WorldWideScience

Sample records for underweight severe stunting

  1. Frequency of underweight and stunting among children entering school in a small urban locality and their association with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Husain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Medhat, Naila; Farooq, Hadia; Ahmad, Danial; Nasir, Waqar

    2018-01-01

    To determine the frequency of underweight and stunting among the children entering first year of school and to assess its associated factors. This descriptive, analytical study was conducted at 5 schools of Rabwah, Pakistan, from August to September 2015, and comprised all students who got admission in the selected schools during the study period. Name, father's name, gender, weight, height, status of height, and weight on Z-score charts, and marks obtained in the test were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 478 participants, 212(44.4%) were boys and 266(55.6%) were girls. The overall mean age was 66.6±5.966 months (range: 41-129 months). Overall, 53(11.1%) were underweight, 22(4.6%) were severely underweight, 55(11.5%) had stunting and 12(2.5%) had severe stunting. Median marks (Interquartile Range [IQR]) in admission test for obese, overweight, normal, underweight and severely underweight children were 76.3%(37.2-84.7), 65.9%, 66.7%(56.4-72.3), 64.6%(47-71), and 67%(55.3-78), respectively. Median marks (IQR) in admission test for tall, normal height, stunted and severe stunted children were 24.1%, 67%(57.3-73), 57%(31.1-67.8), and 62.6%(49.7-68.3), respectively. Children with stunting scored significantly fewer marks compared to children of normal height (p<0.05). Stunting and underweight were common problems among children starting school. Stunting was found to be associated with lower marks in admission test.

  2. South Africa's nutritional transition: overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in female primary school learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathiah, N; Moodley, I; Mubaiwa, V; Denny, L; Taylor, M

    2013-06-27

    Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- and undernutrition (nutritional transition) can exist in communities. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition among female learners in the Nongoma and Ceza districts in Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We performed a secondary analysis of anthropometric data collected during the 2011 HPV Vaccination Demonstration Project. School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. We found evidence of both under- and overnutrition. Overall, 9% of female learners were overweight, 3.8% obese, 4% underweight and 9.2% stunted (using WHO/NCHS criteria). The highest levels of stunting were in the 11 - 12-year age groups, of underweight in the 10-year age group, of overweight and obesity in the 9 - 10-year age groups. Moreover, a proportion of underweight (17.4%), overweight (11.1%) and obese (22.9%) learners were also stunted. Our study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity, wasting and stunting of female learners in KZN and suggests the presence of a nutritional transition in these rural communities; however, further studies are needed. Our findings emphasise the need for health promotion and education programs in schools.

  3. Vitamin D status is associated with underweight and stunting in children aged 6-36 months residing in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Rana R; Holick, Michael F; Sempértegui, Fernando; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Estrella, Bertha; Moore, Lynn L; Fox, Matthew P; Hamer, Davidson H

    2017-11-22

    There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Vitamin A, Zinc and Pneumonia study. Children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine a vitamin D cut-off specific for our endpoints. Associations between serum 25(OH)D and underweight (defined as weight-for-age Z-score≤-1) and stunting (defined as height-for-age Z-score≤-2) were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Children residing in five low-SES peri-urban neighbourhoods near Quito, Ecuador. Children (n 516) aged 6-36 months. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 58·0 (sd 17·7) nmol/l. Sensitivity analysis revealed an undernutrition-specific 25(OH)D cut-off of DDD levels were more likely to be stunted (aOR=2·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 4·7). Low serum 25(OH)D levels were more common in underweight and stunted Ecuadorian children.

  4. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all Poverweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  5. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  6. Intestinal mucosal permeability of severely underweight and nonmalnourished Bangladeshi children and effects of nutritional rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Nahar, Baitun; Hamadani, Jena D; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Roy, Anjan Kumar; Brown, Kenneth H

    2010-11-01

    Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) intestinal permeability tests were completed to compare the intestinal function of severely underweight children recovering from diarrhea and other illnesses and of nonmalnourished children from the same communities, and to evaluate the effects of food supplementation, with or without psychosocial stimulation, on the changes in intestinal function among the underweight children. Seventy-seven malnourished children completed intestinal permeability studies at baseline and 3 months after receiving 1 of the following randomly assigned treatment regimens: group-C--fortnightly follow-up at community-based follow-up units, including growth monitoring and promotion, health education, and micronutrient supplementation, n = 17; group-SF--same as group-C plus supplementary food (SF) to provide 150 to 300 kcal/day, n = 23; group-PS--same as group-C plus psychosocial stimulation (PS), n = 17; or group-SF + PS--same as group-C plus SF and PS, n = 20. Seventeen nonmalnourished children were included as comparison subjects. The malnourished children's mean ± SD initial age was 13.1 ± 4.0 months, their mean weight-for-age z score was -3.82 ± 0.61, and their median (interquartile range) urinary L/M recovery ratio was 0.16 (0.10-0.28). Eighty-four percent of the children had L/M ≥ 0.07, suggestive of impaired intestinal function. The median L/M of the malnourished children was significantly greater than that of 17 relatively well-nourished children (median 0.09; interquartile range 0.05-0.12; P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics of the severely malnourished children by treatment group. Following treatment, the L/M ratio improved in all of the groups (P sugar permeability, is impaired among severely underweight children. Intestinal permeability improves in relation to weight gain, but intestinal mucosal recovery is not specifically related to the types or amount of food supplementation or PS provided in this trial.

