights: • DICOM-SR was used to implement automatic CT-dose monitoring. • DICOM-SR allowed for a fast and comprehensive analysis of CT dose data. • Radiation exposure for abdominal CT was increased by up to 96% for

  9. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National......) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked...... with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise....

  10. Efektivitas Layanan Weekend Banking (Studi BMI KCP PIM .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifa Farhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effectiveness of Weekend Banking Services (Study at BMI KCP PIM. The aim of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of weekend banking services at Bank Muamalat Indonesia. The method that used in this research is linier regression and. The result shown that the value of adjusted R-squared was 0.313409. It means that customer’s preference (dependent variable was influenced by location, brand image, and, product and services in the amount of 31.34% and the others 68.66% was influenced by the others factor. From the paired sample t-test shown that the weekend banking services still not effective to increase the third party funds  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1370

  11. DOES PRESENTING PATIENT'S BMI INCREASE DOCUMENTATION OF OBESITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norm Clothier, MD, M. Kim Marvel, PhD, Courtney S. Cruickshank, MS

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the associated health consequences, obesity is infrequently documented as a problem in medical charts. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a simple intervention (routine listing of the BMI on the medical chart will increase physician documentation of obesity in the medical record. Methods: Participants were resident physicians in a family medicine residency program. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. For experimental group physicians, the Body Mass Index was listed alongside other vital signs of patients seen in an ambulatory setting. Physician documentation of patient obesity was assessed by chart review after patient visits. Documentation was defined as inclusion of obesity on the problem list or in the progress note. Results: The intervention did not significantly increase the rate of documentation of obesity in the medical chart. Several reasons for the lack of change are explored, including the difficulty of treating obesity successfully.

  12. Protocol Standardization Reveals MV Correlation to Healthy Donor BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hexley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs are cell-derived vesicles which are of interest in a clinical setting, as they may be predictive of early signs of disease and/or of treatment progression. However, there are growing concerns about using conventional flow cytometry (cFMC for the detection and quantification of microvesicles. These concerns range from error-sources in collection through to the physical limitations of detection. Here we present a standardized method for collection and analysis which shows that the MV numbers detected by cFCM correlate to donor Body Mass Index (BMI. Although unlikely to be comprehensive, we also demonstrate how cFCM is a useful and valid tool in the analysis of MVs.

  13. The Trend of Mean BMI Values of US Adults, Birth Cohorts 1882-1986 Indicates that the Obesity Epidemic began Earlier than Hitherto Thought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komlos, J.; Brabec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2010), s. 631-638 ISSN 1042-0533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : BMI * semiparametric model * generalized additive model * trend estimation * birth cohort effects Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2010

  14. An Exploratory Study on the Influence of Psychopathological Risk and Impulsivity on BMI and Perceived Quality of Life in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tambelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the psychological profiles of adult male and female obese patients, as well as to verify the possible influence of their psychopathological risk and impulsivity on their body mass index (BMI and perceived quality of life. A total of 64 obese subjects accessing a center for care of their obesity were assessed through anthropometric and psychometric measurements. All anthropometric measures in men were higher than in women, while in turn, women showed higher psychopathological symptoms. Furthermore, the symptoms of somatization and psychoticism were predictors for a higher BMI in men, but there was no effect of psychopathological symptoms on the perceived quality of life (QoL of male subjects. Moreover, in women, somatization and attentional impulsivity were predictors for a higher BMI, whereas no correlation was found between their psychopathological risk and perceived QoL. The results of regression analysis underlined that somatization is a “core” psychopathological symptom in obese subjects regardless of their sex, which is a potential predictor for a higher BMI. The psychological difficulties of the subjects had no effect on their perceived QoL, suggesting that they find it difficult to reflect on the impact that obesity has on their life.

  15. Body mass index (BMI) in Turner Syndrome before and during growth hormone (GH) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, P R; Rundle, A C; Frane, J; Blethen, S L

    2000-02-01

    To study whether body mass index (BMI) is different in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) compared to normal girls, and whether BMI in TS is affected by growth hormone (GH) treatment. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 2468 girls with TS enrolled in the National Cooperative Group Study (NCGS), a collaborative surveillance study for assessing GH-treated children. BMI and BMI standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at baseline and during GH treatment were computed from height and weight data. BMI in TS patients increases with age as expected. However, BMI SDS increased starting at about age 9 y. A similar pattern of increase in BMI SDS was observed after each year of GH treatment for up to 4 y, but GH treatment did not change the magnitude of increase. BMI and BMI SDS curves before and during GH treatment were essentially superimposable. These findings suggest that mechanisms specific for TS are responsible for the age-related increase in BMI SDS. This increase was unaffected by GH treatment.

  16. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  17. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis-BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Ojo, Diane; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; Gu, Yan; Tang, Damu

    2015-12-01

    BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub), BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR). In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  18. Lower Bmi-1 Expression May Predict Longer Survival of Colon Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the Bmi-1 expression and the clinical significance in colon cancer (CC. Patients and Methods: Bmi-1 expression in tumor tissue and the corresponding normal tissue was detected using immunohistological staining. The correlations between Bmi-1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and the overall survival (OS time were analyzed. Results: The median H-scores of Bmi-1 in CC tissues and the corresponding tissues were 80.0 (0-270 and 5.0 (0-90, with no statistically significant difference (Z=-13.7, PP = 0.123. The survival rates of patients with low Bmi-1 expression were higher than those of patients with high Bmi-1 expression but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Bmi-1 expression in CC tissue is significantly higher than that in corresponding normal tissue. While there may be a trend towards improved survival, this is not statistically significant.

  19. Higher Body Mass Index Is Associated with Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Morbidly obese patients demonstrate altered olfactory acuity. There has been no study directly assessing Body Mass Index (BMI in patients with olfactory dysfunction. Our purpose was to compare BMI in a group of patients with subjective olfactory dysfunction to those without subjective olfactory complaints. Methods. Retrospective matched case-control study. Sixty patients who presented to a tertiary care otolaryngology center with subjective smell dysfunction over one year were identified. Neoplastic and obstructive etiologies were excluded. Demographics, BMI, and smoking status were reviewed. Sixty age, gender, and race matched control patients were selected for comparison. Chi-square testing was used. Results. 48 out of 60 patients (80% in the olfactory dysfunction group fell into the overweight or obese categories, compared to 36 out of 60 patients (60% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the olfactory dysfunction and control groups for this stratified BMI (p= 0.0168.  Conclusion. This study suggests high BMI is associated with olfactory dysfunction. Prospective clinical research should examine this further to determine if increasing BMI may be a risk factor in olfactory loss and to elucidate what role olfactory loss may play in diet and feeding habits of obese patients.

