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Sample records for underweight severe stunting

  1. Frequency of underweight and stunting among children entering school in a small urban locality and their association with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Husain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Medhat, Naila; Farooq, Hadia; Ahmad, Danial; Nasir, Waqar

    2018-01-01

    To determine the frequency of underweight and stunting among the children entering first year of school and to assess its associated factors. This descriptive, analytical study was conducted at 5 schools of Rabwah, Pakistan, from August to September 2015, and comprised all students who got admission in the selected schools during the study period. Name, father's name, gender, weight, height, status of height, and weight on Z-score charts, and marks obtained in the test were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 478 participants, 212(44.4%) were boys and 266(55.6%) were girls. The overall mean age was 66.6±5.966 months (range: 41-129 months). Overall, 53(11.1%) were underweight, 22(4.6%) were severely underweight, 55(11.5%) had stunting and 12(2.5%) had severe stunting. Median marks (Interquartile Range [IQR]) in admission test for obese, overweight, normal, underweight and severely underweight children were 76.3%(37.2-84.7), 65.9%, 66.7%(56.4-72.3), 64.6%(47-71), and 67%(55.3-78), respectively. Median marks (IQR) in admission test for tall, normal height, stunted and severe stunted children were 24.1%, 67%(57.3-73), 57%(31.1-67.8), and 62.6%(49.7-68.3), respectively. Children with stunting scored significantly fewer marks compared to children of normal height (p<0.05). Stunting and underweight were common problems among children starting school. Stunting was found to be associated with lower marks in admission test.

  2. Socio-demographic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents in Ethiopia.

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    Assefa, Huruy; Belachew, Tefera; Negash, Legesse

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual's life. There are different factors that affect nutritional status of adolescents. Socio Economic Status, age, sex and mothers' educational level are among the important determinants factors of nutritional status of adolescents. Younger adolescents tend to be more undernourished than older adolescents, and, contrary to expectations that boys are almost twice as undernourished as girls. In this study, we test the competing hypothesis about the correlates of nutritional status among Ethiopian adolescents. We report a total of 2084 adolescents from the second round of a 5-year longitudinal study in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Univariate and Multivariable linear regression were used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with Underweight and Stunting among Adolescents in Jimma zone. Age, highest grade completed, job and last attended in community school were positively associated with BMI for Age z-score and highest grade completed, household income and job were positively associated with Height for Age z-score. However, male gender was negatively associated with BMI for Age z-score and male gender, last attended in community school, abdominal pain and household size were negatively associated with Height for Age z-score. Age of the adolescents, gender, educational status, employment status and type of last school attended are associated with underweight; and gender, place of residence, household size, household income, educational status, employment status, type of last school attended and abdominal pain are associated with stunted. The findings reflect socio-demographic characteristics are associated with underweight and stunting.

  3. Underweight, Stunting and Wasting among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania; a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mgongo, Melina; Chotta, Nikolas A. S.; Hashim, Tamara H.; Uriyo, Jacqueline G.; Damian, Damian J.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia E.; Wandel, Margareta; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0–24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status. A total of 1870 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of children classified as underweight was 46.0%, stunting was 41.9%, and wasting was 24.7%. About 33% were both underweight and stunted, and 12% had all three conditions. In a multivariate logistic regression, child age, child being ill and birth weight were associated with all anthropometric indices. Child being breastfed was associated with being underweight and wasting. Mother’s education was associated with being underweight and stunting. Fathers aged 35+ years, and living in the Hai district was associated with stunting, and being female was associated with wasting. The prevalence of child undernutrition is high in this region. Strategies that target each risk factor for child undernutrition may help to reduce the problem in the region. PMID:28489043

  4. Variations in estimates of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity in children from Argentina comparing three growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Gisel; Seoane, Analía I; Salceda, Susana A

    2012-11-01

    To compare estimates of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity based on three growth charts. Cross-sectional study to estimate weight-for-age, length/height-for-age and weight-for-height comparing the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards ('the WHO standards'), the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) international growth reference ('the NCHS reference') and the 1987 Argentine Pediatric Society Committee of Growth and Development reference ('the APS reference'). Cut-off points were defined as mean values ±2 s d. Epi-Info software version 6·0 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was used for statistical evaluations (χ 2, P ≤ 0·05). Greater La Plata conurbation, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A total of 2644 healthy, full-term children from 0 to 5 years of age. Prevalence of underweight was higher with the WHO standards than with the other references up to the first 6 months. For the rest of the ages, prevalence was lower with the WHO standards. Stunting prevalence was higher with the WHO standards at all ages. Prevalence of wasting was higher with the WHO standards compared with the NCHS reference up to the first 6 months and lower at 2-5 years of age. Overweight and obesity prevalences were higher with the WHO standards at all ages. The new WHO standards appear to be a solid and reliable tool for diagnosis and treatment of nutritional diseases, also being the only one built with infants fed according to WHO recommendations. Therefore, our results support the decision of the National Ministry of Health about the utilization of the new WHO standards to monitor the nutritional status of Argentinean children aged less than 5 years.

  5. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SOSIAL EKONOMI DAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT KAITANNYA DENGAN MASALAH GIZI UNDERWEIGHT, STUNTED, DAN WASTED DI INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN EKOLOGI GIZI

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    Dian Hani Ulfani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Malnutrition is an ecological problem in the sense influenced by various aspects, as explained in the framework of UNICEF (1988. Indonesia as developing country at present still faced such a problem. Eco-nutrition is important to understand related factors affecting malnutrition in Indonesia to find out more effective programs. Eco-nutrition have three key areas : public health (access to quality water, sanitation and health services, socio economic (livelihood assets and malnutrition. The purpose of this research was to study the linkages between socioeconomic and public health factors with the problem of underweight, stunted, and wasted in Indonesia.This research was conducted using cross-sectional study design, analyzed the 424 districts/cities in Indonesia. Data prevalence of underweight, stunted, wasted, level of education and public health factors (access to quality water, hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu, complete immunization coverage, incidence of diarrhea, and the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI obtained from Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007. Socio-economic data (level of poverty and GDP/capita obtained from the Central Statistic Agency (BPS. Statistical test of Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression method were implemented to understand factors affecting underweight, stunted, wasted and correlation among variables. The study shows that factors affecting underweight were educational level, poverty level, hygiene behavior and use of Posyandu. While factors affecting stunted were GDP/capita, education level, poverty level, hygiene behavior, and utilization of Posyandu. Factors affecting wasted were hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu and complete immunization. Key words: underweight,   stunted,   wasted,   socioeconomic   factors,   public   health,                   eco-nutrition

  6. Growth Tracking in Severely Obese or Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Melissa; Tanamas, Stephanie K; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Kapadia, Chirag R; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-12-01

    To illustrate the difficulties in optimal growth monitoring of children with severe obesity or underweight by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 age- and sex-specific BMI percentile growth charts. We also aimed to examine the utility of a new modified CDC BMI z score chart to monitor growth in children with normal and extreme BMI percentiles by using real-life clinical scenarios. Modified BMI z score charts were created by using the 2000 CDC algorithm. Three cases of children with extreme BMI values and abnormal growth patterns were plotted by using the standard CDC 2000 clinical growth chart, the modified BMI z score chart, and the CDC BMI percentile chart, modified to include the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ) curves. Children with severe obesity could not be plotted on the standard CDC BMI percentile chart because their BMI points lay above the chart cutoff. Children with a low BMI (chart. The addition of the %BMI p95 scale to the standard BMI percentile chart allowed tracking of severely obese children; however, it did not address severely underweight children and required a change of units within the chart when transitioning from normal to obese BMIs. The modified BMI z score chart allowed uniform tracking. The modified CDC z score chart is suitable for growth tracking of children with normal and extreme growth patterns; the measures correlate well with the %BMI p95, and the chart can be incorporated easily into existing electronic health record systems for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

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    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all Poverweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  8. Only severe COPD is associated with being underweight: results from a population survey

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    Berne Eriksson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Low body mass index (BMI and malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are associated with a poor prognosis. The prevalence of underweight, as well as overweight, in severity grades of COPD is sparsely investigated in studies of the general population and the associated patterns of risk factors are not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between severity grades of airflow limitation in COPD, and both underweight and obesity when corrected for possible confounding factors. The study is based on pooled data from the OLIN (Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies. Complete records with lung function, BMI and structured interview data were available from 3942 subjects (50.7% women and 49.3% men. COPD and severity grading were defined using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. In sensitivity analyses, the lower limit of normal was used. The prevalence of underweight was 7.3% in severe COPD (grades 3 and 4 versus 2.0% in those with normal spirometry. The prevalence of obesity increased from 9.7% in grade 1, to 16.3% in grade 2 and 20.0% in severe COPD, versus 17.7% in those with normal spirometry. In adjusted analysis, of the COPD severity grades, only severe COPD was associated with underweight (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.0004–10.5, while the COPD severity grades tended to be inversely associated with overweight.

  9. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total of...

  10. WHO 2006 child growth standards: implications for the prevalence of stunting and underweight-for-age in a birth cohort of Gabonese children in comparison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts and the National Center for Health Statistics 1978 growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Decker, Marie-Luise; Goesch, Julia; Poetschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kombila, Davy; Fortin, Julien; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of children being stunted and underweight-for-age at 3, 9 and 15 months in Lambaréné, Gabon, using the WHO child growth standards released in 2006 as compared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 and the National Center for Health

  11. Social determinants of stunting in rural area of Wardha, Central India.

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    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Sinha, Nirmalya; Dongre, Amol R

    2013-07-01

    Stunting is a consequence of long term, cumulative inadequacies of health and nutrition. Health system uses underweight for growth monitoring for its simplicity. Lately there is renewed interest in stunting and especially severe acute malnutrition. Stunting is a relatively neglected indicator. It is therefore imperative to understand the causes of stunting early in infancy and childhood, so that preventive measures can be taken. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the social determinants of stunting in rural Wardha. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of Wardha district with total population of 88,187. The sample was drawn from three PHC areas by 30-cluster sampling technique. Stunting was defined using WHO Child Growth Standards for 'height-for-age'. 'Height-for-age' values below 2 standard deviations were considered as stunted while below 3 standard deviations were considered 'severe stunting'. Prevalence of stunting was observed to be 52.3% and severe stunting was 25.1%. The significant determinants of stunting were found to be age, father's education, fathers' occupation, low income, not receiving Vitamin-A supplement during last 6 months and having anaemia. Sex, caste, mother's education and mothers' occupation did not contribute significantly to the stunting. Low income and related factors such as father's education and his occupation are important determinant of the stunting. Father being the decision maker, his education is of importance. Vitamin-A supplementation and anaemia as surrogate indicators for access to health care also found out to be significant determinants of stunting.

  12. South Africa's nutritional transition: Overweight, obesity, underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- ...

  13. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

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    Jullyana F.R. Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. METHODS: this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2 or severe stunting (HAZ < -3. Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. RESULTS: the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001 and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001 stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01 were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG in both severely (initial: 91.8 mg/dL; final: 79.1 mg/dL; p = 0.01 and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2 mg/dL; final 88.7 mg/dL; p = 0.01, and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4 mg/dL; final: 42.2 mg/dL. The values of total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1 mg/dL; final: 163.5 mg/dL and initial: 109.0 mg/dL; final: 107.3 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION: the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition.

  14. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

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    Alves, Jullyana F R; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Sawaya, Ana L; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2) or severe stunting (HAZ < -3). Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001) and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001) stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01) were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG) in both severely (initial: 91.8mg/dL; final: 79.1mg/dL; p = 0.01) and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2mg/dL; final 88.7mg/dL; p = 0.01), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4mg/dL; final: 42.2mg/dL). The values of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1mg/dL; final: 163.5mg/dL and initial: 109.0mg/dL; final: 107.3mg/dL, respectively). the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Underweight and mortality.

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    Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Keeho; Ahn, Song Vogue; Kang, Dae Ryong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Willett, Walter C; Suh, Il

    2016-07-01

    According to most prospective studies, being underweight (BMICorporation study with 14 years of follow-up. After excluding deaths within the first 5 years of follow-up (1993-1997) to minimize reverse causation and excluding participants without information about smoking and health status, 94 133 men and 48 496 women aged 35-59 years in 1990 were included. We documented 5411 (5·7 %) deaths in men and 762 (1·6 %) in women. Among never smokers, hazard ratios (HR) for underweight individuals were not significantly higher than those for normal-weight individuals (BMI=18·5-22·9 kg/m2): HR=0·87 (95 % CI 0·41, 1·84, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=1·12 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·65, P=0·58) for underweight women. Among ex-smokers, HR=0·86 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·93, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=3·77 (95 % CI 0·42, 32·29, P=0·24) for underweight women. Among current smokers, HR=1·60 (95 % CI 1·28, 2·01, Pmen and HR=2·07 (95 % CI 0·43, 9·94, P=0·36) for underweight women. The present study does not support that being underweight per se is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Korean men and women.

  16. Magnitude of thinness, underweight and stunting among school age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the nutrition status among school age children in a rural community. Design: A cross sectional anthropometric survey. Setting: Mpwawa rural district, Central Tanzania. Methods: 639 children from ten randomly selected primary schools and 195 out-of-school children living close to the selected schools ...

  17. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    to target young wasted and stunted children efficiently in situations where these two conditions are present. Wasting is also associated with decreased fat mass. A decreased fat mass is frequent but inconsistent in stunting. Fat secretes multiple hormones, including leptin, which may have a stimulating...... mass. Leptin may also have an effect on bone growth. This may explain why wasted children with low fat stores have reduced linear growth when their weight-for-height remains low. It may also explain the frequent association of stunting with previous episodes of wasting. Stunting, however, can occur...... and stunting are both associated with increased mortality, especially when both are present in the same child. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of these two different forms of malnutrition is needed to design efficient programs. A greatly reduced muscle mass is characteristic of severe wasting...

  18. The relationship between preterm birth and underweight in Asian women.

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    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2015-08-15

    Although vast improvements have been made in the survival of preterm infants, the toll of preterm birth (PTB) is particularly severe in Asia, with the Indian subcontinent leading the preterm birth rate. Despite the obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence in developing countries. An association between maternal underweight and preterm birth has been reported in developed countries. A review of epidemiological studies in Asian women in whom association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of PTB was measured, indicated no significant association between low maternal BMI and preterm birth. A hindrance in comparison of these studies is the use of different cut-off point for BMI in defining maternal underweight. As a commentary on published studies it is proposed that that country-specific BMI cut points should be applied for defining underweight for Asian women for the purpose of evaluating the association between maternal underweight and preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province.

  20. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  1. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...

  2. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey. ... Introduction: Overweight and obesity are significant causes of increased morbidity and premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, particularly in ...

  3. Wasting and stunting – similarities and differences; policy and programmatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The terms wasting and stunting were introduced by Waterlow to differentiate among underweight children those with a low weight-for-height (wasted) from those with a low height-for-age (stunted). Wasting is often called acute malnutrition and stunting chronic malnutrition but these terms may be misleading, and may just reflect that it takes a longer time to diagnose linear growth retardation. These two forms of malnutrition are associated with changes in body composition with a reduced muscle mass but usually a normal brain size in relation to body weight. These changes are more pronounced but more easily corrected in wasting. The reduced muscle mass present in stunting may persist into adult life and may be associated with an increased fat mass. Muscle is the main store of amino-acids and other essential nutrients needed for the body’s immune response and is a major determinant of survival in infections. The low muscle mass observed in both stunting and wasting is likely to explain the association between these two conditions and increased mortality. Hence, health and nutrition programmes aiming to reduce mortality need to prevent both wasting and stunting, especially in young children who have a low muscle ass to start with. Children having an insufficient food intake lose weight and become wasted but also stop growing in height, becoming stunted if untreated. Growth in height resumes only after wasting has been at least partially corrected. Hence detecting and treating wasting in a timely fashion also helps to prevent stunting. The recent discovery that bone and body fat are both endocrine organs interacting with each other and that bone regulates energy metabolism through osteocalcin (a hormone produced by bone) may explain these observations. Stunting can also occur in the absence of wasting. A possible explanation is that linear growth requires synthesis of cartilage and bone tissues, which contain more phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur

  4. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and quality of life in underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Chih; Huang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Kuo-Liang; Wu, Yao-Kuang

    2011-02-01

    An estimated 20-40% of COPD patients are underweight. We sought to confirm the physiological and psychosocial benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes (PRP) in underweight compared with non-underweight patients with COPD. Twenty-two underweight COPD patients with BMI patients, who were matched for FEV(1) and age, were studied. All patients had moderate-to-very severe COPD. All patients participated in 12-week, hospital-based outpatient PRP consisting of two sessions per week. Baseline and post-PRP status were evaluated by spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, ventilatory muscle strength and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). At baseline, the age distribution and airflow obstruction were similar in underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD. Baseline exercise capacity, inspiratory muscle strength and SGRQ total and symptoms scores were significantly lower in the underweight patients (all P patients (mean increase 0.8 kg, P = 0.01). There were also significant improvements in peak oxygen uptake, peak workload and the SGRQ total, symptoms, activity and impact scores in both underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD (all P patients with COPD have impaired exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Exercise training with supplemental oxygen may result in significant weight gains and improvements in exercise capacity and HRQL. Exercise training is indicated for underweight patients with COPD. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Almenara, Carlos A.; Jezek, Stanislav; Erriu, Michela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed developmental trajectories from childhood to adolescence of internalizing/externalizing problems, limited attention has been given to underweight children. Two groups were recruited for this study from a community sample: underweight (Ug, N?=?80, 50% female) and normal weight (NWg, N?=?80, 50% female) to examine the developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children from the age two years, and thei...

  6. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing J. Akombi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0–59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0–59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight. The prevalence of wasting was 18% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 17.1, 19.7 and severe wasting 9% (95% CI: 7.9, 9.8. The prevalence of underweight was 29% (95% CI: 27.1, 30.5 and severe underweight 12% (95% CI: 10.6, 12.9. Multivariable analysis revealed that the most consistent factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight are: geopolitical zone (North East, North West and North Central, perceived birth size (small and average, sex of child (male, place/mode of delivery (home delivery and non-caesarean and a contraction of fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. In order to meet the WHO’s global nutrition target for 2025, interventions aimed at improving maternal health and access to health care services for children especially in the northern geopolitical zones of Nigeria are urgently needed.

  7. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akombi, Blessing J; Agho, Kingsley E; Merom, Dafna; Hall, John J; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-01-08

    Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0-59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0-59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight. The prevalence of wasting was 18% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 17.1, 19.7) and severe wasting 9% (95% CI: 7.9, 9.8). The prevalence of underweight was 29% (95% CI: 27.1, 30.5) and severe underweight 12% (95% CI: 10.6, 12.9). Multivariable analysis revealed that the most consistent factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight are: geopolitical zone (North East, North West and North Central), perceived birth size (small and average), sex of child (male), place/mode of delivery (home delivery and non-caesarean) and a contraction of fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. In order to meet the WHO's global nutrition target for 2025, interventions aimed at improving maternal health and access to health care services for children especially in the northern geopolitical zones of Nigeria are urgently needed.

  8. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  9. Spatial heterogeneity and risk factors for stunting among children under age five in Ethiopia: A Bayesian geo-statistical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifu Hagos

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial distribution of stunting and underlying factors operating at meso-scale is of paramount importance for intervention designing and implementations. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of stunting and some discrepancies are documented on the relative importance of reported risk factors. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring the spatial distribution of stunting at meso- (district scale, and evaluates the effect of spatial dependency on the identification of risk factors and their relative contribution to the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in a rural area of Ethiopia.A community based cross sectional study was conducted to measure the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting among children aged 0-59 months. Additionally, we collected relevant information on anthropometric measures, dietary habits, parent and child-related demographic and socio-economic status. Latitude and longitude of surveyed households were also recorded. Local Anselin Moran's I was calculated to investigate the spatial variation of stunting prevalence and identify potential local pockets (hotspots of high prevalence. Finally, we employed a Bayesian geo-statistical model, which accounted for spatial dependency structure in the data, to identify potential risk factors for stunting in the study area.Overall, the prevalence of stunting and severe stunting in the district was 43.7% [95%CI: 40.9, 46.4] and 21.3% [95%CI: 19.5, 23.3] respectively. We identified statistically significant clusters of high prevalence of stunting (hotspots in the eastern part of the district and clusters of low prevalence (cold spots in the western. We found out that the inclusion of spatial structure of the data into the Bayesian model has shown to improve the fit for stunting model. The Bayesian geo-statistical model indicated that the risk of stunting increased as the child's age increased (OR 4.74; 95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI]:3

  10. Body composition in stunted, compared to non-stunted, black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective was to compare the body composition of black stunted, and non-stunted, children, from two rural communities in South Africa, and investigate whether increased total and central adiposity is found in stunted children. The design was a cross-sectional study. The setting was two study populations of ...

  11. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Tondeur, Laura; Breurec, Sébastien; Bata, Petula; Nguyen, Liem Binh Luong; Frank, Thierry; Farra, Alain; Rafaï, Clotaire; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  12. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Vonaesch

    Full Text Available Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR, about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414 were boys, and 36 percent (148/414 exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148 showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148 presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  13. Prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight, and obesity among school children in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2016-10-03

    The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.

  14. High prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia: a nationwide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Takuro; Suzuki, Yutaro; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Ozeki, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Minami, Yoshitake; Okamoto, Kurefu; Sagae, Toyoaki; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity, and laboratory data for nutritional status in Japanese outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A questionnaire conducted in inpatient and outpatient facilities in Japan. Participants The population of adult patients with schizophrenia in Japan (N=23 116). Main outcome measures The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia. Results We conducted a large-scale investigation of the prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association between January 2012 and July 2013. There were 7655 outpatients and 15 461 inpatients with schizophrenia. There was a significant difference in the distribution of three body mass index levels between outpatients and inpatients (punderweight inpatients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that among outpatients (punderweight individuals aged ≥40 years was higher in inpatients than in outpatients and in the general Japanese population. The proportion of individuals with hypocholesterolaemia was significantly higher in inpatients with schizophrenia than in outpatients (punderweight between outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia; the proportion of severe underweight in inpatients was twofold higher than in outpatients. Conclusions The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia was higher than in outpatients and the general population. Therefore, the physical risk of inpatients should be carefully considered in clinical practice. PMID:26656016

  15. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Angood

    Full Text Available Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments.We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72% experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions.Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  16. Wasting and stunting--similarities and differences: policy and programmatic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-03-01

    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting and stunting are both associated with increased mortality, especially when both are present in the same child. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of these two different forms of malnutrition is needed to design efficient programs. A greatly reduced muscle mass is characteristic of severe wasting, but there is indirect evidence that it also occurs in stunting. A reduced muscle mass increases the risk of death during infections and also in many other different pathological situations. Reduced muscle mass may represent a common mechanism linking wasting and stunting with increased mortality. This suggests that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass, instead of focusing on one or the other form of malnutrition. Interventions should also focus on young infants and children, who have a low muscle mass in relation to body weight to start with. Using mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) to select children in need of treatment may represent a simple way to target young wasted and stunted children efficiently in situations where these two conditions are present. Wasting is also associated with decreased fat mass. A decreased fat mass is frequent but inconsistent in stunting. Fat secretes multiple hormones, including leptin, which may have a stimulating effect on the immune system. Depressed immunity resulting from low fat stores may also contribute to the increased mortality observed in wasting. This may represent

  17. One-fourth of the prisoners are underweight in Northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Semaw Ferede; Adane, Kelemework

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site. The outcome of this study was underweight defined as body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5 kg/m 2 . Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of underweight at a p-value of less than 0.05. The prevalence of underweight was 25.2% (95% CI; 22.3%- 28.3%). Khat Chewing (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.70) and longer duration of incarceration (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14) were associated with a significantly increased risk of underweight. Additionally, previous incarceration (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.42) was a relevant determinant of underweight with a borderline significance. In contrast, family support (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.43, 0.85) and farmer occupation (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.98) compared to those who were unemployed were important protective determinants significantly associated with lower risk of underweight. In summary, the burden of underweight was higher among prisoners in Tigray region who had respiratory tract infections. The study has enhanced our understanding of the determinants of underweight in the prison population. We strongly recommend that nutritional support, such as therapeutic feeding programs for severely or moderately underweight prisoners, and environmental health interventions of the prison setups should be urgently implemented to correct the uncovered nutritional problem and its associated factors for improving the health status of prisoners.

  18. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese. INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high...

  19. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing J. Akombi; Kingsley E. Agho; Dafna Merom; John J. Hall; Andre M. Renzaho

    2017-01-01

    Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0?59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0?59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe ...

  20. Role of Underweight and Overweight in the Development of Vertebral Pain Syndrome in Systemic Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povorozniuk

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion. Underweight in women of older age groups with systemic osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk and severity of pain syndrome in the thoracic region. Overweight promotes pain in the back, but did not affect the course of pain syndrome in this region of the spine in systemic osteoporosis.

  1. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were considerably more underweight adolescent boys than adolescent girls (17.3% boys to 9.9% girls), and double the frequency of overweight adolescent girls than adolescent boys (7.7% girls to 3.5% boys). The 14-year-old boys had the highest prevalence of underweight (55.2%), and the 17-year-old girls the ...

  2. Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Utero as a Risk Factor for Child Stunting in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nihit; Canning, David

    2017-12-23

    Pregnant mothers in Bangladesh are exposed to very high and worsening levels of ambient air pollution. Maternal exposure to fine particulate matter has been associated with low birth weight at much lower levels of exposure, leading us to suspect the potentially large effects of air pollution on stunting in children in Bangladesh. We estimate the relationship between exposure to air pollution in utero and child stunting by pooling outcome data from four waves of the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2004 and 2014, and calculating children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in utero using high resolution satellite data. We find significant increases in the relative risk of child stunting, wasting, and underweight with higher levels of in utero exposure to air pollution, after controlling for other factors that have been found to contribute to child anthropometric failure. We estimate the relative risk of stunting in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure as 1.074 (95% confidence interval: 1.014-1.138), 1.150 (95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.237, and 1.132 (95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.243), respectively. Over half of all children in Bangladesh in our sample were exposed to an annual ambient fine particulate matter level in excess of 46 µg/m³; these children had a relative risk of stunting over 1.13 times that of children in the lowest quartile of exposure. Reducing air pollution in Bangladesh could significantly contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing child stunting.

  3. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  4. GRAVIDARY HOMEOSTASIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH UNDERWEIGHT

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    Елена Владимировна Рудаева

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable success has been achieved in reducing obstetric and perinatal complications in various pathological conditions during pregnancy and childbirth. However, many aspects of obstetrics, theoretical and practical, remain unresolved. A promising direction are the new methodological approaches to clinical research methods of physiological and complicated pregnancy. One of such directions is the study of the gravidary homeostasis. The study of the gravidary homeostasis in pregnant women with underweight opens up fundamentally new ways to reduce the obstetric and perinatal complications. The aim – was to study the gravidar homeostasis in pregnant women with a body weight deficit. Materials and methods. A survey of 50 pregnant women with a deficit of body weight and their fetuses (the main group. The comparison group consisted of 50 pregnant women with normal body weight and their fruits. Neurovegetative regulation of the heart rhythm of the mother and fetus was studied by the method of spectral and mathematical analysis of the variability of the heart rhythm. Results. When registering the initial profile of the heart rhythm, only 16 % of women with body weight deficit of the cardiothoracic wave SPM were within the conditional norm (92 %; p < 0,001. An increase in the SPM waves of cardiac rhythm (hyperadaptive state due to VLF and LF-components of the spectrum was recorded in 48 % of women (6 %; p < 0,001. In 36 % of pregnant SPM waves, cardiac rhythm was characterized by a general depression of the spectrum (2 %; p < 0,001. In carrying out the functional loading test (hyperventilation, hyperadaptive stress responses (10 %; p < 0,001 prevailed in 50 % of cases. During the recovery period, 60 % of pregnant women showed a decrease in the adaptive mechanisms of the mother's body (12 %; p < 0,001. The indices of the cardiac rhythm wave fetal wave in a mother with a body weight deficit in 60 % were characterized

  5. How consistent are associations between stunting and child development? Evidence from a meta-analysis of associations between stunting and multidimensional child development in fifteen low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Murray, Megan B; Thomson, Dana R; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Despite documented associations between stunting and cognitive development, few population-level studies have measured both indicators in individual children or assessed stunting's associations with other developmental domains. Meta-analysis using publicly available data from fifteen Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS-4) to assess the association between stunting and development, controlling for maternal education, family wealth, books in the home, developmentally supportive parenting and sex of the child, stratified by country prevalence of breast-feeding ('low BF'middle-income countries. Publically available data from 58 513 children aged 36-59 months. Severe stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-3) was negatively associated with on-track development (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·83). Any stunting (Z-score <-2) was negatively associated with on-track development in countries with high BF prevalence (OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89). Severe and any stunting were negatively associated with physical development (OR=0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·89 and OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·91, respectively) and literacy/numeracy development in high BF countries (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·53 and OR=0·59, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·68, respectively), but not low BF countries (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·23 and OR=0·95, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·12, respectively). Any stunting was negatively associated with learning (OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88). There was no clear association between stunting and socio-emotional development. Stunting is associated with many but not all developmental domains across a diversity of countries and cultures. However, associations varied by country breast-feeding prevalence and developmental domain.

  6. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  7. Unemployment, underweight, and obesity: Findings from Understanding Society (UKHLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena

    2017-04-01

    Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  8. Differences of Fundamental Motor Skills Stunting and Non Stunting Preschool Children in Kindergarten in North Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaini, A.; Mardela, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem that emerged is based on the result of research done by the writer in kindergarten in North Padang Sub-district which concluded that: there were kindergarten students in this sub-district who were still lack of motor ability, research data shows that 59 people (37,34%) and then 34 people (21, 52%) were in very good category, 35 people (22.15%), were in moderate category, 22 people (13.92%) were in the poor category, and 5 (5,06%) were in the very poor category. Based on this data, the authors thought that the dominant factors that affect the above situation was a nutritional factor. It could be seen from the physical appearance of kindergarten children who tend to slow growth. The purpose of this study is to explain the description and differences in stunting and non stunting Fundamental motor skills capabilities in early childhood (preschool) children. This research is comparative study with cross sectional approach. The population in this study was the students of Kindergarten of Perwari II which consisted of 60 people consisting of 37 children of stunting and 23 non stunting children in Kindergarten of North Padang Sub district, the sample was taken as a whole. The data were collected with Fundamental motor skills tests including jumping, walking, running, balance exercises, throwing and catching the ball. Technique of data analysis in this research was descriptive statistic. The result of data analysis shows that there is difference of Fundamental motor skills between stunting and non stunting children. Fundamental motor skills of non stunting or normal children are better than those who were stunting or short. While the results of Fundamental motor skills of kindergarten children in North Padang District as a whole is at a good level.

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy M Dinh

    Full Text Available Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001 with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043. There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380 with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004 and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489 with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed.

  10. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  11. Integrated Blanket Supplementary Feeding Program Reduces Levels of Stunting in Yenangyaung, Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Thet; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full text: BACKGROUND: Yenanchaung Township is the top ranked amongst the six poorest townships in the 25 townships comprising of Magway Division. There is food insecurity, poor transportation, high unemployment and migration rates widespread illiteracy, poor hygiene, and lack of health facilities. Along with food insecurity, high rates of malnutrition are found. In 2010, 39.5 percent of children under five years of age were found to be stunted, 18.1 percent wasted and 28.3 percent underweight. World Food Program (WFP) and World Vision Myanmar (WV) have been collaborating in response to the food insecurity situation in Yenangyaung since 2005 through food assistance interventions. However, in 2011, WV target villages started focusing on implementation of food activities apart from just food assistance; a more sustainable approach. Thus, the project is now focusing on maintaining the food security status of the targeted communities by strengthening the capacity in agriculture technique, alternative livelihood skills, and health/nutrition education. METHODS: This project is focused on food provision for all pregnant and lactating mothers and under 3 children according to the set criteria by WFP as well as nutrition education in the respective villages. Township health offices, village leaders and trained volunteers were used to carry out the activities of the project, including: health/nutrition education, food distribution, cooking demonstrations, integration of immunization and vitamin A supplementation, pre-/post-natal care, growth monitoring, counseling and referrals. The weight and MUAC of the children (n = 381) were taken every month, and height was measured every 3 months. Follow-up was conducted January 2012 to December 2012. Children were discharged from the program when they reached 3 years of age, regardless of the nutritional status. Thus, the data collected during the project was used to assess the impact of the program. RESULTS: No significant changes

  12. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: tomato necrotic stunt virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to the infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for a sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to th...

  13. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: underweight is associated with several negative health outcomes, including nutritional deficiency, osteoporosis, and unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. However, evidence which would help deal with this problem from a public health perspective is scarce. Here, we aimed to identify the dietary characteristics of underweight female university students, particularly those with a desire for thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits.

  14. [Hunger perception and stunting among children living in poor conditions from the north of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzán, Andrés; Mercer, Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Nutritional status depicts not only the nourishing balance but also the conditions of life. Proper food availability, in form and amount, are aspects of food security. To determine the relationships between hunger perception and stunting. Stratified and multiple step sample from nine provinces from the north of Argentina (n= 3630, children between 6 months to 6 years old living under poor conditions). Hunger perception was explored according to the methodology of the Service of Economic Investigation of the Department of Agriculture of the United States. Row data were converted to z scores and compared against Argentinean growth standard. The comparison took into account the -2 standard deviation cut of point and the standardized prevalence of low height. 69.5% of the population experienced hunger, varying severe hunger between 38.0 to 48.0% according to provinces. The prevalence of stunting (children, food insecurity conditions and structural poverty conditions were associated with stunting.

  15. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  16. Prevalence of Overweight and Underweight among black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and underweight according to body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat, among Black South African children in rural areas from the North-West Province. The sample ...

  17. Overweight, obesity and underweight in nurses in Vhembe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In South Africa, anecdotal evidence concerning the prevalence of overweight and obesity in nurses is alarming, but no scientific studies have confirmed this notion. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in black nurses practising in South Africa. Method: A ...

  18. Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults Nigerian living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At action level II, there was no obese male. Conclusion: This study revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity exist in young adults, but overweight and obesity are more prevalent. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to control this in young adults for their present well-being and to possibly avoid the risk of ...

  19. The double burden of underweight and overweight in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to national statistics, 8.5% of youth aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus in 2013.13 Food insecurity may also play a role in underweight.14 The study results confirm the high prevalence of combined overweight and obesity in adolescent girls reported in the SANHANES.5 South.

  20. Upper arm fat and muscle in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Winandi Arundito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of stunting in Indonesia is high, with particularly negative impacts on health during childhood as well as adolescence. Stunting impacts the health of children as well as adults, especially with  regards to future obesity. Therefore, evaluating body composition of stunted children before 2 years of age is necessary. Objective To compare upper arm fat and muscle measurements in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months of age. Methods We analyzed secondary data of the Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Disease, Department of Child Health, Universitas Gadjah Mada Medical School, Yogyakarta which were collected using cluster random sampling from the Yogyakarta Special Province. We compared upper arm fat area (UFA, including the upper arm fat area estimate (UFE and the upper arm fat percentage (UFP, as well as upper arm muscle area (UMA and upper arm muscle area estimate (UME, among stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months. Results We analyzed 2,195 children. The prevalence of stunting was 354/2,195 (16.1%. The UFA, UFE, and UFP among stunted children were significantly lower compared to non-stunted children aged 7-12 months [UFA: 4.48 vs. 5.05 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; UFE: 4.88 vs. 5.55 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; and UFP: 30.82 vs. 32.58% (P = 0.03, respectively]. The UMA in children aged 7-12 months was also significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children [11.31 vs. 11.79 cm2 (P = 0.02, respectively], as well as in children aged 13-24 months [11.05 vs. 11.75 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. In addition, the UME in children aged 13-24 months was significantly lower in stunted compared to non-stunted children [10.50 vs. 11.18 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. Conclusion The UFA in children aged 7-12 months is smaller in stunted than in non-stunted children, whereas UMA in children aged 7-12 months and 13-24 months was smaller in stunted compared to non-stunted children.

  1. Underweight and malnutrition in home care: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Nils A; Tannen, Antje; Suhr, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to provide representative figures about the prevalence of underweight and malnutrition among home care clients, and to determine the associated risk factors and the provided nutritional nursing interventions. In 2012, a multicenter point prevalence study was conducted among 878 randomly selected clients from 100 randomly selected home care services across Germany. Following a standardized study protocol, demographics, nutritional assessments (Body Mass Index, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini nutritional Assessment - short form (MNA-sf), nurses' clinical judgment on nutritional status) and interventions were assessed. Common nutritional risk factors for underweight and malnutrition were analyzed in a logistic regression model. Malnutrition figures varied between 4.8% (MNA-sf) and 6.8% (MUST), underweight between 8.7% (BMI malnutrition assessments (MNA-sf 48.8%, MUST 39.1%) due to a lack of information on many clients' loss of weight within the past 3-6 months. Regular weighing was performed in 33.6-57.3% of all clients, depending on weight and nutritional status. Mental overload (OR 8.1/4.4), needs help with feeding (OR 5.0/2.8) and loss of appetite (OR 3.6/3.9) were highly associated with malnutrition/underweight. Malnutrition and underweight are important issues in home care clients. Regular weighing should be performed in all home care clients so that a potential weight loss can be detected in time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Underweight among rural Indian adults: burden, and predictors of incidence and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Fawzi, Wafaie Wahib; Bromage, Sabri; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2018-03-01

    To study the magnitude and predictors of underweight, incident underweight and recovery from underweight among rural Indian adults. Prospective cohort study. Each participant's BMI was measured in 2008 and 2012 and categorized as underweight (BMIBirbhum Health and Demographic Surveillance System, West Bengal, India. Predominantly rural individuals (n 6732) aged ≥18 years enrolled in 2008 were followed up in 2012. In 2008, the prevalence of underweight was 46·5 %. From 2008 to 2012, 25·8 % of underweight persons transitioned to normal BMI, 12·9 % of normal-weight persons became underweight and 0·1 % of overweight/obese persons became underweight. Multivariable models reveal that people aged 25-49 years, educated and wealthier people, and non-smokers had lower odds of underweight in 2008 and lower odds of incident underweight. Odds of recovery from underweight were lower among people aged ≥36 years and higher among educated (Grade 6 or higher) individuals. The current study highlights a high incidence of underweight and important risk factors and modifiable predictors of underweight in rural India, which may inform the design of local nutrition interventions.

  3. Do burdens of underweight and overweight coexist among lower socioeconomic groups in India?1234

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, SV; Perkins, Jessica M; Khan, Kashif T

    2009-01-01

    Background: The coexistence of underweight and overweight in rapidly developing economies is well recognized. However, less is known about the socioeconomic patterning of underweight and overweight as economies move through the epidemiologic transition.

  4. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Il; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Healt...

  5. The geographical distribution of underweight children in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Nubé, Maarten; Sonneveld, Benjamin G. J. S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study geographical patterns of underweight children in Africa by combining information on prevalence with headcounts at a subnational level. METHODS: We used large-scale, nationally representative nutrition surveys, in particular the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, which have been designed, analysed and presented according to largely similar protocols, and which report at the national and subnational levels. FINDINGS: We found distinct ...

  6. Socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of Assam, North- east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seb Rengma Melody

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age is a key indicator of long-term chronic undernutrition which reflects an anthropometric failure to reach linear growth potentials due to prolonged food deprivation and/or disease or illness during the early stage of life. The present study assesses the prevalence and socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of the North-east India. This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1,818 (830 boys; 988 girls adolescents (aged 10-18 years belonging to ethnically heterogeneous populations of Karbi Anglong district of Assam, using stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were recorded using standard procedures. Socio-economic and demographic variables were obtained using pre-structured schedule. The age-sex specific L, M and S reference values were used to calculate height-for-age Z-score (HAZ. According to WHO, HAZ found to be 0.05. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that several socio-economic and demographic variables were significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05. The step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sex (boys, age groups (13-15 years and 16-18 years, father’s occupation (cultivator and Rupees ≤5000 household income was significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05. Appropriate nutritional intervention programmes and dissemination of knowledge at population level related to undernutrition are necessary to ameliorate their nutritional status.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...

  8. Ignored Aetiologic Factors of Growth Faltering/Stunting In Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until recently, the role of aflatoxins as a causative agent of stunting was never explored. Recent studies carried out in Benin, Togo and The Gambia have implicated aflatoxin in the aetiology of stunting/growth faltering in children. Studies carried out in the Southern province (Bo and Njala) have demonstrated that children not ...

  9. Household market participation and stunting in preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stunting among Malawian preschool children continues to be a concern. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 251 semi-urban households, who participated in a community-supported preschool programme, was conducted. Results: Of the 433 participating two- to five-year-old children, 34.4% had stunting.

  10. prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition has continued to persist in both developed ... proportion of people suffering from hunger under .... the effects of stunting in Nigeria and sub-Saharan. Africa. The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of stunting and its determinants amongst rural and urban students in selected primary.

  11. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-26

    Feb 26, 2013 ... confidence level (1.96), p=proportion of stunted children (0.52), ε. (epsilon) = relative ... Birth order of the index child was assessed to investigate its association with EBF practice under 6 months as recommended. Stunting, linear growth deficit for a specific age and sex was used as outcome variable and ...