  7. WHO 2006 child growth standards: implications for the prevalence of stunting and underweight-for-age in a birth cohort of Gabonese children in comparison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts and the National Center for Health Statistics 1978 growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Decker, Marie-Luise; Goesch, Julia; Poetschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kombila, Davy; Fortin, Julien; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of children being stunted and underweight-for-age at 3, 9 and 15 months in Lambaréné, Gabon, using the WHO child growth standards released in 2006 as compared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 and the National Center for Health

  8. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...... of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primers P1/P6 nested with R16F2n/R16R2n and, tuf primers 890/340 nested with 835 and 400....... From these, 221 PCR products were sequenced and sequences aligned. Napier grass stunt disease is widely spread at an epidemic proportion, with the districts at different risk levels. The most affected districts are in central, East and North parts of the country while those in the west are least...

  9. Socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Kamal S M

    2011-04-01

    Malnutrition among under-five children is a chronic problem in developing countries. This study explores the socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh. The study used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Cross-sectional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the socio-demographic variables on moderate and severe stunting over normal among the children. Findings revealed that over two-fifths of the children were stunted, of which 26.3% were moderately stunted and 15.1% were severely stunted. The multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis yielded significantly increased risk of severe stunting (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.34-4.79) and moderate stunting (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.47-3.83) over normal among children with a thinner mother. Region, father's education, toilet facilities, child's age, birth order of children and wealth index were also important determinants of children's nutritional status. Development and poverty alleviation programmes should focus on the disadvantaged rural segments of people to improve their nutritional status.

  10. Social determinants of stunting in rural area of Wardha, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Sinha, Nirmalya; Dongre, Amol R

    2013-07-01

    Stunting is a consequence of long term, cumulative inadequacies of health and nutrition. Health system uses underweight for growth monitoring for its simplicity. Lately there is renewed interest in stunting and especially severe acute malnutrition. Stunting is a relatively neglected indicator. It is therefore imperative to understand the causes of stunting early in infancy and childhood, so that preventive measures can be taken. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the social determinants of stunting in rural Wardha. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of Wardha district with total population of 88,187. The sample was drawn from three PHC areas by 30-cluster sampling technique. Stunting was defined using WHO Child Growth Standards for 'height-for-age'. 'Height-for-age' values below 2 standard deviations were considered as stunted while below 3 standard deviations were considered 'severe stunting'. Prevalence of stunting was observed to be 52.3% and severe stunting was 25.1%. The significant determinants of stunting were found to be age, father's education, fathers' occupation, low income, not receiving Vitamin-A supplement during last 6 months and having anaemia. Sex, caste, mother's education and mothers' occupation did not contribute significantly to the stunting. Low income and related factors such as father's education and his occupation are important determinant of the stunting. Father being the decision maker, his education is of importance. Vitamin-A supplementation and anaemia as surrogate indicators for access to health care also found out to be significant determinants of stunting.

  11. South Africa's nutritional transition: Overweight, obesity, underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. Results. We found evidence of both under- and ...

  12. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana F.R. Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. METHODS: this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2 or severe stunting (HAZ < -3. Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. RESULTS: the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001 and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001 stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01 were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG in both severely (initial: 91.8 mg/dL; final: 79.1 mg/dL; p = 0.01 and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2 mg/dL; final 88.7 mg/dL; p = 0.01, and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4 mg/dL; final: 42.2 mg/dL. The values of total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1 mg/dL; final: 163.5 mg/dL and initial: 109.0 mg/dL; final: 107.3 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION: the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition.

  13. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Jullyana F R; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Sawaya, Ana L; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2) or severe stunting (HAZ < -3). Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001) and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001) stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01) were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG) in both severely (initial: 91.8mg/dL; final: 79.1mg/dL; p = 0.01) and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2mg/dL; final 88.7mg/dL; p = 0.01), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4mg/dL; final: 42.2mg/dL). The values of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1mg/dL; final: 163.5mg/dL and initial: 109.0mg/dL; final: 107.3mg/dL, respectively). the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between preterm birth and underweight in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2015-08-15

    Although vast improvements have been made in the survival of preterm infants, the toll of preterm birth (PTB) is particularly severe in Asia, with the Indian subcontinent leading the preterm birth rate. Despite the obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence in developing countries. An association between maternal underweight and preterm birth has been reported in developed countries. A review of epidemiological studies in Asian women in whom association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of PTB was measured, indicated no significant association between low maternal BMI and preterm birth. A hindrance in comparison of these studies is the use of different cut-off point for BMI in defining maternal underweight. As a commentary on published studies it is proposed that that country-specific BMI cut points should be applied for defining underweight for Asian women for the purpose of evaluating the association between maternal underweight and preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K

    2017-07-27

    Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an

  16. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  17. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province.