  20. Prognostic relevance of Bmi-1 expression and autoantibodies in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wan-li; Li, Man-zhi; Song, Li-bing; Zeng, Mu-sheng; Guo, Xian-zhi; Zhang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jun-ye; Zhang, Ge; Guan, Su; Chen, Yu-min; Kong, Qing-li; Xu, Li-hua

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression of Bmi-1 has been observed in a variety of cancers, and it has been suggested to be an independent prognostic marker for the patients. The objective of this study was to determine the level of Bmi-1 expression or its autoantibodies in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to correlate it with clinicopathologic data. We first examined Bmi-1 expression in ESCC cell lines and tumor samples by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We then analyzed Bmi-1 protein expression in 171 clinicopathologically characterized ESCC cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we detected its autoantibodies in sera of patients with ESCC by ELISA. We found that Bmi-1 expression was higher in the immortalized cells, cancer cell lines and most cancer tissue than in non-tumorous control tissue at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, Bmi-1 expression was observed in 64.3% (110 of 171) archive ESCC specimen by immunohistochemistry analysis, and the location of Bmi-1 in ESCC was in the nuclei instead of cytoplasm of tumor cells. There was a significant difference of Bmi-1 expression in patients categorized according to stage (P = 0.003) and pN classification (P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis suggested that Bmi-1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for ESCC patients. A prognostic significance of Bmi-1 was also found in the subgroup of T3~T4 and N1 tumor classification. Bmi-1 autoantibodies were detected in sera of 39.0% (62 of 159) ESCC patients. The correlations between anti-Bmi-1 antibodies and tumor stage (P = 0.040), or lymph node status (P < 0.001) were significant. Our results suggest that Bmi-1 protein is a valuable marker of ESCC progression. The presence of Bmi-1 autoantibodies in sera from patients with ESCC may have clinical utility in esophageal cancer diagnosis

  1. Postoperative Complications of Total Joint Arthroplasty in Obese Patients Stratified by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusmanovich, Mikhail; Kester, Benjamin S; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-03-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is associated with significant complications in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Many studies have evaluated this trend, but few have looked at the rates of complications based on BMI as a continuous variable. The purpose of this study was to stratify obese patients into 3 BMI categories and evaluate their rates of complications and gauge whether transitioning from higher to lower BMI category lowers complication. Patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty were selected from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2008-2015 and arranged into 3 groups based on BMI: O1 (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m 2 ), O2 (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m 2 ), and O3 (BMI >40 kg/m 2 ). Thirty-day complications were recorded and evaluated utilizing univariate and multivariate analyses stratified by BMI. A total of 268,663 patients were identified. Patients with a BMI >30 kg/m 2 had more infectious and medical complications compared with nonobese patients. Furthermore, there were increased complications as the BMI categories increased. Patients with a BMI >40 kg/m 2 (O3) had longer operating times, length of stay, higher rates of readmissions, reoperations, deep venous thrombosis, renal insufficiency, superficial infections, deep infections, and wound dehiscence. These trends were present when comparing the O2 with O1 category as well. We have demonstrated increased rates of medical and surgical complications in obese patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated a stepwise increase in complication rates when transitioning to higher BMI groups. Based on our data, we believe that preoperative counseling and interventions to decrease BMI should be explored before offering elective surgery to obese patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  3. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  4. Evaluation of selected trace metals in some hypertensive subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both patients and control subjects were classified based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7). The weight, height and blood pressure of all subjects were measured and their body mass indices (BMI) computed. The mean ...

  5. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  6. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  7. Social disparities in body mass index (BMI) trajectories among Chinese adults in 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changchun; Liang, Ying

    2017-08-16

    Obesity is a serious public health problem in China. The relationship between obesity and socio-economic status (SES) is changing and affected by uncertainty, particularly, in developing countries. The sex-related differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories are controversial and require substantial empirical data for updating and enriching. This study examined the relationship between SES and BMI in Chinese adults from a dynamic perspective using longitudinal data (1991-2011) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Then, sex-related differences were determined. A hierarchical linear model was used. SES positively affected the male BMI changes, with faster BMI growth rates in the high-SES males over the past 20 years. By contrast, female BMI was only affected by BMI baseline and residential area. Specifically, greater BMI baseline led to greater BMI growth rate and earlier BMI decline. In the past 20 years, the BMI growth rate has been greater in the urban females than in the rural females. The relationship between SES and obesity is complex in China, and a substantial sex-related difference exists. We argue that this large sex-related difference is due to the rapid economic and social changes that have affected national health and increased the gender inequality and social role restrictions in females. We provide insights for further research and policy recommendations.

  8. Bmi1 regulates stem cells and proliferation and differentiation of committed cells in mammary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersen, Alexandra M; Evers, Bastiaan; Prasad, Asheeta A; Tanger, Ellen; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Jonkers, Jos; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2008-07-22

    PolycombGroup (PcG) proteins are epigenetic silencers involved in maintaining cellular identity, and their deregulation can result in cancer [1]. Mice without the PcG gene Bmi1 are runted and suffer from progressive loss of hematopoietic and neural stem cells [2-4]. Here, we assess the effects of Bmi1 on stem cells and differentiation of an epithelial tissue in vivo. We chose the mammary gland because it allows limiting dilution transplantations [5, 6] and because Bmi1 is overexpressed in breast cancer [7, 8]. Our analyses show that Bmi1 is expressed in all cells of the mouse mammary gland and is especially high in luminal cells. Loss of Bmi1 results in a severe mammary-epithelium growth defect, which can be rescued by codeletion of the Ink4a/Arf locus or pregnancy. Even though mammary stem cells are present in the absence of Bmi1, their activity is reduced, and this is only partially due to Ink4a/Arf expression. Interestingly, loss of Bmi1 causes premature lobuloalveolar differentiation, whereas overexpression of Bmi1 inhibits lobuloalveolar differentiation induced by pregnancy hormones. Because Bmi1 affects not only mammary stem cells but also more committed cells, our data warrant a more detailed analysis of the different roles of Bmi1 in breast-cancer etiology.

  9. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  10. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  11. BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Jern, Christina; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the contribution of prepubertal childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI change through puberty and adolescence, 2 distinct developmental BMI parameters, for risk of adult stroke in men. In this population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born in 1945-1961 with information on both childhood BMI at age 8 and BMI change through puberty and adolescence (BMI at age 20-BMI at age 8) were followed until December 2013 (n = 37,669). Information on stroke events was retrieved from high-quality national registers (918 first stroke events, 672 ischemic stroke events [IS], 207 intracerebral hemorrhage events [ICH]). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28), but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with risk of adult stroke. Subanalyses revealed that BMI increase through puberty and adolescence was associated with both IS (HR per SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and ICH (HR per SD increase 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.46). High BMI increase during puberty was strongly associated with increased risk of adult hypertension (odds ratio per SD increase 1.35; 95% CI 1.32-1.39). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult IS and ICH in men. We propose that greater BMI increases during puberty contribute to increased risk of adult stroke at least partly via increased blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  12. [Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values in Chilean elderly subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, María Luisa; Lera, Lydia; Sánchez, Hugo; Uauy, Ricardo; Albala, Cecilia

    2009-11-01

    The homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) estimates insulin resistance using basal insulin and glucose values and has a good concordance with values obtained with the euglycemic clamp. However it has a high variability that depends on environmental, genetic and physiologic factors. Therefore it is imperative to establish normal HOMA values in different populations. To report HOMA-IR values in Chilean elderly subjects and to determine the best cutoff point to diagnose insulin resistance. Cross sectional study of 1003 subjects older than 60 years of whom 803 (71% women) did not have diabetes. In 154 subjects, an oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Insulin resistance (IR) was defined as the HOMA value corresponding to percentile 75 of subjects without over or underweight. The behavior of HOMA-IR in metabolic syndrome was studied and receiver operating curves (ROC) were calculated, using glucose intolerance defined as a blood glucose over 140 mg/dl and hyperinsulinemia, defined as a serum insulin over 60 microU/ml, two hours after the glucose load. Median HOMA-IR values were 1.7. Percentile 75 in subjects without obesity or underweight was 2.57. The area under the ROC curve, when comparing HOMA-IR with glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, was 0.8 (95% confidence values 0.72-0.87), with HOMA-IR values ranging from 2.04 to 2.33. HOMA-IR is a useful method to determine insulin resistance in epidemiological studies. The HOMA-IR cutoff point for insulin resistance defined in thi spopulation was 2.6.