  12. The effect of predation on stunted and nonstunted white perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pierce, L.L.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Predation is widely regarded as a means to prevent or minimise the establishment of a stunted (high density of slow growing individuals) population. We investigated the effect of predation on two different white perch Morone americana populations (stunted and nonstunted) by examining the stomach contents of piscivorous fishes. White perch and gizzard shad dominated piscivore diets in Branched Oak Lake, whereas white perch dominated piscivore diets in Pawnee Lake. White perch consumed in the stunted population (Branched Oak Lake) were larger and older than white perch consumed in the nonstunted population (Pawnee Lake). Many of the consumed white perch in the stunted population were sexually mature and had the opportunity to spawn at least once. In contrast, all of the consumed white perch in the nonstunted population were sexually immature. Predation may have reinforced the stunting of white perch in Branched Oak Lake through removal of the largest, oldest individuals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    existence of the double burden of malnutrition among adolescents in developing countries. Several factors were not associated with weight status suggesting the need to explore other potential risk factors for overweight and underweight, including genetic factors and socioeconomic status.

  14. [Significance of the urine strip test in case of stunted growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet-Thomas, A; Llanas, B; Servais, A; Bendelac, N; Goizet, C; Choukroun, G; Novo, R; Decramer, S

    2015-07-01

    Observation of stunted growth in children usually leads the general practitioner to refer the patient to endocrinologists or gastroenterologists. In most cases, after a complementary check-up, the diagnosis is made and treatment is initiated. However, certain cases remain undiagnosed, particularly renal etiologies, such as proximal tubulopathy. The urine strip test at the initial check-up would be an easy and inexpensive test to avoid delayed diagnosis. The aim of the present paper is to increase general physicians' and pediatricians' awareness of the significance of questioning the parents and using the urine strip test for any child presenting stunted growth. We report a patient case of a 20-month-old child admitted to the emergency department for severe dehydration. He had displayed stunted growth since the age of 5 months and showed a negative etiologic check-up at 9 months of age. Clinical examination at admission confirmed stunted growth with loss of 2 standard deviations and signs of dehydration with persistent diuresis. Skin paleness, ash-blond hair, and signs of rickets were also observed and the urine strip test showed positive pads for glycosuria and proteinuria. Polyuria and polydipsia were also revealed following parents' questioning, suggesting proximal tubulopathy (Fanconi syndrome). Association of stunted growth, rickets, polyuria and polydipsia, glycosuria (without ketonuria and normal glycemia), and proteinuria suggest nephropathic cystinosis. Ophthalmic examination showed cystine deposits in the cornea. The semiotic diagnosis of nephropathic cystinosis was confirmed by leukocyte cystine concentrations and genetic investigations. This case report clearly illustrates the significance of the urine strip test to easily and quickly concentrate the diagnosis of stunted growth on a renal etiology (glycosuria, proteinuria), especially on proximal tubulopathy for which the most frequent cause is nephropathic cystinosis. Specificity of nephropathic

  15. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition and age at menarche; cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, T.; Petersen, L. T.; Kariuki, S. K.; Oloo, A. J.; Kager, P. A.; ter Kuile, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nutritional status is an important marker of overall health and linear growth retardation has serious long-term physiological and economic consequences. Approximately 35 and 29% of preschool children in sub-Saharan Africa are stunted and underweight, respectively. There is relatively

  16. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzian, H.; Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Hobdell, M.; Mulder, J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental decay is the most common childhood disease worldwide and most of the decay remains untreated. In the Philippines caries levels are among the highest in the South East Asian region. Elementary school children suffer from high prevalence of stunting and underweight.The present study

  17. Grandparents and Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijner, Sandor; Smits, Jeroen

    2018-03-26

    Globally an estimated 159 million children under 5 years of age are being too short for one's age (stunted). More than one third of these children is living in Africa. Given the substantial number of sub-Saharan African (SSA) children living in households with co-residing grandparents and the negative effects of stunting on productivity and economic growth, gaining insight into the role grandparents play for children's stunting, has become increasingly important. By applying multilevel logistic regression analysis on a database with information on 344,748 children aged 6-60 months living in 31 SSA countries, the strength of the relationship between grandparental co-residence and children's stunting is examined. Interaction analysis is used to explore how this relationship is moderated by characteristics of the household and of the context in which the household is situated. Children in households with a co-residing grandmother have significantly lower odds of being stunted than other children, provided that the grandmother is in the 50-75 age range. When the grandmother is very young or very old, the likelihood of being stunted is higher. For grandfathers, no significant overall relationship is found, but our findings show that co-residence of a grandfather is associated with less stunting of girls, in poor households and in polygamous households. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Household dietary diversity and child stunting in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Sumarmi, Sri; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2017-03-01

    More than one-quarter of under-five children in the developing world are stunted, and those with poor nutrient intake are at risk of irreversible cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting in an Indonesian context. Dietary diversity was assessed using a maternal-reported checklist of 12 food groups, summed as a Household Dietary Diversity Score. Stunting was defined as Java, Indonesia. Logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between dietary diversity and child stunting. The prevalence of child stunting was 39.4%, and the percentage of households consuming food groups high in protein and calcium, like dairy products (41%), and meat/poultry, (65%) was lower compared with other food groups. The unadjusted model revealed that higher dietary diversity scores were associated with lower likelihood of child stunting (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.98). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for family size, maternal literacy, food expenditure, breastfeeding, energy, and protein intake (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.99). The dietary diversity score was moderate, with consumption of dairy products and meat/poultry lowest among 12 food groups. Hence, population interventions should focus on promoting food groups currently lacking in maternal and child diet, including those rich in growth-promoting nutrients like dairy, meat/poultry. These results, from an Indonesian context, confirm the widely observed protective relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting.

  19. Underweight in ski jumping: The solution of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W; Gröschl, W; Müller, R; Sudi, K

    2006-11-01

    Underweight is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sports. Among world class ski jumpers, the body mass index BMI has decreased by 4 units since 1970. The BMI ignores different body properties of individuals. Particular care should be taken in groups with unusual leg length to avoid classifying them inappropriately as thin or overweight (WHO). The improved measure MI (mass index) for relative body weight overcomes this shortcoming. Anthropometric data of ski jumpers was collected during the Olympic Games in Salt Lake City (2002; participation 81 %, n = 57), during the Summer Grand Prix in Hinterzarten (2000; participation 100 %, n = 92), and during the World Cup in Planica (2000; n = 56). The BMI and the MI were determined. The MI considers the individual leg length: A person with longer legs than average has an MI > BMI, and vice versa: MI = 0.28 m/s2 (m: mass in kg, s: sitting height in meters). BMI classes of ski jumpers in the season 2004/2005 were calculated from their official individual ski length limitation which is a function of their BMI. BMI means were 19.84 in Planica, 19.58 in Hinterzarten, and 19.43 kg m(-2) in SLC. Lowest BMI was 16.4 kg m(-2). The percentage of underweight ski jumpers (BMI ski jumping regulations. The ratio s/h = C (s = sitting height, h = height, C = cormic index) ranged from 0.49 to 0.57. Accordingly, the MI values (which are leg length corrected BMI values according to MI = BMI (C /C) (k) with k = 2 and C = 0.53) deviated remarkably from BMI values. For the 49 cases with BMI or MI or both below 18.5 kg m(-2), the classification to be underweight or not changed in 69 % when the MI was used instead of the BMI. Underweight or overweight is not only a question of cut-off points; the measure used determines the classification accuracy. A substantial improvement of weight analyses in sports medicine, public health, and general medicine as well can be obtained by using the MI instead of the BMI.

  20. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R; McCrae, Robert R; Deiana, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Costa, Paul T

    2009-07-01

    Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. More than half of the population from four towns in Sardinia, Italy (n = 5693; age = 14-94 years; mean +/- standard deviation = 43 +/- 17 years) were assessed on multiple anthropometric measures and 30 facets that comprehensively cover the five major dimensions of personality, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. High Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness were associated with being underweight and obese, respectively. High Impulsiveness (specifically eating-behavior items) and low Order were associated with body mass index categories of overweight and obese, and with measures of abdominal adiposity (waist and hip circumference). Those scoring in the top 10% of Impulsiveness were about 4 kg heavier than those in the bottom 10%, an effect independent and larger than the FTO genetic variant. Prospective analyses confirmed that Impulsiveness and Order were significant predictors of general and central measures of adiposity assessed 3 years later. Overweight and obese individuals have difficulty resisting cravings and lack methodical and organized behaviors that might influence diet and weight control. Although individuals' traits have limited impact on the current obesogenic epidemic, personality traits can improve clinical assessment, suggest points of intervention, and help tailor prevention and treatment approaches.

  1. Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Moore

    2010-01-01

    Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8% and obesity (9.3% most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.

  2. A Literature Review of the Effect of Malaria on Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Background: The current version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) maternal and child health impact modeling software does not include an effect of malaria on stunting. Objective: This literature review was undertaken to determine whether such a causal link should be included in the LiST model. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched by using broad search terms. The searches returned a total of 4281 documents. Twelve studies from among the retrieved documents were included in the review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: There was mixed evidence for an effect of malaria on stunting among longitudinal observational studies, and none of the randomized controlled trials of malaria interventions found an effect of the interventions on stunting. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to include malaria as a determinant of stunting or an effect of malaria interventions on stunting in the LiST model. The paucity and heterogeneity of the available literature were a major limitation. In addition, the studies included in the review consistently fulfilled their ethical responsibility to treat children under observation for malaria, which may have interfered with the natural history of the disease and prevented any observable effect on stunting or linear growth. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Overweight and underweight coexist within households in Brazil, China and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, C M; Adair, L S; Monteiro, C; Popkin, B M

    2000-12-01

    The possibility that underweight and overweight coexist within households and understanding such an occurrence have not been studied sufficiently. In fact, underweight and overweight are thought of as resulting from very different environmental, behavioral and individual risk factors. This study identified households in which overweight and underweight coexist and explored household-level associations such as urban residence and income. Using three large national surveys from Brazil, China and Russia, the prevalence of such households ranged from 8% in China and Russia to 11% in Brazil. Even more important from the public health perspective is the finding that these under/over households accounted for a high proportion of all households with an underweight member in China (23%), Brazil (45%), and Russia (58%). The prevalence of the underweight/overweight household was highest in the urban environment in all three countries. There was no clear pattern in the prevalence of the underweight/overweight household type by income. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the significance of the association of household type with urban residence and income while controlling for household size and household demographics by gender. Further analysis was done to consider the age relationships within the underweight/overweight pair. The underweight child coexisting with an overweight nonelderly adult was the predominant pair combination in all three countries. These findings illustrate the need for public health programs that are able to address underweight and overweight simultaneously.

  4. Underweight, overweight, and pediatric bone fragility: impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialo, Shara R; Gordon, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal health is modulated by a variety of factors, including genetic makeup, hormonal axes, and environment. Across all ages, extremes of body weight may exert a deleterious effect on bone accretion and increase fracture risk. The incidence of both anorexia nervosa and obesity, each involving extreme alterations in body composition, is rising among youth, and secondary osteoporosis is increasingly being diagnosed among affected children and adolescents. Compared with the elderly, the definition of osteoporosis that stems from any underlying condition differs for the pediatric population and special precautions are required with regard to treatment of young patients. Early recognition and management of both underweight and overweight youth and the accompanying consequences on bone and mineral metabolism are essential for preservation of skeletal health, although prevention of bone loss and optimization of bone mineral accrual remain the most important protective measures.

  5. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  6. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  7. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  8. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  9. Micronutrients in the treatment of stunting and moderate malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth retardation or stunting may occur with or without low weight-for-age, but in both cases stunted or moderately malnourished children are deficient in micronutrients. Pregnancy and the first 2 years are critical periods. Dietary deficiency of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A are especially common and often occur together. Zinc is essential for adequate growth, and supplements have been shown to increase intrauterine femur length and to prevent stunting. However, in general, supplements which provide a mixture of micronutrients have been more successful in preventing stunting and are simpler to take and distribute. Multiple micronutrients together with energy and macronutrients are also needed for the management of moderate malnutrition. Multiple micronutrients may be delivered as medicinal-like supplements, but may also be combined with food, for instance in milk drinks, in fortified dried cereal mixes used to supplement complementary foods or in lipid nutrition supplements. The latter also provide essential fats necessary for growth. Micronutrient powders for home fortification are effective in preventing anemia, but present combinations do not prevent stunting. Improving the diets of infant and young children is also possible, and increased intake of animal source foods can improve growth. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The economic rationale for investing in stunting reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, John; Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Haddad, Lawrence; Horton, Susan

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines the economic rationale for investments that reduce stunting. We present a framework that illustrates the functional consequences of stunting in the 1000 days after conception throughout the life cycle: from childhood through to old age. We summarize the key empirical literature around each of the links in the life cycle, highlighting gaps in knowledge where they exist. We construct credible estimates of benefit-cost ratios for a plausible set of nutritional interventions to reduce stunting. There are considerable challenges in doing so that we document. We assume an uplift in income of 11% due to the prevention of one fifth of stunting and a 5% discount rate of future benefit streams. Our estimates of the country-specific benefit-cost ratios for investments that reduce stunting in 17 high-burden countries range from 3.6 (DRC) to 48 (Indonesia) with a median value of 18 (Bangladesh). Mindful that these results hinge on a number of assumptions, they compare favourably with other investments for which public funds compete. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Postoperative hypoxia and length of intensive care unit stay after cardiac surgery: the underweight paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Ballotta, Andrea; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Castelvecchio, Serenella

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass can be associated with postoperative lung dysfunction. The present study investigates the incidence of postoperative hypoxia after cardiac surgery, its relationship with the length of intensive care unit stay, and the role of body mass index in determining postoperative hypoxia and intensive care unit length of stay. Single-center, retrospective study. University Hospital. Patients. Adult patients (N = 5,023) who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB. None. According to the body mass index, patients were attributed to six classes, and obesity was defined as a body mass index >30. POH was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio intensive care unit. Postoperative hypoxia was detected in 1,536 patients (30.6%). Obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative hypoxia (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.05-2.78, P = 0.001) and postoperative hypoxia was a determinant of intensive care unit length of stay. There is a significant inverse correlation between body mass index and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, with the risk of postoperative hypoxia increasing by 1.7 folds per each incremental body mass index class. The relationship between body mass index and intensive care unit length of stay is U-shaped, with longer intensive care unit stay in underweight patients and moderate-morbid obese patients. Obese patients are at higher risk for postoperative hypoxia, but this leads to a prolonged intensive care unit stay only for moderate-morbid obese patients. Obese patients are partially protected against the deleterious effects of hemodilution and transfusions. Underweight patients present the "paradox" of a better lung gas exchange but a longer intensive care unit stay. This is probably due to a higher severity of their cardiac disease.

  12. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2013-01-01

    ; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress......An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting...... the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education...

  13. Stunting is characterized by chronic inflammation in Zimbabwean infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Prendergast

    Full Text Available Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting.We conducted a case-control study of 202 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants who were stunted (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ -0.5; controls at 18 months. We measured biomarkers of intestinal damage (I-FABP, inflammation (CRP, AGP, IL-6 and growth hormone-IGF axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3 in infant plasma at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, and in paired maternal-infant plasma at birth. Adjusted mean differences between biomarkers were estimated using regression models. Multivariate odds ratios of stunting were estimated by logistic regression.At birth, cases were shorter (median (IQR HAZ -1.00 (-1.53, -0.08 vs 0.03 (-0.57, 0.62,; P<0.001 than controls and their mothers had lower levels of IGF-1 (adjusted mean difference (95%CI -21.4 (-39.8, -3.1 ng/mL. From 6 weeks to 12 months of age, levels of CRP and AGP were consistently higher and IGF-1 and IGFBP3 lower in cases versus controls; IGF-1 correlated inversely with inflammatory markers at all time-points. I-FABP increased between 3-12 months, indicating extensive intestinal damage during infancy, which was similar in cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, higher log10 levels of CRP (aOR 3.06 (95%CI 1.34, 6.99; P = 0.008 and AGP (aOR 7.87 (95%CI 0.74, 83.74; P = 0.087 during infancy were associated with stunting. There were no associations between levels of I-FABP, IL-6, sCD14 or EndoCAb and stunting.Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy

  14. EVALUASI PENATALAKSANAAN GIZI BALITA STUNTING DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SIRAMPOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himatul Khoeroh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition merupakan upaya global dalam rangka rencana aksi percepatan perbaikan gizi salah satunya menanggulangi balita stunting fokus pada 1000 HPK. Stunting merupakan prevalensi tertinggi di Wilayah kerja Puskesmas Sirampog di Kabupaten Brebes, ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas pelayanan kesehatan masih rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi penatalaksanaan status gizi balita stunting dengan unsur input, proses dan output. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Informan awal ditentukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Metode pegumpulan data melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi dan dokumentasi terhadap 6 informan awal yang terdiri dari kepala puskesmas, bidan koordinator KIA, koordinator gizi, bidan desa, kader dan ibu balita sasaran. Dua informan triangulasi yang terdiri dari koordinator kesehatan kelurga dan koordinator gizi Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada tahap input yaitu tenaga kesehatan yang terlibat masih memerlukan tambahan, belum ada tenaga gizi. Pada unsur proses, sebagian program terlaksana dengan baik meliputi program sehat bagi wanita hamil, pemberian ASI Eksklusif, pemantauan tumbuh kembang, pemberian makanan tambahan, pemberian vitamin A kecuali program pemberian taburia. Pada unsur output, cakupan prevalensi stunting di Puskesmas Sirampog Kabupaten Brebes tahun 2015 sebesar 16,74 %.   ABSTRACT   SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition is  the global efforts from all shorts of countries in the framework of program attractive speeding up of nutrition improvement one of them to cope with baby of stunting  focused to 1000 HPK. Stunting is highest prevalency in estate work clinik of sirampog brebes, this is indicate that quality of health treatment is too low. The porpose of This research is to evaluate management status nutrition of baby stunting included unsure input, proses and output.. This research is the qualitative reseearch in estate work clinik of

  15. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  16. Maize bush stunt and corn stunt: Diseases of corn caused by molicutes/ Enfezamentos vermelho e pálido: Doenças em milho causadas por molicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sidnei Massola Júnior

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize Bushy Stunt and Corn Stunt are diseases of corn caused respectively by a phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt phytoplasma and by Spiroplasma kunkelii. Both agents are restricted to the floem vessels of diseased plants. The leafhopper Dalbulus maidis is the vector of the diseases. The diseases are very harmfull to corn crops and can cause severe losses. Their importance increased very much in the last years mainly due to the continuous crops, which allow the perpetuation of corn, pathogens and vector over the year. Diseased plants show shortening, redening or yellowing and excessive proliferation of ears, among others symptoms. However, symptoms are variable according to the causal agent, environmental conditions and corn genotype. Correct diagnosis of the diseases has been reached with ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” and PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”. The use of resistant genotypes of corn is the main strategy of control of the diseases.Os enfezamentos vermelho e pálido são doenças do milho causadas, respectivamente, por um fitoplasma (“maize bushy stunt phytoplasma” e pelo Spiroplasma kunkelii, organismos restritos ao floema das plantas infectadas. Ambas são transmitidas pela cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis. São doenças bastante destrutivas, podendo causar sérios prejuízos aos agricultores. A importância dessas doenças aumentou muito nos últimos anos, devido principalmente aos cultivos “safrinha”, que perpetuam o milho, os patógenos e o vetor no campo durante o ano todo. As plantas doentes exibem redução de crescimento, avermelhamento ou amarelecimento, proliferação excessiva de espigas pequenas e improdutivas, além de outros sintomas. No entanto, esses sintomas dependem do agente causal, condições climáticas e genótipo do milho. A diagnose correta tem sido feita por testes de ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” e por PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”, devido à complexidade da

  17. Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, O Jin Ee; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the ...

  18. Foot morphology of normal, underweight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, M; Grau, S; Krauss, I; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that there is a global increase in obesity, knowledge about the impact of obesity on the development of a child's foot is of great importance for orthopaedic and paediatric physicians with regard to prevention, clinical treatment and management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass on the development of a child's foot based on a foot type classification. The feet of 1450 boys and 1437 girls aged 2-14 years were measured using a three-dimensional (3D) foot scanner (Pedus, Human Solutions Inc., Germany) in a bipedal upright position. Twelve relevant 3D foot measures were recorded, as well as the children's age, gender, height and mass. Factor analysis of principal components was used to obtain a smaller number of independent and standardized variables. The variables were used for cluster analysis to classify the children's feet. Five foot types were identified: flat, robust, slender, short and long feet. There were significant differences among foot types with respect to the children's body mass index. Normal weight children displayed an almost equal distribution of all foot types throughout childhood. Flat and robust feet were more common in overweight children, whereas underweight children showed more slender and long feet. The influence of excess, as well as deficient mass could be verified for the comprehensive foot morphology based on a foot type classification. Subsequently, foot discomfort as a result of various musculoskeletal disorders may develop. In turn, this might keep the children from being active and therefore reinforce the risk of developing obesity. However, there is still a lack of information regarding these relationships, which needs to be determined. This knowledge may help prevent orthopaedic foot problems and injuries.

  19. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children who started complementary food either before or after the recommended 6 months time, were more likely to be stunted (P=0.01). Conclusion: The feeding practices of most mothers did not meet WHO recommendations. Behavior change communication about the importance of optimal complementary feeding and ...

  20. The effect of early childhood stunting on children's cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2017;31(2):75-84]. Key word: Early childhood, stunting, cognitive achievements, Ethiopia. Introduction. For children to be successful at later stages in life, ... progression by women, higher scores on reading comprehension ..... Descriptive statistics: Table 2 reports the variables of interest of this study.

  1. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Socio-economic predictors of stunting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-01

    Jun 1, 2009 ... Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene & Tropical. Medicine, London, UK. Barbara A Willey, BA, MSc, PhD .... arrival of a new child). Stunting. A total of 213 children aged <3 years ..... Obesity and malnutrition in a Shantytown population in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  3. Can the high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, stunting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether the high prevalence of stunting and overweight accompanied by serum deficiencies of iron, folate and vitamin B12 in children at ages 1 and 3 years, can be explained by their diet. Design. A prospective cohort study. Setting. Villages in the central region of Limpopo province, which are serviced ...

  4. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  5. Has the prevalence of stunting in South African children changed in 40 years? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-06-05

    In the last 20 years, South Africa has experienced political, economic, and demographic transitions accompanied by an epidemiological transition. Like several sub-Saharan countries, the South African population is facing both under-and over-nutrition, and nutrition and lifestyle related chronic disease while the burden of infectious disease remains high. It is critical to understand these trends overtime in order to highlights the pitfalls and successful measures initiatives taken in the efforts to tackle malnutrition. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the changes in the prevalence of stunting, a chronic form of undernutrition, in South Africa over 40 years, and to derive lessons from the South African experience, a country in an advanced process of transition in sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a systematic review of publications selected from PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. We included studies and surveys published between 1970 and 2013 if they reported the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under-6 years of age living in South Africa. We excluded studies conducted in health facility outpatients or hospital wards, or children with known chronic and acute infectious diseases. We extracted Date of data collection, study setting, ethnicity, age, sex, sample size, growth references/standards, diagnostic criteria for stunting and prevalence of stunting from each study. Over the last decade, the national prevalence of stunting has decreased. However, between and within provincial, age and ethnic group disparities remain. Unlike other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, no sex or rural/urban differences were found in preschool children. However, the analysis of long-term trends and identification of vulnerable groups is complicated by the use of different growth references/standards and sampling methods. Despite economic growth, political and social transitions, and national nutritional programs, stunting remains

  6. Decomposing race and gender differences in underweight and obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. What Explains Cambodia's Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, ("covariate effects" and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes ("coefficient effects"? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries.

  8. Association between underweight and hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality among patients in community medical homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi.1 Jennifer L St Sauver,2 Timothy C Olson,1 Jill M Huber,1 Stephen S Cha,2 Jon O Ebbert11Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: In older adults, underweight (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5 has been associated with increased mortality. This increased mortality risk may be associated with increased health care utilization. We evaluated the relationship between underweight and hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality.Methods: An analysis of a retrospective cohort study was conducted at a multisite academic primary care medical practice in Minnesota. The patients were ≥60 years of age, impaneled within primary care on January 1, 2011, and had a BMI measurement recorded between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011. Individuals were excluded if they refused review of their medical record. The primary measurement was BMI, which was categorized as underweight (BMI < 18.5 or normal and obese (BMI ≥ 18.5. The outcomes were hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality in the 2011 calendar year. Associations between underweight and each outcome were calculated using logistic regression. Interactions between underweight and gender were assessed in the logistic regression models. The final results were adjusted for age, gender, comorbid health conditions, and single living status.Results: The final cohort included 21,019 patients, of whom 220 (1% were underweight. Underweight patients had a higher likelihood of hospitalization compared with patients with higher BMI (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–2.22. Underweight patients were also more likely to visit the emergency room (adjusted OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.28–2.25 or to die (adjusted OR 3.64; 95% CI 2.33–5.69. Men with a BMI < 18.5 compared with those having a BMI ≥ 18.5 had the highest odds of hospitalization (OR 3.45; 95% CI 1.59–7

  9. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  10. Afkapwaarden van de 'body-mass index' (BMI) voor ondergewicht van Nederlandse kinderen [Body-mass index cut-off values for underweight in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the cut-off values for the body-mass index (BMI) for underweight and serious underweight in children up to 18 years of age based on the Dutch growth standards of 1980, and to determine the prevalence of underweight and serious underweight in the 1997 Dutch growth-study

  11. Determinants of stunting reduction in Ethiopia 2000 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Bailes, Adam; Matji, Joan; Timmer, Arnold; Rohner, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of stunting in Ethiopia declined from 57% in 2000 to 44% in 2011, yet the factors producing this change are not fully understood. Data on 23,999 children 0-59 months of age from three Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2000, 2005, and 2011 were analyzed to assess the trends in stunting prevalence, mean height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) and the associations between potential factors and HAZ. Associations were determined separately using three separate generalized linear models for children age less than 6 months, 6-23 months, and 24-59 months of age. Significant variables were then analyzed to determine if they showed an overall trend between the 2000 and 2011 surveys. In children 2000 to 2011. In children 6-23 months of age, only mother's use of modern contraception showed substantial changes in a direction consistent with improving HAZ, but improvements in maternal nutrition status were observed from 2000 to 2005. For children 24-59 months of age a consistent and progressive change is seen in child's diarrhea, fever, mother's education, and the occurrence of open defecation. Our analysis demonstrated that factors associated with HAZ vary by child's age and the dominant livelihood practice in the community. Variables that could have contributed to the decline of stunting in Ethiopia in children less than 5 years of age include markers of child health, mother's nutritional status, mother's educational level, and environmental hygiene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Birth interval and stunting in children under five years of age in Peru (1996-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, M; Gutiérrez, C; Alarcón, J; Dávila, M; Cunha, A J

    2017-01-01

    Examine the evolution of stunting in birth interval (BI), and associated factors from 1996 to 2014. Data were extracted from the National Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (DHS) for the years 1996, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 on children birth (≤24 months vs. >24 months) and others sociodemographic variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in logistic regression for the effect of BI and other variables on stunting by each survey year. Between 1996 and 2014, stunting declined in both BI groups: ≤24 months: 35.8% to 21.8%; >24 months: 29.5% to 14.3%. BI was associated with stunting after adjustment for other variables in each survey except 2005. Of the other factors, sex, birth order (fourth child or more), maternal education and poverty were independently associated with stunting in all survey years. Residence in rural areas and in Amazon forest and highland regions was associated with stunting 1996 and 2000. Maternal age was not independently associated with stunting. While stunting showed a decreasing trend from 1996 to 2014, birth interval exceeding 24 months exerted a protective effect on stunting across the years surveyed. Poverty, low maternal education and high birth order were associated with stunting in all survey years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effects of eccentric exercise on muscle function and proprioception of individuals being overweight and underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Deli, Chariklia K; Raso, Vagner; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of being overweight or underweight on proprioception at rest and after muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Twelve lean, 12 overweight, and 8 underweight female participants performed an eccentric exercise session using the knee extensor muscles of the dominant leg. Muscle damage indices and proprioception were assessed up to 3 days postexercise. The results indicated that proprioception at baseline of the lean individuals was superior to that of the other 2 groups. The overweight individuals exhibited a smaller knee joint reaction angle to release than did the lean group, whereas the underweight individuals exhibited a larger reaction angle to release than did the lean group. After eccentric exercise, proprioception was affected more in the overweight and the underweight groups than in the lean group. The greater exercise-induced muscle damage appeared in the overweight group, and the deficient muscle mass of the underweight participants could explain in part the greater disturbances that appeared in proprioception in these 2 groups than for the lean counterparts. In conclusion, deviating from the normal body mass is associated with significant disturbances in the proprioception of the legs at rest and after participation in activities involving eccentric actions.

  14. Stunting berhubungan dengan perkembangan motorik anak di Kecamatan Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreti Pantaleon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting (short body length is a body condition that is very short until surpass deficit at 2 SD under median of body length or body height of the population that be an international reference. The cause of stunting is food consumption that is not balanced and infectious disease. Many studies showed the correlation between stunting and poor motoric and mental development in early childhood, and poor cognitive performance and school performance in later childhood. The national prevalence of stunting in 2013 was 37.2%, it increased compared to 2010 (35.6% and 2007 (36.8%.Objectives: To know the correlation between stunting incidence and the development of 6-23 months old children in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was observational study with cross sectional design. The sample size was 100 children, whose aged 6-23 months old. They consisted of 50 stunting children and 50 non-stunting children who were selected by consecutive sampling methods. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and assisted by psychologist to measure the development of the children. Stunting in 6-23 months old children was measured by indicator of body length for age (WHO 2005 and the measurement of development used method of Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression test by 95% confidence interval.Results: Statistically, there was signifi cant correlation between stunting and motoric development of the toddler (p=0.002, but there was no significant correlation between stunting and the development of cognitive, language, socio- emotional, and adaptive of the toddler. The result of multivariate showed thatstunting and sex statistically had correlation to the motoric development (p<0.05.Conclusions: Stunting associated with children motoric development in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul,YogyakartaKEYWORDS: children development, stunting

  15. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI...

  16. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Nurbaiti; Annis Catur Adi; Shrimarti R Devi; Timbuktu Harthana

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  17. Kebiasaan Makan Balita Stunting Pada Masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbaiti, Lina; Adi, Annis Catur; Devi, Shrimarti R; Harthana, Timbuktu

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  18. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Santos, Carla Danusa da Luz; Martins, Vinicius J B; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Fachim, Mariana B; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether biochemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) into stunted (-1 > HAZ ≥ -2) and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ -1) groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile) insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. WC cut-off points of 58.25cm and 67.2cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively), the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively). The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  20. The prevalence and risk factors of stunting among primary school children in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.

    2018-03-01

    Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.

  1. Molecular Diagnosis of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid for Routine Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tomassoli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, a two-year study was started to check for Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd during the production and selective breeding of new chrysanthemum varieties in a central-Italy flower-growing farm. Two molecular techniques, one-tube RT-PCR and tissue printing for hybridization assays, were improved for their effectiveness in viroid detection at different stages of plant selection. Both molecular techniques proved sensitive, reliable and easy to apply in a programme of routine indexing for the production of new and healthy chrysanthemum varieties.

  2. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥ 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors of Underweight in Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia

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    Deneke Tosheno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undernutrition in early childhood has irreversible and long-lasting implications. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing risk factors of child undernutrition. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 households with mothers to children pairs aged 6–59 months selected by a multistage systematic random sampling method. Child anthropometric measurements on weight were recorded using standardized and calibrated weighing scales. Weight-for-age was compared to the 2007 WHO growth reference by WHO Anthro software. Data were entered using Epi-Info and analyzed using SPSS. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between underweight children and their predictors; both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were reported. Results. One-fourth (25% of the children were underweight. Child age (AOR: 2.36, gender (AOR: 1.82, illness (AOR: 0.09, maternal decision making power (AOR: 0.07, maternal education (AOR: 0.19, employment/occupation (AOR: 5.29, and household income (AOR: 4.16 were found to be independent and significant predictors of underweight children. Conclusion. Significant proportion of the children were underweight. Maternal decision-making power persists as a strong predictor of children’s weight. Therefore, intervention programs focusing on improving mothers’ decision-making power on child nutrition would contribute to the efforts towards alleviating the problem.

  4. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Larissa S; Gaya, Anelise R; Petersen, Ricardo D S; Gaya, Adroaldo

    2013-01-01

    To describe and analyze the trends of occurrence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren. This was a longitudinal study of trends conducted in a voluntary sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. The sample was grouped by year of collection (period I: 2005 and 2006; period II: 2007 and 2008, and period III: 2009-2011), age category (children: 7 to 10 years, and adolescents: 11 to 14 years), and stratified by gender. The body mass index was used to classify the nutritional profile. Trend analysis was verified using multinomial logistic regression (p<0.05). Mean occurrences were 2.11% for underweight, 22.27% for overweight, and 6.8% for obesity. There was a decrease of underweight in male adolescents from period I to II, as well as an increase in female children from period II to III. Regarding overweight, there was an increase followed by a decrease in male children. Regarding obesity, there was an increase from period I to II in all age groups and for both genders. The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Underweight, overweight and obesity among zaboli adolescents: A comparison between international and Iranians′ national criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Almost all definitions revealed coexistence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among Zaboli adolescents. Huge differences exist between different criteria. To understand the best appropriate criteria for Iranian adolescents, future studies should focus on the predictability of obesity-related co-morbidities by these criteria.

  6. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa S. Flores

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: : The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates.

  7. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Passos, Valéria M A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda F

    2003-01-01

    The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m ) and underweight (BMI Bambu , Minas Gerais State, using multinomial logistic regression. 1,451 (85.5%) of the town's elderly participated. Mean BMI was 25.0 (SD = 4.9kg/m ) and was higher for women and decreased with age. Prevalence of obesity was 12.5% and was positively associated with female gender, family income, hypertension, and diabetes and inversely related to physical activity. Underweight affected 14.8% of participants, increased with age, and was higher among men and low-income families. It was negatively associated with hypertension and diabetes and directly associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection and > or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.

  8. Underweight, overweight and obesity in paediatric dialysis and renal transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Alonso Melgar, Ángel; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Mendes, Patricia; Molchanova, Elena A.; Paripović, Dušan; Peco-Antic, Amira; Printza, Nikoleta; Rees, Lesley; Rubik, Jacek; Stefanidis, Constantinos J.; Sinha, Manish D.; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Jager, Kitty J.; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight is rising worldwide, but in children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) a poor nutritional status is still the primary concern. We aimed to study the prevalence of, and factors associated with, underweight and overweight/obesity in the European paediatric RRT

  9. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mihui; Mo, Shuming; Lv, Yubao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients' constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P underweight (P underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity. PMID:29234426

  10. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method. Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results. The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients’ constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.10 for all. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion. Our study revealed significant negative correlations between the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity.

  11. Impact of Obesity and Underweight on Surgical Outcome of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between underweight and lumbar spine surgery is still unknown. Aim. To evaluate the effect of underweight versus obesity based on surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation. Material and Method. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 206 patients (112 male and 94 female with a mean age of 37.5±3.1 years old (ranged 20–72 who have been surgically treated due to the refractory simple primary L4-L5 disc herniation. We followed them up for a mean period of 42.4±7.2 months (ranged 24–57. We used Body Mass Index (BMI, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for categorization, disability, and pain assessment, respectively. We used Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests for statistics. Results. Surgical discectomy in all weight groups was associated with significant improvement in pain and disability, but intergroup comparison showed these improvements in both underweight and obese groups and they were significantly lower than in normal weight group. Excellent and good satisfaction rate was also somewhat lower in both these ends of weight spectrum, but statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Both obesity and underweight may have adverse prognostic influences on the surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation, although their impact on subjective satisfaction rate seems to be insignificant.

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and normal weight in French youth from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Baudelet, Jean-Benoît; Fardy, Paul S; Béghin, Laurent; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zékya

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in French youth from 2009 to 2013 and to determine if there are differences in weight categories according to socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study performed in different regions of France. Physical measures included weight, height and BMI. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined according to age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points from the International Obesity Task Force. France. Children and adolescents (n 9670; 4836 boys, 4834 girls) from the French national BOUGE Program between 2009 and 2013. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than girls (P0·05) and remained unchanged in boys (7·1-7·3 %) between 2009 and 2013. Overweight and obesity were higher in low socio-economic families (Pobesity increased significantly. Changes in underweight, although not significant, were high in girls and merit further attention. Improving public health interventions, especially in high-risk low socio-economic populations, may help to modify the behaviour that contributes to underweight, overweight and obesity in young boys and girls.

  13. What factors are related to recurrent preterm birth among underweight women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsen, Anna I; Mayo, Jonathan A; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Gould, Jeffrey B; Carmichael, Suzan L; Stevenson, David K; Lyell, Deirdre J; Shaw, Gary M

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with recurrent preterm birth among underweight women. Maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of deliveries in California between 2007 and 2010 were used. Consecutive singleton pregnancies of women with underweight body mass index (BMI preterm; preterm-term and preterm-preterm. We analyzed 4971 women with underweight BMI in the first pregnancy. Of these, 670 had at least one preterm birth. Among these 670, 86 (21.8%) women experienced a recurrent preterm birth. Odds for first term - second preterm birth were decreased for increases in maternal age (aOR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.95-0.99) whereas inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth (aOR:1.66, 95%CI: 1.21-2.28) and first preterm birth - second term birth (aOR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.04-1.96). Factors associated with recurrent preterm birth were: negative or no change in pre-pregnancy weight between pregnancies (aOR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.07-2.60), inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth among underweight women was associated with younger age, short inter-pregnancy interval, and negative or no weight change between pregnancies.

  14. Overweight, obesity and underweight in nurses in Vhembe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... Olukoga A, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, University of Venda, Thohoyandou. Lebese R, PhD, Senior Lecturer; ... Overweight and obesity are serious public health problem worldwide. Several studies that .... Zapka JM, Lemon SC, Magner RP, et al. Lifestyle behaviours and weight ...

  15. PERAN KONTEKSTUAL TERHADAP KEJADIAN BALITA PENDEK DI INDONESIA (THE CONTEXTUAL ROLE OF OCCURRENCE STUNTED ON CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihadi Suhadi

    2013-07-01

    ? Pasang Google Toolbar supaya Anda tidak perlu kesulitan lagi dengan kosakata bahasa asing.Bangun bisnis global Anda. Iklankan ke berbagai bahasa menggunakan Google Peluang Pasar Global. Kesimpulan: Variabel yang terkait dengan terjadinya anak balita pendek, yaitu pada level individu adalah konsumsi energi anak balita. Pada level rumah tangga, terutama adalah pola asuh anak, tinggi badan ibu, sanitasi, dan status ekonomi rumah tangga. Pada level provinsi adalah kemiskinan. Saran: Perlu kerjasama lintas sektor untuk memperbaiki variabel-variabel yang terkait, agar proporsi balita pendek turun. ABSTRACT Backgrounds: The prevalence of stunted in Indonesia is 36.8 percent. Children who have severe stunted IQ 11 points lower than children who were not stunted. This analysis looking for factors that cause stunted from the contextual (from level of individual, household, and the Province to the occurrence of stunted children under five. Objectives: To know the causes of the level of individuals, households, and the province on the occurrence of stunted children under five. Methods: Data used secondary data derived from data Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010, the tertiary data from BPS, IPKM, and IPM. The number of samples analyzed 9 897 children under five. The statistical analysis data used multilevel statistical model binary logistic regression. Results: Provincial levels have contributed 51.9 percent, 34.9 percent individuals, and households of 13.2 percent to the occurrence of stunted children under five. The proportion of stunted children under five was reduced from 44.5 to 42.5 percent if children under five improved energy consumption, to 40.8 percent if the household energy consumption improved, to 43.2 percent if the household economy improved, to 32.6 percent when corrected parenting, becomes 35.8 percent if the mother is not stunted, to 39.4 pecent when the mother's education improved, and becomes 41.4 percent if the poverty at the provincial level improved. Simak

  16. Sequence variability of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid in different chrysanthemum cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2017-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest infectious agents, and their genomes consist of a short single strand of RNA that does not encode any protein. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the family Pospiviroidae, causes chrysanthemum stunt disease. Here, we report the genomic variations of CSVd to understand the sequence variability of CSVd in different chrysanthemum cultivars. We randomly sampled 36 different chrysanthemum cultivars and examined the infection of CSVd in each cultivar by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eleven cultivars were infected by CSVd. Cloning followed by Sanger sequencing successfully identified a total of 271 CSVd genomes derived from 12 plants from 11 cultivars. They were further classified into 105 CSVd variants. Each single chrysanthemum plant had a different set of CSVd variants. Moreover, different single plants from the same cultivar had different sets of CSVd variants but identical consensus genome sequences. A phylogenetic tree using 12 consensus genome sequences revealed three groups of CSVd genomes, while six different groups were defined by the phylogenetic analysis using 105 variants. Based on the consensus CSVd genome, by combining all variant sequences, we identified 99 single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) as well as three nucleotide positions showing high mutation rates. Although 99 SNVs were identified, most CSVd genomes in this study were derived from variant 1, which is identical to known CSVd SK1 showing pathogenicity. PMID:28149699

  17. The use of Stunkard's figure rating scale to identify underweight and overweight in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of Stunkard's current body size (CBS) with self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in predicting weight status in Chinese adolescents, and to determine the CBS cutoffs for overweight/obesity and underweight. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 5,418 secondary school students (45.2% boys; mean age 14.7 years). Height and weight were measured by trained teachers or researchers. Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Subjects were asked to select the figure that best resembled their CBS on the Stunkard's figure rating scale. Self-reported height, weight, WC and WSR were also obtained. The performance of CBS, self-reported BMI, WC and WSR as a weight status indicator was analysed by sex-specific receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal CBS cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined based on the Youden Index. Apart from self-reported BMI, CBS had the greatest area under curve (AUC) for underweight in boys (0.82) and girls (0.81). For overweight/obesity, CBS also had a greater AUC (0.85) than self-reported WC and WSR in boys, and an AUC (0.81) comparable to self-reported WC and WSR in girls. In general, CBS values of 3 and 5 appeared to be the optimal cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity, respectively, in different sex-age subgroups. CBS is a potentially useful indicator to assess weight status of adolescents when measured and self-reported BMI are not available.