  18. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  19. Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent secondary school students ... should be of concern if a healthy and productive future generation is to be ensured. Primary care providers should constantly assess adolescents for ...

  20. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...

  1. Effect of community-based food supplementation on improving growth of underweight children under five years of age in West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Bhakti Pulungan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of underweight children in West Nusa Tenggara is as high as 30%. This region had the third largest number of stunted children in the country. The local government has attempted to tackle this problem by providing supplementary food to underweight children. Objective To assess the success of the community-based food supplementation program onimproving children’s growth in West Nusa Tenggara. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study for 10 months in Paruga District Primary Health Care Unit, Bima, West Nusa Tenggara, in year 2012. Children were given supplementary food according to the Ministry of Health’s guidelines, consisting of formula milk, high calorie biscuits, and a 60-day supply of eggs, estimated to be sufficient to normalize their weights, for their age and sex.  A child’s weight and height were measured every 3 months and the results plotted on WHO growth charts for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (nutritional status. Z-score -2 SD was classified as normal for all three categories. Results Twenty-five children under five years of age participated in this study. Subjects’ median age was 29 months. None of the subjects had normal weight-for-age Z-score at the beginning of the study. Eighty-four percent (21/25 of the subjects were severely underweight. Only 8% (2/25 of the subjects had normal height-for-age Z-score and 88% (22/25 of them were severely stunted. However, 80% (20/25 of subjects had normal nutritional status (weight-for-height. Changes in weight-for-age Z-score varied throughout the study. The highest median score was in the tenth month of follow up (-3.82. The highest median height-for-age score and weight-for-height score were also in the last month of follow up. At the end of the study, only one subject had normal weight-for-age score (4% and none of the subjects had normal height-for-age scores.   Conclusion The 10-month supplementary food program for under

  2. Wasting and stunting – similarities and differences; policy and programmatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The terms wasting and stunting were introduced by Waterlow to differentiate among underweight children those with a low weight-for-height (wasted) from those with a low height-for-age (stunted). Wasting is often called acute malnutrition and stunting chronic malnutrition but these terms may be misleading, and may just reflect that it takes a longer time to diagnose linear growth retardation. These two forms of malnutrition are associated with changes in body composition with a reduced muscle mass but usually a normal brain size in relation to body weight. These changes are more pronounced but more easily corrected in wasting. The reduced muscle mass present in stunting may persist into adult life and may be associated with an increased fat mass. Muscle is the main store of amino-acids and other essential nutrients needed for the body’s immune response and is a major determinant of survival in infections. The low muscle mass observed in both stunting and wasting is likely to explain the association between these two conditions and increased mortality. Hence, health and nutrition programmes aiming to reduce mortality need to prevent both wasting and stunting, especially in young children who have a low muscle ass to start with. Children having an insufficient food intake lose weight and become wasted but also stop growing in height, becoming stunted if untreated. Growth in height resumes only after wasting has been at least partially corrected. Hence detecting and treating wasting in a timely fashion also helps to prevent stunting. The recent discovery that bone and body fat are both endocrine organs interacting with each other and that bone regulates energy metabolism through osteocalcin (a hormone produced by bone) may explain these observations. Stunting can also occur in the absence of wasting. A possible explanation is that linear growth requires synthesis of cartilage and bone tissues, which contain more phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur

  3. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  4. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing J. Akombi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0–59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0–59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight. The prevalence of wasting was 18% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 17.1, 19.7 and severe wasting 9% (95% CI: 7.9, 9.8. The prevalence of underweight was 29% (95% CI: 27.1, 30.5 and severe underweight 12% (95% CI: 10.6, 12.9. Multivariable analysis revealed that the most consistent factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight are: geopolitical zone (North East, North West and North Central, perceived birth size (small and average, sex of child (male, place/mode of delivery (home delivery and non-caesarean and a contraction of fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. In order to meet the WHO’s global nutrition target for 2025, interventions aimed at improving maternal health and access to health care services for children especially in the northern geopolitical zones of Nigeria are urgently needed.

  5. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  6. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass...... to target young wasted and stunted children efficiently in situations where these two conditions are present. Wasting is also associated with decreased fat mass. A decreased fat mass is frequent but inconsistent in stunting. Fat secretes multiple hormones, including leptin, which may have a stimulating...... mass. Leptin may also have an effect on bone growth. This may explain why wasted children with low fat stores have reduced linear growth when their weight-for-height remains low. It may also explain the frequent association of stunting with previous episodes of wasting. Stunting, however, can occur...

  7. Body composition in stunted, compared to non-stunted, black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective was to compare the body composition of black stunted, and non-stunted, children, from two rural communities in South Africa, and investigate whether increased total and central adiposity is found in stunted children. The design was a cross-sectional study. The setting was two study populations of ...