  13. Does high BMI influence hospital charges in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Olubukola O; Chimbira, Wilson T; Woolford, Susan J; Tremper, Kevin K; Reynolds, Paul I; Green, Glenn E

    2008-07-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent chronic problem with health and fiscal consequences. Data from adults and nonsurgical pediatric patients suggest that obesity has serious implications for the US economy. Our goal was to describe the impact of BMI on hospital charges in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy (AT). We carried out a retrospective comparative analysis of the electronic anesthesia record and the charges from billing data from a large tertiary institution on children aged 3-18 years who had AT during the year 2005-2007. The main outcome measures were mean total hospital charges, likelihood of admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Of 1,643 children, 68.9% were aged overweight children were more likely to be admitted than their normal-weight peers (X(2)=26.3, Poverweight patients had significantly higher total hospital charges than their healthy-weight counterparts (P=0.001). Anesthesia, postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and pharmacy and laboratory charges were also higher for obese than normal-weight children (POverweight and obese children undergoing AT accrued higher hospital charges and had longer postoperative LOS than their healthy-weight peers. If these findings are extendable to other surgical procedures, they could have far-reaching implications for the US economy.

  14. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  15. Mini-Nutritional-Assessment (MNA) without body mass index (BMI) predicts functional disability in elderly Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chin; Tsai, Alan Chung-hong

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional status and functional ability are mutually dependent especially in the elderly. This study examined the functional status-predictive ability of the MNA in a cross-sectional study. We analyzed the dataset of the "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan" (SHLSET). Subjects were 2948≥65 year-old persons who were rated with the long-form (LF) and short-form (SF) MNA with or without BMI for the risk of malnutrition, and with the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Instrument Activities of Daily Living (IADL) for functional status. The ADL and IADL scores were calculated according to rated nutritional status. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for ADL and IADL status predicted by the MNA. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of rated MNA scores with ADL or IADL status. Results showed that both SF and LF of MNA-T1 and T2 were able to predict ADL and IADL disabilities. Those who were rated malnourished or at risk of malnutrition had drastically higher risk of ADL or IADL dependency compared to those who were rated normal. The SF versions performed well in rating nutritional status and predicting ADL and IADL status. Overall, MNA-T2-SF performed at least equally well as MNA-T1-SF in rating functional decline. These results suggest the MNA is able to predict functional decline of the elderly. MNA-T2, especially the SF, a version without BMI should be particularly useful in clinical, long-term care and community settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ancestry and BMI Influences on Facial Soft Tissue Depths for A Cohort of Chinese and Caucasoid Women in Dunedin, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Louisa J; Mirijali, Seyed Ali; Niven, Brian E; Blyth, Phil; Dias, George J

    2015-09-01

    This study measured and assessed facial soft tissue depths (FSTDs) in adult female Chinese and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans (Caucasoids). Ultrasound was used to obtain depths at nine landmarks on 108 healthy subjects (51 Chinese, 57 NZ European), erect positioned, of same age group (18-29 years). Height and weight were also recorded. Statistical analysis focused on comparison of tissue depth between the two ancestry groups and the influence of Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2). Results showed mean depth differences at Supra M2 and Infra M2 landmarks significantly greater for Chinese than Caucasoid women for all three BMI Classes (BMIancestry and BMI influence on FSTDs to be observed and compared for two distinct groups. Results add to knowledge about facial tissue depth variation. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and disability among older adults in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sanggon; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between WC and BMI on disability among older adults from LAC. Cross-sectional, multicenter city study of 5786 subjects aged 65 years and older from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE) study (1999-2000). Sociodemographic variables, smoking status, medical conditions, BMI, WC, and activities of daily living (ADL) were obtained. Prevalence of high WC (HWC) (> 88 cm) in women ranged from 48.5% (Havana) to 72.7% (Mexico City), while among men (> 102 cm) it ranged from 12.5% (Bridgetown) to 32.5% (Santiago). The associations between WC and ADL disability were "J" shaped, with higher risks of ADL disability observed above 110 cm for women in Bridgetown, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo. The association in Sao Paulo is plateau with higher risk above 100 cm, and the association in Mexico City is closer to linear. Among men the associations were "U" (Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and Havana), "J" shaped (Montevideo), plateau (Santiago), and closer to linear in Mexico City. When WC and BMI were analyzed together, we found that participants from Sao Paulo, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo in the overweight or obese category with HWC were significantly more likely to report ADL disability after adjusting for all covariates. The findings of this study suggest that both general and abdominal adiposity are associated with disability and support the use of WC in addition to BMI to assess risk of disability in older adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of socio-economic status on BMI, waist:hip ratio and waist circumference in a group of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mansour; Shahraki, Touran; Ansari, Hossein

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effects of socio-economic status (SES) on BMI, waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) in a group of Iranian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 888 women in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. SES was measured using level of education. In addition, parity, marital status and physical activity were assessed. Standardized measurements were taken, BMI and WHR were calculated. Low education level was a strong determinant of overweight and obesity among Iranian women. After controlling for age, women with higher education level had significantly lower BMI, WC and parity. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant negative association of BMI and WC with education level and a significant positive association of BMI and WC with parity. Significant factors associated with obesity by a logistic regression model were education level (OR for university graduates v. illiterate or low literacy levels: 1.00 v. 3.70; P = 0.01), living with spouse (OR for married v. single subjects: 1.00 v. 0.15; P = 0.05), parity (OR for more than five v. less than two pregnancies: 1.00 v. 0.34; P = 0.03) and WC (OR for or = 0.88 cm: 1.00 v. 11.20; P = 0.001). The present study revealed that educational level, multiple pregnancies, marital status and lack of exercise are some possible explanations for the obesity among Sistan and Baluchestan women.

  19. Maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and offspring epigenome-wide DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Gemma C; Salas, Lucas A; Monnereau, Claire

    2017-01-01

    -analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1......,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P ... for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic...

  20. LAP-BAND for BMI 30-40: 5-year health outcomes from the multicenter pivotal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J B; Eaton, L L; Vincent, V; Michaelson, R

    2016-02-01

    We performed a 5-year multicenter study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the LAP-BAND System surgery (LBS) in patients with obesity with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-39.9 kg m(-)(2). This pivotal study was designed to support LBS application to the US Food and Drug Administration for broadening the indications for surgery and the lower BMI indication was approved with 1-year data in 2011, with the intention to complete the 5-year evaluation. To present broad health outcome data including weight change, patient reported outcomes, comorbidity change and complications during the 5-year study. The study was conducted at seven US private practice clinical trial sites. We enrolled 149 BMI 30-39.9 subjects into a 5-year, multicenter, longitudinal, prospective post-approval study. Data for those completing each time point are presented. The predefined target of at least 30% excess weight loss was achieved by more than 76% of subjects by 1-year and at every year thereafter during the 5-year study. Mean percentage weight loss at 5 years was 15.9±12.4%. Sustained weight loss was accompanied by sustained improvement in generic and weight-specific quality of life, symptoms of depression and the prevalence of binge-eating disorder. The number of subjects with normal fasting triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma glucose and HbA1c increased significantly between baseline and 5 years. Fifty-four months after LBS implantation, the rate of device explants without replacement was 5.4%; however, the rate of explants increased to 12.1% by month 60 owing to no cost-elective band removals offered to subjects at study exit. No deaths or unanticipated adverse device effects were reported. The LBS is safe and effective for people with BMI 30-39.9 with demonstrated improvements in weight loss, comorbidities and quality of life, and with a low explant rate through 5 years following treatment.

  1. Changes in Adult BMI and Waist Circumference Are Associated with Increased Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick; Song, Yiqing; Zollinger, Terrell W; Champion, Victoria L; Stump, Timothy E; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a stronger predictor of colon cancer (CRC) risk than body mass index (BMI). However, how well change in either WC or BMI predicts risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (AN) is unclear. To determine the relationship between change in BMI and WC from early adulthood to later age and the risk of AN and which change measure is a stronger predictor. In 4500 adults, ages 50-80, with no previous neoplasia and undergoing screening colonoscopy, BMI and WC at age 21 and at time of screening were reported. Changes in BMI and WC were defined using universal risk cutoffs. Known CRC risk factors were controlled in the logistic models. Overall, model statistics showed WC change (omnibus test χ 2  = 10.15, 2 DF, p value = 0.006) was a statistically stronger predictor of AN than BMI change (omnibus test χ 2  = 5.66, 5 DF, p value = 0.34). Independent of BMI change, participants who increased WC (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.05-1.96) or maintained a high-risk WC (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.38-4.53) at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN compared to those with a low-risk WC. Study participants who were obese at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.08-3.23) compared to those who maintained a healthy BMI. Maintaining an overweight BMI or increasing BMI was not associated with AN. Maintaining an unhealthy BMI and WC throughout adult life may increase risk of AN. WC change may be a better predictor of AN than BMI change.