  18. Trends in underweight and overweight/obesity prevalence in Chinese youth, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Niu, Jingjing

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of recent data on Chinese childhood overweight and underweight prevalence especially since 2004. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in underweight and overweight/obesity ("overweight" hereafter) prevalence and energy balance-related behaviors of Chinese youth from 2004 to 2009. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2004-2009 (N = 4,061 students aged 6-18 years), were analyzed. Trained health workers took anthropometric measures at the participant's house or at a local clinic following a reference protocol recommended by the World Health Organization. The international age- and sex-specific body mass index reference standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force was used to define underweight and overweight children in this study. Among 6- to 11-year-old boys, underweight prevalence increased from 14.5% (2004) to 20.1% (2009, p = 0.068). Among 12- to 18-year-old boys, however, overweight prevalence increased from 7.5 to 12.6% (p = 0.034). From 2004 to 2009, after-school sedentary behavior increased from 2.3 to 3.4 h/day for 6- to 11-year-olds (p Chinese students are increasing, with underweight increases more pronounced in 6- to 11-year-olds and overweight increases more pronounced in 12- to 18-year-olds. Nationwide efficacious interventions are needed that improve the diet, decrease sedentary behavior, and encourage a healthy and realistic body image in Chinese youth.

  19. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Tasnim Tasnim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. Methods This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3. Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor. The statistical analysis used Cox regression. Results A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; p<0.001, a lack of latrine availability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001, and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02 significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively. Conclusions Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children’s nutritional status. Children’s health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  20. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Tasnim; Dasvarma, Gouranga; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3). Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor). The statistical analysis used Cox regression. A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; pavailability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001), and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02) significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively). Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children's nutritional status. Children's health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  1. Socio-economic predictors of stunting in preschool children – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting and child malnutrition remain policy priorities for the South African Department of Health, and this study suggests that policies that aim to increase parental education level and reduce unemployment or target additional support to families with low education or unemployed parents may reduce stunting in preschool- ...

  2. Lower waist circumference in mildly‐stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut‐off point than in non‐stunted counterparts.

  3. Stunting in Children (0-59 Months): What Is the Current Trend in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhi, Natisha; Sartorius, Benn; Taylor, Myra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stunting continues to affect young children as a global nutritional disorder. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence, associated risk factors and spatial clustering for stunting in a disadvantaged South African District. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional weighted survey of households was conducted in the iLembe…

  4. Mosaic stunting in bareroot Pinus banksiana seedlings is unrelated to colonization by mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette R. Potvin; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese; Dana L. Richter; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Mosaic stunting, the occurrence of random patches of chlorotic seedlings with reduced shoot and diameter growth amidst more robust cohorts within bareroot nurseries, is classically associated with poor colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. We examined possible relationships among soil fertility, mycorrhizas, and random patches of mosaic stunting in bareroot Pinus...

  5. Activity and Behavioral Development in Stunted and Nonstunted Children and Response to Nutritional Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks Gardner, Julie M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied effects on nutritional supplementation, with or without psychosocial stimulation, on the development and growth of 129 stunted children compared with 32 nonstunted children. Found that after six months, initially low activity levels of stunted children matched those of nonstunted children, regardless of treatment. Supplementation improved…

  6. First report of hop stunt viroid from sweet cherry with dapple apple fruit symptoms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), the type member of the genus Hostuviroid, family Pospiviroidae, was first described from hops with stunt disease in Japan. HSVd has a wide host range that includes hop, cucumber, citrus, grapevine, plum, pear, peach, apricot and almond and is the causal agent of serious dis...

  7. Physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight children 6-13 years in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, R M; Peña Reyes, M E; Tan, S K; Little, B B

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the growth and physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight/obese (owt/ob) Oaxaca children 6-13 years. This study was a cross-sectional, included 688 school children (grades 1-3, 4-6), aged 6-13 years, from an indigenous rural community (n=361) and colonia popular (n=327) in Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Anthropometry-weight, height, sitting height, limb circumferences, skinfolds. Derived-body mass index, sitting height/height ratio, leg and step lengths, limb muscle areas, sum of skinfolds. Physical fitness-sit and reach, sit-ups, distance run, grip strength, standing long jump, 35 yard dash. Physical activity-steps to and from school, household chores, sports participation. Normal-not stunted, not owt/ob; stunted-not owt/ob; and owt/ob-not stunted were compared with multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age. Two children were stunted and owt/ob, and were excluded. Age-adjusted means for body size, muscularity, adiposity and grip strength showed a gradient, owt/ob>normal>stunted in both sexes and grade levels (Pnormal>stunted, but owt/ob children had less strength per unit mass and poorer endurance. Normal and stunted children did not differ consistently in fitness. Physical activity and television time did not differ among the three groups.

  8. RISIKO PENDIDIKAN IBU TERHADAP KEJADIAN STUNTING PADA ANAK 6-23 BULAN

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    Atikah Rahayu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalnutrition constributes to underlying cause of death of Indonesian underfives chilren. One of the consequences of malnutrition in long time period is growth failure that is stunting. Low education of mother is important risk factor for stunting. The aimed of study was to confirm wether maternal education for child stunting in Banjarbaru. Crossectional design was implied to and 51 children aged 6-23 months old were enrolled in study, which run for three months in the year 2013. Maternal education was calculated by year complete of schooling and stunting was by z-score of height for age. Statistical test for data analysis used chi-square test with 95% confidence interval (CI. Result showed that there a significant association (p<0.05 between maternal education and incidence of stunting in children 6-23 months of age. Mother with low education level had 5,1 fold risk to have child stunting. The study confirmed that maternal education had an important risk to child stunting aged 6-23 months old at least in the study site.Keywords: children 6-23 months of age, maternal education, stuntingABSTRAKKekurangan gizi menjadi salah satu penyebab kematian balita di Indonesia. Konsekuensi kurang zat gizi dalam jangka waktu lama adalah gagal tumbuh. Pendidikan ibu yang rendah merupakan factor risiko yang penting pada pertumbuhan anak. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji risiko tingkat pendidikan ibu dengan kejadian stunting pada anak berumur 6-23 bulan. Desain penelitian adalah cross-sectional dengan besar sampel 51 anak berumur 6-23 bulan. Penelitian dilakukan selama 3 bulan di Cempaka, Banjarbaru tahun 2013. Tingkat pendidikan ibu ditentukan dengan pendidikan formal yang telah diselesaikan, stunting ditentukan dengan indikator z-score untuk panjang badan menurut umur. Data dianalisis dengan uji chi-square dengan confidance interval (CI 95%. Pada penelitian ini ditemukan hubungan yang bermakna (p<0.05 antara pendidikan ibu dengan kejadian stunting pada

  9. Status stunted dan hubungannya dengan perkembangan anak balita di wilayah pesisir Pantai Utara Kecamatan Lemahwungkuk Kota Cirebon

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    Alina Hizni

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: There was no association between stunted status and child development; however stunted status had greater risk for delay in language development, and risk factors dominantly affecting child development were occupation and education of mothers.

  10. Chronic stunting among under-5 children in Bangladesh: A situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major problem in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Chronic malnutrition is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five years. Although Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing mortality in the under-fives, chronic stunting remains a formidable challenge for the country. Based on an analysis of available secondary data, this paper illustrates the current status of chronic stunting in Bangladesh. Data on selected relevant indicators such as gender, urban/rural residence, level of mother’s education, and income by wealth quintiles were extracted from the Bangladesh Health and Demography Surveys from 2004, 2007, and 2011. The data clearly suggest a strong relationship between selected socio-economic variables and stunting among children under the age of five. In rural areas, stunting prevalence rate was found to be more than six times higher than in urban areas. Income inequality was also a significant predictor of stunting. Children from the lowest wealth quintile are twice as likely to be stunted as children from the highest wealth quintile (54% of children under five in the lowest quintile compared to 27% of their counterparts in the highest wealth quintile. Similarly, the level of mother’s education is strongly related to stunting: the higher the level of mothers’ education, the lower the prevalence rate of stunting among children under five. Since wealth or income is a strong predictor of place of residence (urban/rural as well as mothers’ level of education, it can be generally concluded that inequity is the primary determinant of stunting among children under five. Bangladesh must forcefully address inequity in order to tackle the overwhelming prevalence of stunting among children under five. Despite making impressive gains to improve major health and development indicators at the macro level, Bangladesh has so far failed to adequately address the underlying

  11. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting, wasting, and Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices among children 6-23 months of age in lowland and midland agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Kedir Teji; O'Connor, Thomas Pacelli; Belachew, Tefera; O'Brien, Nora Mary

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and access are strongly affected by seasonality in Ethiopia. However, there are little data on seasonal variation in Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices and malnutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Socio-demographic, anthropometry and IYCF indicators were assessed in post- and pre-harvest seasons among children aged 6-23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 39.8% and 26.9% in post-harvest to 46.0% and 31.8% in pre-harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in prevalence of stunting and underweight between post- and pre-harvest seasons was noted in the midland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% post-harvest to 8.5% pre-harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the lowland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. There is seasonal variation in malnutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect in midland agro-ecological zone. A major contributing factor for child malnutrition may be poor feeding practices. Health information strategies focused on both IYCF practices and dietary diversity of mothers could be a sensible approach to reduce the burden of child malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

  12. Elimination of chrysanthemum stunt viroid and chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid from infected chrysanthemum by cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Su Min; Naing, Aung Htay; Kim, Haeng-Hoon; Chung, Mi Young; Lim, Ki Byung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-07-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Borami' and 'Secret Pink' showing symptoms of stunt disease caused by chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and 'Yellow Cap' showing chlorotic mottle disease caused by chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) were confirmed to be infected by the respective viroids by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Real-time PCR results showed that the viroid concentrations in the infected cultivars varied between the different regions of origin (Chilgok, Gumi, and Gyeongsan). We applied a cryopreservation protocol for elimination of CSVd from naturally infected 'Borami' collected from Gumi, showing the lowest concentration of CSVd, by varying several factors such as plant vitrification solutions (PVS2 and PVS3), duration of exposure to liquid nitrogen, shoot-tip size, and low-temperature treatment. The solution (PVS2) and low-temperature treatment were found to be critical factors determining the efficacy of viroid elimination. We optimized the protocol by combining of all resulted optimal factors and tested the applicability of the protocol in 'Borami' collected from Chilgok and Gyeongsan and in 'Secret Pink' from Chilgok, Gumi, and Gyeongsan, which displayed different viroid concentrations. We found that the elimination rates varied depending on the cultivar and region of origin. Similar results were observed when the protocol was applied to eliminate CChMVd from the 'Yellow Cap' collected from the same regions. Finally, we found that nested PCR is more reliable for viroid detection than RT-PCR. Overall, cryopreservation can be used to eliminate viroids from infected chrysanthemums; however, the efficacy depends on genotype and initial viroid concentration.

  13. Effect of Obesity and Underweight Status on Perioperative Outcomes of Congenital Heart Operations in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: An Analysis of Data From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Kim, Sunghee; Hornik, Christoph P; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Matsouaka, Roland A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L; Jonas, Richard A

    2017-08-22

    Extreme body mass index (BMI; either very high or very low) has been associated with increased risk of adverse perioperative outcome in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. The effect of BMI on perioperative outcomes in congenital heart disease patients has not been evaluated. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed studying patients 10 to 35 years of age undergoing a congenital heart disease operation in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. The primary outcomes were operative mortality and a composite outcome (1 or more of operative mortality, major adverse event, prolonged hospital length of stay, and wound infection/dehiscence). The associations between age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles and these outcomes were assessed, with adjustment for patient-level risk factors, with multivariate logistic regression. Of 18 337 patients (118 centers), 16% were obese, 15% were overweight, 53% were normal weight, 7% were underweight, and 9% were severely underweight. Observed risks of operative mortality ( P =0.04) and composite outcome ( P obese subjects. Severely underweight BMI was associated with increased unplanned cardiac operation and reoperation for bleeding. Obesity was associated with increased risk of wound infection. In multivariable analysis, the association between BMI and operative mortality was no longer significant. Obese (odds ratio, 1.28; P =0.008), severely underweight (odds ratio, 1.29; P Obesity and underweight BMI were associated with increased risk of composite adverse outcome independently of other risk factors. Further research is necessary to determine whether BMI represents a modifiable risk factor for perioperative outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  15. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  16. Scale up of nutrition and health programs in Ethiopia and their overlap with reductions in child stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Matji, Joan; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chamois, Sylvie; Getahun, Zewditu; White, Jessica M; Rohner, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa has changed little since 2000, and the number of stunted children has increased. In contrast, Ethiopia is an example where the national stunting prevalence and number of stunted children have decreased consistently. We compare regional differences and temporal patterns in stunting with large-scale program coverage to identify where and when programs may have led to reductions in stunting. Data from three national demographic and health surveys and population statistics illustrate, at the regional level, where and when the prevalence and number of stunted children changed since 2000. Reports from large-scale nutrition and health programs were used to identify ecologic associations between geographic program coverage and reductions in stunting. From 2000 to 2005, the decline in the national stunting prevalence was mainly a result of reductions in Oromiya, SNNP and Tigray. Few nutrition programs had high coverage during this time, and economic growth may have contributed to stunting reduction by increasing household wealth and investments in sanitation. From 2005 to 2011, declines in stunting prevalence in Amhara, SNNP, Somali and Oromiya were largely responsible for national reductions. Numerous programs were implemented at scale and could have plausibly improved stunting. While ecologic relationships suggest that economic growth and large-scale programs may have contributed to the reduction in stunting in Ethiopia, stunting did not decrease in all regions despite increased program coverage expansion of the health system. Additional impact evaluations are needed identify the most effective programs to accelerate the reduction in the prevalence and number of stunted children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Trends in Child Obesity and Underweight in Spain by Birth Year and Age, 1983 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Sánchez-Cruz, José Juan; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-08-01

    The prevalences of child obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and are a significant public health issue, particularly in terms of long-term cardiovascular risk profiles, which continue into adulthood unless obesity is reversed. Accurately identifying trends and at-risk subgroups is crucial to correctly target public health initiatives. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalences of child obesity and underweight in Spain from 1983 to 2011 taking into consideration both age and birth year. A series of cross-sectional studies representative of the pediatric population in Spain between 1987 and 2011 was used to calculate the prevalence and trends of excess weight and underweight in girls and boys aged 2 to 14 years per survey year and per birth year. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity remained relatively stable. The prevalence of overweight in boys aged 10 to 14 years increased from 13.9% to 22.2%. The prevalence of obesity in girls aged 2 to 5 years decreased from 30% to 19.8%, whereas the prevalence of underweight in this group increased from 13.7% to 22.6%. Child obesity trends in Spain over the last 2 decades appear to be stable with some fluctuations, but the trends differ depending on age and sex, and have stabilized at too high a level. The prevalence of underweight also appears to have increased and should be considered alongside excess weight when designing and implementing child health and weight measures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Lower fertility associated with obesity and underweight: the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that body weight predicts the number of children that a person will have: obese and underweight persons are hypothesized to have fewer children than do their normal-weight counterparts. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between body weight in young adulthood and achieved fertility in later life. A representative national sample of 12 073 American young adults (aged 17-24 y in 1981) were followed through 2004 (19 survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth). Obese young women and men were less likely to have their first child by the age of 47 y than were their normal-weight counterparts [relative risk (RR) = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.78 in women; RR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.84 in men). Obesity also predicted a lower probability of having more than one child, particularly for women. These associations were partly explained by a lower probability that obese participants will marry. Underweight men were less likely to have the first, second, third, and fourth child than were normal-weight men (RRs = 0.75-0.88; 95% CIs: 0.61, 0.95). These associations were largely explained by the lower marriage probability of underweight men. Obese women and men and underweight men were less likely to have as many children in adulthood as they had desired as young adults. Obesity may be an important risk factor for lower fertility because of its social and possibly biological effect on reproductive behavior. Further data are needed to assess whether this association holds in more recent cohorts.

  19. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-05-01

    Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high-burden settings, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  1. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.F.; Hashmi, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  2. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: Are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapop; Strydom, Gert; Twisk, Jos; Kemper, Han

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Underweight and overweight are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with undernutrition and overnutrition in children. In line with the health promotion strategies, periodical tracking of underweight and overweight in children as well as promotion of government feeding scheme policies are recommended to improve children nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to review available literature regarding the prevalence’s of underweight and overweight and evaluate government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. Methods: The electronic search included PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and library catalogue journal for prospective longitudinal or cross-sectional studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African children within the age ranges of 0 to 14 between 1990 and 2013. Results: Fourteen cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Data synthesis revealed the small number of prospective studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. Overall, a higher percentage of the studies (ten) were reported in the rural areas compared to two studies in urban areas. The remaining four studies were a mixed of rural and urban. In this review, a high percentage of underweight (0.7-66%) was reported among children in rural areas compared to a similarly higher proportion of overweight (3.1-32.4%) in urban areas. Similarly, all studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight affected the adolescent’s performances in many forms including physical activity and fitness, academic performance and

  3. Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

  4. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK

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    Lina Nurbaiti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Community Health Center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat/Puskesmas in Sengkol, District of Central Lombok. This article concludes that there are diatery habit in Sasak people which became predisposing factors to the occurrence of stunting to the children in Sasak. Those are the lack of animal protein intake, mistreatment of breast milk pattern giving which causes failure to fulfill nutrition standard, and there are myth-related belief that opposes the principal of nutrition fulfillment in children.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid from a Single Chrysanthemum Cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-01-01

    The chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid with a single circular RNA genome, infects many chrysanthemum species. Here, we report 25 complete genome sequences of CSVd in a single chrysanthemum cultivar, revealing 20 variants.

  6. Modelling stunting in LiST: the effect of applying smoothing to linear growth data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cousens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lives Saved Tool (LiST is a widely used resource for evidence-based decision-making regarding health program scale-up in low- and middle-income countries. LiST estimates the impact of specified changes in intervention coverage on mortality and stunting among children under 5 years of age. We aimed to improve the estimates of the parameters in LiST that determine the rate at which the effects of interventions to prevent stunting attenuate as children get older. Methods We identified datasets with serial measurements of children’s lengths or heights and used random effects models and restricted cubic splines to model the growth trajectories of children with at least six serial length/height measurements. We applied WHO growth standards to both measured and modelled (smoothed lengths/heights to determine children’s stunting status at multiple ages (1, 6, 12, 24 months. We then calculated the odds ratios for the association of stunting at one age point with stunting at the next (“stunting-to-stunting ORs” using both measured and smoothed data points. We ran analyses in LiST to compare the impact on intervention effect attenuation of using smoothed rather than measured stunting-to-stunting ORs. Results A total of 21,786 children with 178,786 length/height measurements between them contributed to our analysis. The odds of stunting at a given age were strongly related to whether a child is stunted at an earlier age, using both measured and smoothed lengths/heights, although the relationship was stronger for smoothed than measured lengths/heights. Using smoothed lengths/heights, we estimated that children stunted at 1 month have 45 times the odds of being stunted at 6 months, with corresponding odds ratios of 362 for the period 6 to 12 months and 175 for the period 12 to 24 months. Using the odds ratios derived from the smoothed data in LiST resulted in a somewhat slower attenuation of intervention effects over time

  7. ANALISIS DETERMINAN DAN PENGARUH STUNTING TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR ANAK SEKOLAH DI KUPANG DAN SUMBA TIMUR, NTT

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    Intje Picauly

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe research was conducted to find out determinant factors that can cause the incidence of stunting and how it may affect elementary school children performance. The research areas were selected based on the difference access of nutrition information. Kabupaten Sumba Timur and Kota Kupang were selected as research areas. Related primary data was taken covering anthropometric index namely body height for age (HFA; weight for age (WFA, and weight for height (WFH, and academic school performances before and after research treatment. Other data was collected by interview using questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to know determinant factors that may bring about stunting. The results showed that determinant factors of stunting were family income, mother’s nutrition knowledge, child care practices, the history of infection, immunization, protein intake, and mother education. While, stunted elementary school children had low academic performances. The higher level of stunting is the lower academic performance of elementary school children.Keywords: academic performances, determinant of Stunting, elementary school studentsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting serta dampaknya terhadap prestasi anak sekolah dasar. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Kupang dan Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Lokasi penelitian sengaja diambil dua wilayah yang berbeda jangkauan informasi tentang gizi dan manfaatnya serta ketersediaan sarana prasarana yang dapat digunakan untuk pencapaian kondisi bebas masalah gizi. Subjek yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini masing-masing sebanyak 265 siswa di Kota Kupang dan 274 di Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Adapun jenis data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang meliputi data indeks antropometri (TB/U; BB/U; BB/TB dan data hasil pengukuran nilai siswa. Selain itu data–data lain dilengkapi dan diukur menggunakan instrumen kuesioner yang bersifat terstruktur. Analisis

  8. ASUPAN SUPLEMEN BUKAN DETERMINAN KEJADIAN STUNTING ANAK BALITA (1-3 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Hariyadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Supplement Intake Not Determinants Stunting Events Children (1-3 Years. This study aims relationship supplement intake with the incidence of stunting among Children aged 1-3 years who live in urban areas Kubu Raya. An observational study with the cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in Kubu Raya in August to November 2014. Measurement of nutritional status using indicators PB/U. Supplement intake asked to interview. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test.The results showed the percentage of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the amount of 39.51%.The most consumed form of supplements which are of the type syrup as much as 34.6% of 82.7% respondents toddler supplements. No significant relationship exists between supplement intake with the incidence of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the urban area of Kubu Raya. Abstrak: Asupan Suplemen Bukan Determinan Kejadian Stunting Anak balita (1-3 Tahun. Penelitian ini bertujuan hubungan asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada anak balita usia 1-3 tahun yang tinggal di daerah urbanKubu Raya. Penelitian ini bersifat observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Kubu Raya pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014. Pengukuran status gizi menggunakan indikator PB/U. Asupan suplemen ditanyakan dengan wawancara. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Chi square.Hasil penelitian menunjukan persentase kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun yaitu sebesar 39,51%. Sebanyak 82.7% balita responden mengonsumsi suplemen, dengan bentuk suplemen yang terbanyak dikonsumsi adalah dari jenis sirup sebanyak 34.6%.Tidak ada hubungan yang bemakna antara asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun di daerah urban Kubu Raya.

  9. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native Amazonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Emmett, Susan D; Kidd, Celeste; Leonard, William R; Piantadosi, Steven T; Reyes-García, Victoria; Sharma, Abhishek; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2018-01-01

    We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002-2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills. Stunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13-15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18-21% and 15-21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children. The results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. World Perspective on the Epidemiology of Stunting between 1990 and 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Susan C; Cherian, Arlin Mary; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Stunting is the most prevalent form of child undernutrition with current worldwide estimates at 156 million. The majority of these children reside in low- and middle-income countries. When stunting prevails to adulthood, optimal growth potential and economic productivity are minimized. In 2015 there were 98.5 million fewer stunted children under 5 years of age than in 1990. In East Asia and Pacific and South Asia, the stunting prevalence decreased by 24.8 and 25%, respectively. Minimal declines were observed in Latin America and the Caribbean at 12.6%, in the Middle East and North Africa at 12.9%, and in sub-Saharan Africa at 13.4%. But because large populations of children under 5 years of age are distributed disproportionately, decreases in prevalence do not translate to fewer numbers of stunted children globally. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of stunted children increased by 12.4 million between 1990 and 2015. Adult height is dependent on nutrition-specific or nutrition-sensitive factors. Nutrition-specific factors can be targeted according to their impact at critical points of development and therefore offer multiple windows of opportunity for interventions. To date, many interventions focus on the first 1,000 days, but opportunities may extend into later childhood and adolescence.
. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Turner, John G

    2008-01-01

    When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA), a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  13. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA, a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  14. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas

  15. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L.; de Ridder, J. Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South African studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are

  16. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L; de Ridder, J Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C G

    2015-01-22

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%-66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%-32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are faced

  17. Analisis determinan stunting pada baduta di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas tahun 2016

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    Basri Aramico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackgrounds: Stunting remains a problem that still needs to be considered by the government, because children with stunting decreased of intelligence (IQ than children who are not stunting. Optimal growth can only be achieved by the intake of nutritious food and a healthy environment. In 2013, the prevalence of stunting in Aceh amounted to 37.2% consisted of 18% very short and 19.2% short. Based on the results of monitoring nutritional status report from Public Health Office in Pidie Jaya, the prevalence of stunting increased in the last two years. That percentage increased from 14.8% in 2014 and become 17% in 2015.Objectives: This study aims to determine of stunting of BADUTA in Puskesmas Ulim, Pidie Jaya district in the year of 2016.Methods: This research design is descriptive analytic by cross-sectional. The population in this study is all mothers who have BADUTA in Puskesmas Ulim in total of 75 respondents. The sampling method used is cluster sampling with total samples taken by 20% of the entire population from every six villagers from 30 villages. The primary data obtained directly by measuring the length of the child's body and through questionnaires by interview. The statistical test used is Chi-Square Test.Results: The study showed that 66.7% children experienced stunting, 70.7% children has less nutrition, 85.3% children does not received exclusive breastfeeding, 8.0% children with low birth weight babies, and 80.0% having infectious diseases.  From the statistical analysis it can be concluded that there is a relationship between nutrient intake (p-value= 0.000, breastfeeding (p-value= 0.000, and infectious diseases (p-value= 0.029 with stunting. However, there is no relation between low birth weight (LBW (p-value= 0.079 with stunting for BADUTA.Conclusions: There is significant correlation between nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding, infection disease with stunting of BADUTA meanwhile there is no significant correlation

  18. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting ( Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4 children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5 children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P 10 years (P = 0.003, more siblings (P = 0.016 and crowded housing (P = 0.006. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted simultaneously for all factors, older age (aOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.89-6.88, urban area with low SES (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.15-5.81 and low-income neighborhoods (aOR 4.62, 95% CI 1.63-13.10 were associated with stunting while urban area with low SES (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21-4.30 was associated with thinness. In linear regression analyses adjusted for all factors, low-income neighborhoods and older age were associated with lower height-for-age z-score while rural area with low/disadvantaged SES was associated with lower BMI-for-age z-score. Conclusions Relatively low prevalence of stunting and thinness depicted an improvement in the nutritional status of school-aged children in Pakistan. However, the inequities between the poorest and the

  19. Berat badan lahir rendah berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Yeyen Supriyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is a growth impairment resulting from chronic malnutrition condition or prolonged infectious diseases. It may cause growth retardation, low endurance, lack of intelligence and productivity. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia reached 37.2% where Special Region of Yogyakarta reached 27% and Bantul District was 18.08%. Low birth weight babies have a life chance, however, when they survive they are still vulnerable to diseases, growth retardation, and developmental disorders. Statistics showed that 90% low birth weight cases found in developing countries and the mortality rate was 35 times higher in infants with low birth weight compared to infants with normal birth weight. Objectives: To understand the relationship between weight low birth (BBLR and stunting in children 6-23 month in Sedayu District Bantul Yogyakarta.Methods: This study used observational research with cross-sectional design. The population in this study were parents and children from 6-23 months which were 1217 subjects. The sample used in this study as many as 190 subjects were selected by using proportional probability to size techniques. Data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results: Bivariate analysis showed that low birth weight infants was significantly related with stunting (OR= 6.16; 95% CI: 3.007-12.656. In other words, children born with low birth weight status had a chance 6.16 times greater to become stunting than the children who birth weight normal Conclusion: There was a relationship between low birth weight infants and stunting in children 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul District, Yogyakarta. KEYWORDS: low birth weight, stunting, children aged 6-23 months ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting adalah gangguan pertumbuhan yang terjadi akibat kondisi kekurangan gizi kronis atau penyakit infeksi kronis. Dampak yang ditimbulkan antara lain lambatnya pertumbuhan anak, daya tahan tubuh yang rendah, kurang kecerdasan dan produktivitas

  20. A review of the evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Krishna, Aditi; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth. Throughout, we consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental approaches and observational studies. Long-run evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to the programmes (a 25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost-benefit analyses of nutrition interventions using calibrated return estimates report a median return of 17.9:1 per child. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, we find that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase in wages for men and a 6% increase in wages for women in our preferred set of studies which attempt to address unobserved confounding and measurement error. In contrast, the evidence on the association between economic growth and stunting is mixed. Countries with high rates of stunting, such as those in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments that expand the economic opportunities of their children, better allowing them and their countries to reach their full potential. However, economic growth as a policy will only be effective at reducing the prevalence of stunting when increases in national income are directed at improving the diets of children, addressing gender inequalities and strengthening the status of women, improving sanitation and reducing poverty and inequities. © The Author 2017

  1. Association between maternal depression and child stunting in Northern Ghana: a cross-sectional study

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    Anthony Wemakor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting indicates failure to attain genetic potential for height and is a well-documented indicator for poor growth. Depression is common in women of reproductive age and women’s mental health problems may affect the growth of young children. We examined the association between maternal depression and stunting in mother-child pairs attending Child Welfare Clinic (CWC in Northern Ghana. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study was performed involving mothers (15–45 years and their children (0–59 months who attended CWC at Bilpeila Health Centre, Tamale, Ghana. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, maternal depression was measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Screening Scale, and anthropometry was conducted on children following standard procedures. The association between maternal depression and child stunting was examined in logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Results Prevalence rates of child stunting and maternal depression were estimated at 16.1 and 27.8 % respectively in Northern Ghana. Mothers with depression when compared with those without depression tended to be younger, be currently unmarried, belong to the poorest household wealth tertile, and were more likely to have low birth weight babies, so these characteristics were adjusted for. In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, children of depressed mothers were almost three times more likely to be stunted compared to children of non-depressed mothers (Adjusted OR = 2.48, 95 % CI 1.29–4.77, p = 0.0011. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of depression among mothers in Northern Ghana which is associated with child stunting. Further studies are needed to identify the determinants of maternal depression and to examine its association with child stunting to inform nutrition programming.

  2. Underweight, Markers of Cachexia, and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study of Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, Emily M; Krumholz, Hannah A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-04-01

    Underweight patients are at higher risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than normal weight patients; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is explained by confounding due to cachexia or other factors associated with low body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) does comprehensive risk adjustment for comorbid illness and frailty measures explain the higher mortality after AMI in underweight patients, and (2) is the relationship between underweight and mortality also observed in patients with AMI who are otherwise without significant chronic illness and are presumably free of cachexia? We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a cohort-based study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for AMI between January 1994 and February 1996 with 17 y of follow-up and detailed clinical information to compare short- and long-term mortality in underweight and normal weight patients (n = 57,574). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association of low BMI with 30-d, 1-y, 5-y, and 17-y mortality after AMI while adjusting for patient comorbidities, frailty measures, and laboratory markers of nutritional status. We also repeated the analyses in a subset of patients without significant comorbidity or frailty. Of the 57,574 patients with AMI included in this cohort, 5,678 (9.8%) were underweight and 51,896 (90.2%) were normal weight at baseline. Underweight patients were older, on average, than normal weight patients and had a higher prevalence of most comorbidities and measures of frailty. Crude mortality was significantly higher for underweight patients than normal weight patients at 30 d (25.2% versus 16.4%, p underweight patients had a 13% higher risk of 30-d death and a 26% higher risk of 17-y death than normal weight patients (30-d hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20; 17-y HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.23-1.30). Survival curves for underweight and normal weight patients separated early

  3. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Zhong; Nan, Zhi Biao

    2007-06-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, 'standing milkvetch' (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of stunted plants with reddish-brown stems and yellow and necrotic leaf blades. An Embellisia sp. was isolated from symptomatic stem, leaf blade, petiole, and root tissues at varying frequencies of up to 90%. Single-spore isolates grew very slowly on PCA, PDA, V-8 and, wheat hay decoction agar. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation of seeds, dipping 2-day-old pre-germinated seedlings in inoculum and spraying inoculum on 6-month-old plants. Symptoms on test plants included yellow leaf lesions, brown lesions on stems and petioles, stunted side-shoots with yellow, small, distorted and necrotic leaves, shoot blight, bud death, crown rot, root rot, and plant death. The disease is named as 'yellow stunt and root rot' of A. adsurgens to distinguish it from diseases caused by other known pathogens. Embellisia sp. is also pathogenic to A. sinicus but not to 11 other tested plant species.

  4. Pola Segregasi Sifat Ketahanan Terhadap Soybean Stunt Virus dan Keragaman Genetik FAMILI F2:3 HASIL PERSILANGAN VARIETAS ORBA DAN GALUR B3570

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    Hasriadi Mat Akin, Emi Lidya Astri, dan Maimun Barmawi .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Segregation pattern of the Soybean Stunt Virus resistant character and genetic diversity of F2:3 families derived from crosses between Orba and B3570.  Soybean stunt disease caused by SSV (Soybean Stunt Virus is the most destructive soybean disease in Indonesia. This research was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 at experiment station of Lampung University.  The aims of this research were to evaluate the segregation of resistant characters and total genetic diversity of eight populations of F2:3  families. Experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The resistance was evaluated based on the score of disease severity.  The results showed that the resistant characters segregate 1:2:1 to susceptible, moderately resistant, and resistant, respectively based on  the segregation pattern. The resistant character was controlled by single gene and the action of the gene is noncompletely dominant gene.  Eight populations of F2:3 families have high diversities on the yield and yield components.

  5. Is the economic crisis affecting birth outcome in Spain? Evaluation of temporal trend in underweight at birth (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Carlos; Terán, José Manuel; Bernis, Cristina; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the impact of the current European economic crisis on health. In Spain, since 2008, there have been increasing levels of impoverishment and inequality, and important cuts in social services. The objective is to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on underweight at birth in Spain. Trends in underweight at birth were examined between 2003 and 2012. Underweight at birth is defined as a singleton, term neonatal weight lesser than -2 SD from the median weight at birth for each sex estimated by the WHO Standard Growth Reference. Using data from the Statistical Bulletin of Childbirth, 2 933 485 live births born to Spanish mothers have been analysed. Descriptive analysis, seasonal decomposition analysis and crude and adjusted logistic regression including individual maternal and foetal variables as well as exogenous economic indicators have been performed. Results demonstrate a significant increase in the prevalence of underweight at birth from 2008. All maternal-foetal categories were affected, including those showing the lowest prevalence before the crisis. In the full adjusted logistic regression, year-on-year GDP per capita remains predictive on underweight at birth risk. Previous trends in maternal socio-demographic profiles and a direct impact of the crisis are discussed to explain the trends described.

  6. EFEKTIFITAS SUPLEMENTASI Zn DALAM PENINGKATAN TINGGI BADAN DAN SKOR Z TB/U PADA BALITA STUNTING

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    Dewi Pertiwi Dyah Kusudaryati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Defisiensi Zn dikaitkan dengan pertumbuhan yang tidak optimal. Salah satu dampak dari kegagalan pertumbuhan pada balita ditunjukkan dengan terjadinya stunting (pendek. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektifitas suplementasi Zn dalam peningkatan tinggi badan dan skor Z TB/U pada balita stunting. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimen dengan randomized pretest posttest design. Sebanyak 18 balita stunting diberkan suplemen Zn 4 mg tiga kali seminggu selama 12 minggu. Hasil yang diperoleh diketahui sebesar 38,9% subyek berstatus gizi yang semula stunting menjadi normal setelah suplementasi Zn. Uji paired t test menunjukkan ada perbedaan tinggi badan dan skor Z TB/U sebelum dan setelah suplementasi Zn (p = 0,000 dan p = 0,004, secara berurutan dengan peningkatan tinggi badan rata-rata 2,8 cm dan skor Z TB/U rata-rata 0,2 SD. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini bahwa suplementasi Zn efektif dalam meningkatkan tinggi badan dan skor Z TB/U balita stunting.

  7. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  8. Economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Mannan, Munim; Long, Kurt Z; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    To assess the economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Systematic review of articles published until March 2015. Seventeen suitable articles were found, of which 13 assess the economic burden of overweight/obesity and estimate that it accounts for 1.5-9.9% of a country's total healthcare expenditure. Four articles on the economic burden of underweight estimate it at 2.5-3.8% of the country's total GDP. Using hospital data, and compared to normal weight individuals, four articles estimated extra healthcare costs for overweight individuals of 7-9.8% and more, and extra healthcare costs for obese individuals of 17-22.3% and higher. Despite methodological diversity across the studies, there is a consensus that both underweight and overweight impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Use of powdered formula and incidence of underweight among infants of educated and uneducated mothers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I A; Afolabi, O A

    1986-01-01

    The duration of usage of a tin of powdered formula and the incidence of underweight among 250 infants 14 days to 12 months old, whose parents were educated and uneducated, are reported. Twenty-two percent of the educated mothers and 42% of the uneducated mothers started their infants on formula from the 14th day of life. Only 6% of all the mothers exclusively breastfed for 1 month, and a meager 2% of the uneducated mothers exclusively breastfed for 3 months. There was a significant (p less than 0.001) increase in the duration of usage of a tin of powdered formula among the uneducated mothers as compared to the educated ones. Of the 250 infants, 93 (37.2%) greater than or equal to 1 month old were assessed as underweight for age. Most of the underweight infants had uneducated mothers. Practical ways of improving feeding practices and curbing early introduction of supplementary feeds are suggested.

  10. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p overweight individuals (p overweight (p adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  11. Stunt Barbie - A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-04-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end-of-chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her.2 The problem presents a connected learning opportunity for students because it requires the use of the constant velocity model xf = v*t + xi and the constant acceleration model yf = ½* g* t2 + vyi* t + yi (where g = 9.8 m/s/s) to solve it. I named the stunt woman Barbie and created an activity titled "Stunt Barbie."

  12. Underweight, overweight and obesity among a Piedmont (Northern Italy children sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Micheletti Cremasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M. [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in chilhood, is an emergent social problem that can produce adverse health effects in adulthood. It could be prevented encouraging correct eating behaviors and active lifestyle among children.

  13. Influencing Factors of Stunting in Children Under 5 Years Old in Jilin Province,2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; He, Yonghuan; Zhang, Qijun; Wang, Qiuyan; Feng, Xinglin

    2017-04-20

    Objective To analyze the influencing factors of stunting in children under 5 years old in Jilin province in 2013,with an attempt to further improve the nutrition status among children. Methods Data on stunting in children under 5 years old in Jilin province were extracted from the National Health Services Survey 2013 in Jilin province. The influencing factors of stunting were analyzed by using univariate analysis and Logistic regression analysis.. Results The stunting prevalence in children under 5 years old was 23.8% in 2013. Univariate analysis showed that urban residence (OR=0.38,95% CI=0.25-0.57),high income (OR=0.40,95% CI=0.24-0.66),mother's education level (higher than primary school) (OR=0.50,95% CI=0.32-0.81),safe water coverage (OR=0.41,95% CI=0.22-0.75),and clean toilet coverage (OR=0.36,95% CI=0.24-0.53) are protective factors of stunting. After adjusting other factors,urban residence (OR=0.54,95% CI=0.31-0.94),safe water coverage (OR=0.28,95% CI=0.13-0.60),and clean toilet coverage (OR=0.40,95% CI=0.24-0.67) still showed protective effects. Conclusion The urban-rural disparity and the availability of safe water and clean toilet are the major factors of stunting among children under 5 years old in Jilin province. The major public health service program should be fully implemented to improve the nutrition status among children.

  14. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD

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    Anita Nordenson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anita Nordenson2, Anne Marie Grönberg1,2, Lena Hulthén1, Sven Larsson2, Frode Slinde11Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: Malnutrition is a serious condition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Successful dietary intervention calls for calculations of resting metabolic rate (RMR. One disease-specific prediction equation for RMR exists based on mainly male patients. To construct a disease-specific equation for RMR based on measurements in underweight or weight-losing women and men with COPD, RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry in 30 women and 11 men with a diagnosis of COPD and body mass index <21 kg/m2. The following variables, possibly influencing RMR were measured: length, weight, middle upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance, lung function, and markers of inflammation. Relations between RMR and measured variables were studied using univariate analysis according to Pearson. Gender and variables that were associated with RMR with a P value <0.15 were included in a forward multiple regression analysis. The best-fit multiple regression equation included only fat-free mass (FFM: RMR (kJ/day = 1856 + 76.0 FFM (kg. To conclude, FFM is the dominating factor influencing RMR. The developed equation can be used for prediction of RMR in underweight COPD patients.Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, basal metabolic rate, malnutrition, body composition

  15. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  16. Déficit estatural nas crianças brasileiras: relação com condições sócio-ambientais e estado nutricional materno Stunting in Brazilian children: relationship with social-environmental conditions and maternal nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyne M. Engstrom

    1999-09-01

    . Children of illiterate mothers showed more stunting (OR = 17.2 than children whose mothers had had at least 9 years of formal education. Stunting was more frequently observed in children whose mothers were underweight (OR = 2.5, and who were from the first quartile of family income in comparison to the fourth quartile (OR = 11.0 and lived in the poorest living conditions (OR = 7.6. These results suggest a positive association between stunted children and underweight mothers.