  8. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Vonaesch

    Full Text Available Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR, about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414 were boys, and 36 percent (148/414 exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148 showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148 presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  9. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Tondeur, Laura; Breurec, Sébastien; Bata, Petula; Nguyen, Liem Binh Luong; Frank, Thierry; Farra, Alain; Rafaï, Clotaire; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  10. Determinants of child stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan: an in-depth analysis of nationally representative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Victor M; Badgaiyan, Nina; Paintal, Kajali

    2015-01-01

    Stunting is associated with poor survival and development in children. Our analysis identifies the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in Bhutan using a nationally representative sample of 2085 children 0–23 months old. We find that 27.5% of children were stunted and almost half (42.6%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Children's mean height-for-age z-score deteriorated significantly with age (from −0.23 in infants 0–5 months old to −1.60 in children 18–23 months old) and levels of severe stunting were significantly higher among boys. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that children from the Eastern/Western regions had a 64% higher odds of being stunted than children from the Central region (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.29–2.07); similarly, children from the two lower wealth quintiles had 37% higher odds of being stunted than children from the two upper wealth quintiles (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00–1.87). Children whose mothers received three or fewer antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy had a 31% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01–1.69) while children whose mothers did not receive antenatal care from a doctor, nurse or midwife had a 51% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.18–1.92). Recommended complementary feeding practices tended to be associated with lower odds of stunting, particularly in the first year of life. Specifically, children who were not fed complementary foods at 6–8 months had about threefold higher odds of being severely stunted than children who were fed complementary foods (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.06–7.02). PMID:25536283

  11. The relationship between agricultural biodiversity, dietary diversity, household food security, and stunting of children in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Kaibi, Florence K; Steyn, Nelia P; Ochola, Sophie A; Du Plessis, Lissane

    2017-03-01

    The study was to determine the role of Dietary diversity (DD), household food security (HFS), and agricultural biodiversity (AB) on stunted growth in children. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers and anthropometric measurements of children 24-59 months old. HFS was assessed by household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS). A repeated 24-h recall was used to calculate a dietary diversity score (DDS). Agricultural biodiversity (AB) was calculated by counting the number of edible plants and animals. The study was undertaken in resource-poor households in two rural areas in Kenya. Mothers/Care givers and household with children of 24-59 months of age were the main subjects. The prevalence of underweight [WAZ children with stunted growth were significantly different in DDS ( P  = 0.047) after the rainy season and HFIAS ( P  = 0.009) in the dry season, but not with AB score ( P  = 0.486). The mean AB for households with children with stunted growth were lower at 6.8, compared to 7.0 for those with normal growth, however, the difference was insignificant. Data indicate that households with children with stunted growth and those without are significantly different in DDS and HFIAS but not with AB. This suggests some potential in using DDS and HFIAS as proxy measures for stunting.

  12. Prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight, and obesity among school children in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2016-10-03

    The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.

  13. The prevalence of underweight is increased in chronic pancreatitis outpatients and associates with reduced life quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Søren S; Frandsen, Louise Kuhlman; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Vestergaard, Peter; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    Underweight is a well-known complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP), but little is known about its prevalence in the outpatient setting. We investigated the prevalence of underweight in outpatients with CP and its association with quality of life (QOL) and various risk factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 166 outpatients with CP that was conducted at a tertiary referral center. The primary outcome was the prevalence of underweight (body mass index [BMI] pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), pain severity, pain pattern (constant versus intermittent), opioid use, and smoking and drinking habits were analyzed for their association with BMI. Patients with CP had a decreased mean BMI compared with controls (22.9 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 versus 26.8 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 ; P associated with underweight, including physical functioning (P = 0.024). Alcoholic etiology (P = 0.002), EPI (P = 0.004), and constant pain (P = 0.026) were independently associated with low BMI. One quarter of outpatients with CP are underweight and report reduced life quality compared with their normal-weight counterparts. EPI, alcoholic etiology, and pain-related symptoms are independent risk factors. Our findings emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the handling of patients with CP that focuses on alcohol cessation and the appropriate treatment of pain and EPI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. One-fourth of the prisoners are underweight in Northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Semaw Ferede; Adane, Kelemework

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site. The outcome of this study was underweight defined as body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5 kg/m 2 . Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of underweight at a p-value of less than 0.05. The prevalence of underweight was 25.2% (95% CI; 22.3%- 28.3%). Khat Chewing (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.70) and longer duration of incarceration (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14) were associated with a significantly increased risk of underweight. Additionally, previous incarceration (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.42) was a relevant determinant of underweight with a borderline significance. In contrast, family support (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.43, 0.85) and farmer occupation (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.98) compared to those who were unemployed were important protective determinants significantly associated with lower risk of underweight. In summary, the burden of underweight was higher among prisoners in Tigray region who had respiratory tract infections. The study has enhanced our understanding of the determinants of underweight in the prison population. We strongly recommend that nutritional support, such as therapeutic feeding programs for severely or moderately underweight prisoners, and environmental health interventions of the prison setups should be urgently implemented to correct the uncovered nutritional problem and its associated factors for improving the health status of prisoners.