  2. Gene-diet interaction effects on BMI levels in the Singapore Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuling; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Wang, Ling; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Sim, Xueling; Tai, E-Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Friedlander, Yechiel; Heng, Chew-Kiat

    2018-02-24

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 97 body-mass index (BMI) associated loci. We aimed to evaluate if dietary intake modifies BMI associations at these loci in the Singapore Chinese population. We utilized GWAS information from six data subsets from two adult Chinese population (N = 7817). Seventy-eight genotyped or imputed index BMI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control procedures were available in all datasets. Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 score and ten nutrient variables were evaluated. Linear regression analyses between z score transformed BMI (Z-BMI) and dietary factors were performed. Interaction analyses were performed by introducing the interaction term (diet x SNP) in the same regression model. Analysis was carried out in each cohort individually and subsequently meta-analyzed using the inverse-variance weighted method. Analyses were also evaluated with a weighted gene-risk score (wGRS) contructed by BMI index SNPs from recent large-scale GWAS studies. Nominal associations between Z-BMI and AHEI-2010 and some dietary factors were identified (P = 0.047-0.010). The BMI wGRS was robustly associated with Z-BMI (P = 1.55 × 10 - 15 ) but not with any dietary variables. Dietary variables did not significantly interact with the wGRS to modify BMI associations. When interaction analyses were repeated using individual SNPs, a significant association between cholesterol intake and rs4740619 (CCDC171) was identified (β = 0.077, adjP interaction  = 0.043). The CCDC171 gene locus may interact with cholesterol intake to increase BMI in the Singaporean Chinese population, however most known obesity risk loci were not associated with dietary intake and did not interact with diet to modify BMI levels.

  3. School Programs and Characteristics and Their Influence on Student BMI: Findings from Healthy Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Elliott, Marc N.; Franzini, Luisa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Caughy, Margaret O.; Gilliland, M. Janice; Walls, Courtney E.; Franklin, Frank A.; Lowry, Richard; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the contribution of school contextual factors to individual student body mass index (BMI). We set out to determine if school characteristics/resources: (1) are associated with student BMI; (2) explain racial/ethnic disparities in student BMI; and (3) explain school-level differences in student BMI. Methods Using gender-stratified multi-level modeling strategies we examined the association of school characteristics/resources and individual BMI in 4,387 5th graders in the Healthy Passages Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Additionally, we examined the association of race/ethnicity and individual BMI as well as the between-school variance in BMI before and after adding individual and school characteristics to test for attenuation. Results The school-level median household income, but not physical activity or nutrition resources, was inversely associated with female BMI (β = −0.12, CI: −0.21,−0.02). Neither school demographics nor physical activity/nutrition resources were predictive of individual BMI in males. In Black females, school characteristics attenuated the association of race/ethnicity and BMI. Individual student characteristics—not school characteristics/resources-reduced the between-school variation in BMI in males by nearly one-third and eliminated it in females. Conclusions In this cohort of 5th graders, school SES was inversely associated with female BMI while school characteristics and resources largely explained Black/White disparities in female weight status. Between-school differences in average student weight status were largely explained by the composition of the student body not by school characteristics or programming. PMID:24454697

  4. School programs and characteristics and their influence on student BMI: findings from healthy passages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K Richmond

    Full Text Available Little is known about the contribution of school contextual factors to individual student body mass index (BMI. We set out to determine if school characteristics/resources: (1 are associated with student BMI; (2 explain racial/ethnic disparities in student BMI; and (3 explain school-level differences in student BMI.Using gender-stratified multi-level modeling strategies we examined the association of school characteristics/resources and individual BMI in 4,387 5(th graders in the Healthy Passages Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Additionally, we examined the association of race/ethnicity and individual BMI as well as the between-school variance in BMI before and after adding individual and school characteristics to test for attenuation.The school-level median household income, but not physical activity or nutrition resources, was inversely associated with female BMI (β = -0.12, CI: -0.21,-0.02. Neither school demographics nor physical activity/nutrition resources were predictive of individual BMI in males. In Black females, school characteristics attenuated the association of race/ethnicity and BMI. Individual student characteristics-not school characteristics/resources-reduced the between-school variation in BMI in males by nearly one-third and eliminated it in females.In this cohort of 5(th graders, school SES was inversely associated with female BMI while school characteristics and resources largely explained Black/White disparities in female weight status. Between-school differences in average student weight status were largely explained by the composition of the student body not by school characteristics or programming.

  5. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  6. Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Early Age of Obesity in Obese Italian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Sentinelli

    2012-01-01

    Aims of our study are to investigate: (1 the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI and obesity-related parameters in a large cohort (n=752 of Italian obese subjects; (2 the association between the two FTO SNPs and age of onset of obesity. Our results demonstrate a strong association between FTO SNPs rs9939609 (P<0.043 and rs9930506 (P<0.029 with BMI in the Italian population. FTO rs9930506 was significantly associated with higher BMI in a G allele dose-dependent manner (BMI+1.4 kg/m2 per G allele. We also observed that the association with BMI of the two FTO variants varied with age, with the carriers of the risk alleles developing an increase in body weight earlier in life. In conclusion, our study further demonstrates a role of the genetic variability in FTO on BMI in a large Italian population.

  7. The dose-response analysis between BMI and common chronic diseases in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuchun; Dou, Jing; Ye, Junsen; Yu, Yaqin; Jin, Lina

    2018-03-09

    High body mass index (BMI) predisposes to several chronic diseases, but a large-scale systematic and detailed study of dose-response relationship between BMI and chronic diseases has not been reported previously. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and 3 chronic diseases (hypertension, dyslipidemia and MetS) in northeast China. A sample of 16412 participants aged 18~79 years old were included in Jilin province in 2012. The lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to examine the trend of BMI by age, and the restricted cubic splines were used to investigate the non-linear associations (dose-response curve) between BMI and chronic diseases. It was pointed out that BMI increased rapidly when young, then kept steady in middle age, and finally declined slowly in old age, and accordingly age was divided into 3 segments, which were different by gender. The odds ratios (ORs) of BMI for the chronic diseases increased relatively slowly when young, then increased dramatically in middle-age and old population, especially for men. Further, the ORs of BMI among non-smokers were lower than those among smokers, and the same trend was shown to be more apparent among drinkers and non-drinkers. The risk of BMI for common chronic diseases increased dramatically in middle-aged, especially for men with drinking and smoking habits.

  8. BMI-1 Promotes Self-Renewal of Radio- and Temozolomide (TMZ)-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yanfang; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Pengxin; Ma, Weiyuan; Hu, Zhigang; Zhang, Kaili

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone-dependent malignancy and is the most prevalent cause of cancer-related mortality among females. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are common treatments of breast cancer. However, tumor relapse and metastasis following therapy are major clinical challenges. The importance of B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (BMI-1) was implicated in cell proliferation, stem cell maintenance, and tumor initiation. We established radio- and temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant (IRC-R) MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines to investigate the mechanism involved in therapeutic resistance. Cell proliferation and sphere number were dramatically elevated, and BMI-1 was remarkably upregulated, in IRC-R cells compared to parental cells. Silencing BMI-1 by RNA interference only affected the cell proliferation of IRC-R but not parental cells, suggesting the critical role of BMI-1 in radio- and TMZ resistance. We used a xenograft mice model to elucidate that BMI-1 was necessary in tumor development by assessing tumor volume and Ki67 expression. We found that Hedgehog (Hhg) signaling exerted synergized functions together with BMI-1, implicating the importance of BMI-1 in Hhg signaling. Downregulation of BMI-1 could be an effective strategy to suppress tumor growth, which supports the potential clinical use of targeting BMI-1 in breast cancer treatment.