  17. ASUPAN SENG, KADAR SERUM SENG, DAN STUNTING PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DI PESISIR SEMARANG

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    Adriyan Pramono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc, and to analyze differences of zinc serum level between dietary zinc quintile and stunting status. A cross sectional study was conducted to 70 school children (9-12 years selected by simple random sampling. Height was measured by stadiometer and weight was measured using calibrated digital weight-scale. Zinc serum level was analyzed by Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS method, and dietary intake of zinc and iron was obtained using semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using Anova test. Seventy percent subjects were at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc based on Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut off and zinc serum levels among all subjects in this study were <65 μg/dl. There were 47.1% stunting children found in this study. Mean zinc serum levels significantly differences between dietary zinc quintile (p=0.000 and between stunting status (p=0.000. At risk inadequate dietary zinc still contributed to zinc deficiency in coastal school children population. Zinc status was significantly different between stunted and normal children.Keywords: coastal area, dietary zinc, EAR, stunting, zinc serum levelsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi risiko kurangnya asupan seng dan menganalisis perbedaan kadar serum seng antara kuintil asupan seng dan status stunting. Studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap 70 anak sekolah (9-12 tahun yang dipilih secara acak sederhana. Tinggi badan diukur dengan stadiometer dan berat diukur dengan menggunakan timbangan digital terkalibrasi. Kadar seng serum dianalisis dengan metode Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS, dan data asupan seng dan besi diperoleh melalui wawancara dengan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data dianalisis dengan metode analisis statistik Anova. Sejumlah 70% subjek berisiko kurangnya asupan seng makanan berdasarkan

  18. Detection of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) by nucleic acid spot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothma, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) was extracted from Chrysanthemum stunt viroid-infected Chrysanthemum plants. The CSV was then purified to homogenicity from this extract by one cycle of non-denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis and was followed by one cycle of denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis. No pure circular CSV was obtained. The 3' terminal of purified ASBV was polyadenylated using poly (A) polymerase. The polyadenylated ASBV was used as a template to synthesise radioactively labelled single stranded ASBV cDNA using reverse transcriptase. The radioactively labelled recombinant DNA was hybridised to crude extracts from avocado leaves and chrysanthemum leaves. Autoradiography was employed to detect cDNA-RNA hybrids

  19. Factors Associated with Stunting in Infants Aged 5-11 Months in the Dodota-Sire District, Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Verhoef, H.; Haidar, J.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of various factors to malnutrition, particularly stunting, may differ among areas and communities. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the level of malnutrition and identify factors associated with the high level of stunting in breast-fed infants aged 5-11 mo living in

  20. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Awotidebe, A.; Strydom, G.L.; de Ridder, J.H.; Mamabolo, R.L.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available

  1. Health ratings for underweight, overweight and obese adolescents: disparities between adolescent's own report and the parent's report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Christy; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2010-01-01

    In many Asian countries, overweight and obese children are sometimes considered healthier than their underweight or normal weight counterparts. Using Taiwan as an example, this research aims to examine the relationship between inappropriate weight and self-rated health (SRH) for adolescents, and inappropriate weight and the parent's impression of their adolescent's general health. We analyzed data from 1,879 adolescents (933 boys and 946 girls) from the third year (2003) of a panel survey conducted by the Academia Sinica of Taiwan. Adolescents were identified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese using body mass index (BMI). Kappa statistic was used to determine agreements between adolescent's own report and their health as reported by their parent. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of reporting reduced health by adolescents with inappropriate weight. A separate regression was carried out using the parent's reports for these adolescents. We found that underweight boys were more likely to report reduced health (OR=2.15, pOverweight girls had lower odds of reporting reduced health compared with normal weight girls (OR=0.42, phealth for underweight girls (OR=2.10, phealth for overweight boys compared with reports for normal weight subjects (OR=0.51, phealth by both the adolescents and their parents. This contrasts with overweight and obesity, which are not. Health educational programs could help in adjusting perceptions concerning the health consequences associated with overweight and obesity.

  2. The Effects of Thin and Heavy Media Images on Overweight and Underweight Consumers: Social Comparison Processes and Behavioral Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); T. Mussweiler (Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines how advertisements containing thin or heavy models influence the self‐esteem of overweight, normal, and underweight consumers. Previous research has mainly examined the influences of variations of the comparison standard on self‐evaluative outcomes, whereas we examine

  3. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  4. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  5. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, Do T.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Deurenberg, P.R.M.; Mai, L.B.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background - In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and

  6. Household food insecurity associated with stunting and underweight among preschool children in Antioquia, Colombia Inseguridad alimentaria en los hogares asociada con el retraso del crecimiento y el bajo peso en niños preescolares de Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hackett

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess criterion validity of a household food security scale through its associations with child health status in participants of the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia (MANA. METHODS: A 12-item household food security survey (Colombian Household Food Security Scale, CHFSS was applied to a cross-sectional stratified random sample of 2 784 low-income households with preschool children receiving MANA food supplements in Antioquia, Colombia. Anthropometrics and health status of the children were also assessed. Chi-square tests were used to initially compare child health status and household food security status. Logistic regression models were further developed to assess this relationship in bivariate and multiple regression models. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were found between household food insecurity and diagnoses of children's diarrhea, respiratory infections, and parasitosis (P OBJETIVO: Evaluar la validez de una escala de seguridad alimentaria en hogares mediante su asociación con el estado de salud de niños participantes en el plan colombiano Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia (MANA. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó una encuesta de seguridad alimentaria en hogares (CHFSS, compuesta por 12 preguntas, a una muestra transversal estratificada y aleatoria de 2 784 hogares de bajos ingresos con niños preescolares que recibían suplementos alimenticios del programa MANA en Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluó el estado de salud y antropométrico de los niños. Se comparó el estado de salud de los niños y de seguridad alimentaria de los hogares mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado. Se elaboraron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar esa relación mediante regresiones bifactoriales y multifactoriales. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre la inseguridad alimentaria de los hogares y el diagnóstico de diarrea, infecciones respiratorias y parasitosis en los niños (P < 0,0001. El riesgo de retraso del crecimiento y bajo peso en los niños se incrementó según una relación dosis-respuesta a medida que se agravaba la inseguridad alimentaria. CONCLUSIONES: Se estableció un vínculo importante entre la inseguridad alimentaria de los hogares y el estado nutricional de los niños participantes en un programa de asistencia alimentaria. Estos resultados confirman la validez del CHFSS, por lo que este instrumento es válido para evaluar la inseguridad alimentaria en poblaciones en alto riesgo.

  7. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children middle-income countries and include stunting, wasting and kwashiorkor, of which severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...... and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new...

  8. Prevalence of overweight and underweight and its associated factors among male and female university students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle habits of Thai society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obese and underweight along with associated factors in a sample of Thai university students. Using a cross-sectional survey, we assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among university students selected by stratified random sampling. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand (27.3% males), with age ranging from 18 to 25 years (M=20.1, SD=1.3 years). Results indicated that the median BMI was 20.2, which was higher in men than in women. Overall, 21.5% were underweight (overweight (7.8% overweight [≥23 BMI] and 13% obese [≥25 BMI]). More men than women were overweight and obese, whereas more women than men were underweight. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that among men, older age, trying to eat fibre, and trying to lose weight were associated with overweight or obesity and among women trying to lose weight, depression symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with overweight or obesity. The risk of underweight was greater among men living off campus, having a high income background, and short sleep duration and among women with low physical activity and who were not trying to lose weight. Considering the large percentage of overweight and underweight found in this study and the associated possible negative health consequences, it is suggested to include information on the assessment of adequate weight in health promotion programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Monteiro, Carlos; Popkin, Barry M

    2002-06-01

    Few studies have used the same references across countries to examine the trends of over- and underweight in older children and adolescents. Using international references, we examined the trends of overweight and underweight in young persons aged 6-18 y from 4 countries. Nationally representative data from Brazil (1975 and 1997), Russia (1992 and 1998), and the United States (1971-1974 and 1988-1994) and nationwide survey data from China (1991 and 1997) were used. To define overweight, we used the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The sex- and age-specific body mass index fifth percentile from the first US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to define underweight. The prevalence of overweight increased during the study periods in Brazil (from 4.1 to 13.9), China (from 6.4 to 7.7), and the United States (from 15.4 to 25.6); underweight decreased in Brazil (from 14.8 to 8.6), China (from 14.5 to 13.1), and the United States (from 5.1 to 3.3). In Russia, overweight decreased (from 15.6 to 9.0) and underweight increased (from 6.9 to 8.1). The annual rates of increase in the prevalence of overweight were 0.5% (Brazil), 0.2% (China), -1.1% (Russia), and 0.6% (United States). The burden of nutritional problems is shifting from energy imbalance deficiency to excess among older children and adolescents in Brazil and China. The variations across countries may relate to changes and differences in key environmental factors.

  10. Reducing stunting by improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition in regions such as South Asia: evidence, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-05-01

    Meeting the high nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women and their young children in regions such as South Asia is challenging because diets are dominated by staple foods with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Gaps in nutritional adequacy in such populations probably date back to the agricultural revolution ~10 000 years ago. Options for improving diets during the first 1000 days include dietary diversification and increased intake of nutrient-rich foods, improved complementary feeding practices, micronutrient supplements and fortified foods or products specifically designed for these target groups. Evidence from intervention trials indicates that several of these strategies, both prenatal and post-natal, can have a positive impact on child growth, but results are mixed and a growth response is not always observed. Nutrition interventions, by themselves, may not result in the desired impact if the target population suffers from frequent infection, both clinical and subclinical. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying both prenatal and post-natal growth restriction. In the meantime, implementation and rigorous evaluation of integrated interventions that address the multiple causes of stunting is a high priority. These intervention packages should ideally include improved nutrition during both pregnancy and the post-natal period, prevention and control of prenatal and post-natal infection and subclinical conditions that restrict growth, care for women and children and stimulation of early child development. In regions such as South Asia, such strategies hold great promise for reducing stunting and enhancing human capital formation. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Perspective: The potential role of essential amino acids and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the pathogenesis of child stunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missi...

  12. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  13. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.T.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under

  14. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.; Smits, J.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called "non-specific effects". We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under five.

  15. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency,

  16. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  17. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  18. Stunted patches in onion bulb crops in Oregon and Washington: Etiology and yield loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an important soilborne disease in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. From 2010 to 2013, 251 isolates of Rhizoctonia or Rhizoctonia-like spp. were obtained from soil and onion plant samples collected from Oregon and Washington. Sequence analysis ...

  19. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  20. The World Health Organization's global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Onis, Mercedes; Dewey, Kathryn G; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; Blössner, Monika; Daelmans, Bernadette; Piwoz, Ellen; Branca, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization adopted a resolution on maternal, infant and young child nutrition that included a global target to reduce by 40% the number of stunted under-five children by 2025. The target was based on analyses of time series data from 148 countries and national success stories in tackling undernutrition. The global target translates to a 3.9% reduction per year and implies decreasing the number of stunted children from 171 million in 2010 to about 100 million in 2025. However, at current rates of progress, there will be 127 million stunted children by 2025, that is, 27 million more than the target or a reduction of only 26%. The translation of the global target into national targets needs to consider nutrition profiles, risk factor trends, demographic changes, experience with developing and implementing nutrition policies, and health system development. This paper presents a methodology to set individual country targets, without precluding the use of others. Any method applied will be influenced by country-specific population growth rates. A key question is what countries should do to meet the target. Nutrition interventions alone are almost certainly insufficient, hence the importance of ongoing efforts to foster nutrition-sensitive development and encourage development of evidence-based, multisectoral plans to address stunting at national scale, combining direct nutrition interventions with strategies concerning health, family planning, water and sanitation, and other factors that affect the risk of stunting. In addition, an accountability framework needs to be developed and surveillance systems strengthened to monitor the achievement of commitments and targets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association of the Familial Coexistence of Child Stunting and Maternal Overweight with Indigenous Women in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Houser, R; Must, A; Palma, P; Bermudez, O

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15.9 vs. 22.2%). Compared with normal-weight mothers, overweight mothers were less likely to have stunted children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88]. However, compared with mothers who were not short and overweight, short and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to have stunted children (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73) and were more likely to be indigenous women living in urban areas (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.19-7.60) or rural areas (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28-7.14). The order of observed prevalence of SCOM pairs in different types of households was as follows: urban indigenous (25.0%), rural indigenous (21.2%), rural non-indigenous (19.8%), and urban non-indigenous households (10.7%). Conclusions for Practice Urban indigenous households were more likely to have SCOM pairs. This study provided useful information for identifying the most vulnerable groups and areas with a high prevalence of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight.

  2. Catch-up growth or regression to the mean? Recovery from stunting revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Noël; Preece, Michael A; Cole, Tim J

    2005-01-01

    An important question for policy is the extent to which catch-up growth can ease the impact of early stunting. Martorell et al. (1992) showed that stunted Guatemalan infants remain stunted into adulthood, whereas Adair (1999) found appreciable catch-up growth in Filipino children from 2-12 years. Both groups defined catch-up as an inverse correlation between early height and subsequent growth, but Martorell based the correlation on height, whereas Adair used height z scores. The statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean is much like catch-up growth, an inverse correlation between initial height and later height gain. The objective of this study was to reexamine the relationship between stunting and later catch-up growth in the context of regression to the mean. The design was a theoretical analysis showing that catch-up growth is more evident based on height z scores than on height, validated using data on 495 stunted South African children seen at 2 and 5 years of age. The correlation between height at 2 and height change from 2 to 5 was small based on height (-0.11) but large and highly significant based on height z score (-0.58), providing strong evidence of catch-up growth. We argue that catch-up growth should be estimated using height z score not height and that catch-up is present only when the change in z score exceeds that predicted by regression to the mean. This leads to a compact definition of catch-up growth: if z1 and z2 are the initial and final (mean) height z scores, and r is the correlation between them, then catch-up growth for groups or individuals is given by (z2 - rz1). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  3. Low leptin levels predict amenorrhea in underweight and eating disordered females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpp, W; Blum, W F; von Prittwitz, S; Ziegler, A; Lübbert, H; Emons, G; Herzog, W; Herpertz, S; Deter, H C; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

    1997-07-01

    Evidence that leptin plays an important role in reproductive function is accumulating rapidly. We hypothesized that low leptin synthesis is associated with amenorrhea. We therefore determined serum leptin levels in 43 underweight female students, who were screened for lifetime occurrence of amenorrhea. We assessed the predictive value of leptin, body mass index (BMI), fat mass and percent body fat, respectively, for lifetime occurrence of amenorrea. Factors predicting amenorrhea were tested for their capability to predict current amenorrhea in a second cohort of 63 inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). Furthermore, the relationships between serum leptin levels and of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone, respectively, were evaluated. Only leptin predicted lifetime occurrence of amenorrhea in the student cohort. The critical leptin level was in the range of 1.85 micrograms L-1. This level served to largely separate anorectic from bulimic patients. In patients with AN mean serum log10 leptin levels over the first 4 weeks of inpatient treatment were correlated with mean FSH, LH and estradiol levels, respectively. Evidently, a critical leptin level is needed to maintain menstruation. In affluent populations eating disorders are likely to be a major cause of a low leptin synthesis.

  4. Effect of flow adjustment dialysate (Qd hemodialysis on effectiveness of underweight patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ducuara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available KDOQI guidelines in 2006 using standard dialysis adequacy Kt/V, where V is volume of distributionof urea, underweight patients have lower total body water, lower V, which couldreduce the requirement without affecting Qd the efficiency of dialysis. Objective: to evaluatethe effect on the adequacy of dialysis Qd reduction occurs in patients weighing less than orequal to 60 kg who are on hemodialysis. Methodology: patients with chronic kidney diseaseon hemodialysis regularly with weight less than or equal to 60 kg of a renal clinic to evaluatetwo periods I and II, were continued therapy parameters with decrease of Qd for the secondperiod. The variables were collected directly by the researchers of the history. The values thusobtained would be compared using t test or paired variables, and statistical significance of thetest below 0,05. Results: we included 61 patients, 60.7% female, mean age 57,3 years (SD 14,8.Average age of men 60.1 (SD 13,9 and women was 55,9 (SD 15,4. There were no statisticallysignificant differences for the variables Kt/V, Hemoglobin and there was a significant reductionin the phosphorus levels. Conclusions: this study demonstrates that adequate therapy is achievedwith less than Qd traditional standards, with 400 ml/min in patients with low weight as long asyou keep the other parameters of renal substitution.

  5. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight/Obesity and Their Related Lifestyle Factors in Indonesia, 2014–15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supa Pengpid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and its related factors (socio-demographic, health behavior, health status in a national adult population in Indonesia. Material and Methods: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in 2014–15 in Indonesia, 29509 adults (median age 41.0 years, Inter Quartile Range=22.0, age range of 18–103 years completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic, health behavior and health status factors and underweight and overweight or obesity. Results: Of total sample (n = 29509, 11.2% measured underweight (13.5% among men and 9.1% among women (<18.5 kg/m2, 39.8% normal weight (48.1% among men and 32.0% among women and 49.0% had overweight or obesity (≥23 kg/m2 (38.3% among men and 58.9% among women; 24.6% of the overall sample had class I obesity (25–29.9 kg/m2, and 8.5% had class II obesity (30 or more kg/m2. Among different age groups, underweight was the highest among 18–29 year-olds (20.0% and those 70 years and older (29.8%, while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 59 years (more than 53%. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, having less education, living in rural areas and not having chronic conditions were associated with underweight status. While better education, higher economic status, urban residency, dietary behavior (infrequent meals, frequent meat, fried snacks and fast food consumption, physical inactivity, not using tobacco, having chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterol, and better perceived health and happiness status were associated with overweight or obesity. Conclusions: A dual burden of both adult underweight and having overweight or obesity was found in Indonesia. Sociodemographic, health risk behavior and health status risk factors were identified, which can guide

  7. What is the impact of underweight on self-reported health trajectories and mortality rates: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorem, Geir Fagerjord; Schirmer, Henrik; Emaus, Nina

    2017-10-02

    Utilizing a cohort study design combining a survey approach with repeated physical examinations, we examined the independent effects of BMI on mortality and self-reported health (SRH) and whether these independent effects change as people grow older. The Tromsø Study consists of six surveys conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, with large representative samples of a general population. In total, 31,985 subjects participated in at least one of the four surveys administered between 1986 and 2008. Outcomes of interest were SRH and all-cause mortality. Overweight and underweight subjects reported significantly lower levels of SRH, but age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. The SRH trajectory of underweight subjects at age 25 was slightly above the other categories (0.08), but it fell to -.30 below the reference category at age 90. For obese subjects, the difference was -0.15 below the reference category at age 25 and -0.18 below at age 90. This implies that even though a low BMI was slightly beneficial at a young age, it represented an increasing risk with age that crossed the reference curve at age 38 and even crossed the obese trajectory at age 67 in the full fitted model. The proportional hazard ratio for those who were underweight was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.38-2.06) for all-cause death as compared to 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02-1.23) for obese subjects. BMI affected SRH and all-cause mortality independently from comorbidity, mental health, health-related behaviors and other biological risk factors. Being underweight was associated with excess mortality as compared to all others, and age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. Weight increase was beneficial for mortality but not for SRH among the underweight. The rapid decline of SRH with increasing age suggests that particular attention should be paid to underweight after 38 years of age.

  8. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  9. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe

  10. On the stunted Mocambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (PIsces: Cichlidae of the Matiovila hot spring, Kruger National Park

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    T Hecht

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A stunted population of Oreochromis mossambicus occurs in the Matiovila Hot Sulphur Spring in the Kruger National Park. The growth of the fishes can best be described by the Von Bertalanffy equation L, = ^^(l-e0154^028^ mm SL. Breeding occurs throughout the year and the smallest sexually mature female was 35 mm SL. The fish from this locality were morphometrically compared to another stunted population and to a population of 0. mossambicus from a large impoundment. Speculative reasons for and advantages of stunting are presented.

  11. Tracking for underweight, overweight and obesity from childhood to adolescence: a 5-year follow-up study in urban Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, M; van Weissenbruch, M M; Prawirohartono, E P; Surjono, A; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2008-01-01

    To assess tracking of body mass index (BMI) of urban Indonesian children from childhood to adolescence and to compare the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children from two surveys: years 1999 and 2004. A longitudinal study assessing BMI tracking of 308 urban children followed from age 6-8 to 11-13 years and two cross-sectional surveys comparing the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children: year 1999 (n = 1,524) and 2004 (n = 510). Childhood BMI determined 52.3% variation of later BMI. After 5.1 (0.6) years the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 4.2 and 1.9% in childhood to 8.8 and 3.2% in adolescence. The prevalence of underweight decreased from 27.3 to 18.8%. All obese children remained obese, 84.6% overweight children stayed overweight, 56.0% underweight children remained underweight. In cross-sectional comparison the prevalence of overweight and obesity raised from 5.3 to 8.6% and from 2.7 to 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of underweight remained constant. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increases as children grow into adolescence. Overweight or obese children are more likely to remain overweight or obese. Cross-sectional comparison shows, while the prevalence of underweight stays constant, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Undernutrition among adults in India: the significance of individual-level and contextual factors impacting on the likelihood of underweight across sub-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which individual-level as well as macro-level contextual factors influence the likelihood of underweight across adult sub-populations in India. Population-based cross-sectional survey included in India's National Health Family Survey conducted in 2005-06. We disaggregated into eight sub-populations. Multistage nationally representative household survey covering 99 % of India's population. The survey covered 124 385 females aged 15-49 years and 74 369 males aged 15-54 years. A social gradient in underweight exists in India. Even after allowing for wealth status, differences in the predicted probability of underweight persisted based upon rurality, age/maturity and gender. We found individual-level education lowered the likelihood of underweight for males, but no statistical association for females. Paradoxically, rural young (15-24 years) females from more educated villages had a higher likelihood of underweight relative to those in less educated villages; but for rural mature (>24 years) females the opposite was the case. Christians had a significantly lower likelihood of underweight relative to other socio-religious groups (OR=0·53-0·80). Higher state-level inequality increased the likelihood of underweight across most population groups, while neighbourhood inequality exhibited a similar relationship for the rural young population subgroups only. Individual states/neighbourhoods accounted for 5-9 % of the variation in the prediction of underweight. We found that rural young females represent a particularly highly vulnerable sub-population. Economic growth alone is unlikely to reduce the burden of malnutrition in India; accordingly, policy makers need to address the broader social determinants that contribute to higher underweight prevalence in specific demographic subgroups.

  13. Freshwater Clams (Pilsbryoconcha Exilis) as an Potential Local Mineral Sources in Weaning Food to Overcome Stunting in Grobogan, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, S. R.; Anjani, Gemala; Wijayanti, Hartanti Sandi; Nuryanto

    2018-02-01

    Based on a preliminary survey in Grobogan Central Java, one of the local food that has a prospective nutrient content developed is freshwater clams. Results of PSG report in 2015, especially in Grobogan district with stunting problem of 31.5% consisting of 7.2% very short and 24.1% short. From the stunting event factor, the role of weaning food in the form of baby porridge is the most important component in the fulfillment of infant nutrition. The research is divided into two stages of the research is the initial stage to make the formulation process by way of freshwater clams, nutrient analysis, and formula calculation. The second stage is the process of formulation weaning food by way of formula making, nutrient analysis, and acceptance test of weaning food on the baby slurry is substituted by the freshwater clams. The influence statistically different substitution of freshwater clams on protein content (p=0.014), fat (p=0,041), carbohydrate (p=0,039), water (p=0,0001), ash (p=0.0001), iron (p=0.0001), and zinc (p=0.0001). There is no influence substitution of freshwater clams on energy content (p=0,129) and fiber (p=0,225). The percentage of favorite level on the acceptance test of color (p=0,005) and taste (p=0,006) was statistically different, but there was no difference flavour (p=0,913) and texture (p=0,198). freshwater clams flour is rich in iron and zinc content, so it can serve as local food, especially in Grobogan Central Java as a stunting handling. Obtained from the results of several formulations substituted of freshwater clams in formulation 2 is a formula that can meet the standards of KEPMENKES except on the content of protein and moisture content. Formula 2 acceptable to the panelists, except for the assessment of taste.

  14. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-03-01

    We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study sample comprised 29,633 Korean adolescent girls who are normal weight and underweight. Chi-square tests and correlations were used to assess bivariate relationships between the variables. To assess the mediating effect of body image distortion on the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile and weight loss efforts, a 3-step regression analysis was used. There was a significant correlation between body mass index-for-age percentiles and body image distortion, and both significantly correlated with weight loss efforts. In addition, a distorted perception of being overweight or obese was a significant mediating variable. School-based health education and intervention programs are needed to promote the formation of a positive body image, not only for obese adolescents, but also for normal-weight and underweight adolescent girls. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  15. Eating-related environmental factors in underweight eating disorders and obesity: are there common vulnerabilities during childhood and early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, I; Villarejo, C; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Perpiñá, C; Vilarrasa, N; Granero, R; Cebolla, A; Botella, C; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabe, M; Penelo, E; Casella, S; Islam, M A; Orekhova, E; Casanueva, F F; Karwautz, A; Menchón, J M; Treasure, J; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between individual, social and family influences and dysfunctional eating patterns early in life and the likelihood of developing a subsequent underweight eating disorder (ED) or obesity. The total sample comprised 152 individuals (underweight ED, n = 45; obese patients, n = 65; healthy controls; n = 42) from Barcelona, Spain. The Cross-Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ) was used to assess early eating influences as well as individual and family eating patterns and attitudes towards food. Even though a few shared eating influences emerged for both groups, unique factors were also observed. Whereas relationship with friends, teasing about eating habits by family members and the mass media were of specific relevance to the underweight ED group, the patient's own physical appearance, body dissatisfaction, teasing about eating habits by friends, teasing about body shape by family members and dysfunctional eating patterns were unique to obesity. Overlapping environmental risk factors provide evidence for integral prevention and intervention approaches that simultaneously tackle a range of weight-related problems. The unique factors might be important for targeting high-risk individuals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

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    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  17. Relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting in South Asia: Insights from nationally representative data from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rockli; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Corsi, Daniel J; Aguayo, Víctor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    Optimal growth and development in early childhood is determined by a complex interplay of child, maternal, household, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that influence nutritional intake, but interventions to reduce child undernutrition sometimes target specific risk factors in isolation. In this analysis, we assess the relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting selected based on a collective review of existing multi-factorial frameworks: complementary feeding, breastfeeding, feeding frequency, dietary diversity, maternal height, body mass index (BMI), education, age at marriage, child vaccination, access to improved drinking source and sanitation facilities, household indoor air quality, and household wealth. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh (2014), India (2005), Nepal (2011), and Pakistan (2013), and from the National Nutrition Survey for Afghanistan (2013). In the mutually adjusted logistic regression model for 3,159 infants aged 6-8 months, short maternal stature (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.93-4.46) and lack of complementary foods (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12-1.93) were associated with significantly higher risk of stunting. For 18,586 children aged 6-23 months, the strongest correlates of child stunting were: maternal height (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 2.82-4.03), household wealth (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72-2.94), maternal BMI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-2.00), minimum dietary diversity (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), maternal education (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18-1.56), and age at marriage (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30). Full vaccination and minimum dietary frequency were also found to be important for severe stunting for children of this age group. Some differences were found in the relative ordering and statistical significance of the correlates in country-specific analyses. Our findings indicate that comprehensive strategies incorporating a broader progress

  18. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  19. Impact of contaminated household environment on stunting in children aged 12-59 months in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonese, Federica; Siekmans, Kendra; Kouanda, Seni; Druetz, Thomas; Ly, Antarou; Diabaté, Souleymane; Haddad, Slim

    2017-04-01

    Stunting affects 165 million children worldwide, with repercussions on their survival and development. A contaminated environment is likely to contribute to stunting: frequent faecal-oral transmission possibly causes environmental enteropathy, a chronic inflammatory disorder that may contribute to faltering growth in children. This study's objective was to assess the effect of contaminated environment on stunting in Burkina Faso, where stunting prevalence is persistently high. Panel study of children aged 1-5 years in Kaya. Household socioeconomic characteristics, food needs and sanitary conditions were measured once, and child growth every year (2011-2014). Using multiple correspondence analysis and 12 questions and observations on water, sanitation, hygiene behaviours, yard cleanliness and animal proximity, we constructed a 'contaminated environment' index as a proxy of faecal-oral transmission exposure. Analysis was performed using a generalised structural equation model (SEM), adjusting for repeat observations and hierarchical data. Stunting (children (median (IQR) age 36 (25-48) months). Environment contamination was widespread, particularly in rural and peri-urban areas, and was associated with stunting (prevalence ratio 1.30; p=0.008), controlling for sex, age, survey year, setting, mother's education, father's occupation, household food security and wealth. This association was significant for children of all ages (1-5 years) and settings. Lower contamination and higher food security had effects of comparable magnitude. Environment contamination can be at least as influential as nutritional components in the pathway to stunting. There is a rationale for including interventions to reduce environment contamination in stunting prevention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  1. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  2. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

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    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  3. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther

    2017-07-01

    This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p girl child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

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    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  5. Factors associated with BMI, underweight, overweight, and obesity among adults in a population of rural south India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Matthew; Humphries, Sally; Patel, Kirit; Dewey, Cate

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases are becoming serious public health concerns in rural areas of India. Compounded with the existing issue of underweight, such concerns expose the double burden of disease and may put stress on rural healthcare. The purpose of this article was to present the prevalence and factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in an area of rural south India. Methods During 2013 and 2014, a random sample of adults aged 20?80 yea...

  6. Faktor sosiodemografi dan tinggi badan orang tua serta hubungannya dengan kejadian stunting pada balita usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afia Amin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is linear growth disturbance indicated by the value of the z-score of TB/U less than -2 SD. There are various factors associated with the incidence of stunting. Social demographics such as low income, low parental education and the number of members in the household, also indirectly related to the incidence of stunting. Parental height is also associated with the incidence of stunting. Short mothers have the possibility of having short baby. The results of the study in Egypt showed that children born from mothers with the height of <150 cm have a higher risk to be stunted.Objectives: To determine whether sociodemographic factors and parental height were risk factors for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: The design used case-control study. The research was conducted in April-June 2014 in the Sedayu Subdistrict. Number of samples were 252 children aged 6-23 months. The instruments were a questionnaire to determine the identity of children, the identity of respondents, nutritional status, and sociodemographic data. Infantometer used to measure the length of the children body and microtoise to measure the height of parents. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression test.Results: The prevalence of children stunting was 16.20%. Bivariate test showed that the height of mothers significantly associated with the incidence of stunting. Multivariate analysis showed that the most influential factors to the was maternal height, while variables of employment, education, income, expenditure, number of family members, and height of father did not show significant results.Conclusions: Maternal height were the risk factor for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, but sociodemographic were not.KEYWORDS: stunting, sociodemographic, parental heightABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting

  7. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mars’ Growth Stunted by an Early Giant Planet Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew; Kaib, Nathan A.; Raymond, Sean N.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2017-10-01

    Many dynamical aspects of the solar system can be explained by the outer planets experiencing a period of orbital instability. Though often correlated with a perceived delayed spike in the lunar cratering record known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), recent work suggests that this event may have occurred during the epoch of terrestrial planet formation. Though current simulations of terrestrial accretion can reproduce many observed qualities of the solar system, replicating the small mass of Mars requires modification to standard planet formation models. Here we use direct numerical simulations to show that an early instability in the outer solar system regularly yields properly sized Mars analogues. In 80% of simulations, we produce a Mars of the appropriate mass. Our most successful outcomes occur when the terrestrial planets evolve 10 million years (Myr), and accrete several Mars sized embryos in the Mars forming region before the instability takes place. Mars is left behind as a stranded embryo, while the remainder of these bodies are either ejected from the system or scattered towards the inner solar system where they deliver water to Earth. An early giant planet instability can thus replicate both the inner and outer solar system in a single model.

  9. A case study comparing Positive Deviance/Hearth vs. the traditional health/nutrition education (Mother Care Groups) approach to prevent MAM and rehabilitate underweight children in Soroti, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full text: BACKGROUND: Globally, 52 million children under 5 are moderately/severely wasted. To date, Supplementary Feeding Program (SFP) has been most commonly used to address moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) (low weight-for-height) where food rations are distributed. However, recently, high levels of wasting are being found even in areas with food security. Thus, rather than creating a dependence on food aid, different approaches need to be explored to address the global burden of MAM. World Vision (WV) has been implementing Positive Deviance/Hearth (PDH) since 1999 and has now expanded to more than 40 countries. WV believes PDH is an effective sustainable rehabilitation program for underweight children (low weight-for-age). However, since 2012, WV began using PDH to also rehabilitate MAM children, especially in areas with food security and no treatment for children with acute malnutrition. PDH is a behaviour change program that aims to rehabilitate children in the context of their own homes, to sustain the rehabilitation and prevent future malnutrition using existing resources, local solutions, and a food-based approach. Internationally, to date, there are mixed results in the effectiveness of PDH and the traditional health and nutrition education program called, “Mother Care Groups” (MCG), in successfully improving the behaviours of caregivers and rehabilitating underweight children. As PDH was being implemented in Soroti, Uganda, it was assessed and compared to MCG. METHODS: A comparative case study – quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effectiveness of the two programs in improving the knowledge, behaviour and confidence levels of primary caregivers of malnourished children aged 6-36 months of age in child feeding, hygiene, caring, and health-seeking practices in Soroti, Uganda. If change was seen, the improvement in the nutritional status of malnourished children was also assessed. 64 caregivers with underweight children were included in

  10. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Overweight and Underweight Prevalence Trends in Children from Romania - Pooled Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies between 2006 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Cinteza, Elena Eliza; Chesaru, Bianca Ioana; Gafencu, Mihai; Mocanu, Veronica; Pascanu, Ionela M; Tatar, Simona Alexandra; Balgradean, Mihaela; Dobre, Michaela; Fica, Simona Vasilica; Ichim, Gabriela Edita; Pop, Raluca; Puiu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015. Children's BMI was classified using the current WHO, IOTF, and CDC references. 25,060 children from 8 Romanian counties were included in the analysis. The prevalence of underweight children was 5%/4.5%/8.5% (WHO/IOTF/CDC), while the prevalence of overweight (including obese) children was 28.3%/23%/23.2% (WHO/IOTF/CDC). The prevalence of overweight children did not change significantly over the last decade (chi-square test p = 0.6). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; 95% CI 1.29-1.45, compared to female); prepubertal age (OR = 3.86; 95% CI 3.41-4.36,compared to postpubertal age), and urban environment (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.26, compared to rural environment) had higher risk for overweight. While the prevalence of underweight children was low, almost one in four children in Romania was overweight or obese (according to WHO criteria) between 2006 and 2015. This prevalence remained relatively stable over the last decade. Male gender, prepubertal age, and urban environment, were the most relevant risk factors associated with overweight status in Romanian children. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Preserved C-peptide levels in overweight or obese compared with underweight children upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Hyeoh Won Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe hypothesized that overweight or obese children might develop type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM early despite residual beta-cell function. Factors independently associated with preservation of C-peptide level were analyzed.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical data of 135 children aged 2.1-16.5 years with autoimmune T1DM. Body mass index (BMI, pubertal stage, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and C-peptide levels were evaluated. Patients were assigned to underweight (22.2%, normal weight (63.7%, and overweight or obese (14.1% groups according to their BMI.ResultsPreservation of serum C-peptide levels (≥0.6 ng/mL was found in 43.0% of subjects. With increasing BMI, the proportions of children with preserved C-peptide levels increased from 33.3% to 41.9% to 63.2%, with marginal significance (P=0.051. Interaction analysis indicated no effect of BMI score on age at onset associated with serum C-peptide levels. The lower the C-peptide level, the younger the age of onset (P<0.001, after adjustment for BMI z-score and HbA1c level. However, no significant relationship between BMI z-score or category and onset age was evident. Upon multivariate-adjusted modeling, the odds that the C-peptide level was preserved increased by 1.2 fold (P=0.001 per year of life, by 3.1 folds (P=0.015 in children presenting without (compared to with ketoacidosis, and by 5.0 folds (P=0.042 in overweight or obese (compared to underweight children.ConclusionOverweight or obese children had slightly more residual beta-cell function than did underweight children. However, we found no evidence that obesity temporally accelerates T1DM presentation.

  13. Impact of therapeutic food compared to oral nutritional supplements on nutritional outcomes in mildly underweight healthy children in a low-medium income society.

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    Fatima, Sadia; Malkova, Dalia; Wright, Charlotte; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos

    2017-03-16

    Therapeutic foods (RUTF) are used to treat severe acute malnutrition in children 5 years and under in low and middle income countries (LMI), while liquid nutritional supplements (ONS) are used in affluent societies. With globalisation and economic growth in LMI, there will be an inclination to move towards practices applied in affluent countries. This study compared the effect of supplementation with a RUTF and an ONS, on nutritional outcomes in mildly underweight children. 68 Pakistani (5-10 y), mildly underweight (weight Z-score: -2 to -1) children randomly received either RUTF or ONS (500 kcal/day), in addition to their habitual diet for four weeks. Weight, height, skinfolds and their changes during intervention, were compared between the two groups and at follow up, post-supplementation. All nutritional outcomes and height improved with both supplements, but net weight gain (kg) and changes from baseline for weight, height, triceps and sub-scapular thickness Z-scores did not differ between the two supplements [mean (SD), RUTF vs ONS; weight gain (kg), 0.59 (0.30) vs 0.65 (0.42), p = 0.483; weight Z-score, 0.12 (0.09) vs 0.15 (0.13), p = 0.347; height Z-score, 0.04 (0.08) vs 0.04 (0.08), p = 0.908; triceps Z-score, 0.29 (0.24) vs 0.31 (0.23), p = 0.796; subscapular Z-score, 0.37 (0.29) vs 0.31 (0.25), p = 0.385]. Weight gain (0.6 kg) for both groups was lower than anticipated (2 kg). Post-supplementation, there was a tendency for weight and height Z-score to return to baseline. RUTF and ONS are equivalently effective in improving nutritional outcomes in children 5 to 10 y at risk of malnutrition but the observed benefit is less than expected and not sustainable. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com reference: ISRCTN51555749. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com reference: ISRCTN51555749. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Underweight/overweight and the risk of long-term care: follow-up study using data of the Japanese long-term care insurance system.

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    Honda, Akiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Seki, Nao; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Both being underweight and overweight can lead to reduced activity of daily living, which subsequently can require long-term care. The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between underweight/overweight and the subsequent risk of long-term care introduction. We tracked the data of long-term care insurance for 1580 men and women aged ≥65 years who had participated in the official population-based health check-up program in 2001 in Tsunan town and Sekikawa village, Japan. The health check-up data and medical expenditure data for the fiscal year 2001 were used as baseline data. Participants were classified into underweight (body mass index (BMI) overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ); the normal range was used as a reference category in Cox proportional hazards models. During the average 5.8 years of follow up, 156 participants were identified to start using long-term care services. Among the young-old elderly (65-74 years-of-age), underweight was significantly associated with the risk of long-term care introduction (multivariable-adjusted HR 4.26, 95% CI 1.69-10.72), whereas overweight was not (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.69-3.06). Neither underweight nor overweight were significantly associated with long-term care introduction among the old-old elderly (≥75 years-of-age). Underweight could be a good predictor of long-term care introduction in the young-old elderly. We should pay attention to underweight in the elderly, as it might be a manifestation of some physical or mental problems related to future long-term care introduction. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Risk Factors for Childhood Stunting in 137 Developing Countries: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis at Global, Regional, and Country Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn G; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Fink, Günther; McCoy, Dana Charles; Peet, Evan; Sania, Ayesha; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-11-01

    Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged 24-35 mo (i.e., at the end of the 1,000 days' period of vulnerability) that are attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries. We classified risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors. We combined published estimates and individual-level data from population-based surveys to derive risk factor prevalence in each country in 2010 and identified the most recent meta-analysis or conducted de novo reviews to derive effect sizes. We estimated the prevalence of stunting and the number of stunting cases that were attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors by country and region. The leading risk worldwide was FGR, defined as being term and small for gestational age, and 10.8 million cases (95% CI 9.1 million-12.6 million) of stunting (out of 44.1 million) were attributable to it, followed by unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million-8.2 million), and diarrhea with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million-9.2 million). FGR and preterm birth was the leading risk factor cluster in all regions. Environmental risks had the second largest estimated impact on stunting globally and in the South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific regions, whereas child nutrition and infection was the second leading cluster of risk factors in other regions. Although extensive, our analysis is limited to risk factors for which effect sizes and country-level exposure data were

  16. Risk Factors for Childhood Stunting in 137 Developing Countries: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis at Global, Regional, and Country Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged 24-35 mo (i.e., at the end of the 1,000 days' period of vulnerability that are attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries.We classified risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors. We combined published estimates and individual-level data from population-based surveys to derive risk factor prevalence in each country in 2010 and identified the most recent meta-analysis or conducted de novo reviews to derive effect sizes. We estimated the prevalence of stunting and the number of stunting cases that were attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors by country and region. The leading risk worldwide was FGR, defined as being term and small for gestational age, and 10.8 million cases (95% CI 9.1 million-12.6 million of stunting (out of 44.1 million were attributable to it, followed by unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million-8.2 million, and diarrhea with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million-9.2 million. FGR and preterm birth was the leading risk factor cluster in all regions. Environmental risks had the second largest estimated impact on stunting globally and in the South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific regions, whereas child nutrition and infection was the second leading cluster of risk factors in other regions. Although extensive, our analysis is limited to risk factors for which effect sizes and country-level exposure data

  17. INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD INTAKE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, AND ECONOMIC STATUS IN KENDARI, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

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    Akhmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is characterized by inhibition of growth in children that lead to failure in getting normal heights and healthy child's age. It is a public health problem in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kelurahan Mangga Dua in Kendari in 2016. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between food intake, infectious diseases, economic status and the incidence of stunting in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study with retrospective approach. This research was conducted in Public Health Center of Mata. There were 41 respondents were selected as the samples. Data were collected by questionnaires, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test. Results: The results showed that there were significant associations between food intake (p= 0.001, infectious diseases (p= 0.000, economic status (p= 0.000, and the incidence of stunting in infants. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a relationship between food intake, infectious diseases and economic status with the incidence of stunting in children aged 2-4 years in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kendari. Therefore, good food intake is needed for the growth and development of the child. Moreover, changing the behavior of parents by doing the healthy and clean behavior in the household to prevent infectious diseases in children infectious diseases is also very important. Economic status however also plays key role in the incidence of stunting in children

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, John M; Tollman, Stephen M; Dunger, David B; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier F; Norris, Shane A

    2010-03-25

    Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those or = 25 and > or = 30 kg/m2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those > or = 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of > or = 94 cm for males and > or = 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile relates to changes in nutrition

  20. Ghrelin response to hedonic eating in underweight and short-term weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Monteleone, Alessio; Monteleone, Palmiero; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Nigro, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Cimino, Monica; Maj, Mario

    2016-01-30

    Recently, anorexia nervosa (AN) has been conceptualized as a reward-related disorder, and alterations in brain reward processes have been documented in both acute and recovered AN patients. However, the role of endogenous biochemical mediators, such as ghrelin, in the modulation of reward processes has been poorly investigated in this eating disorder. Hedonic eating, that is the consumption of food exclusively for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis, is a useful paradigm to investigate the physiology of food-related reward. Therefore, we assessed the response of peripheral ghrelin to hedonic eating in 7 underweight and 7 recently weight-restored AN patients and compared it to that of previously studied healthy controls. We found that in satiated underweight patients with AN plasma ghrelin levels progressively decreased after the exposure and the consumption of both the favorite and unfavorite food whereas in satiated weight-restored AN patients and satiated healthy controls plasma ghrelin concentrations significantly increased after the exposure to the favorite food and after eating it, but decreased after the unfavorite food. These results suggest a derangement in the ghrelin modulation of food-related pleasurable and rewarding feelings, which might sustain the reduced motivation toward food intake of acute AN patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

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    Kedir N. Turi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420 and their children (N = 1,099 using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35, and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29 but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78 area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda.