  15. One-fourth of the prisoners are underweight in Northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semaw Ferede Abera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site. The outcome of this study was underweight defined as body mass index (BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m2. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of underweight at a p-value of less than 0.05. Results The prevalence of underweight was 25.2% (95% CI; 22.3%- 28.3%. Khat Chewing (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.70 and longer duration of incarceration (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14 were associated with a significantly increased risk of underweight. Additionally, previous incarceration (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.42 was a relevant determinant of underweight with a borderline significance. In contrast, family support (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.43, 0.85 and farmer occupation (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.98 compared to those who were unemployed were important protective determinants significantly associated with lower risk of underweight. Conclusion In summary, the burden of underweight was higher among prisoners in Tigray region who had respiratory tract infections. The study has enhanced our understanding of the determinants of underweight in the prison population. We strongly recommend that nutritional support, such as therapeutic feeding programs for severely or moderately underweight prisoners, and environmental health interventions of the prison setups should be urgently implemented to correct the uncovered nutritional problem and its associated factors for improving the health status of prisoners.

  16. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  17. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Angood

    Full Text Available Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments.We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72% experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions.Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  18. Asupan protein, kalsium dan fosfor pada anak stunting dan tidak stunting usia 24-59 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mayang Sari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia is one of developing country which still facing a serious problem concerning stunting. Causes of stunting is a complex things, one of the cause is protein intake which is have effect on the level plasma insulin growth factor I (IGF-I, protein bone matrix and growth factor, also calcium and phosphorus that has an important role in bone formation. One of the province in Indonesia which has stunting prevalence above level of National prevalence is West Borneo. Pontianak as the capital city of West Borneo is still facing serious problem concerning stunting and the low level of food security. Objective: Analyze protein, calcium and phosphorus intake of stunting and non stunting children aged 24-49 months in Pontianak. Method: The study was an analytical observational with cross sectional design. Samples of the study were children aged 24-59 months in the districts of East Pontianak and North Pontianak, West Borneo, as much as 90 samples have been chosen by using simple random sampling technique. The research was conducted from July - August 2015. Statistical analysis was performed by using chi square and t-test. Results: Protein, calcium and phosphorus intake are lower to the stunting compare to non stunting children (p<0,05. Stunting prevalence of  lower protein group is higher 1,87 times than adequate protein intake group. Stunting prevalence of low calcium intake group is higher 3,625 times than adequate calcium intake group. Moreover, the stunting prevalence of low phosphor intake group is higher 2,29 times than adequate phosphor intake group. Conclusion: Protein, calcium and phosphor intake significant lower to the stunting compare to non stunting children aged 24- 59 months in Pontianak.

  19. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgeir Kismul

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. Methods This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013–14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Results Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother’s age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother’s BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother’s education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Conclusions Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address

  20. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were considerably more underweight adolescent boys than adolescent girls (17.3% boys to 9.9% girls), and double the frequency of overweight adolescent girls than adolescent boys (7.7% girls to 3.5% boys). The 14-year-old boys had the highest prevalence of underweight (55.2%), and the 17-year-old girls the ...

  1. Perbedaan Asupan Energi, Protein, Zink, dan Perkembangan pada Balita Stunting dan non Stunting

    OpenAIRE

    Adani, Farahiyah Yusni; Nindya, Triska Susila

    2017-01-01

     Background: Stunting is a nutritional problem caused by inadequate nutrition intake for  a long time and/or recurrent infectious diseases. The impacts of stunting are increase mortality,  morbidity,  health costs, decrease cognitive development, motor, and language development.There are nutrients that important to linear growth as energy, protein, and zinc. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences of intake of the energy, protein, Zinc, development in stunting and...

  2. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-03-09

    Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has

  3. Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Utero as a Risk Factor for Child Stunting in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nihit; Canning, David

    2017-12-23

    Pregnant mothers in Bangladesh are exposed to very high and worsening levels of ambient air pollution. Maternal exposure to fine particulate matter has been associated with low birth weight at much lower levels of exposure, leading us to suspect the potentially large effects of air pollution on stunting in children in Bangladesh. We estimate the relationship between exposure to air pollution in utero and child stunting by pooling outcome data from four waves of the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2004 and 2014, and calculating children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in utero using high resolution satellite data. We find significant increases in the relative risk of child stunting, wasting, and underweight with higher levels of in utero exposure to air pollution, after controlling for other factors that have been found to contribute to child anthropometric failure. We estimate the relative risk of stunting in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure as 1.074 (95% confidence interval: 1.014-1.138), 1.150 (95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.237, and 1.132 (95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.243), respectively. Over half of all children in Bangladesh in our sample were exposed to an annual ambient fine particulate matter level in excess of 46 µg/m³; these children had a relative risk of stunting over 1.13 times that of children in the lowest quartile of exposure. Reducing air pollution in Bangladesh could significantly contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing child stunting.

  4. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  5. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... cultures (underweight and overweight).8-11 Obesity and malnutrition represent .... have to predominantly rely on purchased food in an area in which they have low ..... The association of fat patterning with blood pressure in ...