  9. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Anne; Geuss, Michael N; Mölbert, Simone C; Giel, Katrin E; Streuber, Stephan; Romero, Javier; Black, Michael J; Mohler, Betty J

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations) represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1), but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a). The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  10. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Westerman

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  11. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis?BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Ojo, Diane; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; Gu, Yan; Tang, Damu

    2015-01-01

    BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E...

  12. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thaler

    Full Text Available Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI, on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1, but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a. The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  13. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuss, Michael N.; Mölbert, Simone C.; Giel, Katrin E.; Streuber, Stephan; Romero, Javier; Black, Michael J.; Mohler, Betty J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations) represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1), but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a). The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies. PMID:29425218

  14. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Christiansen

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20-26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS, to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was used to predict children's BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood.

  15. Bmi1 is essential for cerebellar development and is overexpressed in human medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Carly; Lingbeek, Merel; Shakhova, Olga; Liu, James; Tanger, Ellen; Saremaslani, Parvin; Van Lohuizen, Maarten; Marino, Silvia

    2004-03-18

    Overexpression of the polycomb group gene Bmi1 promotes cell proliferation and induces leukaemia through repression of Cdkn2a (also known as ink4a/Arf) tumour suppressors. Conversely, loss of Bmi1 leads to haematological defects and severe progressive neurological abnormalities in which de-repression of the ink4a/Arf locus is critically implicated. Here, we show that Bmi1 is strongly expressed in proliferating cerebellar precursor cells in mice and humans. Using Bmi1-null mice we demonstrate a crucial role for Bmi1 in clonal expansion of granule cell precursors both in vivo and in vitro. Deregulated proliferation of these progenitor cells, by activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, leads to medulloblastoma development. We also demonstrate linked overexpression of BMI1 and patched (PTCH), suggestive of SHH pathway activation, in a substantial fraction of primary human medulloblastomas. Together with the rapid induction of Bmi1 expression on addition of Shh or on overexpression of the Shh target Gli1 in cerebellar granule cell cultures, these findings implicate BMI1 overexpression as an alternative or additive mechanism in the pathogenesis of medulloblastomas, and highlight a role for Bmi1-containing polycomb complexes in proliferation of cerebellar precursor cells.

  16. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Bart A; Blom, Marleen; Tanger, Ellen; van der Valk, Martin; Song, Ji-Ying; van Santen, Marije; Gadiot, Jules; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Prosser, Haydn M; Uren, Anthony; Aronica, Eleonora; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A)/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF)/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  17. Association between infancy BMI peak and body composition and blood pressure at age 5-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and

  18. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub, BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR. In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis.

  19. A Novel Aspect of Tumorigenesis—BMI1 Functions in Regulating DNA Damage Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Ojo, Diane; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; Gu, Yan; Tang, Damu

    2015-01-01

    BMI1 plays critical roles in maintaining the self-renewal of hematopoietic, neural, intestinal stem cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) for a variety of cancer types. BMI1 promotes cell proliferative life span and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of BMI1 occurs in multiple cancer types and is associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, BMI1 is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and binds the catalytic RING2/RING1b subunit to form a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase. Through mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119Ub), BMI1 represses multiple gene loci; among these, the INK4A/ARF locus has been most thoroughly investigated. The locus encodes the p16INK4A and p14/p19ARF tumor suppressors that function in the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Its repression contributes to BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. BMI1 also possesses other oncogenic functions, specifically its regulative role in DNA damage response (DDR). In this process, BMI1 ubiquitinates histone H2A and γH2AX, thereby facilitating the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) through stimulating homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Additionally, BMI1 compromises DSB-induced checkpoint activation independent of its-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. We review the emerging role of BMI1 in DDR regulation and discuss its impact on BMI1-derived tumorigenesis. PMID:26633535

  20. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-04-01

    While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and 'decreasing /stable' child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI 'decreased or stayed the same.' Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of -0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a -0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success.

  1. Impact of therapeutic food compared to oral nutritional supplements on nutritional outcomes in mildly underweight healthy children in a low-medium income society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Malkova, Dalia; Wright, Charlotte; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos

    2017-03-16

    Therapeutic foods (RUTF) are used to treat severe acute malnutrition in children 5 years and under in low and middle income countries (LMI), while liquid nutritional supplements (ONS) are used in affluent societies. With globalisation and economic growth in LMI, there will be an inclination to move towards practices applied in affluent countries. This study compared the effect of supplementation with a RUTF and an ONS, on nutritional outcomes in mildly underweight children. 68 Pakistani (5-10 y), mildly underweight (weight Z-score: -2 to -1) children randomly received either RUTF or ONS (500 kcal/day), in addition to their habitual diet for four weeks. Weight, height, skinfolds and their changes during intervention, were compared between the two groups and at follow up, post-supplementation. All nutritional outcomes and height improved with both supplements, but net weight gain (kg) and changes from baseline for weight, height, triceps and sub-scapular thickness Z-scores did not differ between the two supplements [mean (SD), RUTF vs ONS; weight gain (kg), 0.59 (0.30) vs 0.65 (0.42), p = 0.483; weight Z-score, 0.12 (0.09) vs 0.15 (0.13), p = 0.347; height Z-score, 0.04 (0.08) vs 0.04 (0.08), p = 0.908; triceps Z-score, 0.29 (0.24) vs 0.31 (0.23), p = 0.796; subscapular Z-score, 0.37 (0.29) vs 0.31 (0.25), p = 0.385]. Weight gain (0.6 kg) for both groups was lower than anticipated (2 kg). Post-supplementation, there was a tendency for weight and height Z-score to return to baseline. RUTF and ONS are equivalently effective in improving nutritional outcomes in children 5 to 10 y at risk of malnutrition but the observed benefit is less than expected and not sustainable. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com reference: ISRCTN51555749. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com reference: ISRCTN51555749. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of FTO genotypes on BMI and weight in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, P; Lipowska, A; Rys, P; Ewens, K G; Franks, S; Tan, S; Lerchbaum, E; Vcelak, J; Attaoua, R; Straczkowski, M; Azziz, R; Barber, T M; Hinney, A; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Lukasova, P; Bendlova, B; Grigorescu, F; Kowalska, I; Goodarzi, M O; Strauss, J F; McCarthy, M I; Malecki, M T

    2012-10-01

    FTO gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be associated with obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes. Several small studies have suggested a greater than expected effect of the FTO rs9939609 SNP on weight in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We therefore aimed to examine the impact of FTO genotype on BMI and weight in PCOS. A systematic search of medical databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) was conducted up to the end of April 2011. Seven studies describing eight distinct PCOS cohorts were retrieved; seven were genotyped for SNP rs9939609 and one for SNP rs1421085. The per allele effect on BMI and body weight increase was calculated and subjected to meta-analysis. A total of 2,548 women with PCOS were included in the study; 762 were TT homozygotes, 1,253 had an AT/CT genotype, and 533 were AA/CC homozygotes. Each additional copy of the effect allele (A/C) increased the BMI by a mean of 0.19 z score units (95% CI 0.13, 0.24; p = 2.26 × 10(-11)) and body weight by a mean of 0.20 z score units (95% CI 0.14, 0.26; p = 1.02 × 10(-10)). This translated into an approximately 3.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI and an approximately 9.6 kg gain in body weight between TT and AA/CC homozygotes. The association between FTO genotypes and BMI was stronger in the cohorts with PCOS than in the general female populations from large genome-wide association studies. Deviation from an additive genetic model was observed in heavier populations. The effect of FTO SNPs on obesity-related traits in PCOS seems to be more than two times greater than the effect found in large population-based studies. This suggests an interaction between FTO and the metabolic context or polygenic background of PCOS.