  2. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

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    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  3. No evidence for involvement of polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in anorexia nervosa, underweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, A; Schneider, J; Ziegler, A; Lehmkuhl, G; Poustka, F; Schmidt, M H; Mayer, H; Siegfried, W; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

    1999-12-15

    Family and twin studies suggest a genetic contribution to the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Genes involved in weight regulation can be considered as candidate genes for AN. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in weight regulation; previous results had suggested a possible involvement of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4). We screened for alleles of two different polymorphisms (13-bp deletion, 48-bp repeat) in the DRD4. For association tests, allele frequencies were compared between 109 inpatients with AN, 82 underweight students, and 327 extremely obese children and adolescents. For application of transmission disequlibrium tests (TDT) we additionally genotyped 57 and 137 trios comprising a patient with AN or an extremely obese child or adolescent, respectively, and both parents. All genotyping was performed with polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism analyses. None of the association tests or TDT rendered nominal P values below 0.1. An influence of alleles of the DRD4 on the development of AN, underweight, or extreme early onset obesity was not detected. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 88:594-597, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

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    Mai Le B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects. Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%. Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI 2 of 20.9% in 2005 was lower than the rate of 25.0% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight as compared to men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were clearer among the higher food expenditure levels. Conclusions The double nutrition burden was clearly present in Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level

  5. A baixa estatura leve está associada ao aumento da pressão arterial em adolescentes com sobrepeso La baja estatura leve está asociada al aumento de la presión arterial en adolescentes con sobrepeso Mild stunting is associated with higher blood pressure in overweight adolescents

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2012-01-01

    de baja estatura leve con sobrepeso presentaron mayor PAS que los de estatura normal y sobrepeso. Esos hallazgos confirman que la baja estatura leve aumenta el riesgo futuro de hipertensión y esas alteraciones son evidentes en individuos jóvenes.BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that pre/postnatal undernutrition leads to higher risk of non communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether overweight adolescents with mild stunting [height-for-age Z scores (HAZ in the range -2] have higher blood pressure than overweight individuals with normal stature (HAZ >-1. MEHTODS: Participants were classified as mildly stunted or of normal stature, and further stratified according to body mass index-for-age percentiles as overweight, normal or underweight. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DPB blood pressures were determined according to guidelines, and abdominal fat was analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Mild stunted overweight individuals showed higher DBP values (p=0.001 than their underweight counterparts (69.75 ± 12.03 and 54.46±11.24 mmHg, respectively, but similar to those of normal BMI. No differences were found in DBP values of normal, overweight and underweight individuals among the normal stature groups. An increase in SBP (p=0.01 among mild stunted individuals was found when those with overweight were compared to their underweight and normal BMI counterparts (114.70 ± 15.46, 97.38 ± 10.87 and 104.72 ± 12.24 mmHg, respectively. Although no differences were observed in the means of SBP between mild stunting and normal stature groups, a significant intercept was found (p=0.01, revealing higher SBP among stunted individuals. There was a correlation between SBP and abdominal fat (r=0.42, ρ=0.02 in the stunted group. CONCLUSION: Stunted individuals with overweight showed higher SBP than those of normal stature and overweight. These findings confirm that mild stunting increase the risk of future

  6. Riwayat gizi buruk masa lalu (stunted tidak berhubungan dengan prestasi belajar siswa SD di Kabupaten Sikka Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Tobianus Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The main nutritional problem existed in Sikka District was high prevalence of stunting in children (49.6%. Sikka District Health Office data at 2009 and 2010 confirmed that Mego Subdistrict was categorized as area in which the citizens (particularly infants had high risk experiencing health and nutritionissues with percentage of 43.3 in 2009 and 42.3 in 2010. Elementary school student’s passing percentage at Mego Subdistrict in education year of 2009/2010 placed in rank of 15 of 21 subdistricts in Sikka District.Objectives: To determine the association between history of malnutrition (stunted and academic achievement of elementary school students at Sikka District, NTT.Methods: This was an observational study with cross sectional study design. Sample of this research were 3rd grade elementary school students who met inclusive and exclusive criteria. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used ini this research.Results: Research result showed that bivariatelly stunted condition affects study achievement (p=0.027. External factors affecting study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001, father’s education (p=0.001 and child’s intelligence (p=0.027. Multivariatelly, most affective factor in student’s study achievement at Mego Subdistrict was parent’s education. The most dominant factor affecting elementary student’s study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001.Conclusions: Most students suffering stunted had low study achievement (87.2% and stunted had no significant relation to study achievement. Student’s study achievement was affected by parent’s education.KEYWORDS: stunted, study achievementABSTRAKLatar belakang: Masalah gizi utama yang ada di Kabupaten Sikka adalah tingginya balita dengan status pendek dan sangat pendek yang mencapai 49,6%. Data Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sikka tahun 2009 dan 2010 menyatakan bahwa Kecamatan Mego dikategorikan sebagai wilayah dengan masyarakat

  7. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Underweight and overweight among children and adolescents in Tuscany (Italy). Prevalence and short-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Rossi, S; Pammolli, A; Pilato, V; Pozzi, T; Giacchi, M V

    2008-03-01

    The recent increase in both childhood obesity and adolescent anorexia nervosa in developed countries has underlined the important consequences that these trends may have on public health, as there is an increased risk that these conditions may become chronic diseases in adulthood. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor prevalence rates and trends in thinness and overweight (including obesity) among children and adolescents at different levels: international, national and sub-national. Since 2001/2002, a nutritional surveillance system has been implemented in the Tuscany Region to estimate the nutritional status and lifestyles of children and adolescents. The main objectives were to assess the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Tuscan children and adolescents and to provide baseline information on the prevalence of thinness, for the first time calculated according to the new international definitions, for geographical comparisons and descriptions of time trends. Independent cross-sectional sample surveys were conducted in 2002, 2004 and 2006 in Tuscany, North-Central Italy. Data were collected from stratified two-stage cluster samples of children aged 9 years (n = 3,048 in 2002 and n = 1,430 in 2006) and of adolescents aged 11-13-15 years (n = 1,066, n = 1185 and n = 1,160 in 2004 and n = 1,189, n = 1,211 and n = 1,178 in 2006, respectively). Weights and heights of primary school children were measured by means of standardized methods, while those of adolescents were self-reported. Decimal age was calculated from the date of birth to the date of measurement. Body Mass Index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Instead of the term underweight in children, we used the term thinness, which the World Health Organization uses to mean low Body Mass Index for age in adults and adolescents. According to Cole's recently published cut-offs for thinness, we divided our Body Mass Index values below 18.5 into three

  10. Praktik pemberian makanan pendamping ASI (MP-ASI bukan faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Hildagardis M.E Nai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting reflects a process of failure to reach linear growth potential as a result of suboptimal health or nutrition conditions. One of causal factors of stunting is inadequate of quality and quantity of complementary foods.Objectives: To identify complementary feeding practices such as introduction age of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency as risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: Study design was case-control with ratio (1:1. The study used both quantitative methods as well as case control design and qualitative through interview. Cases were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score <-2SD. Controls were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score ≥-2SD who live adjacent to the case. Data were analyzed by using univariable (descriptive, bivariable (chi-square test, and multivariable analysis (multiple logistic regression.Results: The result of bivariate analysis showed that introduction age of complementary foods (OR=1.07, dietary diversity (OR=1.17, and meal frequency (OR=1.69 were not risk factors of stunting. However, compared with high dietary diversity score, low dietary diversity score (≤2, 3, 4 food groups associated with increased odds of being stunted among children aged 6-23 months (OR=2.24, 95% CI:1.00-5.01, OR=1.82, 95% CI:0.96-3.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI:0.81-3.46 respectively. The result of multivariate analysis showed that mother’s height (OR=1.86 and story of low birth weight (OR=3.23 were risk factors of stunting.Conclusions: Complementary feeding practices such as age introduction of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were not risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months. Mother’s height and story of low birth weight were risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months.KEYWORDS: stunting, nutritional intake, nutritional

  11. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu; Tang, Lin-Hua; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Chen, Ying-Dan; Yang, Yi-Chao; Lin, Shao-Xiong

    2010-10-13

    Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years), from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test). Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ STH moderate-to-heavy intensity infections (OR = 1.93;95%CI:1.19,3.11); (2) anaemia (OR = 3.26;95%CI: 2.02,5.27); (3) education level of mother (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.39,3.25). The overall prevalence of major STH infections was 36.7%, STH moderate-to-heavy intensity infections was 16.7%. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm and co-infection were 18.5%, 11.2%, 14.7% and 9.1% respectively. The prevalence of anaemic children (HB STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order

  12. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted-obese subjects

  13. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  14. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects) and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects). Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%). Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level of undernutrition was still high in 2005. The shifts of underweight to overweight were most obvious among population groups with higher food expenditure levels. PMID:21276266

  15. Faktor-faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Underweight Pada Anak Usia 24-59 Bulan Di Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Nad): Analisis Data Surkesda Nad 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyati, Sri; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Tjandrarini, Dwi Hapsari

    2008-01-01

    Determinant Factors of The Incidence of Underweight Children Ageg 24-59 Month In Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD).Background: Surkesda NAD 2006 as post tsunami household health survey and covering all 21 districts/cities had assessed child nutritional status (underweight) for age 24-59 months, with cut-off point <-2.00 SD. A total sample of 1,437 children aged 0-59 months was included in the assessment.Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze child nutritional status and factors...

  16. Desire to Be Underweight: Exploratory Study on a Weight Loss App Community and User Perceptions of the Impact on Disordered Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikey, Elizabeth Victoria; Reddy, Madhu C; Booth, Kayla M; Kvasny, Lynette; Blair, Johnna L; Li, Victor; Poole, Erika S

    2017-10-12

    Mobile health (mHealth) apps for weight loss (weight loss apps) can be useful diet and exercise tools for individuals in need of losing weight. Most studies view weight loss app users as these types of individuals, but not all users have the same needs. In fact, users with disordered eating behaviors who desire to be underweight are also utilizing weight loss apps; however, few studies give a sense of the prevalence of these users in weight loss app communities and their perceptions of weight loss apps in relation to disordered eating behaviors. The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of users' body mass indices (BMIs) in a weight loss app community and examples of how users with underweight BMI goals perceive the impact of the app on disordered eating behaviors. We focused on two aspects of a weight loss app (DropPounds): profile data and forum posts, and we moved from a broader picture of the community to a narrower focus on users' perceptions. We analyzed profile data to better understand the goal BMIs of all users, highlighting the prevalence of users with underweight BMI goals. Then we explored how users with a desire to be underweight discussed the weight loss app's impact on disordered eating behaviors. We found three main results: (1) no user (regardless of start BMI) starts with a weight gain goal, and most users want to lose weight; (2) 6.78% (1261/18,601) of the community want to be underweight, and most identify as female; (3) users with underweight BMI goals tend to view the app as positive, especially for reducing bingeing; however, some acknowledge its role in exacerbating disordered eating behaviors. These findings are important for our understanding of the different types of users who utilize weight loss apps, the perceptions of weight loss apps related to disordered eating, and how weight loss apps may impact users with a desire to be underweight. Whereas these users had underweight goals, they often view the app as helpful in reducing

  17. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil.

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    Richard L Guerrant

    Full Text Available Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6-26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old, and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption; and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA (suggesting impaired defenses. In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation. Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1 functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2 structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3 systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how

  18. Maternal underweight and obesity and risk of orofacial clefts in a large international consortium of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutbi, Hebah; Wehby, George L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Romitti, Paul A; Carmichael, Suzan; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; DeRoo, Lisa; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T; Munger, Ronald G

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent. Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates. Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (≥ 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI. In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  19. The global economic crisis, household income and pre-adolescent overweight and underweight: a nationwide birth cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, P; Kondo, N; Fujiwara, T

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that children from lower income households and in households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008 would be at increased risk of adverse weight status during the subsequent years of economic downturn. Data were obtained from a nationwide longitudinal survey comprising all children born during 2 weeks of 2001. For 16,403 boys and 15,206 girls, information about anthropometric measurements and household characteristics was collected from 2001 to 2011 on multiple occasions. Interactions between the crisis onset (September 2008) and household income group, as well as the crisis onset and a >30% negative income change in connection to the crisis, were assessed with respect to risk of childhood over- and underweight. Adjusted for household and parental characteristics, boys and girls in the lower household income quartiles had a larger increase in risk of overweight after the crisis onset relative to their peers in the highest income group. (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for interaction term in boys=1.23 (1.02-1.24); girls=1.35 (1.23-1.49) comparing the lowest with the highest income group.) Among girls, an interaction between the crisis onset and a >30% negative change in household income with respect to risk of overweight was observed (odds ratio for interaction term=1.23 (1.09-1.38)). Girls from the highest income group had an increased risk of underweight after the crisis onset compared with girls from the lowest income group. Boys and girls from lower household income groups and girls from households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008, may be at increased risk of overweight. Vulnerability to economic uncertainty could increase risk of overweight in preadolescence.

  20. Pengaruh Edukasi Gizi terhadap Feeding Practice Ibu Balita Stunting Usia 6-24 Bulan (The Effect of Nutritional Knowledge on Feeding Practice of Mothers Having Stunting Toddler Aged 6-24 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryati Dewi

    2016-07-01

    Feeding practices was one of the factors that contribute to the incidence of stunting and nutritional education needed to improve feeding practices. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of nutritional educational interventions to improve the knowledge and mother’s practice of feeding who has stunting toddlers. The design of this study used quasi-experimental design with pre-post test of two group design. This research was done in the six Public Health Centres of Cibeureum Cimahi which has high prevalence of stunting with the total number of samples in this study were 40 people and the member of each group was 20 people who have a criteria of mothers having stunting toddler aged 6-24 months as the research proceeds, toddler not disabled, mothers being able to communicate, willing to be a sample.  The Intervention of nutritional education using a PMBA booklet, poster about proper wash hands, and food sample given three times at intervals of one week. Data collected were maternal age, education, work status, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, nutritional counseling administration, pre-post knowledge, pre-post feeding practice. The statistical analysis used was Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney test. The result showed there were differences between the mean which was significant in knowledge score before and after the intervention in both groups (p=0,006; p=0,003, there is a mean difference that was significant in scores of feeding practices before and after the intervention in both groups (p=0,002; p=0,05. Keywords: stunting, knowledge of nutrition, feeding practices

  1. Multivitamin-multimineral and iron supplementation did not improve appetite of young stunted and anemic Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, low food intake is often reported in children < 5 y old. Reduced appetite may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether a combination of a multivitamin-multimineral supplement and additional iron treatment improved appetite and growth of 18- to 30-mo-old stunted

  2. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

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    Tsgehana Gebregyorgis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03], mother’s educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention.

  3. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  4. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  5. Drosophila insulin release is triggered by adipose Stunted ligand to brain Methuselah receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoue, Renald; Meschi, Eleonora; Agrawal, Neha; Mauri, Alessandra; Tsatskis, Yonit; McNeill, Helen; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-09-30

    Animals adapt their growth rate and body size to available nutrients by a general modulation of insulin-insulin-like growth factor signaling. In Drosophila, dietary amino acids promote the release in the hemolymph of brain insulin-like peptides (Dilps), which in turn activate systemic organ growth. Dilp secretion by insulin-producing cells involves a relay through unknown cytokines produced by fat cells. Here, we identify Methuselah (Mth) as a secretin-incretin receptor subfamily member required in the insulin-producing cells for proper nutrient coupling. We further show, using genetic and ex vivo organ culture experiments, that the Mth ligand Stunted (Sun) is a circulating insulinotropic peptide produced by fat cells. Therefore, Sun and Mth define a new cross-organ circuitry that modulates physiological insulin levels in response to nutrients. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Effect of zinc supplementation on morbidity among stunted children in Indonesia

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    Rustam Siregar

    2011-06-01

    supplementation and morbidity surveillance were perfonned for 6 months. Results Compared to the first 3 months of intervention, zinc supplementation resulted in a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and fever during the second three months (by 67%, 42%, and 30%, respectively. Children from the zincsupplemented group tended to have a lower episodic incidence of diarrhea and fever than those from the placebo group, although neither of these differences was statistically significant (P< 0.45,95% CI 0.63 to 0.89. Conclusion Zinc supplementation has no significant effect in reducing the incidence of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and fever in stunted children although tended to have a lower episodic incidence.

  7. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ growth standards. Eight rural, indigenous Mam-Mayan villages (n 200, 100% of Mayan indigenous origin) and an urban clinic of Quetzaltenango (n 106, 27% of Mayan indigenous origin), Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  8. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  9. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily M; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Thumbi, Samuel M; Montgomery, Joel M; Palmer, Guy H; May, Susanne; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; Walson, Judd L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from Ethiopia (2011), Kenya (2008-2009), and Uganda (2010) among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97), but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  10. Controle genético da resistência aos enfezamentos do milho Genetic control of the resistance to corn stunt

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    Ricardo Gonçalves Silva

    2003-08-01

    incidence and severity of the corn stunt. The disease index was also used. In both places, the productivity of the maize kernels were evaluated for each plot. Therefore, since this method presents high heritability it was possible to confirm its efficiency. The genetic control of the resistance to corn stunt is mainly controlled by the alleles with predominant addictive effects; the parents differed in relation to the frequency of the addictive and nonaddictive alleles for resistance to corn stunt.

  11. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of rural Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Khandelwal, Ritika; Khenduja, Preetika; Sareen, Neha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2018-03-15

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of India. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and anthropometric parameters. Weight and height measurements were utilized for calculation of BMI. Nutrient intake data were collected using 24 h dietary recall. High-altitude region of Nainital District, Uttarakhand State, North India. Community-dwelling geriatric subjects (n 981) aged 60 years or above. We found that 26·6 % of the elderly subjects were underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI 25·0-29·9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30·0 kg/m2) was seen among 18·0 % and 4·6 %, respectively. After controlling for potential cofounders, risk factors such as low level of education and income, chewing problems and lower number of daily meals were found to be associated with underweight. On the other hand, risk factors for overweight/obesity were lower age, high income and unskilled work. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to prevent underweight, overweight and obesity among the geriatric population of India.

  13. Trends in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and their related lifestyle factors in Korean young adults, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-05-05

    This study aimed to assess trends of underweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity and related lifestyle factors in young Korean adults. The analysis focused on adults aged 19-39 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I-V (1998-2012). Underweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) obesity as BMI≥30kg/m 2 ; and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥90cm in men and ≥85cm in women. We evaluated trends by analyzing the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and the proportions and ORs of lifestyles. As compared with KNHANES I, the ORs for obesity were higher in III, IV, and V and the ORs for abdominal obesity were higher in IV and V in men, which showed an increasing trend (P for trendobesity showed a significant increasing tendency (P for trendobesity in young men and women, and abdominal obesity in young men is needed. Meanwhile, management of underweight in young women is simultaneously required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM for normal and underweight women to reduce the risk of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yieh-Loong Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: For underweight women, it is suggested that they follow the upper range of the IOM recommendation in order to avoid LBW. For normal weight women, although the IOM guidelines provide a good basis, it is suggested that they carefully follow the recommended GWG and the RWG values during the 2nd trimester, which is a very important period for fetal growth.

  15. Overweight, Obesity and Underweight Is Associated with Adverse Psychosocial and Physical Health Outcomes among 7-Year-Old Children: The 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Limited studies have reported on associations between overweight, and physical and psychosocial health outcomes among younger children. This study evaluates associations between overweight, obesity and underweight in 5-year-old children, and parent-reported health outcomes at

  16. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  17. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and their related socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among adult women in Myanmar, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Lwin, Kyi Tun; Aung, La Seng

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. Material and methods In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18–49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (23.0–27.4 kg/m2), and obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2). Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and weight status. Results The prevalence of underweight was 14.1%, overweight 28.1% and obesity 13.1%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of underweight was the highest among 18 to 29 year-olds (20.2%), while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 49 years (around 50%). In multinomial logistic regression, being 30 to 49 years old, poorer and richer wealth status, living in all the other regions of Myanmar and ever contraceptive use were inversely and current tobacco use, not working and having less than two children ever born were positively associated with underweight relative to normal weight. Older age, having secondary education, urban residence, wealthier economic status, living with a partner, living in the Northern and Southern regions of Myanmar, having less than two children ever born and having ever used contraceptives were positively and current tobacco use was negatively associated with overweight or obesity relative to normal weight. Conclusions A dual burden of both underweight and overweight or obesity among female adults was found in Myanmar. Sociodemographic and health risk behaviour factors were identified for underweight and overweight or obesity that can guide public health interventions to

  18. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca-Gómez, Leandra; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Acuin, Cecilia; Adams, Robert J.; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afsana, Kaosar; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Ajlouni, Kamel; Akhtaeva, Nazgul; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Buhairan, Fadia; Al Dhukair, Shahla; Ali, Mohamed M.; Ali, Osman; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Andrade, Dolores S.; Ängquist, Lars H.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araújo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Arveiler, Dominique; Aryal, Krishna K.; Aspelund, Thor; Assah, Felix K.; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Aung, May Soe; Avdicová, Mária; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahijri, Suhad; Baker, Jennifer L.; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Banach, Maciej; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, José R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batista, Rosangela L.; Batyrbek, Assembekov; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Benedics, Judith; Benet, Mikhail; Bennett, James E.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bi, HongSheng; Bi, Yufang; Biehl, Anna; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bista, Bihungum; Bjelica, Dusko J.; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Björkelund, Cecilia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Boddy, Lynne M.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boeing, Heiner; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bongard, Vanina; Bovet, Pascal; Braeckevelt, Lien; Braeckman, Lutgart; Bragt, Marjolijn C. E.; Brajkovich, Imperia; Branca, Francesco; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Breda, João; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Brian, Garry R.; Brinduse, Lacramioara; Bruno, Graziella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. As; Bugge, Anna; Buoncristiano, Marta; Burazeri, Genc; Burns, Con; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Cai, Hui; Cama, Tilema; Cameron, Christine; Camolas, José; Can, Günay; Cândido, Ana Paula C.; Capanzana, Mario; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chan, Angelique W.; Chan, Queenie; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Huashuai; Chen, Shuohua; Chen, Zhengming; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chetrit, Angela; Chikova-Iscener, Ekaterina; Chiolero, Arnaud; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Christensen, Kaare; Christofaro, Diego G.; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Cinteza, Eliza; Claessens, Frank; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Confortin, Susana C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Coppinger, Tara C.; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Craig, Cora L.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Cucu, Alexandra; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Danaei, Goodarz; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dastgiri, Saeed; Dauchet, Luc; Davletov, Kairat; de Backer, Guy; de Bacquer, Dirk; de Curtis, Amalia; de Gaetano, Giovanni; de Henauw, Stefaan; de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; de Ridder, Karin; de Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Hélène; Delpeuch, Francis; Deschamps, Valérie; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Diaz, Alejandro; Dika, Zivka; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Ha T. P.; Dobson, Annette J.; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Döring, Angela; Dorobantu, Maria; Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Duan, Jia Li; Duante, Charmaine; Duleva, Vesselka; Dulskiene, Virginija; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Egbagbe, Eruke E.; Eggertsen, Robert; Eiben, Gabriele; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Elliott, Paul; Engle-Stone, Reina; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Eriksson, Johan G.; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandes, Romulo A.; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Finn, Joseph D.; Fischer, Krista; Flores, Eric Monterubio; Föger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Fujita, Yuki; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gafencu, Mihai; Galeone, Daniela; Galvano, Fabio; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli; Gareta, Dickman; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Geiger, Harald; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gill, Tiffany K.; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Giwercman, Aleksander; Godos, Justyna; Gogen, Sibel; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.; Goltzman, David; Gonçalves, Helen; González-Leon, Margot; González-Rivas, Juan P.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Graça, Antonio Pedro; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grafnetter, Dušan; Grajda, Aneta; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grøntved, Anders; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruden, Gabriella; Grujic, Vera; Gu, Dongfeng; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudmundsson, Elias F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Xiuhua; Guo, Yin; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gupta, Rajeev; Gureje, Oye; Gurzkowska, Beata; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hadaegh, Farzad; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A.; Si-Ramlee, Khairil; Halkjær, Jytte; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hassapidou, Maria; Hata, Jun; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; Heidinger-Felso, Regina; Heinen, Mirjam; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Cadena, Leticia Hernandez; Herrala, Sauli; Herrera, Victor M.; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Heshmat, Ramin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Hopman, Wilma M.; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Hu, Yonghua; Huerta, José María; Huidumac, Petrescu Constanta; Huisman, Martijn; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Hyska, Jolanda; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibarluzea, Jesús M.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ivkovic, Vanja; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jackson, Rod T.; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jaddou, Hashem; Jafar, Tazeen; Jamil, Kazi M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Jarani, Juel; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Ana; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jennings, Garry; Jeong, Seung-Lyeal; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jiménez-Acosta, Santa Magaly; Joffres, Michel; Johansson, Mattias; Jonas, Jost B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Jovic, Dragana P.; Józwiak, Jacek; Juolevi, Anne; Jurak, Gregor; Jureša, Vesna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kafatos, Anthony; Kajantie, Eero O.; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kapantais, Efthymios; Karki, Khem B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Boker, Lital Keinan; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Kelleher, Cecily; Kemper, Han C. G.; Kengne, Andre P.; Kerimkulova, Alina; Kersting, Mathilde; Key, Timothy; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khang, Young-Ho; Khateeb, Mohammad; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khouw, Ilse M. S. L.; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Klimont, Jeannette; Klumbiene, Jurate; Knoflach, Michael; Koirala, Bhawesh; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Kos, Jelena; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Kovacs, Viktoria A.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Koziel, Slawomir; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kriemler, Susi; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steinar; Kromhout, Daan; Kruger, Herculina S.; Kubinova, Ruzena; Kuciene, Renata; Kuh, Diana; Kujala, Urho M.; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Kumar, R. Krishna; Kunešová, Marie; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kyobutungi, Catherine; La, Quang Ngoc; Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Laugsand, Lars E.; Lauria, Laura; Laxmaiah, Avula; Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen; Le, Tuyen D.; Lebanan, May Antonnette O.; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimäki, Terho; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Liu, Jing; Loit, Helle-Mai; Lopes, Luis; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, José Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Jun; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Magriplis, Emmanuella; Mahaletchumy, Alagappan; Maire, Bernard; Majer, Marjeta; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rahul; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Malyutina, Sofia; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim I.; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Markaki, Anastasia; Markey, Oonagh; Marques, Larissa P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Marrugat, Jaume; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Martin, Rosemarie; Martorell, Reynaldo; Martos, Eva; Marventano, Stefano; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mazur, Artur; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McKee, Martin; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McLean, Scott B.; McNulty, Breige A.; Yusof, Safiah Md; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Medzioniene, Jurate; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisfjord, Jørgen; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Mensink, Gert Bm; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Haakon E.; Mi, Jie; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Michels, Nathalie; Mikkel, Kairit; Miller, Jody C.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mirkopoulou, Daphne; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Mistretta, Antonio; Mocanu, Veronica; Modesti, Pietro A.; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohanna, Salim; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Molbo, Drude; Møllehave, Line T.; Møller, Niels C.; Molnár, Dénes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monterrubio, Eric A.; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.; Moon, Jin Soo; Moreira, Leila B.; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Mu, Thet Thet; Muc, Magdalena; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil; Mursu, Jaakko; Murtagh, Elaine M.; Musil, Vera; Nabipour, Iraj; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Nakamura, Harunobu; Námešná, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Nankap, Martin; Narake, Sameer; Nardone, Paola; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Neal, William A.; Nenko, Ilona; Neovius, Martin; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Chung T.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis E.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nishtar, Sania; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Norat, Teresa; Norie, Sawada; Noto, Davide; Nsour, Mohannad Al; O'Reilly, Dermot; Obreja, Galina; Oda, Eiji; Oehlers, Glenn; Oh, Kyungwon; Ohara, Kumiko; Olafsson, Örn; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Oltarzewski, Maciej; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ong, Sok King; Ono, Lariane M.; Ordunez, Pedro; Ornelas, Rui; Ortiz, Ana P.; Osler, Merete; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Ostovar, Afshin; Otero, Johanna A.; Overvad, Kim; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Padez, Cristina; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palli, Domenico; Palloni, Alberto; Palmieri, Luigi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandey, Arvind; Panza, Francesco; Papandreou, Dimitrios; Park, Soon-Woo; Parnell, Winsome R.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Pascanu, Ionela M.; Patel, Nikhil D.; Pecin, Ivan; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peeters, Petra H.; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Perez-Farinos, Napoleon; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Peters, Annette; Petkeviciene, Janina; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Peykari, Niloofar; Pham, Son Thai; Pierannunzio, Daniela; Pigeot, Iris; Pikhart, Hynek; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Pistelli, Francesco; Pitakaka, Freda; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Plans-Rubió, Pedro; Poh, Bee Koon; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Pop, Raluca M.; Popovic, Stevo R.; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen Lp; Posch, Georg; Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Pouraram, Hamed; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prashant, Mathur; Price, Jacqueline F.; Puder, Jardena J.; Pudule, Iveta; Puiu, Maria; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Bao, Tran Quoc; Radic, Ivana; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mahmudur; Raitakari, Olli; Raj, Manu; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramke, Jacqueline; Ramos, Elisabete; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rampal, Sanjay; Rascon-Pacheco, Ramon A.; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Riboli, Elio; Rigo, Fernando; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Rito, Ana; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Daniela; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, María; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Romaguera, Dora; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Rosengren, Annika; Rouse, Ian; Roy, Joel G. R.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rühli, Frank J.; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Russo, Paola; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Salanave, Benoit; Martinez, Eduardo Salazar; Salmerón, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Sandjaja, N. N.; Sans, Susana; Marina, Loreto Santa; Santos, Diana A.; Santos, Ina S.; Santos, Osvaldo; dos Santos, Renata Nunes; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas; Savy, Mathilde; Scazufca, Marcia; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Schargrodsky, Herman; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schipf, Sabine; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Schmidt, Ida Maria; Schultsz, Constance; Schutte, Aletta E.; Sein, Aye Aye; Sen, Abhijit; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serra-Majem, Luis; Shalnova, Svetlana A.; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Shiri, Rahman; Siani, Alfonso; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Silva, Antonio M.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Sjöström, Michael; Skovbjerg, Sine; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Smith, Margaret C.; Snijder, Marieke B.; So, Hung-Kwan; Sobngwi, Eugène; Söderberg, Stefan; Soekatri, Moesijanti Ye; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Song, Yi; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Soric, Maroje; Jérome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Spinelli, Angela; Spiroski, Igor; Staessen, Jan A.; Stamm, Hanspeter; Starc, Gregor; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Staub, Kaspar; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stieber, Jutta; Stöckl, Doris; Stocks, Tanja; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stratton, Gareth; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Sun, Chien-An; Sundström, Johan; Sung, Yn-Tz; Sunyer, Jordi; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Swinburn, Boyd A.; Sy, Rody G.; Szponar, Lucjan; Tai, E. Shyong; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tan, Eng Joo; Tang, Xun; Tanser, Frank; Tao, Yong; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarp, Jakob; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Braunerová, Radka Taxová; Taylor, Anne; Tchibindat, Félicité; Theobald, Holger; Theodoridis, Xenophon; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Topór-Madry, Roman; Tormo, María José; Tornaritis, Michael J.; Torrent, Maties; Toselli, Stefania; Traissac, Pierre; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trinh, Oanh Th; Trivedi, Atul; Tshepo, Lechaba; Tsigga, Maria; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tullu, Fikru; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Turley, Maria L.; Tynelius, Per; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice E.; Ukoli, Flora A. M.; Ulmer, Hanno; Unal, Belgin; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Vale, Susana; Valvi, Damaskini; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; van Herck, Koen; van Minh, Hoang; van Rossem, Lenie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Veidebaum, Toomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Velika, Biruta; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Victora, Cesar G.; Viegi, Giovanni; Viet, Lucie; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Vineis, Paolo; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vlasoff, Tiina; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Voutilainen, Sari; Vrijheid, Martine; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Waldhör, Thomas; Walton, Janette; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wanderley, Rildo S.; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Ying-Wei; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wareham, Nicholas; Weber, Adelheid; Wedderkopp, Niels; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Wong, Justin Yy; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, JianFeng; Wu, Shouling; Xu, Haiquan; Xu, Liang; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yardim, Nazan; Ye, Xingwang; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yngve, Agneta; Yoshihara, Akihiro; You, Qi Sheng; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Faudzi; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M.; Zaccagni, Luciana; Zafiropulos, Vassilis; Zainuddin, Ahmad A.; Zambon, Sabina; Zampelas, Antonis; Zamrazilová, Hana; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zeng, Yi; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zholdin, Bekbolat; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Dan; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Zimmermann, Esther; Cisneros, Julio Zuñiga; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bilano, Ver; Bixby, Honor; Zhou, Bin; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Taddei, Cristina; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Savin, Stefan; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Zhu, Aubrianna; Ezzati, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children

  19. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016 : a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity

  20. The stunted child with an overweight mother as a growing public health concern in resource-poor environments: a case study from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are emerging at alarming rates in low income women in many countries. Guatemala has the additional burden of a high prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) in children. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual burden of infant and child (5-23 months) under-nutrition and maternal over-weight and obesity in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Anthropometric measures were collected in 446 mother-infant dyads in a metropolitan population of mixed indigenous (Maya) and non-indigenous descent in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Children were identified as stunted based on a height for age overweight/obesity defined as a BMI ≥25. Stunted children with an overweight/obese mother were compared to other children who were not stunted and/or who did not have an overweight/obese mother. The prevalences of stunting (38%) and maternal overweight/obesity (45%) were high, but just 17% of the mother and child pairs were dual burden. The socio-demographic characteristics of stunted children were not influenced by maternal overweight or obesity. Policies are needed to address under-nutrition as well as preventing obesity and obesity-related chronic disease risks of stunted children and their mothers.

  1. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  2. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  3. Breast Feeding, Sex and Body Composition as Correlates of Stunting Among Kenyan Children at 6 and 15 Months of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyole, Silvenus; Omollo, Selina; Skau, Jutta; Michaelsen, Kim; Roos, Nanna; Friis, Henrik; Kinyuru, John; Owuor, Bethuel; Estambale, Benson; Owino, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction and objective: Stunting is prevalent in young children in low-income countries, and has detrimental effects on psychomotor development and later working capacity. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body composition (fat-free mass and fat mass), breastfeeding and sex with stunting in Kenyan children aged 6 and 15 months Subjects and Method: As part of a nutrition trial conducted in Western Kenya, 449 six months old infants were recruited if MUAC≥11.5 cm. At six and 15 months of age, weight, recumbent length, skinfolds and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured. Deuterium oxide dilution method was used to determine body fat and fat-free-mass. A predose saliva sample was taken prior to a dose to the infant of 0.5 g deuterium oxide per kg of body weight. Postdose saliva samples were taken after 2 and 3 hours, respectively. Deuterium enrichment was measured using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer. Linear regression was used to assess the association of sex, breastfeeding, fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI) and body mass index (BMI) as correlates of stunting Results: At 6 months, males had FMI being 14.03 kg/m2 (95% CI 13.80; 14.26) compared to females at 13.67(95% CI 13.40; 13.94). At 15 months males had an FMI of 14.74(95% CI 14.48; 14.99) while females had 14.41(95% CI 14.18; 14.64). At age 6 and 15 months, females had a lower -0.45 (95% CI -2.37; 1.46) kg/m2 and -0.36 (95% CI -0.59;-0.13) kg/m2 FFMI compared to girls, respectively. Stunting was not associated with body composition at neither 6 nor 15 months. Those who stopped breastfeeding before 15 months (11.1%) had a 0.01(95% CI 0.002; 0.02) kg/m2 lower FFMI when they reached 15 months. Conclusion: Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher FFMI in early infancy in resource poor settings .Stunting was associated with lower FMI at the age of 6 months but not at 15 months. Wasting was associated with a deficit

  4. Les coulisses du sublime Behind the scenes of the sublimeMovie stunts, machinery, special effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Grimaud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toute cascade de cinéma peut être perçue comme une configuration expérimentale posant au spectateur un problème d’attribution. Le cinéma livre en effet depuis ses origines une course frénétique pour rendre visuellement plausibles des actions physiquement impossibles en camouflant leurs conditions de réalisation. Qui est à l’origine de quoi ? Y a-t-il procédé et lequel ? L’acteur était-il soutenu par des machines ou par des câbles ? A-t-il effectué la cascade lui-même ? etc. Or l’acte impossible que le plateau prétend réaliser n’est jamais simplement attribuable à l’acteur, aux techniciens ou à la caméra. Il n’est jamais non plus complètement réductible à du trucage. À la fois de l’ordre de la performance physique (mais pas uniquement, un brin machinique, en grande partie collective (ou distribuée, l’effet de virtuosité au cinéma reste par ailleurs toujours inachevé sans la perception d’un spectateur pour donner à la cascade sa continuité finale. En examinant comment les cascades se font, camouflent et confondent le spectateur sur leurs sources et leur processus, cet article explore les enjeux de cette virtuosité hybride et compliquée qui arrache de façon optique l’acte à ses conditions matérielles d’exécution.Cinema is engaged from its origins in a frantic race to make physically impossible actions visually plausible by camouflaging their conditions of application. Who is at the origin of what? Is there a method and which one? Was the actor supported by machines or by cables? Did he perform the stunt himself? etc. But the impossible act which the set contends to achieve is never simply due to the actor, the technicians or the camera. It is also never completely reducible to special effects. Both physical performance (but not only, a strand machinic and largely collective (or distributed, the effect of virtuosity in movies is also still incomplete without the perception of an

  5. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata

    2016-06-02

    Overweight adversely affects not only the health and development of children and adolescents but also their health in adulthood, increasing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities. The frequency of nutritional disorders among children and adolescents is increasing in many countries worldwide, including Poland. To demonstrate differences in the nutritional well-being of school-age children depending on the school location: rural and urban areas. The study conducted in 2010 covered a total of 1,255 pupils, 627 girls and 628 boys, aged nine, from the area of five provinces of Poland: Pomorskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Podkarpackie and Masovian, representing the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of the country. Based on the height and weight measurements of children, the body mass index was calculated. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Cole et al. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls and boys in separate regions of the country (villages, cities with less than 100,000 residents and cities with more than 100,000 residents) did not differ significantly. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  6. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor - incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMIobesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) incidence was calculated after BMI conversion using the international cut-off by Cole et al. (2000, 2007). The reference group were adolescents with low SESI (OR=1.00). 11% of the adolescents were underweight, 14% were overweight and 3% were obese. The odds ratio of underweight incidence for the average SESI adolescent was 0.33 (95%CI: 0.15, 0.73; padolescents - 1.05 (95%CI: 0.78, 1.42; p>0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio

  7. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  8. An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A; Grisham, Thomas; Slawsky, Erik; Narine, Lutchmie

    2017-06-01

    A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access. Using 301 two-stage demographic health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 1990 and 2015 we calculated the sanitation access in the community as the proportion of households in the sampled cluster that had household access to any type of sanitation facility. We then conducted exact matching of children based on various predictors of living in a community with high access to sanitation. Using logistic regression with the matched group as a random intercept we examined the association between the child health outcomes of stunted growth, any anemia, moderate or severe anemia, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks and the exposure of living in a community with varying degrees of community-level sanitation access. For children with household-level sanitation access, living in a community with 100% sanitation access was associated with lowered odds of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.00; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any anemia (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.67-0.78; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children), moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.68-0.77; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children) and diarrhea (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.91-0.97); n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to living in a community with sanitation access. For children without household-level sanitation access, living in communities with 0% sanitation access was associated with higher odds of stunting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any

  9. Preventing environmental enteric dysfunction through improved water, sanitation and hygiene: an opportunity for stunting reduction in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H

    2016-05-01

    In 2011, one in every four (26%) children under 5 years of age worldwide was stunted. The realization that most stunting cannot be explained by poor diet or by diarrhoea, nor completely reversed by optimized diet and reduced diarrhoea has led to the hypothesis that a primary underlying cause of stunting is subclinical gut disease. Essentially, ingested microbes set in motion two overlapping and interacting pathways that result in linear growth impairment. Firstly, partial villous atrophy results in a reduced absorptive surface area and loss of digestive enzymes. This in turn results in maldigestion and malabsorption of much needed nutrients. Secondly, microbes and their products make the gut leaky, allowing luminal contents to translocate into systemic circulation. This creates a condition of chronic immune activation, which (i) diverts nutrient resources towards the metabolically expensive business of infection fighting rather than growth; (ii) suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and inhibits bone growth, leading to growth impairment; and (iii) causes further damage to the intestinal mucosa thereby exacerbating the problem. As such, the unhygienic environments in which infants and young children live and grow must contribute to, if not be the overriding cause of, this environmental enteric dysfunction. We suggest that a package of baby-WASH interventions (sanitation and water improvement, handwashing with soap, ensuring a clean play and infant feeding environment and food hygiene) that interrupt specific pathways through which feco-oral transmission occurs in the first two years of a child's life may be central to global stunting reduction efforts. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Interactions of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma with the leafhopper vector, Dalbulus maidis (Delong and Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and associated microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Garcia Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacteria with a persistent propagative transmission by insect vectors that generates direct and indirect interactions among them. In order to understand these interactions for maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP) and the leafhopper vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), two research lines were addressed. The first one aimed to determine the indirect effects of maize infection by MBSP on some biological and behavioral parameters of the vector, whereas a second line ...