  6. Unemployment, underweight, and obesity: Findings from Understanding Society (UKHLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena

    2017-04-01

    Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. How consistent are associations between stunting and child development? Evidence from a meta-analysis of associations between stunting and multidimensional child development in fifteen low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Murray, Megan B; Thomson, Dana R; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Despite documented associations between stunting and cognitive development, few population-level studies have measured both indicators in individual children or assessed stunting's associations with other developmental domains. Meta-analysis using publicly available data from fifteen Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS-4) to assess the association between stunting and development, controlling for maternal education, family wealth, books in the home, developmentally supportive parenting and sex of the child, stratified by country prevalence of breast-feeding ('low BF'middle-income countries. Publically available data from 58 513 children aged 36-59 months. Severe stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-3) was negatively associated with on-track development (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·83). Any stunting (Z-score <-2) was negatively associated with on-track development in countries with high BF prevalence (OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89). Severe and any stunting were negatively associated with physical development (OR=0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·89 and OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·91, respectively) and literacy/numeracy development in high BF countries (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·53 and OR=0·59, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·68, respectively), but not low BF countries (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·23 and OR=0·95, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·12, respectively). Any stunting was negatively associated with learning (OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88). There was no clear association between stunting and socio-emotional development. Stunting is associated with many but not all developmental domains across a diversity of countries and cultures. However, associations varied by country breast-feeding prevalence and developmental domain.

  8. SEARCH FOR RATOON STUNTING DISEASE OF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absence of the ratoon stunting disease can be positively ascertained in indi- vidual stalks of sugarcane in field conditions in Louisiana'. The crop as a whole shows retarded growth with deficient root system and has poor stand due to the deterioration of lateral buds. As a result the number of stalks per stool is reduced in ...

  9. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  10. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and low consumption of eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables were associated with stunting and poor linear growth in children 6-23 months old. Children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Differences of Fundamental Motor Skills Stunting and Non Stunting Preschool Children in Kindergarten in North Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaini, A.; Mardela, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem that emerged is based on the result of research done by the writer in kindergarten in North Padang Sub-district which concluded that: there were kindergarten students in this sub-district who were still lack of motor ability, research data shows that 59 people (37,34%) and then 34 people (21, 52%) were in very good category, 35 people (22.15%), were in moderate category, 22 people (13.92%) were in the poor category, and 5 (5,06%) were in the very poor category. Based on this data, the authors thought that the dominant factors that affect the above situation was a nutritional factor. It could be seen from the physical appearance of kindergarten children who tend to slow growth. The purpose of this study is to explain the description and differences in stunting and non stunting Fundamental motor skills capabilities in early childhood (preschool) children. This research is comparative study with cross sectional approach. The population in this study was the students of Kindergarten of Perwari II which consisted of 60 people consisting of 37 children of stunting and 23 non stunting children in Kindergarten of North Padang Sub district, the sample was taken as a whole. The data were collected with Fundamental motor skills tests including jumping, walking, running, balance exercises, throwing and catching the ball. Technique of data analysis in this research was descriptive statistic. The result of data analysis shows that there is difference of Fundamental motor skills between stunting and non stunting children. Fundamental motor skills of non stunting or normal children are better than those who were stunting or short. While the results of Fundamental motor skills of kindergarten children in North Padang District as a whole is at a good level.

  12. Kadar kalsium serum pada anak stunting dan tidak stunting usia 24-59 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulinda Kurniasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with stunning as the accumulations of the lack of nutrient or continuous infection are highly at risk to suffer from illness and death. In developing country, there are 165 million children under the age of suffering from stunting. Research done showed that nationally stunting prevalence in 2013 is 37,2 percent. West Borneo is one of the twenty provinces with the stunting prevalence above the national average. During the growth period, children need calcium, especially for ossification. The lack of calcium is mainly caused by inadequate intake and or non-optimal calcium absorption. Some of the previous research has shown that the level of calcium serum of children with stunting has significantly lowered than the normal children. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the calcium serum level of the children with stunting aged 24-59 months in Pontianak City. Method: This study is a cross-sectional design. It conducted in East Pontianak and North Pontianak subdistricts,  from July to August 2015. A number of samples were 90 children. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression. Results: There was no significance in serum calcium level between stunting and nonstunting children (p=0,193. The average of the calcium serum level of the stunting children was 12,14±1,97 mg/dl, while the nonstunting children were 12,16±1,63 mg/dl. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference (p=0,966. Conclusion: There is no significant difference of the calcium serum level between the stunting and nonstunting children aged 24- 59 months in Pontianak City (p=0,193.

  13. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  14. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2017-01-01

    than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75......BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...