  3. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); A.H. Wijga (Alet); U. Gehring (Ulrike); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); B. Brunekreef (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and

  4. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  5. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range....

  6. Venous and autonomic function in formerly pre-eclamptic women and BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, Wieteke M; van Drongelen, Joris; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Scholten, Ralph R

    2018-03-25

    Pre-pregnancy reduced plasma volume increases the risk on subsequent pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Reduced plasma volume is thought to reflect venous reserve capacity, especially when venous vasculature is constricted and sympathetic tone is elevated. As obesity might affect these variables and also relates to pre-eclampsia, increased body weight may underlie these observations. We hypothesized that the relationship between reduced venous reserve and preeclampsia is independent of body mass index (BMI). We compared the non-pregnant venous reserve capacity in 30 formerly pre-eclamptic women, equally divided in 3 BMI-classes (BMI 19.5-24.9, BMI 25-29.9, BMI ≥30) to 30 controls. Cases and controls were matched for BMI, age and parity. The venous reserve capacity was quantified by assessing plasma volume and venous compliance. The autonomic nervous system regulating the venous capacitance was evaluated with heart rate variability analysis in resting supine position and during positive head-up tilt (HUT). Formerly pre-eclamptic women had in supine position lower plasma volume than controls (1339 ± 79 vs 1547 ± 139 ml/m 2 (pBMI-matched controls, reduced venous reserve capacity. This is reflected by lower plasma volume and venous compliance, the autonomic balance is shifted towards sympathetic dominance and lower baroreceptor sensitivity. This suggests that not BMI, but underlying reduced venous reserve relates to pre-eclampsia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Bmi-1 expression modulates non-small cell lung cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dan; Ye, Yunlin; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Jinglong; Kuang, Bohua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiumin; Zu, Lidong; Xiao, Gang; Hao, Mingang; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the role of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is responsible for multiple cancer progression. However, Bmi-1 in controlling gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development is not well explored. Here we report that the Bmi-1 level is highly increased in primary NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues and required for lung tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that Bmi-1 level is lower in matched involved lymph node cancerous tissues than the respective primary NSCLC tissues. We find that Bmi-1 does not affect cell cycle and apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines as it does not affect the expression of p16/p19, Pten, AKT and P-AKT. Mechanistic analyses note that reduction of Bmi-1 expression inversely regulates invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, followed by induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using genome microarray assays, we find that RNAi-mediated silence of Bmi-1 modulates some important molecular genetics or signaling pathways, potentially associated with NSCLC development. Taken together, our findings disclose for the first time that Bmi-1 level accumulates strongly in early stage and then declines in late stage, which is potentially important for NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis during progression. PMID:25880371

  8. Mother's pre-pregnancy BMI is an important determinant of adverse cardiometabolic risk in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal adiposity is associated with poor offspring cardiometabolic health. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on the BMI, body composition and cardiometabolic characteristics of the offspring. Forty offspring of overweight/obese mothers (O-OW) and...

  9. No seasonality of birth in BMI at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Heitmann, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation in birth weight was found in a previous Danish study. In the present study we investigated if the seasonality in birth weight tracked into BMI at 7 years of age, but found no seasonality of birth in either BMI, overweight, or obesity. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd...

  10. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range...

  11. The effects of breastfeeding on childhood BMI: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Hernández Alava, Mónica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have found a statistical association between breastfeeding and childhood adiposity. This paper investigates whether breastfeeding has an effect on subsequent childhood body mass index (BMI) using propensity scores to account for confounding. We use data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative UK cohort survey, which contains detailed information on infant feeding and childhood BMI. Propensity score matching is used to investigate the mean BMI in children breastfed exclusively and partially for different durations of time. We find statistically significant influences of breastfeeding on childhood BMI, particularly in older children, when breastfeeding is prolonged and exclusive. At 7 years, children who were exclusively breastfed for 16 weeks had a BMI 0.28 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.49) lower than those who were never breastfed, a 2% reduction from the mean BMI of 16.6 kg/m2. For this young cohort, even small effects of breastfeeding on BMI could be important. In order to reduce BMI, breastfeeding should be encouraged as part of wider lifestyle intervention. This evidence could help to inform public health bodies when creating public health guidelines and recommendations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  12. Dietary patterns and BMI status of adult women in greater Letaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and BMI status of adult women in greater Letaba municipality, South Africa. ... Journal of Consumer Sciences ... The main aim of the study was to assess the dietary patterns, dietary diversity and body mass index (BMI) of adult rural women in Greater Letaba Municipality, Limpopo province, using the South ...

  13. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...

  14. BMI1 is expressed in canine osteosarcoma and contributes to cell growth and chemotherapy resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hayat Shahi

    Full Text Available BMI1, a stem cell factor and member of the polycomb group of genes, has been shown to contribute to growth and chemoresistance of several human malignancies including primary osteosarcoma (OSA. Naturally occurring OSA in the dog represents a large animal model of human OSA, however the potential role of BMI1 in canine primary and metastatic OSA has not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining of canine primary and metastatic OSA tumors revealed strong nuclear expression of BMI1. An identical staining pattern was found in both primary and metastatic human OSA tissues. Canine OSA cell lines (Abrams, Moresco, and D17 expressed high levels of BMI1 compared with canine osteoblasts and knockdown or inhibition of BMI1 by siRNA or by small molecule BMI1-inhibitor PTC-209 demonstrated a role for BMI1 in canine OSA cell growth and resistance to carboplatin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. These findings suggest that inhibition of BMI1 in primary or metastatic OSA may improve response to chemotherapy and that the dog may serve as a large animal model to evaluate such therapy.

  15. Longitudinal weight differences, gene expression and blood biomarkers in BMI-discordant identical twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.; Willemsen, G.; Heijmans, B.T.; Neuteboom, J.; Kluft, C.; Jansen, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Slagboom, P.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins allow an examination of the causes and consequences of adiposity in a genetically controlled design. Few studies have examined longitudinal BMI discordance in MZ pairs. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the development

  16. Bmi1 confers resistance to oxidative stress on hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nakamura

    Full Text Available The polycomb-group (PcG proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed.In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1. Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS.Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.

  17. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Ängquist, Lars

    2011-01-01

    populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI....

  18. Convergence of BMI1 and CHD7 on ERK Signaling in Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Badodi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We describe molecular convergence between BMI1 and CHD7 in the initiation of medulloblastoma. Identified in a functional genomic screen in mouse models, a BMI1High;CHD7Low expression signature within medulloblastoma characterizes patients with poor overall survival. We show that BMI1-mediated repression of the ERK1/2 pathway leads to increased proliferation and tumor burden in primary human MB cells and in a xenograft model, respectively. We provide evidence that repression of the ERK inhibitor DUSP4 by BMI1 is dependent on a more accessible chromatin configuration in G4 MB cells with low CHD7 expression. These findings extend current knowledge of the role of BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they raise the possibility that pharmacological targeting of BMI1 or ERK may be particularly indicated in a subgroup of MB with low expression levels of CHD7. : Badodi et al. find convergence of the chromatin modifiers BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they show that this pathway regulates tumor proliferation and growth via ERK signaling. Keywords: BMI1, CHD7, DUSP4, ERK, medulloblastoma, PcG genes, mouse models, epigenetics, chromatin