  11. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential

    OpenAIRE

    Vir, Sheila C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non?nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingl...

  12. Individual, household, and community level risk factors of stunting in children younger than 5 years: Findings from a national surveillance system in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Jamie L; Manohar, Swetha; Neupane, Sumanta; Shrestha, Binod; Klemm, Rolf D W; West, Keith P

    2018-01-01

    Despite substantial reductions in recent years in Nepal, stunting prevalence in children younger than 5 years remains high and represents a leading public health concern. To identify factors contributing to the stunting burden, we report multilevel risk factors associated with stunting in 4,853 children aged 6-59 months in a nationally and agroecologically representative random sample from the first year of the Policy and Science for Health, Agriculture, and Nutrition Community Studies, a community-based observational, mixed-panel study. Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for multilevel clustering in the study design were used to examine the association of individual-, household-, and community-level factors associated with stunting. Stunting prevalence was 38% in our sample. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, maternal factors, including maternal height and education, were generally the strongest individual-level risk factors for stunting, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.52, 95% CI [1.96, 3.25], short (factors, household expenditure and community infrastructure (presence of paved roads, markets, or hospitals) were strongly, inversely associated with increased stunting risk, AOR = 1.68, 95% CI [1.27, 2.24], lowest versus highest household expenditure quintile; AOR = 2.38, 95% CI [1.36, 4.14], less developed (lacking paved roads, markets, or hospitals) versus more developed communities. Although most factors associated with stunting are not rapidly modifiable, areas for future research and possible interventions emerged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Isabel; Miranda, Teresa; Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Napol, Marta

    2012-09-01

    Stunting, overweight and child development impairment are key problems affecting early infancy and have short and long-term consequences on academic performance, social competence and adult health. The aim of this paper is to identify linkages and factors that may simultaneously contribute to these problems. A cross sectional study. 2,046 children under 5 years in Canelones, Uruguay. For simultaneous assessment of the relationship between stunting, overweight and child development impairment we used multiple logistic regression analyses. We included children, household, maternal and paternal variables as confounder factors. To give the strength of association we performed odds ratios (OR). A significant OR was defined as upper and lower 95% confidence limits not containing the value of one. Significance level was overweight OR: 2.7 (1.8-4.1). Maternal stature 160 cm and maternal smoking increased chance of overweight. Some maternal behaviors, such as mother not used to singing songs and maternal smoking increased the likelihood of delaying psychomotor development. The close linkages between stunting, being overweight and child development impairment suggest they should be targeted together: they coexist in the same infants and predict each other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Cho, In-Sook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1) were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants. PMID:25288987

  15. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  16. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and Growth Failure/Stunting in Global Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Victor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Freemark, Michael; Kelly, Paul; Loy, Alexander; Manary, Mark; Loechl, Cornelia

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the world's children aged global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional deficits and enteric and systemic infections clearly contribute, but recent findings implicate a central role for environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a generalized disturbance of small intestinal structure and function found at a high prevalence in children living under unsanitary conditions. Mechanisms contributing to growth failure in EED include intestinal leakiness and heightened permeability, gut inflammation, dysbiosis and bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation, and nutrient malabsorption. Because EED has multiple causal pathways, approaches to manage it need to be multifaceted. Potential interventions to tackle EED include: (1) reduction of exposure to feces and contact with animals through programs such as improved water, sanitation, and hygiene; (2) breastfeeding and enhanced dietary diversity; (3) probiotics and prebiotics; (4) nutrient supplements, including zinc, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids; (5) antiinflammatory agents such as 5-aminosalicyclic acid; and (6) antibiotics in the context of acute malnutrition and infection. Better understanding of the underlying causes of EED and development of noninvasive, practical, simple, and affordable point-of-care diagnostic tools remain key gaps. "Omics" technologies (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and stable isotope techniques (eg, 13 C breath tests) targeted at children and their intestinal microbiota will enhance our ability to successfully identify, manage, and prevent this disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  18. Nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory pathogens in Warao Amerindians: significant relationship with stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermsen, Meyke; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar A; Sisco, María Carolina; de Jonge, Marien I; Hermans, Peter W M; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2017-04-01

    To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0-4 years, 227 children aged 5-10 years and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0-4 years. Carriage rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were 51%, 7%, 1% and 13%, respectively. Crowding index, method of cooking and tobacco exposure were not associated with increased carriage. In multivariable analysis, an increase in height-for-age Z score (i.e. improved chronic nutritional status) was associated with decreased odds of S. pneumoniae colonisation (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.83) in children aged 0-4 years. Better knowledge of demographic and environmental risk factors facilitates better understanding of the dynamics of colonisation with respiratory bacteria in an Amerindian population. Poor chronic nutritional status was associated with increased pathogen carriage in children <5 years of age. The high rates of stunting generally observed in indigenous children may fuel the acquisition of respiratory bacteria that can lead to respiratory and invasive disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

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    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  20. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Body Mass Index, Underweight and Obesity among English Children, 2007-2008 to 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, James; Rehkopf, David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity have been reported in most developed countries, with obesity more common in deprived groups. Whether inequalities are found in the prevalence of underweight, the rest of the body mass index (BMI) distribution, or have changed across time...... Deprivation at the lower super output area) as a measure of socioeconomic deprivation. From 2007-2008 to 2011-2012 inequalities in obesity between the most compared to least deprived group increased (from 7.21% to 8.30%; pinequalities in the prevalence of underweight (1.50% to 1.21%; p = 0.......15) were stable during this period. There were no differences by age group or by sex, but a three-way interaction suggested inequalities in obesity had increased at a faster rate for 10 to 11 year old girls, than 4 to 5 year old boys, (2.03% vs 0.07%; pinequalities...

  1. Tomato bushy stunt virus and DI RNAs as a model for studying mechanisms of RNA virus replication, pathogenicity and recombination. Final technical report for 1994--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, T.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Jackson, A.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1997-12-31

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a small icosahedral virus with a very broad host-range. The symptoms of systemic infection range from mild mosaic to severe necrosis that often results in death. The genome of TBSV is composed of a single plus stranded RNA molecule with five genes. Two 5 inch genes are translated from the viral RNA, and the remaining three are translated from two subgenomic RNAs. Prior to the DOE supported studies, TBSV gene function had been assigned solely on the basis of sequence similarity with other virus genes of known function. The two 5 inch proximal genes (p33 and p92) were thought to be involved in viral replication, the middle gene encoded the capsid protein (p41), but no clear function was assigned to two nested 3 inch genes (p19 and p22), although it was suggested that at least one could be involved in movement. This research has determined the roles of each of the viral genes in the infection process, and the authors have obtained considerable genetic information pertinent to the contributions of the coat protein and the nested genes to the disease phenotypes observed in several host plants. They have also identified another genetic element with a short open reading frame in the 3 inch-noncoding region of the genome that provides a host-dependent replication function.

  2. Faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak umur 6-36 bulan di Wilayah Pedalaman Kecamatan Silat Hulu, Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Wahdah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting in children under five is an indicator of nutritional status that can reflect problem of overall social economic condition in the past. Stunting that occurs in childhood is a risk factor of increasing in mortality rate, low cognitive capability and motoric development, and improper physical function. The incidence of stunting is associated with many factors such as family environment (education, occupation, income, rearing pattern, eating pattern, and number of family members, nutritional factors (exclusivebreastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding, genetic factor, infection disease, and the incidence of low birth weight. The scope of stunting in 2010 were 35,6% and 39,7% in Indonesia and Province of Kalimantan Barat.Objectives: To identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of stunting in children of 6-36 months in Silat Hulu District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat.Methods: This was an analytic observational study with cross sectional design. Population of the study were all of underfi ves children at remote area of Subdistrict of Silat Hulu, District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat. Data analysis used chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify themost dominantly determinant stunting variable.Results: The incidence of stunting was significantly associated with occupation of mother, height of father, height of mother, income, number of family members, rearing pattern, and exclusive breastfeeding supplementation (p<0.05. The incidence of stunting was not associated with occupation of father, eating pattern, duration of breastfeeding, infection disease, and education of mother (p>0.05.Conclusions: Factors associated with the incidence of stunting were the work of mothers, rearing pattern, family income, number of household members, father’s height, maternal height, and exclusive breastfeeding. The most dominant determinant of risk factors on the

  3. A viroid from Solanum pseudocapsicum closely related to the tomato apical stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, R L; Marinkovic, S; Sänger, H L

    1996-01-01

    A viroid was isolated from symptomless Solanum pseudocapsicum cultivar (cv) 'New Patterson' plants using the bidirectional PAGE method for analysis of small circular RNA molecules. The viroid was transmitted to tomato by mechanical inoculation. Infected tomato plants developed symptoms similar to those caused by potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Cloning and sequencing revealed that the viroid from Solanum pseudocapsicum is closely related to the tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd). Therefore, the new viroid sequence variant has been named TASVd-S. The circular RNA of TASVd-S consists of 360 nucleotides which can potentially form a rod-like structure with a high degree of base-pairing like all the other known viroids. The nucleotide composition is 99 G, 72 A, 101 C and 88 U, corresponding to 200 G + C, 160 A + U with a GC content of 55.6%. In total 71% of the residues are base-paired and the basepaired residues consist of 73 G:C (57%), 43 A:U (34%) and 11 G:U (9%) base pairs. The most stable rod-like secondary structure of this viroid has 80 G:C, 39 A:U and 11 G:U base pairs with a minimum free energy of -147.5 kcal/mol (-616.6 kJ/mol). The sequence similarity of the left terminal (T1) domain of TASVd-S and the T1 domain of tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) is higher than the sequence similarity of these domains of TASVd-S and TASV-d.

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  5. The New "Obstetrical Dilemma": Stunting, Obesity and the Risk of Obstructed Labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2017-04-01

    The "obstetrical dilemma" refers to the tight fit between maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size at delivery. Most interest traditionally focused on its generic significance for humans, for example our neonatal altriciality and our complex and lengthy birth process. Across contemporary populations, however, the obstetrical dilemma manifests substantial variability, illustrated by differences in the incidence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and cesarean section. Beyond accounting for 12% of maternal mortality worldwide, obstructed labour also imposes a huge burden of maternal morbidity, in particular through debilitating birth injuries. This article explores how the double burden of malnutrition and the global obesity epidemic may be reshaping the obstetrical dilemma. First, short maternal stature increases the risk of obstructed labour, while early age at marriage also risks pregnancy before pelvic growth is completed. Second, maternal obesity increases the risk of macrosomic offspring. In some populations, short maternal stature may also promote the risk of gestational diabetes, another risk factor for macrosomic offspring. These nutritional influences are furthermore sensitive to social values relating to issues such as maternal and child nutrition, gender inequality and age at marriage. Secular trends in maternal obesity are substantially greater than those in adult stature, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The association between the dual burden of malnutrition and the obstetrical dilemma is therefore expected to increase, because the obesity epidemic is emerging faster than stunting is being resolved. However, we currently lack objective population-specific data on the association between maternal obesity and birth injuries. Anat Rec, 300:716-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Faktor Lingkungan dan Perilaku yang Berhubungan dengan Kejadian Stunting pada Siswa SD di Wilayah Pertanian (Penelitian di Kecamatan Bulakamba Kabupaten Brebes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Pangarsaning Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stunting is identified by comparing measurements of childrent’s heights to the NCHS WHO2005growth reference population : children who fall potential as a result of suboptimal health and/or nutritionalconditions. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia still high level, this indicated health problem because associatedwith increase in morbidity and mortality, low cognitive capability and improper physical function.The purpose inthis study was to determine many environmental factors and behaviour associated with incidence of stunting.Methods : It was an observational research with case-control study design.Subject were divided into two groups: case and control groups in Elementary School student class 4 and 5 with 37 subject in case group and 53 subjectin the control group. Variables examined in this study was a history of exposure to pesticides, history of cigarettesmoke exposure, mosquito smoke exposure history, a history of using plastic as a place to store food is still hot,urinaryexcretioniodine (UEI, levels of urinary thyocyanate, anemia, TSH levels, Cholinesterase levels and BodyMass Index.Data was collected by interviewing, observation and measurement. Data would be analyzed using independent t–test or Mann Withney, bivariate analisys using Chi-Square and multivariate analysis using logistic regression.Result :This study indicated that the incidence of stunting was 37 %; 56,8% of them had history of pesticidesexposure. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that the risk factor of stunting in student is a history ofpesticides exposure with Odds Ratio (OR 2,625. The result of logistic regression test showed there was asignificant association between the incidence of stunting with a history of pesticide exposure(OR 2,39.Conclusion :The history of pesticides exposure was the risk factor for stunting. Key words : Environmental and behaviour factors, stuting, elementary student, agriculture areas.

  7. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016:a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 milli...

  8. Riwayat pola asuh, pola makan, asupan zat gizi berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak 24–59 bulan di Biboki Utara, Timor Tengah Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Debora Nabuasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is an indicator of chronic malnutrition that reflects problem of overall social economic condition in the past and as a manifestation of further consequences of the prevalence of low birth weight and undernutrition in children underfive and absence of supreme catch-up growth in the followingyears. Stunting brings impact to physical growth disorder that results in low capacity in working memory, learning memory, visuospatial ability and cognitive function. Low economic condition, rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake for a long time cause high prevalence of stunting in children underfives. The result of basic health survey 2007 showed the prevalence of stunting at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur was 46.7%, in District of Timor Tengah Utara was 59.6% and at Subdistrict of Biboki Utara in two subsequent years were 64.6% and 60.2%.Objectives: To identify association between history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake and stunting in children of 24-59 months in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara District of Timor Tengah Utara Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Methods: The study was observational with case control design. Research instrument was questionnaire that was used to identify history of rearing pattern, eating pattern and nutrient intake through recall 4x24 hours subsequently. The study was carried out in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara with subject of the study were children of 24-59 months old involving a total of 152 subjects consisting of 76 children underfive as cases and 76 as control.Results: History of inadequate rearing pattern was 53.9%, eating pattern 55.9%, energy intake 55.9%, protein intake 52.6%, calcium intake 52.0%, infection disease 51.3%, family economy 61.8%, food tenacity 71.7%. The result of bivariate analysis showed variables of history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, infection disease, family economy had significant association (p<0

  9. Energy and Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Protein and Amino Acid Kinetics or Pregnancy Outcomes in Underweight Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Hsu, Jean W; Tang, Grace J; Anand, Pauline; Thomas, Tinku; Thomas, Annamma; Sheela, C N; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-02-01

    In India, the prevalence of low birth weight is high in women with a low body mass index (BMI), suggesting that underweight women are not capable of providing adequate energy and protein for fetal growth. Furthermore, as pregnancy progresses, there is increased need to provide methyl groups for methylation reactions associated with the synthesis of new proteins and, unlike normal-BMI American women, low-BMI Indian women are unable to increase methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates as pregnancy progresses from trimester 1 to 3. This also negatively influences birth weight. The aim was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with energy and protein from 12 ± 1 wk of gestation to time of delivery compared with no supplement on pregnancy outcomes, protein kinetics, and the fluxes of the methyl group donors serine and glycine. Protein kinetics and serine and glycine fluxes were measured by using standard stable isotope tracer methods in the fasting and postprandial states in 24 pregnant women aged 22.9 ± 0.7 y with low BMIs [BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≤18.5] at 12 ± 1 wk (trimester 1) and 30 ± 1 wk (trimester 3) of gestation. After the first measurement, subjects were randomly assigned to either receive the supplement (300 kcal/d, 15 g protein/d) or no supplement. Supplementation had no significant effect on any variable of pregnancy outcome, and except for fasting state decreases in leucine flux (125 ± 7.14 compared with 113 ± 5.06 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.04) and nonoxidative disposal (110 ± 6.97 compared with 101 ± 3.69 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.02) from trimesters 1 to 3, it had no effect on any other leucine kinetic variable or urea, glycine, and serine fluxes. We conclude that in Indian women with a low BMI, supplementation with energy and protein from week 12 of pregnancy to time of delivery does not improve pregnancy outcome, whole-body protein kinetics, or serine and glycine fluxes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, psanitation and hygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the

  11. Prevalence and associated factors influencing stunting in children aged 2-5 years in the Gaza Strip-Palestine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kishawi, Rima Rafiq; Soo, Kah Leng; Abed, Yehia Awad; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan

    2017-12-21

    Stunting continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality during childhood. In Palestine, it is another health problem, which adds to the catastrophic issues in the region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among preschool children in the Gaza Strip. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Gaza Strip. A total of 357 children aged 2-5 years and their mothers aged 18-50 years were recruited. A multistage cluster sampling was used in the selection of the study participants from three geographical areas in the Gaza Strip: Jabalia refugee camp, El Remal urban area, and Al Qarara rural area. A structured questionnaire was used for face- to -face interviews with the respective child's mother to collect sociodemographic information and feeding practice. Anthropometric measurements for children were taken to classify height-for-age (HAZ), while maternal height was measured as well. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the prevalence and associated factors with stunting. The total prevalence of stunting in this study was 19.6%, with the highest prevalence being (22.6%) in Jabalia refugee camp. It turns out that shorter mothers had increased the odds of stunting in preschool children in the Gaza Strip. Children born to mothers whose height was 1.55-1.60 m or 1.60 m. Moreover, parental consanguinity increased the risk of stunted children (p = 0. 015). This study showed the prevalence of stunting was of alarming magnitude in the Gaza Strip. Our results also demonstrated that parental consanguinity and short maternal stature were associated with stunting. Culturally appropriate interventions and appropriate strategies should be implemented to discourage these types of marriages. Policy makers must also raise awareness of the importance of the prevention and control of

  12. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.; Bechere Fernandes, M.T.; Martins, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted - obese subjects. Hypothesis: previous malnutrition as judged by height-for-age could be associated with alterations in fat patterning, circulating hormones such as insulin and IGF-1. In addition, previous malnutrition could be also associated with alterations in plasma lipid profiles, such as high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hypertension. Sample and Methods: We recruited a population of 58 girls and boys with 11-14 years of age from the shantytown population in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Half of this population was of normal weight and height, and the other half was stunted. More than 300 children from to 11 years old were screened to participate in the study and were eligible if they had weight-for-height Z scores (WHZ) of -2 to +2 according to the IVCHS standards. Children recruited for the stunted group (n=28) had height-for-age (HAZ) ≤-1.5 Z score and those for the non-stunted group (n=30) had HAZ >1.50. In addition, the two groups were selectively recruited to assure group similarities in mean age and WH. General anthropometry, blood sampling for fasting insulin, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density cholesterol and IGF-1 were made as well as blood pressure. Results: Ninety two percent of the population had low values of IGF-1 indicating impaired growth. Stunted boys and girls had delayed pubertal stages. Lower fasting insulin levels and lower beta cell production according to HAM analysis in comparison to non-stunted children were found, after adjustment for differences in pubertal stages. In addition, a positive association was found between fasting insulin with age for the

  13. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  14. [Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, energy intake and dietary caloric profile in university students from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    University students are a part of the population potentially vulnerable in relation to their nutritional status. To evaluate energy intake, energy profile of the diet and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students. The study was conducted in 223 students (53% female) from the University of Murcia (Spain), mean age 21.4 ± 2.7 years. Dietary intake was estimated by a continuous 7 days dietary record, previously validated. Afterwards, total energy intake and macronutrients distribution were obtained using the software "GRUNUMUR 2.0". Physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated as [weight (kg)/height (m)(2)]. Average energy intake was lower than the recommendations. In relation with the energy profile of the diet, it was higher in protein and fat, and lower in carbohydrates compared with the recommendations in the balanced diet. The prevalence of overweight was of 9.3% in female and of 24.2% in males. However, 10.2% females and 1.1% males were underweight. Only a 35,4% of the studied collective usually practiced physical activity (3-4 hours/week). Significant correlations were found between age and percentage of energy from carbohydrate (negative) and lipids (positive), indicating that older students (young adults) had significantly higher dietary unbalances than younger (adolescents). Students from the University of Murcia have characteristics very similar to those described in other university populations of Spain and other Western countries: low energy intake, unbalances in the energy profile of the diet, and high percentages of overweight and also of underweight. Both physical inactivity and energy unbalance of the diet could be determinants of the overweight observed. Age is a factor in worsening the energy profile of the diet, which presumably will have undesirable consequences on the health of this young population group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES

  15. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  16. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

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    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  17. Present status of some virus diseases affecting legume crops in Tunisia, and partial characterization of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus

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    Asma NAJAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted in Tunisia during the 2005‒2006, 2006‒2007 and 2009‒2010 growing seasons to identify viruses which produce yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms of chickpea, faba bean and pea crops. Tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA results showed that Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV was the most common virus, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Beet western yellows virus. The coat protein (CP gene nucleotide sequence of seven CpCSV isolates collected from different regions of Tunisia was compared with sequences of five other isolates in the NCBI database. A homology tree of the CP nucleotide sequences was prepared and CpCSV isolates were grouped into two clusters. The first group contained two Tunisian CpCSV chickpea isolates collected from Bizerte and Kef; sequenced regions showed a high nucleotiode homology (95% to that of the Ethiopian and Sudanese CpCSV isolates. The second group included five Tunisian isolates: two from chickpea, two from pea and one from faba bean, which showed a high homology (96% when compared with the Moroccan, Egyptian and Syrian CpCSV isolates.

  18. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

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    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  19. Understanding the association between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries: Next steps for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-11-01

    Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development

  20. Good oral health, adequate nutrient consumption and family support are associated with a reduced risk of being underweight amongst older Malaysian residents of publicly funded shelter homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Renuka; Ahmad, Zaiton

    2006-01-01

    A low body mass index in older people has been associated with increased mortality. The main objective of this study was to identify factors associated with low body mass indices [ BMIs] (Malaysia. 1081 elderly people (59% M) over the age of 60 years were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well being. Body mass index was also determined. Subjects were recruited from publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. 14.3% of residents had BMIs age and sex) revealed that having no family (RR 1.98[95%CI 1.40-2.82], p<0.001) and negative responses to statement 3 [I eat few fruits or vegetables or milk products] (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.90]; P= 0.013) and statement 5 [I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard for me to eat] (RR 0.69 [95%CI 0.50-0.96]; P= 0.023) of the ' Determine Your Nutritional Health Checklist' were independently associated with low BMIs (<18.5 kg/m2). Older people with no family support were at risk of becoming underweight. Older people who consumed fruits, vegetables or milk or had good oral health were less likely to be underweight. Nutrient intake, oral health and social support were important in ensuring healthy body weight in older Malaysians.

  1. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    21.0. The study revealed that the younger children (3 years old) were more severely malnourished than any other age, although the nutritional status improved with increased age. There was no difference in gender. 19.1, 17.9 and 18.9% were stunted, underweight and wasted respectively. In terms of dietary diversity score, ...

  2. The stunted child with an overweight mother as a growing public health concern in resource-poor environments : a case study from Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doak, Colleen M; Campos, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are emerging at alarming rates in low income women in many countries. Guatemala has the additional burden of a high prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) in children. AIM: The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual burden of infant and child (5-23

  3. Emergence and epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the American desert southwest, and development of host plant resistance in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become established. The virus is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci, which has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV results in lat...

  4. Association between the body mass index and the clinical findings in patients with acute heart failure: evaluation of the obesity paradox in patients with severely decompensated acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masato; Shirakabe, Akihiro; Hata, Noritake; Shinada, Takuro; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Tomita, Kazunori; Tsurumi, Masafumi; Okazaki, Hirotake; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with the development of heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and acute HF (AHF) remains to be elucidated. Eight hundred and eight AHF patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to four groups according to their BMI values: severely thin (n = 11, BMI valvular disease than normal/underweight patients. The patients in the overweight group were significantly younger than those in the normal/underweight, and those in the overweight group were more likely to have SBP ≥140 mmHg and hypertensive heart disease and less likely to have valvular disease than the patients in the normal/underweight group. The prognosis, including all-cause death, was significantly poorer among patients who were severely thin than those who were normal/underweight, overweight and significantly better among those who were overweight than those who were normal/underweight, severely thin and obese patients. A multivariate Cox regression model identified that severely thin [HR: 3.372, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.362-8.351] and overweight (HR: 0.615, 95% CI 0.391-0.966) were independent predictors of 910-day mortality as the reference of normal/underweight. Overweight patients tended to have SBP ≥140 mmHg and be relatively young, while severely thin patients tended to have SBP <100 mmHg and be female. These factors were associated with a better prognosis of overweight patients and adverse outcomes in severely thin patients. These factors may contribute to the "obesity paradox" in severely decompensated AHF patients.

  5. A Current Overview of Two Viroids That Infect Chrysanthemums: Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won Kyong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema X grandiflorum) belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is one of the most popular flowers in the world. Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens. They consist of a circular, single-stranded RNA, which does not encode a protein. Chrysanthemums are a common host for two different viroids, the Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and the Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd). These viroids are quite different from each other in structure and function. Here, we reviewed research associated with CSVd and CChMVd that covered disease symptoms, identification, host range, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetic relationships, structures, replication mechanisms, symptom determinants, detection methods, viroid elimination, and development of viroid resistant chrysanthemums, among other studies. We propose that the chrysanthemum and these two viroids represent convenient genetic resources for host–viroid interaction studies. PMID:23594461

  6. A Current Overview of Two Viroids That Infect Chrysanthemums: Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema X grandiflorum belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is one of the most popular flowers in the world. Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens. They consist of a circular, single-stranded RNA, which does not encode a protein. Chrysanthemums are a common host for two different viroids, the Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and the Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd. These viroids are quite different from each other in structure and function. Here, we reviewed research associated with CSVd and CChMVd that covered disease symptoms, identification, host range, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetic relationships, structures, replication mechanisms, symptom determinants, detection methods, viroid elimination, and development of viroid resistant chrysanthemums, among other studies. We propose that the chrysanthemum and these two viroids represent convenient genetic resources for host–viroid interaction studies.

  7. Molecular detection and characterization of Hop stunt viroid sequence variants from naturally infected pomegranate (Punica granatum L. in Tunisia

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    Faten GORSANE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian pomegranate Hop stunt viroid (HSVd variants are described. Dot-blot hybridization, S-Page, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of RNA extracts from infected tissues were carried out. Results obtained by these techniques were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. The genetic diversity among the Tunisian variants was investigated, which also involved analysis of sequences of previously described HSVd variants from Tunisian citrus var. clementine and fig, and from fruit trees from other Mediterranean countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tunisian pomegranate HSVd variants were clustered into two groups: a cachexia strain within the citrus type group and a recombinant citrus-plum type group. Results also showed a high haplotype diversity which was not related either to the host or to the geographical origin. Selective neutrality and genetic network tests suggest that the HSVd isolates have spread rapidly.

  8. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, general and central obesity among 8-15-years old Bulgarian children and adolescents (Smolyan region, 2012-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of underweight, overweight, the general and central obesity in 8-15-year-old Bulgarian children and adolescents, through the use of the anthropometric indices BMI and WHtR. Subject of this study are 878 children and adolescents (437 boys and 441 girls) of Smolyan region, Bulgaria, at the age of 8 to 15 years. The study is cross-sectional and was conducted in the period 2012-2014. The body height, weight and waist circumference were measured. In addition, the body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut-off points of BMI, recommended of IOTF and developed by Cole et al. (2000; 2007). The central obesity was defined according to the discriminatory values of 0.500 of WHtR. The collected data were analysed by statistical software packages STATISTICA 10.0 and SPSS 16. Overweight occurs among 18.8% of the boys and 17.0% of the girls, and obesity occurs among 7.6% of boys and 3.7% of the girls. The underweight are 8.0% of the boys and 10.4% of the girls. Central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) occur among average 12.75% of all investigated children independently of their nutritional status (16.2% of boys and 9.3% of girls). With central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are on average 2.7% of all boys and girls with normal weight (n = 96) and an average 46.82% of all participants with overweight and with obesity (n = 205). With increased health risk (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are total of 2.01% (n=16) of all surveyed children (n = 793) from categories normal weight. There has been an increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Bulgarian children and adolescents from Smolyan region during the over one last decade. The relatively high percentage of underweight children, especially among in group of the girls alter puberty. The central obesity, as well as its combination with overweight or general obesity is more frequent in boys than in girls

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

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    Kerry L M Wong

    Full Text Available Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous.We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA. Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10 and quintiles (Q1 and Q5 were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII and concentration index (CIX.In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels.Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  10. Food insecurity in children but not in their mothers is associated with altered activities, school absenteeism, and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Herrera, Héctor A; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-10-01

    Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonprobabilistic sample of 131 mother-child pairs from a poor peri-urban area in Miranda State, Venezuela. We assessed food insecurity in children by using an instrument developed through a naturalistic approach that had 10 items for food insecurity and 9 items for management strategies. To obtain mothers' reports of food insecurity, a previously validated 12-item instrument was used. Children's daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting were measured. Chi-square tests for contingency tables and logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to test associations of food insecurity with outcomes. There was no association between mothers' reports of food-insecurity and any child outcome. Children's reports of food insecurity were associated with higher odds of doing passive home chores (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32), cooking at home (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1,38), taking care of siblings (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31), and doing labor (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) and lower odds of playing video games (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98) (all P school absenteeism. Food insecurity reported by children can be assessed by pediatricians, school personnel, and other practitioners by using a simple instrument to identify food-insecure children and to respond to mitigate their food insecurity and its consequences. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kerry L M; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2017-01-01

    Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous. We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA). Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10) and quintiles (Q1 and Q5) were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX). In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels. Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on under-five mortality and stunting: Analysis of data from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

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    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Nutrition interventions may have favourable as well as unfavourable effects. The Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat, with early prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation, reduced infant mortality and were reported to be very cost-effective. However, the multiple micronutrients (MMS supplement was associated with an increased risk of stunted growth in infancy and early childhood. This unfavourable outcome was not included in the previous cost-effectiveness analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the MINIMat interventions remain cost-effective in view of both favourable (decreased under-five-years mortality and unfavourable (increased stunting outcomes.Pregnant women in rural Bangladesh, where food insecurity still is prevalent, were randomized to early (E or usual (U invitation to be given food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μg of folic acid. E reduced stunting at 4.5 years compared with U, MMS increased stunting at 4.5 years compared with Fe60, while the combination EMMS reduced infant mortality compared with UFe60. The outcome measure used was disability adjusted life years (DALYs, a measure of overall disease burden that combines years of life lost due to premature mortality (under five-year mortality and years lived with disability (stunting. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated using cost data from already published studies.By incrementing UFe60 (standard practice to EMMS, one DALY could be averted at a cost of US$24.When both favourable and unfavourable outcomes were included in the analysis, early prenatal food and multiple micronutrient interventions remained highly cost effective and seem to be meaningful from a public health perspective.

  13. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  14. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

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    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  15. Recent trends in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Korean adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1998 to 2014

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    Hyun-Young Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent obesity studies have reported that the rising trend in obesity has stabilized or leveled off. Our study aimed to update estimates of the recent prevalence trend in obesity based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998–2014. Methods: A total of 66,663 subjects were included and defined as being either underweight, overweight, or obese, in accordance with a BMI of 18.5 kg/m2 or lower, 23 kg/m2 or higher, and 25 kg/m2 or higher, respectively. Results: The prevalence of underweight in KNHANES I through VI surveys was 5.4%, 6.1%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.6%, and 7.5%, respectively, in men (p for trend = 0.04, β = 0.003 and 4.7%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.3%, 2.7%, and 2.6%, respectively, in women (p for trend = 0.03, β = −0.002. Also for KNHANES I through VI, the respective prevalence of overweight/obesity was 50.3%, 57.2%, 62.5%, 62.3%, 61.4%, and 61.3% in men (p for trend<0.01, β = 0.009 and 48.3%, 50.3%, 50.0%, 47.8%, 47.0%, and 45.3% in women (p for trend<0.01, β = −0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The obesity occurrence in men was trending upward with respect to overweight/obesity and for grade 1 and 2 obesity, but not for abdominal obesity. However, the obesity trends in women were leveling off from overweight/obesity, grade 1 obesity, and abdominal obesity measures. Further studies are required with data on muscle mass and adiposity for effective obesity control policies.

  16. Childhood underweight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan-José; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2011-07-01

    To assess associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Participants were asked to select which of nine body images most closely represented their body shape at ages 5 and 20 years, and it was used as a proxy of BMI. An incident case of MetS was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult MetS were estimated by multiple-adjusted odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals. University of Navarra, Spain. The study included 5317 university graduates, followed-up for a median of 6·1 years. The incidence of MetS was 2·9 % (1·7 % in women and 5·1 % in men). Among men, body shape at age 5 years was inversely related to adult MetS (OR = 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97), whereas weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood was directly associated with adult MetS (OR = 1·49, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·18); both childhood underweight (OR = 5·20, 95 % CI 1·87, 14·50) and childhood obesity (OR = 4·66, 95 % CI 1·40, 15·51) increased the likelihood of adult MetS. No association was apparent among women. These results support treating childhood underweight and weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood as part of comprehensive adult MetS prevention efforts in men.

  17. Nutrition and Goiter Status of Primary School Children in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that 42.2% of the school children had palpable goiter, 21.2% were stunted, 15.1% were underweight and 3.7% were wasted. There was no significant gender difference observed for goiter, stunting, wasting and underweight. It was observed that, only goiter and stunting were significantly associated (p<0.05) ...

  18. Hubungan sosial ekonomi, pola asuh, pola makan dengan stunting pada siswa sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Lut Tawar, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Aramico

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: High prevalence of stunted children that indicates nutrition problem in Indonesia is a chronic problem associated with poverty, low education, and lack of service and environmental health. The low birth weight infant will have an impact on growth disorders in children.      Objectives: To identify association between social economic aspect of the family, rearing pattern, eating pattern and stunting in elementary school children in Lut Tawar Subditrict Central Aceh Regency.Methods: The study were analytic observational with cross sectional design and qualitative method. Data were obtained through observation and interview using questionnaire. Samples were 378 children from 11 elementary school in Lut Tawar Subdistrict Central Aceh Regency. Samples were selected by proportional random sampling. Analysis used chi-square at confi dence interval 95%. Number of samples were 378 children.Results: There were association between maternal education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=4.06; father education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=3.37; number of underfi ves with nutritional status (p=0.007 OR=2.71; income of parent and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=7.8; rearing pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=8.07; eating pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=6.01. There were dominant association between rearing pattern and nutritional status with OR 8, between eating patern,income of parent and nutritional status with OR of 6.01 There were no association between acces and utilization of health service and nutritional status (p=0,78 OR=0,93.Conclusions: There were signifi cant association between rearing pattern, eating pattern, and nutritional status.KEYWORDS: stunting, rearing pattern, eating patternABSTRAKLatar belakang: Tingginya prevalensi anak pendek yang menunjukkan masalah gizi di Indonesia merupakan masalah kronis yang berkaitan dengan kemiskinan, rendahnya pendidikan, dan kurang memadainya pelayanan

  19. The importance of public health, poverty reduction programs and women's empowerment in the reduction of child stunting in rural areas of Moramanga and Morondava, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remonja, Chitale Rabaoarisoa; Rakotoarison, Rado; Rakotonirainy, Nivo Heritiana; Mangahasimbola, Reziky Tiandraza; Randrianarisoa, Alain Berthin; Jambou, Ronan; Vigan-Womas, Inès; Piola, Patrice; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition accounts for 45% of mortality in children under five years old, despite a global mobilization against chronic malnutrition. In Madagascar, the most recent data show that the prevalence of stunting in children under five years old is still around 47.4%. This study aimed to identify the determinants of stunting in children in rural areas of Moramanga and Morondava districts to target the main areas for intervention. A case-control study was conducted in children aged from 6 to 59.9 months, in 2014-2015. We measured the height and weight of mothers and children and collected data on child, mother and household characteristics. One stool specimen was collected from each child for intestinal parasite identification. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to identify the determinants of stunting using backwards stepwise methods. We included 894 and 932 children in Moramanga and in Morondava respectively. Stunting was highly prevalent in both areas, being 52.8% and 40.0% for Moramanga and Morondava, respectively. Stunting was most associated with a specific age period (12mo to 35mo) in the two study sites. Infection with Trichuris trichiura (aOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3) and those belonging to poorer households (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.4) were the major risk factors in Moramanga. In Morondava, children whose mother had activities outside the household (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.5) and those perceived to be small at birth (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) were more likely to be stunted, whereas adequate birth spacing (≥24months) appeared protective (aOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.7). Interventions that could improve children's growth in these two areas include poverty reduction, women's empowerment, public health programmes focusing on WASH and increasing acceptability, and increased coverage and quality of child/maternal health services.

  20. A comparative study on Nutritional status of Preschool children in Kekirawa Divisional Secretariat area and Gampaha Divisional Secretariat area in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Kanattage Piumi Dananga Chamari; Weerasooriya, W.M.B.; Liyanage, Janitha A.

    2014-01-01

    .3% underweight among the served preschool children in Kekirawa divisional secretariat division and 14.4% wasting, 3.1% stunting and 8.2% underweight among the served preschool children in Gampaha divisional secretariat division. According to the survey prevelence of undernutrition was assesed as severly wasted, wasted, severly stunted, stunted and severly under weight, under weight. In Kekirawa Divisional Secretariat area, Male wasting status was 4% ≤ -3SD, 26% ≤ -2SD, Stunting status was 8% ≤ -3SD, 26% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status was 10% ≤ -3SD, 30% ≤ -2SD. Female wasting status is containing 0% ≤ -3SD, 29.2% ≤ - 2SD , Stunting status is 2.1% ≤ -3SD, 16.7% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status is 8.3% ≤ -3SD, 31.3% ≤ -2SD. In Gampaha Divisional Secretariat area, Male wasting status was 0% ≤ -3SD, 11.1% ≤ -2SD, Stunting status was 0% ≤ -3SD, 4.4% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status was 0% ≤ -3SD, 4.4% ≤ -2SD. Female wasting status is containing 1.9% ≤ -3SD, 15.4% ≤ - 2SD, Stunting status is 0% ≤ -3SD, 1.9% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status is 0% ≤ -3SD, 11.5% ≤ -2SD. (author)

  1. INFLUENCE OF LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH INTENSITY OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY, AND SELECTED HEALTH RELATED FITNESS VARIABLES AMONG UNDERWEIGHT MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaukab Azeem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Underweight (UW individuals face lot of problems in increasing muscle size and also increasing body weight and fitness levels. Resistance training (RT plays a very important role in increasing hypertrophy of the muscles one and all in general. (ACSM, 2009 stated that the resistance exercise for healthy adults provides program design recommendations for muscle hypertrophy [3]. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of low, Medium and high intensity of (RT on the muscular hypertrophy and selected health related fitness variables among the underweight males.  Method: A group of (N=40 subjects was selected randomly to participate in this study.  The age of the participants was in the range of 18-24 years, (RT program was employed for 12 weeks, two days in a week, 45 minutes of training per session. The subjects were segregated into two groups namely Group-A (n=20, experimental group, Group –B (n=20 control group. The (RT was employed on experimental group. Control group was not given any above mentioned special training program. The tests (pre and post considered for this study was health related fitness variables are as follows; body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, Flexibility and cardio-vascular endurance. And test for muscular hypertrophy i.e. (neck, shoulders, chest, arms,  waist, hips, thigh and calf; To compare the mean differences from pre to post test, mean, standard deviation, and t-test was computed by the help of statistica software.  Results & Discussion: 12 weeks of training protocol had revealed significant performance from pre to posttest among the subjects with regard to the selected fitness variables and presented by percentages i.e. BMI (4.45%, bench press (35.12%, sit-ups test (22.34%, sit & reach test (26.83%, and 12 min run & walk test (26.94%. Furthermore the muscular hypertrophy was enhance among the underweight students i.e. Neck (2.61%, shoulder (2.95%, chest (6

  2. Child feeding and stunting prevalence in left-behind children: a descriptive analysis of data from a central and western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Lu; Guo, Sufang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong; Tata, Laila J

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of parental rural-to-urban internal migration on nutritional status of left-behind children and how this is related to guardianship. We used UNICEF China's maternal and child health survey data to investigate stunting prevalence and feeding practices in children left behind by rural-to-urban internal migrant parents. We also assessed the effects of primary guardianship which is related closely with parental migration. Of 6136 children aged 0-3 years, over one-third was left behind by one or both parents. About 13 % were left behind by mothers, leaving guardianship primarily to grandmothers. Left-behind status was not associated with stunting, yet children who were cared for primarily by their fathers had a 32 % increase of stunting compared to children cared for by the mothers [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32; 95 % confidence interval = 1.04-1.67]. Children with migrant mothers were less likely to receive age-appropriate breastfeeding (aOR = 0.04;0.02-0.10) and a minimum acceptable diet (aOR = 0.56;0.39-0.79) compared with non-left-behind children. Guardian's feeding behaviours varied, and was inappropriate for both children affected and not affected by parent's rural-to-urban internal migration. Community-based infant and young child feeding counselling and support should be provided to all caregivers.