  15. Integrated Blanket Supplementary Feeding Program Reduces Levels of Stunting in Yenangyaung, Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Thet; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full text: BACKGROUND: Yenanchaung Township is the top ranked amongst the six poorest townships in the 25 townships comprising of Magway Division. There is food insecurity, poor transportation, high unemployment and migration rates widespread illiteracy, poor hygiene, and lack of health facilities. Along with food insecurity, high rates of malnutrition are found. In 2010, 39.5 percent of children under five years of age were found to be stunted, 18.1 percent wasted and 28.3 percent underweight. World Food Program (WFP) and World Vision Myanmar (WV) have been collaborating in response to the food insecurity situation in Yenangyaung since 2005 through food assistance interventions. However, in 2011, WV target villages started focusing on implementation of food activities apart from just food assistance; a more sustainable approach. Thus, the project is now focusing on maintaining the food security status of the targeted communities by strengthening the capacity in agriculture technique, alternative livelihood skills, and health/nutrition education. METHODS: This project is focused on food provision for all pregnant and lactating mothers and under 3 children according to the set criteria by WFP as well as nutrition education in the respective villages. Township health offices, village leaders and trained volunteers were used to carry out the activities of the project, including: health/nutrition education, food distribution, cooking demonstrations, integration of immunization and vitamin A supplementation, pre-/post-natal care, growth monitoring, counseling and referrals. The weight and MUAC of the children (n = 381) were taken every month, and height was measured every 3 months. Follow-up was conducted January 2012 to December 2012. Children were discharged from the program when they reached 3 years of age, regardless of the nutritional status. Thus, the data collected during the project was used to assess the impact of the program. RESULTS: No significant changes

  16. Stunting, selenium deficiency and anemia are associated with poor cognitive performance in preschool children from rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashu, Dawd; Stoecker, Barbara J; Bougma, Karim; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Marquis, Grace S

    2016-04-12

    Anthropometric characteristics and iron status affect cognitive performance in children. In addition, selenium can influence cognitive outcomes; protection of the brain from oxidative stress and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism are putative mechanisms. To investigate their association with cognitive performance, anthropometric indicators, iron biomarkers, and serum selenium of children (n = 541) of 54-60mo of age from rural Ethiopia were assessed. Cognitive assessment was conducted with the administration of two reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the school readiness test. Stunting was found in 41.4 % of children, 28.7 % were underweight, and 6.3 % were wasted. The mean score of stunted children was lower than that of non-stunted children on non-verbal reasoning (7.0 ± 3.2vs7.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.01) and the school readiness tests (4.3 ± 2.2 vs 3.3 ± 2.1; p 0.05). Selenium deficient children had lower scores on all cognitive tests than normal children (p malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency and address cognitive development in children.

  17. Overweight, obesity and underweight in nurses in Vhembe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In South Africa, anecdotal evidence concerning the prevalence of overweight and obesity in nurses is alarming, but no scientific studies have confirmed this notion. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in black nurses practising in South Africa. Method: A ...

  18. Overweight, obesity and underweight in rural black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-24

    Jul 24, 2011 ... obesity and underweight among rural school children in Mankweng .... Social Sciences® (SPSS), version 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The .... and which are strengthened by media pressures that place strong ..... mass index, depressive symptoms, and overweight concerns elementary school children.

  19. Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults Nigerians living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Obesity in Developing Countries: People are Overweight But Still Not Well Nourished. Available. Sola, et al.: Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. [Downloaded from http://www.annalsafrmed.org on Wednesday, June 15, 2011, IP: 41.185.171.19] || Click here to download free Android application ...

  20. Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults Nigerian living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At action level II, there was no obese male. Conclusion: This study revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity exist in young adults, but overweight and obesity are more prevalent. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to control this in young adults for their present well-being and to possibly avoid the risk of ...

  1. Underweight and malnutrition in home care: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Nils A; Tannen, Antje; Suhr, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to provide representative figures about the prevalence of underweight and malnutrition among home care clients, and to determine the associated risk factors and the provided nutritional nursing interventions. In 2012, a multicenter point prevalence study was conducted among 878 randomly selected clients from 100 randomly selected home care services across Germany. Following a standardized study protocol, demographics, nutritional assessments (Body Mass Index, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini nutritional Assessment - short form (MNA-sf), nurses' clinical judgment on nutritional status) and interventions were assessed. Common nutritional risk factors for underweight and malnutrition were analyzed in a logistic regression model. Malnutrition figures varied between 4.8% (MNA-sf) and 6.8% (MUST), underweight between 8.7% (BMI malnutrition assessments (MNA-sf 48.8%, MUST 39.1%) due to a lack of information on many clients' loss of weight within the past 3-6 months. Regular weighing was performed in 33.6-57.3% of all clients, depending on weight and nutritional status. Mental overload (OR 8.1/4.4), needs help with feeding (OR 5.0/2.8) and loss of appetite (OR 3.6/3.9) were highly associated with malnutrition/underweight. Malnutrition and underweight are important issues in home care clients. Regular weighing should be performed in all home care clients so that a potential weight loss can be detected in time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  4. Upper arm fat and muscle in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Winandi Arundito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of stunting in Indonesia is high, with particularly negative impacts on health during childhood as well as adolescence. Stunting impacts the health of children as well as adults, especially with  regards to future obesity. Therefore, evaluating body composition of stunted children before 2 years of age is necessary. Objective To compare upper arm fat and muscle measurements in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months of age. Methods We analyzed secondary data of the Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Disease, Department of Child Health, Universitas Gadjah Mada Medical School, Yogyakarta which were collected using cluster random sampling from the Yogyakarta Special Province. We compared upper arm fat area (UFA, including the upper arm fat area estimate (UFE and the upper arm fat percentage (UFP, as well as upper arm muscle area (UMA and upper arm muscle area estimate (UME, among stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months. Results We analyzed 2,195 children. The prevalence of stunting was 354/2,195 (16.1%. The UFA, UFE, and UFP among stunted children were significantly lower compared to non-stunted children aged 7-12 months [UFA: 4.48 vs. 5.05 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; UFE: 4.88 vs. 5.55 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; and UFP: 30.82 vs. 32.58% (P = 0.03, respectively]. The UMA in children aged 7-12 months was also significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children [11.31 vs. 11.79 cm2 (P = 0.02, respectively], as well as in children aged 13-24 months [11.05 vs. 11.75 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. In addition, the UME in children aged 13-24 months was significantly lower in stunted compared to non-stunted children [10.50 vs. 11.18 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. Conclusion The UFA in children aged 7-12 months is smaller in stunted than in non-stunted children, whereas UMA in children aged 7-12 months and 13-24 months was smaller in stunted compared to non-stunted children.