  19. Beauty and the Body of the Beholder: Raters' BMI Has Only Limited Association with Ratings of Attractiveness of the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Bissland, Ruth; Djafarian, Kurosh; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Holasek, Sandra; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Cao, Minxuan; Hacker, Megan; Kruger, Herculina S; Seru, Tumelo; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2018-03-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity increases the genetic burden on offspring, but its causes remain unclear. One hypothesis is that people who have high adiposity find other people with obesity more physically attractive than lean people. The attractiveness of sets of images of males and females who varied in adiposity were rated by opposite sex subjects (559 males and 340 females) across 12 countries. There was tremendous individual variability in attractiveness ratings. For female attractiveness, most males favored the leanest subjects, but others favored intermediate fatness, some were indifferent to body composition, and others rated the subjects with obesity as most attractive. For male images rated by females, the patterns were more complex. Most females favored subjects with low levels of adiposity (but not the lowest level), whereas others were indifferent to body fatness or rated the images depicting individuals with obesity as the most attractive. These patterns were unrelated to rater BMI. Among Caucasian males who rated the images of the thinnest females as being more attractive, the magnitude of the effect depended on rater BMI, indicating limited "mutual attraction." Individual variations in ratings of physical attractiveness were broadly unrelated to rater BMI and suggest that mutual attraction is an unlikely explanation for assortative mating for obesity. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  20. BMI, RQ, diabetes, and sex affect the relationships between amino acids and clamp measures of insulin action in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Ingram, Katherine H; Guo, Fangjian; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B; Garvey, W Timothy

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e., hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), we examined the relationships between the metabolomic amino acid profile and insulin action (i.e., glucose disposal rate [GDR]). Relationships between GDR and serum amino acids were determined among insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) individuals. In all subjects, glycine (Gly) had the strongest correlation with GDR (positive association), followed by leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) (negative association). These relationships were dramatically influenced by BMI, the resting respiratory quotient (RQ), T2DM, and sex. Gly had a strong positive correlation with GDR regardless of BMI, RQ, or sex but became nonsignificant in T2DM. In contrast, Leu/Ile was negatively associated with GDR in nonobese and T2DM subjects. Increased resting fat metabolism (i.e., low RQ) and obesity were observed to independently promote and negate the association between Leu/Ile and insulin resistance, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between Leu/Ile and GDR was magnified in T2DM males. Future studies are needed to determine whether Gly has a mechanistic role in glucose homeostasis and whether dietary Gly enrichment may be an effective intervention in diseases characterized by insulin resistance.

  1. The effects of height and BMI on prostate cancer incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Neil M; Gaunt, Tom R; Lewis, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    scores that summed each man's number of height and BMI increasing alleles across multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms robustly associated with each phenotype from published genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: The genetic risk scores explained 6.31 and 1.46% of the variability in height and BMI......, respectively. There was only weak evidence that genetic variants previously associated with increased BMI were associated with a lower prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in BMI genetic score 0.98; 95% CI 0.96, 1.00; p = 0.07). Genetic variants associated with increased height were...... not associated with prostate cancer incidence (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.97, 1.01; p = 0.23), but were associated with an increase (OR 1.13; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.20) in prostate cancer mortality among low-grade disease (p heterogeneity, low vs. high grade BMI were...

  2. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  3. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  4. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.

  5. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four muscle groups. Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30  kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25  kg/m. This study suggests that actions that decrease BMI and increase MVC decrease the amount of sickness presenteeism.

  6. The associations of Bmi-1 with progression of glomerular chronic kidney disease
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Bai, Ming; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Feng; Liu, Limin; Liu, Ting; Liu, Minna; Wang, Hanmin; Sun, Shiren

    2018-02-01

    Our previous studies indicated that Bmi-1 plays an important role in hypoxia-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the development of kidney fibrosis in cellular and animal models. However, circulating Bmi-1 levels in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their relation to progression remains unknown. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study. The blood samples and clinical data of 230 patients with glomerular CKD and 67 healthy adults were prospectively collected between January 2010 and June 2012. Serum Bmi-1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CKD patients had significantly higher serum Bmi-1 concentrations than the healthy controls (496.4 (363.1 - 675.4) pg/mL compared with 257.3 (235.4 - 303.8) pg/mL, p Bmi-1 level inversely correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.346, p Bmi-1 levels and serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C concentration, and the severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis (r = 0.248, p Bmi-1 level was associated with a shorter duration of renal survival. Cox multivariate analyses further demonstrated that serum Bmi-1 concentration was an independent prognostic factor for CKD patients (HR = 6.48, p Bmi-1 levels were associated with adverse kidney disease outcome, suggesting that Bmi-1 is a novel biomarker for glomerular CKD progression. More data from larger longitudinal studies are required to validate our findings.
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  7. Associations between parity and maternal BMI in a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Ditte S; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Ovesen, Per G

    2018-02-07

    We aimed to investigate the change in prevalence of overweight and obesity in pregnant Danish women from 2004 to 2012, and investigate whether increasing parity was associated with a change in body mass index (BMI) prevalence. We obtained a population-based cohort from the Danish Medical Birth Registry consisting of all Danish women giving birth in 2004-2012 (n = 572 321). This registry contains information on 99.8% of all births in Denmark. We calculated the overall change in prepregnancy BMI status among pregnant women in Denmark, and a multiple linear regression model with adjustment for several potential confounders was used to examine the change in prepregnancy BMI with increasing parity. In 2004, the prevalence of prepregnancy overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and obesity alone (BMI ≥ 30) was 31.9 and 11%, respectively. In 2012, the prevalence had reached 34.2 and 12.8%. The mean BMI increased for every additional parity from 23.80 (95% CI 23.77-23.82) in parity group 1 to 26.70 (26.52-26.90) in parity group 5+. A multiple linear regression adjusted for potential confounders showed that women on average gained 0.62 (0.58-0.65) BMI units after every additional birth. This study showed a 7.2% increase in overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and a 16.4% increase in obesity alone (BMI ≥ 30) for pregnant women in Denmark from 2004 to 2012. In addition, an increase in interpregnancy BMI was seen at every additional delivery, suggesting that obesity is an increasing challenge in obstetrics. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 Member, BMI1 Contributes to Urothelial Tumorigenesis through p16-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia E. De Faveri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinoma (UC causes significant morbidity and remains the most expensive cancer to treat because of the need for repeated resections and lifelong monitoring for patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. Novel therapeutics and stratification approaches are needed to improve the outlook for both NMIBC and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We investigated the expression and effects of B Lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion Region 1 (BMI1 in UC. BMI1 was found to be overexpressed in most UC cell lines and primary tumors by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to some previous reports, no association with tumor stage or grade was observed in two independent tumor panels. Furthermore, upregulation of BMI1 was detected in premalignant bladder lesions, suggesting a role early in tumorigenesis. BMI1 is not located within a common region of genomic amplification in UC. The CDKN2A locus (which encodes the p16 tumor suppressor gene is a transcriptional target of BMI1 in some cellular contexts. In UC cell lines and primary tissues, no correlation between BMI1 and p16 expression was observed. Retroviral-mediated overexpression of BMI1 immortalized normal human urothelial cells (NHUC in vitro and was associated with induction of telomerase activity, bypass of senescence, and repression of differentiation. The effects of BMI1 on gene expression were identified by expression microarray analysis of NHUC-BMI1. Metacore analysis of the gene expression profile implicated downstream effects of BMI1 on α4/β1 integrin-mediated adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and CREB1-mediated transcription.

  9. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study

    OpenAIRE

    Linna, Milla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. Methods FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionna...