  3. Cultivated grapevines represent a symptomless reservoir for the transmission of hop stunt viroid to hop crops: 15 years of evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kawaguchi-Ito

    Full Text Available Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus, which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics.

  4. A Long-Distance Translocatable Phloem Protein from Cucumber Forms a Ribonucleoprotein Complex In Vivo with Hop Stunt Viroid RNA†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Gustavo; Pallás, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Viroids are highly structured plant pathogenic RNAs that do not code for any protein, and thus, their long-distance movement within the plant must be mediated by direct interaction with cellular factors, the nature of which is presently unknown. In addition to this type of RNAs, recent evidence indicates that endogenous RNAs move through the phloem acting as macromolecular signals involved in plant defense and development. The form in which these RNA molecules are transported to distal parts of the plant is unclear. Viroids can be a good model system to try to identify translocatable proteins that could assist the vascular movement of RNA molecules. Here, we demonstrate by use of immunoprecipitation experiments, that the phloem protein 2 from cucumber (CsPP2) is able to interact in vivo with a viroid RNA. Intergeneric graft assays revealed that both the CsPP2 and the Hop stunt viroid RNA were translocated to the scion. The translocated viroid is symptomatic in the nonhost scion, indicating that the translocated RNA is functional. The CsPP2 gene was cloned and sequenced. The analysis of its primary structure revealed the existence of a potential double-spaced-RNA-binding motif, previously identified in a set of proteins that bind to highly structured RNAs, which could explain its RNA-binding properties. The possible involvement of this phloem protein in assisting the long-distance movement of the viroid RNA within the plant is discussed. PMID:15331743

  5. A Systematic Analysis on mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Runting and Stunting Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ma, Jinge; Li, Bixiao; Lin, Shudai; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2015-01-01

    Runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), which is characterized by lower body weight, widely occurs in broilers. Some RSS chickens simply exhibit slow growth without pathological changes. An increasing number of studies indicate that broiler strains differ in susceptibility to infectious diseases, most likely due to their genetic differences. The objective of this study was to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in RSS and normal chickens. By integrating miRNA with mRNA expression profiling, potential molecular mechanisms involved in RSS could be further explored. Twenty-two known miRNAs and 1,159 genes were differentially expressed in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens (P chicken liver albeit with reduced abundance. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that gga-miR-30b/c directly target CARS through binding to its 3′UTR. The miR-30b/c: CARS regulation mainly occurred in liver. In thigh muscle and the hypothalamus, miR-30b/c are expressed at higher levels in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens from 2 to 6 w of age, and notably significant differences are observed at 4 w of age. PMID:26010155

  6. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a versatile platform for polyvalent display of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shantanu; Ochoa, Wendy; Singh, Pratik; Hsu, Catherine; Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne; Olson, Mark; Reddy, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NΔ52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.

  7. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assess the amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women

  8. Characterization of a Syrian Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus strain and production of polyclonal antibodies for its detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen ALNAASAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with two primer sets of luteoviruses was used to characterize an isolate of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSv, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae (SC402-08 collected from Lattakia, Syria, during the 2007‒2008 chickpea growing season. Sequence analysis revealed that the coat protein gene of the isolate shared nucleotide sequence identities ranging from 97 to 98% with the CpCSv isolates from Egypt, morocco and Syria. The capsid protein was separated as a protein of approximately 20 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was visually detected by its reaction with CpCSV monoclonal antibody in Western blot. SC402-08 isolate of CpCSV was purified from faba bean-infected plants, and yielded 112–182 μg of purified virions kg-1 of infected tissue. The purified preparation was injected into a white rabbit, and an antiserum was obtained and used to detect CpCSv in infected tissues by tissue-blot immunoassay. The antiserum obtained was able to detect CpCSv by the immunoassay up to a dilution of 1:1,024,000.

  9. Differential estimates of underweight-for-age and growth related morbidity according to different growth standards in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana; Badhoniya, Neetu; Dibley, Michael; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H

    2015-01-01

    To compare the four different growth standards currently used in India [WHO (World Health Organization); NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics); ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme); IAP (Indian Academy of Pediatrics)] and determine which better predicts growth related morbidity in children after 3 mo of follow-up. The present cohort study was done at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, India. Eligible children were those who had; > 3 unformed stools in the prior 24 h, the duration of their diarrhea was up to 72 h; and they were able to accept oral fluids or feeds. Main outcome measures were classification of the malnutrition status as per each of the four growth standards by weight-for-age and weight-for-height z scores at three months follow-up. A total of 724 children were included. Mean age was 17.8 mo; 40.6 % were ≤ 12 mo and 59.1 % were males. Estimates of malnourished varied by the four standards, (NCHS, 62.2 % to IAP, 7.4 %). When separated into 'malnourished' and 'severely malnourished' categories, differences were greater, (NCHS, 27.9 % vs. ICDS, 1.9 %). Overall agreement was 'fair' (0.2435, z = 22.21, p = 0.0000). After follow-up, children who were 'severely malnourished' gained more weight than the 'malnourished'group; however, mean weight differed by the four charts [e.g., IAP 767 g (SD ± 611 g), vs. ICDS 884.7 g (SD ± 778 g)]. Growth standards reported different rates of malnourished categories. The utility of the standards to detect children who are constitutionally vs. pathologically small is questionable. Monitoring the nutritional status of children at both the individual level and at population level has implications for clinical practice, policy development and resource allocation.

  10. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  11. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting.In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent; and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting.Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively; or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  12. Earlier introduction of aguitas is associated with higher risk of stunting in infants and toddlers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; van der Starre, Robine E; van Beusekom, Ilse; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2013-03-01

    In many cultures, simple herbal infusions, thin gruels, or sweetened water (agüitas in Guatemalan parlance) are given to infants and toddlers. Formative research has shown that the use of agüitas in early child feeding is deeply embedded in Guatemalan culture. We examined the prevalence and timing of the introduction of agüitas during early life in a low-income population of metropolitan Quetzaltenango in relation to stunting in children. Responses from 456 mothers of children aged 5-23 mo were analyzed by using logistic regression to explore relations between linear growth (stunting), diarrhea, and age at the first introduction of agüitas. A total of 358 of 456 infants (79%) were agüita users independent of sex or ethnicity. Of infants given agüitas, one-fourth of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 2.9 wk of age, and one-half of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 9 wk of age. Subjects introduced to agüitas before 2.9 wk of age were 1.8 times more likely to be stunted (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8; P = 0.03) irrespective of ethnicity. Children who had ever been given agüitas were twice as likely to have also had diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.3) and more likely to have needed medical attention for diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.2), but diarrheal experience was independent of stunting. Because of the early introduction of agüitas and the high prevalence of stunting in Guatemala, longitudinal studies are urgently needed to clarify the causal relations. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial register as NTR3273 for 5-mo-olds and Nederlands Trial register as NTR3292 for infants ≥6 mo.

  13. Sever's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into mature bone. Sever's disease is similar to Osgood-Schlatter disease, a condition that affects the bones in ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions Osgood-Schlatter Disease Problems With Legs and Feet Cool Cast ...

  14. Associations of childhood, maternal and household dietary patterns with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: proposing an alternative and plausible dietary analysis method to dietary diversity scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin; Worku, Amare

    2018-01-29

    Identifying dietary patterns that consider the overall eating habits, rather than focusing on individual foods or simple counts of consumed foods, better helps to understand the combined effects of dietary components. Therefore, this study aimed to use dietary patterns, as an alternative method to dietary diversity scores (DDSs), and investigate their associations with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. Mothers and their children aged under 5 years (n = 3788) were recruited using a two-stage random cluster sampling technique in two regions of Ethiopia. Socio-demographic, dietary and anthropometric data were collected. Dietary intake was assessed using standardized dietary diversity tools. Household, maternal and child DDSs were calculated and dietary patterns were identified by tetrachoric (factor) analysis. Multilevel linear and Poisson regression analyses were applied to assess the association of DDSs and dietary patterns with height-for-age z score (HAZ) and stunting, respectively. The overall prevalence of stunting among children under-five was 38.5% (n = 1459). We identified three dietary patterns each, for households ("fish, meat and miscellaneous", "egg, meat, poultry and legume" and "dairy, vegetable and fruit"), mothers ("plant-based", "egg, meat, poultry and legume" and "dairy, vegetable and fruit" and children ("grain based", "egg, meat, poultry and legume" and "dairy, vegetable and fruit"). Children in the third tertile of the household "dairy, vegetable and fruit" pattern had a 0.16 (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.30) increase in HAZ compared to those in the first tertile. A 0.22 (β = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.39) and 0.19 (β = 0.19; 0.04, 0.33) increase in HAZ was found for those in the third tertiles of "dairy, vegetable and fruit" patterns of children 24-59 months and 6-59 months, respectively. Those children in the second (β = -0.17; 95% CI: -0.31, -0.04) and third (β = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.02) tertiles of maternal "egg

  15. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary.

  16. Herança da resistência ao enfezamento em milho Inheritance of the resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trevizoli Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a herança da resistência ao complexo de enfezamento em milho e determinar as melhores fontes de resistência entre as linhagens estudadas. Foram realizadas as análises dialélica e médias de gerações em linhagens de milho. Para a análise dialélica, foram cruzadas 12 linhagens de milho, em dialélico parcial. Para análises de médias de gerações, foram cruzadas três linhagens resistentes e quatro suscetíveis, para a obtenção das gerações F1, F2, RCP R e RCP S. Os trabalhos foram conduzidos em Jaboticabal, SP. A incidência de enfezamento foi avaliada no estádio fenológico R3. Efeitos significativos quanto à capacidade geral de combinação e capacidade específica de combinação foram obtidos, o que indicou que, no controle do caráter enfezamentos, estão envolvidos tanto os efeitos aditivos quanto os de dominância. Análises de médias de gerações mostraram a presença de poucos genes envolvidos com o controle da resistência, com predominância de efeitos aditivos, o que permite a seleção de genótipos resistentes. As linhagens L02, L03 e L05 poderão ser utilizadas como fontes de resistência, em futuras combinações híbridas.The objectives of this work were to determine the inheritance of resistance to corn stunt and determine the best resistance sources among the studied inbred lines. Diallel analysis and generation means were made for corn inbred lines. For the diallel analysis, twelve corn-inbred lines were crossed, in a partial diallel scheme. For the analyses of generation means, three resistant inbred lines and four susceptible ones were crossed, to obtain the F1, F2, RCP R and RCP S generations. The experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Corn sfunt incidence was evaluated at the phenological phase R3. Significant effects for CGC and CEC were obtained, which indicated that both additive and dominance effects were involved in corn expression of

  17. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

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    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  18. Stunted Growth Caused by Blast Disease in Rice Seedlings Is Associated with Changes in Phytohormone Signaling Pathways

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    Chang-Jie Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to pathogen attack, plants prioritize defense reactions generally at the expense of plant growth. In this work, we report that changes in phytohormone signaling pathways are associated with the stunted plant growth caused by blast disease in rice seedlings. Infection of rice seedlings with blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (race 007.0 at the four-leaf stage (three true leaves resulted in considerable inhibition of the growth of the upper uninfected distal leaves; the length of leaf blade and leaf sheath of the sixth and seventh leaf was reduced by 27 and 82%, and 88 and 72%, respectively, compared to that in the uninoculated plant control. Interestingly, cutting off the blast-infected fourth leaf blade within 2 days post inoculation (dpi significantly rescued the inhibition of leaf growth, implying that an inhibitory substance(s and/or signal was generated in the blast-infected leaves (fourth leaf and transmitted to the upper distal leaves (sixth and seventh during the 2-dpi period that induced growth inhibition. Expression analysis of marker genes for phytohormone pathways revealed acute activation of the jasmonate (JA and abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathways, and repression of auxin, gibberellic acid (GA and salicylic acid (SA signaling pathways, in the sixth leaf. The genes related to cell wall expansion were also significantly downregulated. In the blast-infected fourth leaf, JA pathway was activated within 2 dpi, followed by activation of ABA pathway 3 dpi. Further, leaf inhibition caused by blast infection was partially rescued in the rice mutant line coleoptile photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2, which is defective in the gene encoding allene oxide cyclase (OsAOC. These results indicate that the JA signaling pathway is at least partly involved in the growth inhibition processes. Collectively, our data suggest that, upon pathogen attack, rice seedlings prioritize defense reactions against the infecting pathogen by temporarily ceasing

  19. Validation of a Landscape-Based Model for Whitefly Spread of the Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus to Fall Melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Yves; Degain, Ben; Liesner, Leighton; Dutilleul, Pierre; Palumbo, John C

    2017-10-01

    The cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has caused significant reductions in fall melon (Cucumis melo L.) yields in Yuma County, Arizona. In a recent landscape-based study, we found evidence that cotton and spring melon fields increased abundance of B. tabaci and spread of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields. Here, we show that a statistical model derived from data collected in 2011-2012 and based on areas of cotton and spring melon fields located within 1,500 m from edges of fall melon fields was sufficient to retrospectively predict incidence of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields during 2007-2010. Nevertheless, the slope of the association between areas of spring melon fields and incidence of CYSDV infection was three times smaller in 2007-2010 than in 2011-2012, whereas the slope of the association between areas of cotton fields and incidence of CYSDV infection was consistent between study periods. Accordingly, predictions were more accurate when data on areas of cotton alone were used as a basis for prediction than when data on areas of cotton and spring melons were used. Validation of this statistical model confirms that crop isolation has potential for reducing incidence of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields in Yuma County, although isolation from cotton may provide more consistent benefits than isolation from spring melon. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Intakes from non-breastmilk foods for stunted toddlers living in poor urban villages of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, are inadequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Victoria P; Cornwall, Janet; Jack, Susan; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2008-04-01

    In Cambodia, the energy and nutrient densities of the traditional rice-based complementary diets used for infant feeding are very low. Whether the adequacy improves after the first year of life is uncertain. Therefore, we examined the feeding practices and the energy and nutrient intakes from non-breastmilk foods (NBMFs) of two groups: partially breastfed (PBF) (n = 41) and non-breastfed (NBF) (n = 210) stunted toddlers aged 12-42 months from poor villages in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Intakes of NBMFs were estimated from 24-h recalls and a specially constructed Cambodian food composition table. All the toddlers were breastfed initially, but more than 50% received complementary foods before 6 months of age (mainly rice porridge). Many PBF toddlers received mixed feeding and were often bottle-fed diluted sweetened condensed milk. Unresponsive feeding was widespread. Inappropriate snacks, such as crisps, were the major source of energy, calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A from NBMFs for the PBF group, and energy and iron for the NBF group. The snacks were often purchased and consumed without any adult supervision. For both groups, intakes of energy, calcium, iron and zinc were consistently below recommendations, as a result of the low micronutrient density of NBMFs and the small amounts fed per feeding. Increasing intakes of animal-source foods and dark-green and yellow fruits and vegetables would enhance micronutrient densities, although this may be neither feasible nor sufficient to overcome the existing deficits. Instead, the feasibility of micronutrient fortification of the rice-based diets of Cambodian toddlers should be explored.

  1. Synergistic interactions of begomoviruses with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (genus Crinivirus) in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Wilmer J; Galvez, Marco; Fuentes, Segundo; Tugume, Joab; Kreuze, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Three hundred and ninety-four sweet potato accessions from Latin America and East Africa were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of begomoviruses, and 46 were found to be positive. All were symptomless in sweet potato and generated leaf curling and/or chlorosis in Ipomoea setosa. The five most divergent isolates, based on complete genome sequences, were used to study interactions with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), known to cause synergistic diseases with other viruses. Co-infections led to increased titres of begomoviruses and decreased titres of SPCSV in all cases, although the extent of the changes varied notably between begomovirus isolates. Symptoms of leaf curling only developed temporarily in combination with isolate StV1 and coincided with the presence of the highest begomovirus concentrations in the plant. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequence analysis revealed that co-infection of SPCSV with isolate StV1 led to relatively increased siRNA targeting of the central part of the SPCSV genome and a reduction in targeting of the genomic ends, but no changes to the targeting of StV1 relative to single infection of either virus. These changes were not observed in the interaction between SPCSV and the RNA virus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (genus Potyvirus), implying specific effects of begomoviruses on RNA silencing of SPCSV in dually infected plants. Infection in RNase3-expressing transgenic plants showed that this protein was sufficient to mediate this synergistic interaction with DNA viruses, similar to RNA viruses, but exposed distinct effects on RNA silencing when RNase3 was expressed from its native virus, or constitutively from a transgene, despite a similar pathogenic outcome. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Severity investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de; Godart, B.

    2013-01-01

    From the confirmation inspection and its subsequent test results the presence of AAR has either been confirmed or eliminated. Assuming the first outcome, the next step is to investigate the severity of the situation, see Figure 23. One should keep in mind that it is possible that some evidence of

  3. Stunting coexisting with overweight in 2·0-4·9-year-old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height. A secondary data analysis of children aged 2·0-4·9 years in four cross-sectional studies of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Children's height and BMI Z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Child Growth Standards (2006). We defined 'concurrent stunting and overweight' as height-for-age Z-score +1. Multivariate generalised linear latent and mixed models were used to determine associated risk factors. Thirteen out of twenty-seven provinces in Indonesia. Children (n 4101) from four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993-2007). There were inconsistent trends in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight from waves 1 to 4. Children were more likely to be stunted and overweight when they were in the youngest age group (2·0-2·9 years), were weaned after the age of 6 months, had short-statured mothers or lived in rural areas. Stunted children were significantly more likely to be overweight than healthy-height children (OR>1) but did not differ significantly different across each wave (OR=1·34-2·01). Concurrent stunting and overweight occurs in Indonesian children aged 2·0-4·9 years. Current policies and programmes need to be tailored for the management of this phenomenon.

  4. Perceived discrimination and favourable regard toward underweight, normal weight and obese eating disorder sufferers: implications for obesity and eating disorder population health campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Anita; Hay, Phillipa; Quirk, Frances; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity stigma has been shown to increase binge eating, whilst positive regard for eating disorders (EDs) may increase dietary restriction which can also lead to binge eating and weight gain. In the context of increasing prevalence of both obesity and EDs exploring community attitudes towards these illnesses may uncover new variables worthy of consideration in population health campaigns. The aim of the study was to explore community perceived stigma and conversely favourable regard toward eating disorder (ED) sufferers of varying weight status, and understand how the attitudes of obese individuals may differ from those of non-obese individuals. Data for this purpose were derived from interviews with individuals participating in a general population health survey. Vignettes of an underweight female with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), a normal weight male with an atypical eating disorder (NWED) and an obese female with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were presented to three randomly selected sub-samples of n = 983, 1033 and 1030 respectively. Questions followed that assessed participants' attitudes towards and beliefs about the person described in the vignette and their eating behaviours. Sixty-six per cent of participants who responded to the obese BED vignette believed that there would be discrimination against the person described (primarily because of her weight). Corresponding figures were for the AN and NWED vignettes were 48% and 35%, respectively. A positive regard for weight-loss or body-image-enhancing ED behaviours was reported 'occasionally' or more often by 8.8% of respondents to the AN vignette and by 27.5% of respondents to the NWED vignette. Positive regard for ED behaviours was significantly more likely in obese participants (AN: 15%; NWED: 43%). The findings support integrated ED and obesity prevention programs that address weight stigma and the social desirability of ED behaviours in vulnerable individuals.

  5. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Baitun; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Hamadani, Jena D; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Persson, Lars-Ake

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Parenting programmes are effective in enhancing parenting practices and child development. This study evaluated the effects of a intervention with psychosocial stimulation (PS) on the quality of the home environment and mothers’ child-rearing practices in a community-based trial with severely malnourished Bangladeshi children. Method Severely underweight children (n = 507), 6–24 months of age, were randomly assigned to five groups: PS; food supplementation (FS); PS + FS; c...

  6. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Beaulière, Jean Max; Mamady, Daffe; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Rohner, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.

  8. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  9. Impact of Childhood Nutritional Status on Pathogen Prevalence and Severity of Acute Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickell, Kirkby D; Pavlinac, Patricia B; John-Stewart, Grace C; Denno, Donna M; Richardson, Barbra A; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; Kirera, Ronald K; Swierczewski, Brett E; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L

    2017-11-01

    Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection. Clinical and microbiological features were compared using log binomial regression among children with and without wasting (mid-upper arm circumference ≤ 125 mm) or stunting (height-for-age z score ≤ -2). Among 1,363 children, 7.0% were wasted and 16.9% were stunted. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with wasting were more likely than nonwasted children to present with at least one Integrated Management of Childhood Illness danger sign (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 1.5, P = 0.05), severe dehydration (aPR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8, P < 0.01), and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli recovered from their stool (aPR: 1.8, 1.1-2.8, P = 0.02). There were no differences in the prevalence of other pathogens by wasting status after confounder adjustment. Stunting was not associated with clinical severity or the presence of specific pathogens. Wasted children with diarrhea presented with more severe disease than children without malnutrition which may be explained by a delay in care-seeking or diminished immune response to infection. Combating social determinants and host risk factors associated with severe disease, rather than specific pathogens, may reduce the disparities in poor diarrhea-associated outcomes experienced by malnourished children.

  10. Body mass index, initial neurological severity and long-term mortality in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Beom Joon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is believed to increase the risks of ischemic stroke or coronary heart disease; however, regarding outcome after established vascular diseases, recent unexpected evidence has suggested that an increased body mass index (BMI) might have beneficial effects (obesity paradox). The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke. A total of 1,592 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively included through our stroke cohort. In this study, the levels of BMI were classified based on guidelines for the Asian-Pacific population. Initial neurological severity was estimated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Information on mortality was collected until the end of 2009, and the median follow-up period was 4 years. To examine the association between BMI and long-term mortality, we used Cox's proportional regression analysis. During follow-up, 23% of patients died. Linear regression analysis showed that the level of BMI was inversely related to initial neurological severity (p = 0.002). In the model of adjustment of age and gender using Cox's proportional regression analysis, this inverse trend was also significant (reference, normal weight; hazard ratio of underweight, 2.45; overweight, 0.77; obesity, 0.60). However, after adjustment of all covariates, including initial neurological severity, only the harmful effect of underweight remained significant (2.79; 95% CI, 1.92-4.05); however, beneficial effects of overweight and obesity did not. Our study showed that an independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke was found only in underweight patients. The obesity paradox phenomenon seems to be limited, and might not be interpreted as a direct causal relationship due to a strong association with initial neurological severity. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  12. [Study on the references regarding height and prevalence of stunting among children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years of Chinese Han ethnicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ci-he; Dong, Bin; Ma, Jun

    2012-06-01

    To develop the reference on height among children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years of Chinese Han ethnicity in different administrative districts of China and to use this height reference for screening stunting. Results from the national screening program were compared with the WHO references. Data from the Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health in 2005 was used to develop the height references through LMS method. Differences among the references on height for children and adolescents in different districts (I-IV) were remarkable. The highest was seen in the Second Districts while the lowest was seen in the First Districts among those at the age of 18, with differences as 3.18 cm for boys and 2.92 cm for girls. The heights from the inland were shorter than that of the WHO references, with the differences ranging from 0.31 cm to 5.07 cm for boys, and from 0.98 cm to 4.22 cm for girls. The prevalence rates of stunting were 2.22%, 2.29%, 5.25%, respectively according to local references, national references and the WHO references. Universal height references from the whole nation could not discriminate the variations caused by geographic conditions and hereditary factors related to socio-economic situations. Height references should be developed locally, to evaluate height levels of the areas.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  15. A rapid isothermal assay for the detection of Hop stunt viroid in hop plants (Humulus lupulus), and its application in disease surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappagantu, Madhu; Villamor, Dan Edward V; Bullock, Jeff M; Eastwell, Kenneth C

    2017-07-01

    Hop stunt disease caused by Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is a growing threat to hop cultivation globally. HSVd spreads mainly by use of contaminated planting material and by mechanical means. Thorough testing of hop yards and removal of infected bines are critical components of efforts to control the spread of the disease. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has become the primary technique used for HSVd detection; however, sample handling and analysis are technically challenging. In this study, a robust reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay was developed to facilitate analysis of multiple samples. The assay was optimized with all major variants of HSVd from other host species in addition to hop variants. Used in conjunction with sample collection cards, RT-RPA accommodates large sample numbers. Greenhouse and farm samples tested with RT-RPA were also tested with RT-PCR and a 100% correlation between the two techniques was found. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Pré-melhoramento de milho quanto à resistência a enfezamentos Maize pre-breeding for resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia França Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias de milho derivadas do retrocruzamento entre o composto "NAP Corn Stunt" (genitor doador e linhagens-elite (genitores recorrentes, quanto à produtividade de grãos e à resistência a enfezamentos, e avaliar a eficiência do emprego de marcadores moleculares para avaliação fenotípica na seleção de genótipos com alta produtividade de grãos. Foram avaliados 100 genótipos, em cinco condições ambientais, na safra agrícola 2009/2010. Foram selecionadas famílias RC1F2, que aliam a alta produtividade dos genitores recorrentes à resistência aos enfezamentos, presente no genitor doador. As famílias selecionadas quanto ao desempenho agronômico e à resistência aos enfezamentos foram: L228-3-324-S, L228-3-237-R, L228-3-109-R, que foram indicadas para cruzamentos com linhagens do grupo heterótico duro; e L3-422-R e L3-586-R, que foram indicadas para cruzamentos com linhagens do grupo heterótico dentado. Na seleção de genótipos de alta produtividade de grãos, a seleção assistida por marcadores moleculares não é eficiente para a recuperação do genótipo do pai recorrente, em comparação à avaliação fenotípica.The objective of this work was to select maize families derived from backcrossing between the composite NAP Corn Stunt (donor parent and inbreed lines (recurrent parents, as to grain yield and resistance to corn stunt, and to evaluate the efficiency of the use of molecular markers in the phenotypic evaluation for the selection of genotypes with high grain yield. One hundred genotypes were evaluated in five environmental conditions in the 2009/2010 crop season. We selected RC1F2 families, which combine high grain yield present in the recurrent parents to resistance to corn stunt present in the donor parent. The selected maize families for agronomic performance and resistance to corn stunt were: L228-3-324-S, L228-3-237-R, L228-3-109-R, which were indicated for crosses

  17. Baixa prevalência de déficit de peso para estatura: comparação de crianças brasileiras com e sem déficit estatural Low prevalence of wasting: comparison of stunted and non-stunted Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora LA Post

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre o perímetro abdominal e o índice peso para estatura em crianças, comparando as médias de índices antropométricos e de proporcionalidade corporal entre crianças pelotenses com e sem déficit linear, peruanas e norte-americanas, por faixa etária. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 386 crianças de 6 a 59 meses, residentes em bairro pobre de Pelotas, RS. Foram medidos e calculados 18 índices antropométricos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Crianças com déficit linear apresentaram índices antropométricos inferiores, comparativamente àquelas sem déficit e às norte-americanas; proporcionalmente à sua estatura, maiores perímetros abdominal, cefálico e torácico. As baixas prevalências de déficit de peso para estatura não resultam de excesso de tecido adiposo ou de massa muscular e podem ser parcialmente explicadas por um aumento nas dimensões da cabeça e do tronco (inclusive do perímetro abdominal em relação à estatura da criança.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal circumference and weight-for-height in children. The average of 18 anthropometric and body proportionality indexes were compared among four groups of children: stunted and non-stunted Brazilians, Peruvians and North-Americans. METHODS: There were studied 386 children aged 6-59 months living in a poor neighborhood in Pelotas, Brazil. Anthropometric measurements (weight, recumbent length or height, sitting height or crown-rump length; head, chest, upper arm and abdominal circumferences; triceps, biceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfold tickness; biacromial and biiliac breadths were obtained. Muscle, fat, total upper arm areas, leg length and body proportionality indexes were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The study sample showed high levels of morbidity, low parental educational levels, poor access to health services and poor housing conditions. Stunted Brazilian children had

  18. A comparative study on the nutritional status of children (6-59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with birth order. Overall, there was no significant difference in prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight between the world vision project area and nonproject area. However, the prevalence of stunting and underweight was higher than the national levels. It is, therefore, concluded that chronic malnutrition ...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid Accumulation and Movement in Two Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars with Differential Susceptibility to the Viroid Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Nabeshima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd was inoculated into two chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivars, the CSVd-susceptible cultivar Piato and the CSVd-resistant cultivar Mari Kazaguruma. For CSVd inoculation, grafting and Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation were used. In grafting experiments, CSVd was detectable in Mari Kazaguruma after grafting onto infected Piato, but after removal of infected rootstocks, CSVd could not be detected in the uppermost leaves. In agroinfection experiments, CSVd systemic infection was observed in Piato but not in Mari Kazaguruma. However, agro-inoculated leaves of Mari Kazaguruma accumulated circular CSVd RNA to levels equivalent to those in Piato at 7 days post-inoculation. In situ detection of CSVd in inoculated leaves revealed that CSVd was absent in phloem of Mari Kazaguruma, while CSVd strongly localized to this site in Piato. We hypothesize that CSVd resistance in Mari Kazaguruma relates not to CSVd replication but to CSVd movement in leaves.

  20. Differences in Body Build in Children of Different Ethnic Groups and their Impact on the Prevalence of Stunting, Thinness, Overweight, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Norimah, A Karim; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity among children differs by ethnicity. It is not known whether differences in body build across the ethnic groups influence the interpretation of nutritional parameters. To explore the differences in body build across the 5 main ethnic groups in Malaysia and to determine whether differences in body build have an impact on the interpretation of nutrition indicators. A total of 3227 children aged 2.0 to 12.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia were included in this analysis. Body weight, height, sitting height, wrist and knee breadths, and biceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured, and relative leg length, slenderness index, and sum of skinfolds were calculated. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards. Differences in relative leg length and slenderness across the ethnic groups were correlated with HAZ and BAZ. Correction for differences in body build did, in some ethnic groups, have significant impact on the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity, and the pattern of prevalence across ethnic groups changed. At the population level, corrections for body build had only minor and mostly nonsignificant effects on prevalence, but at an individual level, corrections for body build placed a substantial number of children in different height or weight categories. Whether these misclassifications warrant additional assessment of body build in clinical practice will need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Associations of suboptimal growth with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in children under five years: a pooled analysis of ten prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibironke Olofin

    Full Text Available Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally. We investigated associations between suboptimal growth and mortality by pooling large studies.Pooled analysis involving children 1 week to 59 months old in 10 prospective studies in Africa, Asia and South America. Utilizing most recent measurements, we calculated weight-for-age, height/length-for-age and weight-for-height/length Z scores, applying 2006 WHO Standards and the 1977 NCHS/WHO Reference. We estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality hazard ratios (HR using proportional hazards models comparing children with mild (-2≤Z<-1, moderate (-3≤Z<-2, or severe (Z<-3 anthropometric deficits with the reference category (Z≥-1.53 809 children were eligible for this re-analysis and contributed a total of 55 359 person-years, during which 1315 deaths were observed. All degrees of underweight, stunting and wasting were associated with significantly higher mortality. The strength of association increased monotonically as Z scores decreased. Pooled mortality HR was 1.52 (95% Confidence Interval 1.28, 1.81 for mild underweight; 2.63 (2.20, 3.14 for moderate underweight; and 9.40 (8.02, 11.03 for severe underweight. Wasting was a stronger determinant of mortality than stunting or underweight. Mortality HR for severe wasting was 11.63 (9.84, 13.76 compared with 5.48 (4.62, 6.50 for severe stunting. Using older NCHS standards resulted in larger HRs compared with WHO standards. In cause-specific analyses, all degrees of anthropometric deficits increased the hazards of dying from respiratory tract infections and diarrheal diseases. The study had insufficient power to precisely estimate effects of undernutrition on malaria mortality.All degrees of anthropometric deficits are associated with increased risk of under-five mortality using the 2006 WHO Standards. Even mild deficits substantially increase mortality, especially from infectious diseases.

  2. Undernutrition among Honduran children 12-71 months old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel Penelope

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Ministry of Health of Honduras conducted a national micronutrient survey that included anthropometric measurements to determine the nutrition status of children 12-71 months old. Among the 1 744 children who participated, 38% of them were stunted, including 14% who were severely stunted; 24% were underweight, of which 4% were severely underweight; and 1% were wasted, of which 0.1% were severely wasted. The country can be divided into three groupings based on the level of stunting and underweight: 1 lowest prevalence: Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, and medium cities; 2 medium prevalence: other urban areas, the rural north, and the rural south; and 3 highest prevalence: the rural west. Using logistic regression analysis, the important determinants of stunting were found to be: mother/caretaker's and father's schooling, source of water, the dominion (geographic location and strata in which the child lived, and the "possession score" for ownership of such items as a radio, television, refrigerator, stereo system, and electric iron. The predictors for underweight were micronutrient status, diarrhea, maternal/caretaker's schooling, type of toilet, and possession score. Historical data indicate that the national prevalence of chronic undernutrition has changed little over the last 10 years despite the number of national food and nutrition plans implemented and the significant improvements in health services. It is possible that these positive interventions have been offset by the slow progress in economic development. Future nutrition interventions should take into account household-level perceived needs and priorities in order to set realistic nutrition targets.

  3. Gendered effects of siblings on child malnutrition in South Asia: cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health surveys from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus P; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of number and sex of siblings on malnutrition of boys and girls under-5 in South Asia. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys data on children under-5 in Bangladesh (N = 7,861), India (N = 46,655) and Nepal (N = 2,475). Data were pooled across countries, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between number and sex of siblings and malnutrition outcomes (wasting, stunting, underweight; based on anthropometric data), adjusting for country and key social and maternal-child health indicators in sex stratified analyses. Number of brothers increased the odds for severe wasting [1 vs. 0 brothers adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.11, 1.55; 2 vs. 0 brothers AOR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.73] for girls but not boys. Having more male siblings and more female siblings increased the odds of stunting for boys and girls, but effect of 3+ sisters on severe stunting was significantly stronger for girls than boys (girls- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.88, 2.70; boys- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.13, 1.67). For underweight, three or more sisters increased the odds for severe underweight for girls (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI = 1.04, 1.57) but not boys. Having brothers heightens girl risk for acute malnutrition (wasting), where having multiple sisters increases girl risk for chronic malnutrition (stunting/underweight). Boy malnutrition is less affected by siblings. Findings suggest that issues of son preference/daughter aversion may affect child malnutrition in South Asia.

  4. Growth, nutritional status, and signs of rickets in 0-5-year-old children in a Kashin-Beck disease endemic area of Central Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooze, Shancy; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Mathieu, Françoise; Bally, Pascale; Yangzom, Dikki; Li, Jin Zhong; Goyens, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    In order to describe the growth of 0-5-year-old Tibetan children living in a Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) endemic rural area and to examine the relationship between anthropometric indicators and clinical signs of rickets, we analyzed the baseline data of a cohort of 668 children enrolled in a prospective program of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Tibetan children suffer from growth retardation. Z score of weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height was below -2 in 32.5%, 27.7%, and 12.1% of the children, respectively. Clinical signs of severe rickets are highly prevalent. Underweight, stunting, and clinical rickets increases with age. Prevalence of malnutrition was higher in the presence of signs of rickets. The proportion of children with a head circumference Z score rickets were observed. Stunting and underweight are frequent and probably associated with rickets.

  5. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Jan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental decay is the most common childhood disease worldwide and most of the decay remains untreated. In the Philippines caries levels are among the highest in the South East Asian region. Elementary school children suffer from high prevalence of stunting and underweight. The present study aimed to investigate the association between untreated dental decay and Body Mass Index (BMI among 12-year-old Filipino children. Methods Data collection was part of the National Oral Health Survey, a representative cross-sectional study of 1951 11-13-year-old school children using a modified, stratified cluster sampling design based on population classifications of the Philippine National Statistics Office. Caries was scored according to WHO criteria (1997 and odontogenic infections using the PUFA index. Anthropometric measures were performed by trained nurses. Some socio-economic determinants were included as potential confounding factors. Results The overall prevalence of caries (DMFT + dmft > 0 was 82.3% (95%CI; 80.6%-84.0%. The overall prevalence of odontogenic infections due to caries (PUFA + pufa > 0 was 55.7% (95% CI; 53.5%-57.9% The BMI of 27.1% (95%CI; 25.1%-29.1% of children was below normal, 1% (95%CI; 0.5%-1.4% had a BMI above normal. The regression coefficient between BMI and caries was highly significant (p 0 as compared to those without odontogenic infections had an increased risk of a below normal BMI (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.19-1.80. Conclusions This is the first-ever representative survey showing a significant association between caries and BMI and particularly between odontogenic infections and below normal BMI. An expanded model of hypothesised associations is presented that includes progressed forms of dental decay as a significant, yet largely neglected determinant of poor child development.

  6. A 2-Year Integrated Agriculture and Nutrition Program Targeted to Mothers of Young Children in Burkina Faso Reduces Underweight among Mothers and Increases Their Empowerment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Bliznashka, Lilia; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Dillon, Andrew; Ruel, Marie T; Heckert, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates the benefits of integrated agriculture and nutrition programs for children's health and nutrition outcomes. These programs may also improve mothers' nutrition and empowerment outcomes. However, evidence from rigorous evaluations is scarce. We examined impacts of Helen Keller International's 2-y enhanced-homestead food production (E-HFP) program in Burkina Faso on the secondary impact measures of mothers' nutrition and empowerment. We used a cluster-randomized controlled trial whereby 55 villages with 1767 mothers of young children were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1) control, 2) E-HFP with the behavior change communication (BCC) strategy implemented by older women leaders, or 3) E-HFP with BCC implemented by health committee members. Data for the treatment groups were pooled for this analysis because no differences were found between the 2 groups in key mothers' outcomes. We used difference-in-differences (DID) estimates to assess impacts on mothers' dietary intake, diversity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), prevalence of underweight (BMI empowerment. The E-HFP program significantly increased mothers' intake of fruit (DID = 15.8 percentage points; P = 0.02) and marginally increased their intake of meat/poultry (DID = 7.5 percentage points; P = 0.08) and dietary diversity (DID = 0.3 points; P = 0.08). The prevalence of underweight was significantly reduced among mothers in treatment compared with control villages by 8.7 percentage points (P program also positively affected mothers' overall empowerment score (DID = 3.13 points out of 37 possible points; P empowerment: meeting with women (DID = 1.21 points out of 5 possible points; P program in Burkina Faso substantially improved mothers' nutrition and empowerment outcomes. These positive impacts benefit the mothers themselves and may also improve their ability to care for their children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01825226. © 2016 American Society for

  7. Anthropometric measures of 9-to 10-year-old native tibetan children living at 3700 and 4300m above sea level and han Chinese living at 3700m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba, B.; Yangzong, Y.; Gonggalanzi, G.

    2015-01-01

    [CI] 1.1-10.3) between ancestry and stunting. Similarly, adjustment for diet did not alter the crude association (direct effect) (OR=101.3; 95% CI 37.1-276.4) between residential altitude and stunting. The prevalence estimates of stunting and underweight were high, and clearly higher among native...

  8. Protein-energy malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthiases among Orang Asli children in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M S; Azlin, M; Aini, U Nor; Shaik, A; Sa'iah, A; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, M G; Ahmad, Firdaus; Aisah, M Y; Rozlida, A R; Norhayatiy, M

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and its association with soil-transmitted helminthiases in Orang Asli (Aborigine) children in Selangor, Malaysia. The results obtained from 368 children aged 2-15 years showed that the overall prevalence of mild and significant underweight was 32.1% and 56.5% respectively. The prevalence of mild stunting was 25.6% while another 61.3% had significant stunting. The overall prevalence of mild and significant wasting was 39.0% and 19.5% respectively. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection were 61.9%, 98.2% and 37.0% respectively and of these 18.9%, 23.5% and 2.5% of the children had severe infection of the respective helminthes. The overall prevalence of giardiasis was 24.9%. The present study vividly shows that stunting and underweight are highly prevalent among Orang Asli children and therefore of concern in this community. In this population intestinal parasitic infections, especially severe trichuriasis and giardiasis, were identified as the main predictors of stunting and wasting respectively, in addition to age between 2 to 6 years.

  9. Risk Factors for Child Malnutrition in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationwide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Khan, Mohammad Mubarak Hossain; Mondal, Mohammad Nazrul Islam; Rahman, Mohammad Mosiur; Billah, Baki

    2016-05-01

    To identify the prevalence and risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh. Data was extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (2011). The outcome measures were stunting, wasting, and underweight. χ(2) analysis was performed to find the association of outcome variables with selected factors. Multilevel logistic regression models with a random intercept at each of the household and community levels were used to identify the risk factors of stunting, wasting, and underweight. From the 2011 survey, 7568 children less than 5 years of age were included in the current analysis. The overall prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 41.3% (95% CI 39.0-42.9). The χ(2) test and multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that the variables age, sex, mother's body mass index, mother's educational status, father's educational status, place of residence, socioeconomic status, community status, religion, region of residence, and food security are significant factors of child malnutrition. Children with poor socioeconomic and community status were at higher risk of malnutrition. Children from food insecure families were more likely to be malnourished. Significant community- and household-level variations were found. The prevalence of child malnutrition is still high in Bangladesh, and the risk was assessed at several multilevel factors. Therefore, prevention of malnutrition should be given top priority as a major public health intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Etiology of severe pneumonia in Ecuadorian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivani Jonnalagadda

    Full Text Available In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador.This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for specific respiratory pathogens were also evaluated.Among 406 children tested, 159 (39.2% had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 71 (17.5% had human metapneumovirus (hMPV, and 62 (15.3% had adenovirus. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 37 (9.2% samples and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in three (0.74% samples. The yearly circulation pattern of RSV (P = 0.0003 overlapped with S. pneumoniae, (P = 0.03 with most cases occurring in the rainy season. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV included younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, P = 0.01 and being underweight (aOR = 1.8, P = 0.04. Maternal education (aOR = 0.82, P = 0.003, pulse oximetry (aOR = 0.93, P = 0.005, and rales (aOR = 0.25, P = 0.007 were associated with influenza A. Younger age (aOR = 3.5, P = 0.007 and elevated baseline respiratory rate were associated with HPIV-3 infection (aOR = 0.94, P = 0.03.These results indicate the importance of RSV and influenza, and potentially modifiable risk factors including undernutrition and future use of a RSV vaccine, when an effective vaccine becomes available.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00513929.

  11. Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural indigenous communities of Jharkhand and Odisha, Eastern India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Jennifer; Rath, Shibanand; Nair, Nirmala; Gope, Rajkumar; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Tripathy, Prasanta; Prost, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world's stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention. We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6-23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 from 18 clusters of villages with a high proportion of people from indigenous groups in three districts. We measured height and weight of mothers and children, and captured data on various basic, underlying and immediate determinants of undernutrition. We used Generalised Estimating Equations to identify individual determinants associated with children's height-for-age z-score (HAZ; p family planning, reducing diarrhoeal infections, improving handwashing practices, increasing access to income and strengthening health and sanitation infrastructure. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Simultaneous detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus, Dahlia mosaic virus and Chrysanthemum stunt viroid by multiplex RT-PCR in dahlias and their distribution in Japanese dahlias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, S; Matsushita, Y; Hirayama, Y; Naka, T

    2015-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Dahlia mosaic virus (DMV) and Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) are economically important viruses and viroid that infect cultivated dahlias. Prior to this investigation, no multiplex RT-PCR assay for the detection of dahlia virus and viroid infections existed. In this study, we report the development of a multiplex RT-PCR that simultaneously detects TSWV, DMV and CSVd infections in dahlias. In addition, a simple RT-PCR method that does not require RNA extraction, microtissue direct RT-PCR, could be used to prepare samples for analysis by this multiplex RT-PCR. A field survey validated our results, indicating that TSWV was the dominant virus found in the Kansai region, DMV in the Tohoku and Kyushu regions, and CSVd in the Hokkaido region. This method represents a rapid, sensitive and cost effective approach to diagnose viral infections in dahlias. The multiplex RT-PCR assay described in this study is the first report of simultaneous detection of virus and viroid in dahlia. This method represents a rapid, sensitive and cost effective approach to diagnose viral infections in dahlias. A field survey validated our results, indicating that TSWV was the dominant virus found in the Kansai region, DMV in the Tohoku and Kyushu regions and CSVd in the Hokkaido region. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  14. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  15. Nucleotide sequence analyses of coat protein gene of peanut stunt virus isolates from alfalfa and different hosts show a new tentative subgroup from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid-Motlagh, Mohammad Hadi; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Hajimorad, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    Alfalfa cultivars grown in 14 provinces in Iran were surveyed for the relative incidence of peanut stunt virus (PSV) during 2013-2016. PSV were detected in 41.89% of symptomatic alfalfa samples and a few alternate hosts by plate-trapped antigen ELISA. Among other hosts tested only Chenopodium album , Robinia pseudoacacia and Arachis hypogaea were found naturally infected with PSV. Twenty five isolates of PSV were chosen for biological and molecular characterizations based on their geographical distributions. There was not any differences in experimental host range of these isolates; however, variation in systemic symptoms observed on Nicotiana glutinosa . Total RNA from 25 of viral isolates were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis using primers directed against coat protein (CP) gene. The CP genes of 25 Iranian PSV isolates were either 651 or 666 nucleotides long. The nucleotide and amino acid identities for CP gene among Iranian PSV isolates were 79.3-99.7 and 72-100%, respectively. They also shared between 67.4 and 82.4% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PSV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. Phylogenetic analyses of CP gene sequences showed formation of a new subgroup comprising only the Iranian isolates. Natural infection of a few alternate hosts with PSV is reported for the first time from Iran.

  16. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Li, J.C. [Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Li, Y. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m{sup 2}), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m{sup 2}), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m{sup 2}), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m{sup 2}. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ{sup 2}=35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  17. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T.; Li, J.C.; Li, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 ), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m 2 ), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m 2 ). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m 2 . The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ 2 =35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

  18. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Qi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m2, overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m2, and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2. Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m2. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ2=35.16, P<0.001. The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  19. Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in Latin America and the Caribbean: the importance of the choice of indicator for undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Chaparro, Camila M; Muñoz, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of using stunting versus underweight as the indicator of child undernutrition for determining whether countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are on track to meet the component of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 pertaining to the eradication of hunger, namely to reduce undernutrition by half between 1990 and 2015. The prevalence of underweight and stunting among children less than 5 years of age was calculated for 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean by applying the WHO Child Growth Standards to nationally-representative, publicly available anthropometric data. The predicted trend (based on the trend in previous years) and the target trend (based on MDG 1) for stunting and underweight were estimated using linear regression. The choice of indicator affects the conclusions regarding which countries are on track to reach MDG 1. All countries are on track when underweight is used to assess progress towards the target prevalence, but only 6 of them are on track when stunting is used instead. Another two countries come within 2 percentage points of the target prevalence of stunting. Whether countries are determined to be on track to meet the nutritional component of MDG 1 or not depends on the choice of stunting versus underweight as the indicator. Unfortunately, underweight is the indicator officially used to monitor progress towards MDG 1. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the use of underweight for this purpose will fail to take account of the large remaining burden of stunting.

  20. Microscopia electrônica de microrganismos do tipo micoplasma nos tecidos de milho afetado pelo enfezamento e nos órgãos da cigarrinha vectora portadora Electron microscopy of mycoplasma-like organisms in corn stunt - Infected plant tissues and in the organs of the leafhopper vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Kitajima

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Exames electrono-microscópicos de tecido foliar ou radicular de milho (Zea maysL. afetado pelo enfezamento do milho, tanto a forma vermelha como a pálida, e de órgãos da cigarrinha vectora, Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W., portadora, demonstraram a ocorrência de corpúsculos pleomórficos, do tipo micoplasma, consistentemente associados a essa anomalia. Não se notou diferença na morfologia entre os microrganismos do tipo micoplasma associados às duas formas do enfezamento da planta nem tampouco entre estes e os presentes no inseto vector. Verificou-se também que na planta esses corpúsculos do tipo micoplasma ocorriam somente nos vasos crivados, e que no inseto eles se achavam presentes em diversos tipos de tecidos de diferentes órgãos - tubo digestivo, músculo, túbulos de Malphigi, epiderme, gânglio nervoso, glândula salivar, tecido adiposo. Nas células do inseto, os corpúsculos ocorriam dispersos no citoplasma ou em cavidades limitadas por membrana.Corn stunt in São Paulo State is usually of minor importance during normal summer crops but might induce significant losses if corn is planted late in the season. It is transmitted by leaf - hopper Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W. and two different forms of this disease have been recognized the chlorotic, similar to the Rio Grande type of the U.S., and the red, resembling the Mesa Central type of Mexico. Electron microscopic examination of tissues from both affected plants or leafhopper reared on diseased plants, demonstrated the presence of pleomorphic, mycoplasma-like bodies, consistently associated with the corn stunt, which probably represent the causal agent the latter. No significant difference could be observed in the morphology of these mycoplasma-like bodies associated with the two disease types or with the insect vector. In the affected plants, these corpuscles were only found in the sieve tubes; in the insect body they were detected in several types of tissues of different organs

  1. A tomato mutant that shows stunting, wilting, progressive necrosis and constitutive expression of defence genes contains a recombinant Hcr9 gene encoding an autoactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Claire L; Talbot, Stephen J; Jones, Jonathan D G; Jones, David A

    2006-05-01

    The tomato Cf-9 gene confers resistance to races of the leaf mould fungus Cladosporium fulvum that carry the Avr9 avirulence gene. Cf-9 resides at a locus containing five paralogous genes and was isolated by transposon tagging using a modified maize Dissociation (Ds) element. The tagging experiment generated an allelic series of Ds-induced mutations of Cf-9, most of which were wild type in appearance. However, one mutant, designated M205, showed stunted growth, wilting, progressive leaf chlorosis and necrosis and constitutive expression of defence genes. The phenotype of M205 was caused by a semidominant, Avr9-independent mutation that co-segregated with a Ds element insertion at the Cf-9 locus. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that the Cf-9 locus of M205 had undergone recombination, generating a chimeric gene, designated Hcr9-M205, that comprised an in-frame fusion between the 5' coding region of the Cf-9 paralogue, Hcr9-9A, and the 3' coding region of Cf-9. The presence of a possible excision footprint adjacent to the junction between Hcr9-9A and Cf-9, and a Ds insertion at the homologous position in the downstream paralogue Hcr9-9D, is consistent with recombination between Hcr9-9A and Cf-9 promoted by transposition of Ds from Cf-9 into Hcr9-9D. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of Hcr9-M205 in Nicotiana tabacum caused chlorosis and the accumulation of defence gene transcripts, indicating that the protein encoded by this novel Hcr9 gene is autoactive.

  2. Tubaramure, a Food-Assisted Integrated Health and Nutrition Program, Reduces Child Stunting in Burundi: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Olney, Deanna; Ruel, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC). A second objective was to assess the differential effect when varying the timing and duration of receiving food rations. We used a 4-arm, cluster-randomized controlled study to assess program impact with the use of cluster fixed-effects double-difference models with repeated cross-sectional data (baseline and follow-up 4 y later with ∼3550 children in each round). Treatment arms received food rations (corn-soy blend and micronutrient-fortified vegetable oil) for the first 1000 d (T24), from pregnancy through the child reaching 18 mo (T18), or from birth through the child reaching 24 mo ["no food during pregnancy" (TNFP)]. All treatment arms received BCC for the first 1000 d. The control arm received no food rations or BCC. Stunting (height-for-age z score  0.01). Secondary analyses showed that the effect was limited to children whose mother and head of household had some primary education and who lived in households with above-median assets. FA-MCHN programs are an effective development tool to improve child linear growth and can protect children from political and economic shocks in vulnerable countries such as Burundi. A better understanding of how to improve the nutritional status of children in the worst-off households is needed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01072279.

  3. Investigations into the association between soil-transmitted helminth infections, haemoglobin and child development indices in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-04-19

    Timor-Leste has a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. High proportions of the population have been reported as being anaemic, and extremely high proportions of children as stunted or wasted. There have been no published analyses of the contributions of STH to these morbidity outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using baseline cross-sectional data from 24 communities (18 communities enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial, and identically-collected data from six additional communities), analyses of the association between STH infections and community haemoglobin and child development indices were undertaken. Stool samples were assessed for STH using qPCR and participant haemoglobin, heights and weights were measured. Questionnaires were administered to collect demographic and socioeconomic data. Intensity of infection was categorised using correlational analysis between qPCR quantification cycle values and eggs per gram of faeces equivalents, with algorithms generated from seeding experiments. Mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression were used to assess the association between STH infection intensity classes and anaemia, and child stunting, wasting and underweight. Very high stunting (60%), underweight (60%), and wasting (20%) in children, but low anaemia prevalence (15%), were found in the study communities. STH were not significantly associated with morbidity outcomes. Male children and those in the poorest socioeconomic quintile were significantly more likely to be moderately and severely stunted. Male children were significantly more likely than female children to be severely underweight. Increasing age was also a risk factor for being underweight. Few risk factors emerged for wasting in these analyses. According to World Health Organization international reference standards, levels of child morbidity in this population constitute a public health emergency, although the international reference standards need to be critically

  4. Dietary and social characteristics of children with severe tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, F L; Weaver, L T; Wright, C M; Welbury, R R

    2006-08-01

    Dental decay remains a major public health problem in Scottish children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diet, bowel habit, social class, and body mass index (BMI) in children with severe tooth decay. A cross sectional study of 165 children aged 3 -11 years attending Glasgow Dental Hospital for extraction of teeth under dental general anaesthesia (DGA), was undertaken. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from each child on diet, bowel habit, and social status of their parents. Fibre and sugar scores were calculated from the frequency of consumption of a range of relevant foods. The children (mean age 5.7 (SD1.8) years) had between 1 and 20 decayed, missing or filled primary teeth (dmft) with a mean dmft of 7.9 (SD 3.5). 37% ate a chocolate bar daily, and 29% regularly drank a sugary drink after brushing their teeth. An excess of children were from the most deprived parts of the city and they had the worst decay. Children with the worst decay were also significantly thinner. No relationship was found between tooth decay and bowel habit. In this selected group of children with poor dental health, those from deprived families were over-represented and had significantly more decay. Severe dental decay was also associated with underweight.

  5. Trends and Determinants of Child Growth Indicators in Malawi and Implications for the Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry V. Doctor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development goals (SGD 2 links malnutrition, morbidity and child mortality to stunting, wasting and overweight among children under-5 years of age. Sub-Saharan Africa still registers high nutritionally insecure people. In particular, Malawi has made modest progress in improving nutritional outcomes; and still experiences a number of structural challenges leading to negative nutritional outcomes. We describe trends of under nutrition and how the effect of selected determinants of child nutrition affect Malawian children under-5 from 1992 to 2015-16; and examine the changing patterns of the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on stunting and underweight using data from demographic and health surveys (DHS. The analysis included 31,630 children under-5 years from 1992, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2015-16 DHS. Our outcome measures are stunting (height/length-for-age and underweight (weight-for-age less than -2 SD (Z-score. We perform logistic regression to assess the relationship between selected socio-demographic characteristics with the stunting and underweight variables. Underweight decreased by 14.0% from 24.7% (1992 to 10.7% (2015-16. Stunting decreased by 23.0% from 55.6% (1992 to 32.6% (2015-16. Underweight was more prevalent among children from central and southern regions; among male children; and children above 6 months of age or more. Later surveys were associated with reduced likelihood of underweight than the earliest surveys. Similar trends were observed between socioeconomic factors and stunting. The observed underweight and stunting prevalence is 2.2% and 1.9% lower than expected, respectively. Despite modest declines in underweight and stunting among young children in Malawi, underweight and stunting remain significant public health challenges particularly in southern and central Malawi which constitute about 85% of the total population. Interventions to address the critical malnutrition challenges in Malawi

  6. The nutritional status of children in Bhutan: results from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey and trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangmo, Ugyen; de Onis, Mercedes; Dorji, Tandin

    2012-09-19

    There are few reports on the nutritional status of Bhutanese children. The objective of this paper is to summarize results from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey and to describe progress achieved during the last two decades. A cross-sectional survey of 2376 children aged 6 to 59 months was conducted during November-December 2008 to provide national and regional estimates. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was applied and 40 gewogs/thromdes were selected from each region (Western, Central, Eastern). Guidelines on how to measure length/height and weight followed WHO standardized procedures. Data were analysed for consistency and validation using the software WHO Anthro and the WHO SPSS macro. Underweight, stunting, overweight, wasting and thinness were defined based on the WHO Child Growth Standards. Data from 1986-88 and 1999 national surveys were reanalysed using the WHO standards to describe trends in nutritional status. Nationally, 34.9% Bhutanese preschool children are stunted and 10.4% are underweight. Wasting is 4.7%, with severe wasting close to 2% in rural areas, while overweight affects 4.4% of preschool children. While underweight rates are similar across regions, wasting is substantially more prevalent in the Western region and stunting in the Eastern region. Stunting shows a steep rise during the first two years of life, as high as 40%, and levels off thereafter, while wasting is greatest among children aged 6-24 months and subsequently decreases. The prevalence of stunting fell from 60.9% in 1986-88 to 34.9% in 2008, and underweight declined from 34.0% to 10.4% during same period. The percentage of wasted children dropped from 5.2% in 1986-88 to 2.5% in 1999 but then increased to 4.7% in 2008. There have been major improvements in the nutritional status of Bhutanese children over the past two decades, however, linear growth retardation remains a significant concern. Early identification of growth faltering is essential for improving the

  7. A cross sectional study of nutritional status among a group of school children in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity

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    Harun Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine nutritional status among a school children of Barru Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from Barru Regency were included in this study as a sample of simple random sampling. Nutritional status of children (BMI index, degree of gingival inflammation (using chi-square test statistic, and missing teeth (DMF-T index were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about dental health, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. The data were processed using the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. A group of who severe underweight (102 children, had higher odds for mild gingivitis (GI 79.4% than others group of who has an ideal weight (16 children, had mild gingivitis (GI 62.5%. Children, who severe underweight, had higher odds for moderate caries (38.2% than others group of who has an ideal weight, had moderate caries (18.8%. Based on chi-square test, there are correlation of nutritional status and dental caries severity (p=0.000severity among a school children.

  8. A mixed methods study to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in Districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumra Kureishy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and child malnutrition is widely prevalent in low and middle income countries. In Pakistan, widespread food insecurity and malnutrition are the main contributors to poor health, low survival rates and the loss of human capital development. The nutritional status trends among children exhibit a continuous deteriorating with rates of malnutrition exceeding the WHO critical threshold. With the high prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition, it is important to identify effective preventative approaches, especially for reducing stunting in children under-five years of age. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting in children under-five years. Methods A mixed methods study design will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan. The study will include cross sectional surveys, a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation. The study participants will be pregnant women, lactating mothers and children under-five years. The cross-sectional surveys will be conducted with 7360 study participants at baseline and endline. For the randomized control trial, 5000 participants will be recruited and followed monthly for compliance of food-based supplements, dietary diversity, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels will be measured at baseline, quarterly and at endline. The interventions will consist of locally produced lipid-based nutrient supplement (Wawamum for children 6–23 months, micronutrient powders for children 24–59 months, and wheat soya blends for pregnant and lactating mothers. Government lady health workers will deliver interventions to participants. The effectiveness of the project will be measured in

  9. A Case-Control Study of Body Composition, Prevalence, and Curve Severity of the Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in the East Part of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Dang, Yini; Yang, Yan; Sun, Ning; Wang, Tao; Li, Huabo; Zhang, Lijie; He, Chengqi; Wong, M S

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of prevalence and curve severity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and the body composition alterations between the patients with AIS and healthy controls. Information on the study sample was obtained from a screening database. The AIS cohort was paired with an age- and gender-matched healthy cohort. The stratification of BMI and curve severity was conducted according to the criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Scoliosis Research Society. The prevalence and curve severity of the patients with AIS were investigated. Multigroup comparison of body composition parameters was conducted according to BMI between the patients with AIS and healthy controls. A total of 1,202 patients with AIS and an age- and gender-matched cohort were recruited from local schools. The underweight cases had the highest prevalence of AIS and significantly higher Cobb angle compared with the other three BMI subgroups. Although the patients with AIS had lower body weight, body fat mass, percentage of body fat, and fat-free mass compared with healthy controls, converse results were observed in the underweight cases after stratification according to BMI. Based on the sporadic body composition of the patients with AIS observed in the current study, it is predictable that the pathophysiological alterations may be different before and after the onset of scoliosis. Well-designed human or animal studies for underweight patients would be helpful to reveal the mechanisms of pathophysiological alterations and better predict the development of AIS. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  11. Controle químico da cigarrinha-do-milho e incidência dos enfezamentos causados por molicutes Chemical control of corn leafhopper and incidence of corn stunting diseases caused by mollicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Martins de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência do tratamento inseticida de sementes de milho no controle de Dalbulus maidis e na redução da incidência de enfezamentos em viveiro telado e em campo. Foram realizados dois experimentos; no experimento 1, em viveiro telado, sementes de milho foram tratadas com imidacloprid e thiamethoxan e, nessas plantas, cigarrinhas sadias, cigarrinhas infectantes com fitoplasma ou com espiroplasma foram confinadas. Avaliaram-se eficiência de controle, incidência de plantas com enfezamentos, altura das plantas e produção de grãos. No experimento 2, em campo, imidacloprid e thiamethoxan foram utilizados em tratamento de sementes e pulverizações aos 10 e 20 dias após a semeadura. A incidência de enfezamentos e a produção de grãos foram avaliadas. Em viveiro telado, os produtos imidacloprid e thiamethoxan proporcionaram controle de adultos de D. maidis acima de 50%, até o trigésimo dia, e reduziram a incidência de doenças e danos no crescimento e produção das plantas infectadas expostas às cigarrinhas infectantes aos dois dias após a emergência. Em campo, não foi constatada redução na incidência de enfezamentos ou ganho em produção, possivelmente devido ao fluxo migratório de cigarrinhas infectantes.The objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of maize seed treatment on Dalbulus maidis control, and its effect on corn stunting diseases incidence, at screenhouse and at field. Two experiments were carried out. In the experiment 1 ( screenhouse, maize seeds were treated with imidacloprid or with thiamethoxan. Healthy leafhoppers, phytoplasma infective leafhoppers, and spiroplasma infective leafhoppers were confined in plants. Efficiency of control, incidence of plants with corn stunting diseases, plant height, and grain production were evaluated. In the experiment 2 (field imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were used for seed treatment and sprayed at 10 and 20 days after sowing

  12. Detección e incidencia del fitoplasma Maize Bushy Stunt y su relación con el rendimiento en maíz en el estado de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alcántara Mendoza, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Una nueva enfermedad del maíz apareció en el estado de Veracruz, México durante 2003-2004. Síntomas de amarillamiento, enrojecimiento y posterior quemado de hojas, proliferación de mazorcas, jilotes raquíticos, falta de fecundación y granos vanos fueron parte del síndrome de la enfermedad. El fitoplasma Maize Bushy Stunt (MBS) se identifico por PCR se detectó en plantas con los síntomas antes descritos, en los municipios de Tlalixcoyan, Cosoleacaque y Paso de Ovejas en 2006 y 2007. Los genoti...

  13. Effect of temperature on the pathogenesis, accumulation of viral and satellite RNAs and on plant proteome in peanut stunt virus and satellite RNA-infected plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eObrępalska-Stęplowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is an important environmental factor influencing plant development in natural and diseased conditions. The growth rate of plants grown at 27°C is more rapid than for plants grown at 21°C. Thus, temperature affects the rate of pathogenesis progression in individual plants. We have analyzed the effect of temperature conditions (either 21°C or 27°C during the day on the accumulation rate of the virus and satellite RNA (satRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected by peanut stunt virus (PSV with and without its satRNA, at four time points. In addition, we extracted proteins from PSV and PSV+satRNA-infected plants harvested at 21 dpi, when disease symptoms began to appear on plants grown at 21°C and were well developed on those grown at 27°C, to assess the proteome profile in infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants grown at these two temperatures, using 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry approaches. The accumulation rate of the viral RNAs and satRNA was more rapid at 27°C at the beginning of the infection and then rapidly decreased in PSV-infected plants. At 21 dpi, PSV and satRNA accumulation was higher at 21°C and had a tendency to increase further. In all studied plants grown at 27°C, we observed a significant drop in the identified proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism at the proteome level, in comparison to plants maintained at 21°C. On the other hand, the proteins involved in protein metabolic processes were all more abundant in plants grown at 27°C. This was especially evident when PSV-infected plants were analyzed, where increase in abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and folding was revealed. In mock-inoculated and PSV-infected plants we found an increase in abundance of the majority of stress-related differently-regulated proteins and those associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, in PSV+satRNA-infected plants the shift in the

  14. Emergence and epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the American Desert Southwest, and development of host plant resistance in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermantel, William M; Gilbertson, Robert L; Natwick, Eric T; McCreight, James D

    2017-09-15

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become well established. Symptoms induced by CYSDV infection include a striking interveinal chlorosis or yellowing and reduced yield and quality. The virus is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, and the cryptic species MEAM1 has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV has now become the most economically important of the viruses affecting cucurbit production in the southwestern US. Here, we present a review of recent studies on CYSDV in the southwestern US, with implications for management of this virus throughout the world. Field surveys have established that CYSDV results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become infected shortly after emergence due to high B. tabaci populations and abundant sources of inoculum. Studies have also demonstrated that CYSDV has an extensive host range among crops and weeds prevalent in the region. Recent studies demonstrated considerable variation in virus accumulation and transmission rates among the host plants evaluated as potential reservoirs. Cucurbit hosts had the highest CYSDV titers, were efficient sources for virus acquisition, and showed a positive correlation between titer in source plants and transmission to cucurbit plants. Non-cucurbit hosts had significantly lower CYSDV titers and varied in their capacity to serve as sources for transmission. Experiments demonstrated that multiple factors influence the efficiency with which a host plant species will be a reservoir for vector transmission of CYSDV to crops. Melon PI 313970 was identified as a new source of host plant resistance to CYSDV, in addition to the previously identified TGR 1551 (=PI 482420) and TGR 1937 (=PI 482431). Potential new sources of CYSDV resistance were identified by field screening of ca. 500 melon accessions with naturally occurring

  15. Onset and evolution of stunting in infants and children. Examples from the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C G; Harrison, G G

    1994-02-01

    The etiology of the early onset of stunting is diverse among populations of varying biological, environmental and cultural circumstances. This is exemplified within the Nutrition CRSP project, which took place in three different populations and ecological conditions. Within each study area a different mix and varying proportions of causative factors were identified. At least in Kenya, and probably in Mexico, the problem has its antecedents in prepregnancy and pregnancy. Powerful determinants of the infants' size at birth and during the first 6 months of life are maternal size upon entry into pregnancy, and weight and fat gain during pregnancy and lactation. In all three countries a low pregnancy weight gain was observed. Notably in Kenya, where the energy intake of the mother decreases progressively throughout pregnancy, not only do mothers gain only half as much as European or North American women, but they even lose weight and fat in the last month of pregnancy, and some mothers gain no weight or lose weight during the whole of pregnancy. Mothers in Kenya start lactation with relatively poor fat stores. Although their energy intake increases somewhat during lactation, preliminary estimates suggest that these increases may be insufficient to maintain their bodily integrity, to carry out their normal tasks of daily living, and to produce a sufficient amount of milk for optimal infant growth. In addition to an energy deficit, diet quality is a problem, particularly in Kenya and Mexico and less so in Egypt. Intakes of animal products and animal protein are very low. Zinc and iron intakes are not only low, but the bioavailability of these nutrients is poor because of the high phytate, fiber and tea content of the diet. Also vitamin B12 intake is extremely low, and at least mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (IDD) is present in Kenya. The above micronutrients have been demonstrated to affect the linear growth of the Kenyan children, even after confounding factors have

  16. Severe functional difficulties and disabilities in children and adolescents and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa De Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report prevalence of severe child functional difficulties and disability (CFD in a nationally representative sample of 2 to 17 year-old children in Mexico and describe the inequities faced by children with CFD in relation to a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG-related outcomes. Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Children and Women (ENIM 2015 we estimate prevalence with 95% confidence intervals for the selected indicators. We use chi-square test and confidence intervals inspection to report significant differences between children with and without CFD. Results. 8% of children present at least one CFD. CFD is associated with higher prevalence of underweight and child labor and lower prevalence of adequate early child development. Conclusion. Children with CFD present worst outcomes and require targeted efforts to ensure they meet health and wellbeing targets in the frame of the SDGs.

  17. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, W.; Ayub, A.; Hussain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  19. Household food insecurity and nutritional status of children and women in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Ashish; Ram, Faujdar

    2014-03-01

    Information on the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status of children and women based on a nationally representative sample is not available from Nepal. To examine the association between food insecurity and nutritional status of children and married women in Nepal using data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to assess food insecurity in the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used body mass index (BMI) to assess the nutritional status of married women, and stunting, wasting, and underweight to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age. Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were performed to examine the associations. In severely food-insecure households, 51% of children were stunted and 40% were underweight; 27% of married women had a BMI below 18.5 kg/m2; children were 1.50 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.97) and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.85) times as likely as children in food-secure households to be stunted and underweight, respectively; and married women were 1.5 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.92) times as likely as married women in food-secure households to have a BMI below 18.5 kg/m2. No association was found between household food insecurity and wasting among children. There is a significant association between food insecurity and malnutrition among children in Nepal. Among women, food insecurity is associated with underweight (BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2).

  20. Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adolescent overweight and obesity has more than quadrupled in the last three decades. This has been shown to co-exist with under nutrition. Associated social burden of these nutrition-related disorders including effect on self esteem, body image and economic morbidity should be of concern if a healthy and ...

  1. Obesity, overweight, and underweight among urban Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disease burden from communicable and noncommunicable diseases is a significant health challenge facing many developing nations. Among the noncommunicable diseases, is obesity, which has become a global epidemic associated with urbanization. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of ...

  2. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  3. Severe Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Bradley E; Parikh, Neil G; Maharaj, Sheena K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma. Understanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient's response is highly variable. The onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state.

  4. The association between malnutrition and the incidence of malaria among young HIV-infected and -uninfected Ugandan children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaitwe Emmanuel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition and malaria remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. There are conflicting data as to whether malnutrition is associated with an increased or decreased risk of malaria. In addition, data are limited on the potential interaction between HIV infection and the association between malnutrition and the risk of malaria. Methods A cohort of 100 HIV-unexposed, 203 HIV-exposed (HIV negative children born to HIV-infected mothers and 48 HIV-infected children aged 6 weeks to 1 year were recruited from an area of high malaria transmission intensity in rural Uganda and followed until the age of 2.5 years. All children were provided with insecticide-treated bed nets at enrolment and daily trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis (TS was prescribed for HIV-exposed breastfeeding and HIV-infected children. Monthly routine assessments, including measurement of height and weight, were conducted at the study clinic. Nutritional outcomes including stunting (low height-for-age and underweight (low weight-for-age, classified as mild (mean z-scores between -1 and -2 during follow-up and moderate-severe (mean z-scores Results The overall incidence of malaria was 3.64 cases per person year. Mild stunting (IRR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.46, p = 0.008 and moderate-severe stunting (IRR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.48, p = 0.02 were associated with a similarly increased incidence of malaria compared to non-stunted children. Being mildly underweight (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.95-1.25, p = 0.24 and moderate-severe underweight (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.46, p = 0.39 were not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of malaria compared to children who were not underweight. There were no significant interactions between HIV-infected, HIV-exposed children taking TS and the associations between malnutrition and the incidence of malaria. Conclusions Stunting, indicative of chronic malnutrition, was

  5. Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting β-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternatives to oral corticosteroids have been evaluated in severe asthma as add-on to conventional therapy. These include macrolide antibiotics, omalizumab, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, cytokine receptor antagonists, and bronchial thermoplasty. The challenge with these entities is determining the appropriate phenotype of severe asthma where effectiveness is demonstrated, given the significant heterogeneity of the disease. Therefore, there is a crucial need to better understand the mechanisms and pathophysiology of severe asthma so more effective immunomodulators and biologic therapies can emerge. PMID:20462794

  6. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  7. Management of severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichant, G; Dewandre, P Y; Foidart, J M; Brichant, J F

    2010-01-01

    Features of severe preeclampsia include severe proteinuric hypertension and symptoms of central nervous system dysfunction, hepatocellular injury, thrombocytopenia, oliguria, pulmonary oedema, cerebrovascular accident and severe intrauterine growth restriction. Women with severe preeclampsia must be hospitalized to confirm the diagnosis, to assess the severity of the disease, to monitor the progression of the disease and to try to stabilize the disease. Severe preeclampsia may be managed expectantly, in selected cases. The objective of expectant management in these patients is to improve neonatal outcome. Expectant management is based on antihypertensive treatment and prevention of end organ dysfunction. Antihypertensive treatment improves maternal outcome but has the potential to be deleterious for the foetus. Plasma volume expansion has been suggested for severe preeclampsia but trials failed to show any benefit. Magnesium sulfate is the anticonvulsivant of choice to treat or prevent eclampsia when indicated. Antenatal corticosteroids are recommended in severely preeclamptic women with 26-34 weeks gestation. Timing of delivery is based upon gestational age, severity of preeclampsia, maternal and foetal risks.

  8. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  9. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  10. Currency flaw severity. [Banknotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Burnett, M.; Goodman, C.; Sherrod, R.; Schmoyer, R.; Harrison, C.; Uppuluri, R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of currency flaw severity was carried out using 300 banknotes and 37 judges. Each judge assigned each note to one of five flaw severity categories. These categories correspond to severity grades of 1 to 5 with 1 equivalent to ''always accepted'' and 5 ''never accepted.'' An average flaw severity grade for each note was obtained by taking the mean of the severity grades assigned to that note by the 37 judges. Thus, each note has a single numerical real-number flaw grade between 1 and 5. Mathematical modeling of the currency flaw survey results is continuing with some very promising initial results. Our present model handles common excess ink and missing ink flaw types quite well. We plan to extend the model to ink level, mash, setoff and blanket impression flaw types.

  11. Nutritional status of Haitian children, 1978-1995: deleterious consequences of political instability and international sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder-Sibanda Menno

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from three national surveys in Haiti suggest that the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting in children fell considerably between 1978 and 1990. In the following four years, rates of stunting and underweight levelled off, while that of wasting nearly doubled. Child nutrition deteriorated dramatically during a period of intense political crisis and international sanctions that included a strictly enforced trade embargo. Human welfare should be monitored whenever international sanctions are imposed to regulate a country's behavior.

  12. Quantifying and exploiting the age dependence in the effect of supplementary food for child undernutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinda Lakkam

    Full Text Available Motivated by the lack of randomized controlled trials with an intervention-free control arm in the area of child undernutrition, we fit a trivariate model of weight-for-age z score (WAZ, height-for-age z score (HAZ and diarrhea status to data from an observational study of supplementary feeding (100 kCal/day for children with WAZ [Formula: see text] in 17 Guatemalan communities. Incorporating time lags, intention to treat (i.e., to give supplementary food, seasonality and age interactions, we estimate how the effect of supplementary food on WAZ, HAZ and diarrhea status varies with a child's age. We find that the effect of supplementary food on all 3 metrics decreases linearly with age from 6 to 20 mo and has little effect after 20 mo. We derive 2 food allocation policies that myopically (i.e., looking ahead 2 mo minimize either the underweight or stunting severity - i.e., the sum of squared WAZ or HAZ scores for all children with WAZ or HAZ [Formula: see text]. A simulation study based on the statistical model predicts that the 2 derived policies reduce the underweight severity (averaged over all ages by 13.6-14.1% and reduce the stunting severity at age 60 mo by 7.1-8.0% relative to the policy currently in use, where all policies have a budget that feeds [Formula: see text]% of children. While these findings need to be confirmed on additional data sets, it appears that in a low-dose (100 kCal/day supplementary feeding setting in Guatemala, allocating food primarily to 6-12 mo infants can reduce the severity of underweight and stunting.

  13. Severe accident insights report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, W.T.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the conditions and events that nuclear power plant personnel may encounter during the latter stages of a severe core damage accident and what the consequences might be of actions they may take during these latter stages. The report also describes what can be expected of the performance of the key barriers to fission product release (primarily containment systems), what decisions the operating staff may face during the course of a severe accident, and what could result from these decisions based on our current state of knowledge of severe accident phenomena. 9 refs

  14. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  15. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  17. [Severe childhood atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudh, Anis; Zaraa, Inès; Amara, Thouraya; Zribi, Hela; El Euch, Dalenda; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel

    2014-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease. It represents one of the symptoms of atopic diathesis. DA affects usually infants and children. aim : The aim of our study is to draw up the epidemiological, clinical features, treatment and outcome of severe childhood AD through a hospital series. methods: A retrospective study of 24 cases of severe childhood AD hospitalized in the Dermatology Department of La Rabta hospital of Tunis was conducted during a 28 year-period (1981 - 2009). results: The hospital incidence of severe childhood AD was 0,085‰. Patient's mean age at the beginning was 14 months. The sex ratio H/F was 1.66. Cutaneous manifestations occurred preferentially in face (75%). Generalized eczema was observed in 37.5% of cases. Pruritus and xerosis were constant. The mean duration of hospitalization was 11 days. Topical corticosteroids was the most effective method of treating severe DA, associated with antiseptic solutions emollient and antihistaminic drugs. Infectious complications were noted in 50% of cases. Ocular complications were observed in 16.7% of cases. Recurrences were reported in 9 cases. Conclusion :AD is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, and pruritic skin disorder developing in a xerotic skin. Severe AD in childhood is rare in Tunisia. It requires a good understanding of therapeutic modalities by the patient and his family. It is a cause of important morbidity and it may have a bad impact on quality of life.

  18. Epidemiology of severe sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Florian B; Yende, Sachin; Angus, Derek C

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States and the most common cause of death among critically ill patients in non-coronary intensive care units (ICU). Respiratory tract infections, particularly pneumonia, are the most common site of infection, and associated with the highest mortality. The type of organism causing severe sepsis is an important determinant of outcome, and gram-positive organisms as a cause of sepsis have increased in frequency over time and are now more common than gram-negative infections. Recent studies suggest that acute infections worsen pre-existing chronic diseases or result in new chronic diseases, leading to poor long-term outcomes in acute illness survivors. People of older age, male gender, black race, and preexisting chronic health conditions are particularly prone to develop severe sepsis; hence prevention strategies should be targeted at these vulnerable populations in future studies. PMID:24335434

  19. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T

    2015-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...

  1. Severe storms forecast systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Zack, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two research tasks are described: (1) the improvement and enhancement of an existing mesoscale numerical simulation system, and (2) numerical diagnostic studies associated with an individual case of severe storm development (April 10, 1979 in the Red River Valley of Texas and Oklahoma).

  2. The Severe Cardiorenal Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongartz, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the interactions between heart and kidneys in disease in a longitudinal and integrative fashion. We developed two different rat models of the Severe Cardiorenal Syndrome and studied the effects of different interventions on progression of cardiorenal failure and on

  3. Dengue and Severe Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both human health and the global and national economies. Before 1970, only 9 countries had experienced severe dengue epidemics. The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries in the WHO regions of Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia ...

  4. Asthma heterogeneity and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Tara F.; Bleecker, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common, chronic inflammatory airways disease characterized by a clinical syndrome of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and reversible airflow obstruction. Individuals with asthma can vary widely in clinical presentation, severity, and pathobiology. The incident factors, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of asthma remain incompletely understood. Utilizing measurable characteristics of asthmatic patients, including demographic, physiologic, and biologic markers, can ...

  5. Imitators of severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Baha M

    2007-04-01

    There are several obstetric, medical, and surgical disorders that share many of the clinical and laboratory findings of patients with severe preeclampsia-hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. Imitators of severe preeclampsia-hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome are life-threatening emergencies that can develop during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. These conditions are associated with high maternal mortality, and survivors may face long-term sequelae. Perinatal mortality and morbidity also remain high in many of these conditions. The pathophysiologic abnormalities in many of these disorders include thrombotic microangiopathy, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Some of these disorders include acute fatty liver of pregnancy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and acute exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Because of the rarity of these conditions during pregnancy and postpartum, the available literature includes only case reports and case series describing these syndromes. Consequently, there are no systematic reviews or randomized trials on these subjects. Differential diagnosis may be difficult due to the overlap of several clinical and laboratory findings of these syndromes. It is important that the clinician make the accurate diagnosis when possible because the management and complications from these syndromes may be different. For example, severe preeclampsia and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are treated by delivery, whereas it is possible to continue pregnancy in those with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome and exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. This review focuses on diagnosis, management, and counseling of women who develop these syndromes based on results of recent studies.

  6. Nutritional status is related to fat-free mass, exercise capacity and inspiratory strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Pollyane Galinari; Silva, Bruno Moreira; Brunetto, Antonio Fernando

    2010-06-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with a higher rate of survival in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This paradoxical relationship indicates that the influence of nutritional status on functional parameters should be further investigated. To investigate the impact of nutritional status on body composition, exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Thirty-two patients (nine women) were divided into three groups according to their body mass indices (BMI): overweight/obese (25 exercise capacity (90+/-8 vs. 79+/-6 vs. 57+/-8 m, p=0.02) and maximal inspiratory pressure (63+/-7 vs. 57+/-5 vs. 35+/-8 % predicted, p=0.03) in comparison to normal weight and underweight patients, respectively. In addition, on backward multiple regression analysis, FFMI was the unique independent predictor of exercise capacity (partial r=0.52, pexercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength than patients with the same degree of airflow obstruction who were of normal weight or underweight, and higher FFM was independently associated with higher exercise capacity. These characteristics of overweight or obese patients might counteract the drawbacks of excess weight and lead to an improved prognosis in COPD.

  7. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting level among the children was 26.5%, underweight level was 11.1% and no child was wasted. There was a significant association between marital status, children age group and stunting using ordinal regression. Conclusion: The study showed a knowledge gap on infant complementary feeding in area of quality ...

  8. Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Among the children surveyed, 24.5% were stunted, 14.9% underweight and 9.7% were wasted. There were more boys than girls who were stunted. Breakfast contributed 10.2% of the daily energy intake. Few children consumed foods from more than four food groups. Incidence of diarrhea, colds/coughs increased ...

  9. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  10. original articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 1994,12 there has been little change in anthropometrical status in the 5-year period, with underweight being 913%, stunting 23% and wasting 2.6% among children aged 6 — 71 months. This earlier survey also found a higher prevalence of underweight in rural children and those whose mothers' educational status was ...