  10. DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION DEPEND ON BMI IN KOREAN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi-Young So

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the associations between cardiovascular function and both body mass index and physical fitness in Korean men. The subjects were 2,013 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who visited a health promotion center for a comprehensive medical and fitness test during 2006-2009. The WHO's Asia-Pacific Standard Report definition of BMI was used in this study. Fitness assessment of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and balance were evaluated by VO2max (ml/kg/min, grip strength (kg, sit-ups (reps/min, sit and reach (cm, vertical jump (cm, side steps (reps/30s, and standing on one leg with eyes closed (sec, respectively. For cardiovascular function, we evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, resting heart rate (RHR, double product (DP, and vital capacity. There were significant decreases in cardiorespiratory endurance (p < 0.001, power (p < 0.001, and balance (p < 0.001, and increases in muscular strength (p < 0.001. Further, cardiovascular function, including SBP (p < 0.001, DBP (p < 0.001, double product (p < 0.001, and vital capacity (p=0.006 appeared to be lower for the obesity group. We conclude that an obese person exhibits lower fitness level and weaker cardiovascular function than a normal person

  11. Impact of baseline BMI and weight change in CCTG adjuvant breast cancer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmi, R; Dong, B; Chapman, J W; Goss, P E; Pollak, M N; Burnell, M J; Levine, M N; Bramwell, V H C; Pritchard, K I; Whelan, T J; Ingle, J N; Shepherd, L E; Parulekar, W R; Han, L; Ding, K; Gelmon, K A

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesized that increased baseline BMI and BMI change would negatively impact clinical outcomes with adjuvant breast cancer systemic therapy. Data from chemotherapy trials MA.5 and MA.21; endocrine therapy MA.12, MA.14 and MA.27; and trastuzumab HERA/MA.24 were analyzed. The primary objective was to examine the effect of BMI change on breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) landmarked at 5 years; secondary objectives included BMI changes at 1 and 3 years; BMI changes on disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS); and effects of baseline BMI. Stratified analyses included trial therapy and composite trial stratification factors. In pre-/peri-/early post-menopausal chemotherapy trials (N = 2793), baseline BMI did not impact any endpoint and increased BMI from baseline did not significantly affect BCFI (P = 0.85) after 5 years although it was associated with worse BCFI (P = 0.03) and DSS (P = 0.07) after 1 year. BMI increase by 3 and 5 years was associated with better DSS (P = 0.01; 0.01) and OS (P = 0.003; 0.05). In pre-menopausal endocrine therapy trial MA.12 (N = 672), patients with higher baseline BMI had worse BCFI (P = 0.02) after 1 year, worse DSS (P = 0.05; 0.004) after 1 and 5 years and worse OS (P = 0.01) after 5 years. Increased BMI did not impact BCFI (P = 0.90) after 5 years, although it was associated with worse BCFI (P = 0.01) after 1 year. In post-menopausal endocrine therapy trials MA.14 and MA.27 (N = 8236), baseline BMI did not significantly impact outcome for any endpoint. BMI change did not impact BCFI or DSS after 1 or 3 years, although a mean increased BMI of 0.3 was associated with better OS (P = 0.02) after 1 year. With the administration of trastuzumab (N = 1395) baseline BMI and BMI change did not significantly impact outcomes. Higher baseline BMI and BMI increases negatively affected outcomes only in pre-/peri-/early post-menopausal trial patients. Otherwise, BMI

  12. The Predictive Factors for Diabetic Remission in Chinese Patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and BMI < 30 kg/m2 Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Cao, Qing; Liu, Huan; Guan, Wei; Wong, Claudia; Tong, Daniel

    2018-01-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has been proven to be beneficial for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In less-obese patient (BMI 30-35 kg/m 2 ), surgical treatment is indicated when medication fails to control the T2DM. Asian develops diabetes at a lower BMI. For lower-BMI patients, the rate of diabetes amelioration varies significantly with patients of higher BMI after surgical treatment. The factors that contribute to the post-operative diabetes response rate in lower-BMI patients have not been elucidated. Between 2010 and 2014, a total of 144 patients who underwent gastric bypass for the treatment of T2DM were included for study. Patients were divided into two groups for subgroup analysis, namely BMI > 30 kg/m 2 and BMI BMI group (BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ) was 80% (n = 90) whereas for the lower BMI (BMI BMI group, low HbA1c and high fasting C-peptide are predictive factors whereas for lower-BMI group, along with elevated C-peptide level, disease duration is the positive predictive factor for DM remission. Patients with BMI > 30 kg/m 2 and those with BMI BMI patients while duration of diabetes is for high-low-BMI patients. C-peptide is a predictor of remission in both groups. Further large-scale studies are required to define the predictors of diabetes remission after gastric bypass in low- and high-BMI patients.

  13. BMI and risk of serious upper body injury following motor vehicle crashes: concordance of real-world and computer-simulated observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankuan Zhu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Men tend to have more upper body mass and fat than women, a physical characteristic that may predispose them to severe motor vehicle crash (MVC injuries, particularly in certain body regions. This study examined MVC-related regional body injury and its association with the presence of driver obesity using both real-world data and computer crash simulation.Real-world data were from the 2001 to 2005 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. A total of 10,941 drivers who were aged 18 years or older involved in frontal collision crashes were eligible for the study. Sex-specific logistic regression models were developed to analyze the associations between MVC injury and the presence of driver obesity. In order to confirm the findings from real-world data, computer models of obese subjects were constructed and crash simulations were performed. According to real-world data, obese men had a substantially higher risk of injury, especially serious injury, to the upper body regions including head, face, thorax, and spine than normal weight men (all p<0.05. A U-shaped relation was found between body mass index (BMI and serious injury in the abdominal region for both men and women (p<0.05 for both BMI and BMI(2. In the high-BMI range, men were more likely to be seriously injured than were women for all body regions except the extremities and abdominal region (all p<0.05 for interaction between BMI and sex. The findings from the computer simulation were generally consistent with the real-world results in the present study.Obese men endured a much higher risk of injury to upper body regions during MVCs. This higher risk may be attributed to differences in body shape, fat distribution, and center of gravity between obese and normal-weight subjects, and between men and women. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  14. Human milk insulin is related to maternal plasma insulin and BMI: but other components of human milk do not differ by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B E; Patinkin, Z; Palmer, C; de la Houssaye, B; Barbour, L A; Hernandez, T; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F

    2017-09-01

    The impact of maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity on bioactive components of human milk (HM) is not well understood. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes rises, it is increasingly critical that we understand how maternal BMI and hormones associated with metabolic disease relate to concentrations of bioactive components in HM. This longitudinal cohort design followed 48 breastfeeding mothers through the first four months of lactation, collecting fasting morning HM samples at 2-weeks and 1, 2, 3 and 4-months, and fasting maternal blood at 2-weeks and 4-months. Insulin, glucose, adipokines leptin and adiponectin, appetite regulating hormone ghrelin, marker of oxidative stress 8OHdG and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a) were measured in HM and maternal plasma. A total of 26 normal weight (NW) (BMI=21.4±2.0 kg/m 2 ) and 22 overweight/obese (OW/Ob) (BMI=30.4±4.2 kg/m 2 ) were followed. Of all HM analytes measured, only insulin and leptin were different between groups - consistently higher in the OW/Ob group (leptin: P<0.001; insulin: P<0.03). HM insulin was 98% higher than maternal plasma insulin at 2-weeks and 32% higher at 4-months (P<0.001). Maternal fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR were positively related to HM insulin at 2-weeks (P<0.001, R 2 ⩾0.38, n=31), and 4-months (P⩽0.005, R 2 ⩾0.20, n=38). The concentrations of insulin in HM are higher than in maternal plasma and are related to maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity. With the exception of leptin, there were minimal other differences observed in HM composition across a wide range in maternal BMI.

  15. p21/Cyclin E pathway modulates anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1 in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen; Zhou, Yuan; Tiwari, Agnes FY; Su, Hang; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Dandan; Lau, Victoria Ming Yi; Hau, Pok Man; Yip, Yim Ling; Cheung, Annie LM; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2015-01-01

    Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently indu