  5. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  6. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    existence of the double burden of malnutrition among adolescents in developing countries. Several factors were not associated with weight status suggesting the need to explore other potential risk factors for overweight and underweight, including genetic factors and socioeconomic status.

  7. Magnitude and determinants of stunting in children underfive years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Surprisingly, the highest level of stunting is found in food surplus areas of the country. Objective: To identify the determinants of stunting in food surplus areas of West Gojam Zone. Method: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted ...

  8. Household market participation and stunting in preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stunting among Malawian preschool children continues to be a concern. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 251 semi-urban households, who participated in a community-supported preschool programme, was conducted. Results: Of the 433 participating two- to five-year-old children, 34.4% had stunting.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...

  10. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; PRwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6-12 years old school age children from rural community of Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Tesfahun Yonas; Bala, Elazar Tadesse; Tadesse, Minyahil; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-05-24

    Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select participants from households in eight Villages in the study area. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. EPI info version 3.5.4 was used for data entry, whereas Anthroplus software and SPSS version 20.0 were used for computation of height for age Z-scores and statistical analyses respectively. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with stunting in the study sample, using 95% confidence limits (statistical significance set at p < 0.050). Prevalence of stunting was 57%, about, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was - 1.1 (±1.2). About 7 (1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Age (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), big family size (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.2-9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting. This study exposed high rate of stunting among school age children. Stunting remains a noticeable attribute of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.

  12. A review of child stunting determinants in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Ty; Tumilowicz, Alison; Sutrisna, Aang; Izwardy, Doddy; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2018-05-17

    Child stunting reduction is the first of 6 goals in the Global Nutrition Targets for 2025 and a key indicator in the second Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The prevalence of child stunting in Indonesia has remained high over the past decade, and at the national level is approximately 37%. It is unclear whether current approaches to reduce child stunting align with the scientific evidence in Indonesia. We use the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting to review the available literature and identify what has been studied and can be concluded about the determinants of child stunting in Indonesia and where data gaps remain. Consistent evidence suggests nonexclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, low household socio-economic status, premature birth, short birth length, and low maternal height and education are particularly important child stunting determinants in Indonesia. Children from households with both unimproved latrines and untreated drinking water are also at increased risk. Community and societal factors-particularly, poor access to health care and living in rural areas-have been repeatedly associated with child stunting. Published studies are lacking on how education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation, and the environment contribute to child stunting. This comprehensive synthesis of the available evidence on child stunting determinants in Indonesia outlines who are the most vulnerable to stunting, which interventions have been most successful, and what new research is needed to fill knowledge gaps. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Trends in inequalities in child stunting in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Aditi; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor; Subramanian, S V

    2017-10-19

    We analysed socio-economic inequalities in stunting in South Asia and investigated disparities associated with factors at the individual, caregiver, and household levels (poor dietary diversity, low maternal education, and household poverty). We used time-series analysis of data from 55,459 children ages 6-23 months from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan (1991-2014). Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, birth order, and place of residency, examined associations between stunting and multiple types of socio-economic disadvantage. All countries had high stunting rates. Bangladesh and Nepal recorded the largest reductions-2.9 and 4.1 percentage points per year, respectively-compared to 1.3 and 0.6 percentage points in India and Pakistan, respectively. Socio-economic adversity was associated with increased risk of stunting, regardless of disadvantage type. Poor children with inadequate diets and with poorly educated mothers experienced greater risk of stunting. Although stunting rates declined in the most deprived groups, socio-economic differences were largely preserved over time and in some cases worsened, namely, between wealth quintiles. The disproportionate burden of stunting experienced by the most disadvantaged children and the worsening inequalities between socio-economic groups are of concern in countries with substantial stunting burdens. Closing the gap between best and worst performing countries, and between most and least disadvantaged groups within countries, would yield substantial improvements in stunting rates in South Asia. To do so, greater attention needs to be paid to addressing the social, economic, and political drivers of stunting with targeted efforts towards the populations experiencing the greatest disadvantage and child growth faltering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Orbital Light Curves of UU Aquarii in Stunted Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. W.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Henden, A. A.; Campbell, R. T.

    2018-02-01

    Stunted outbursts are ∼0.ͫ6 eruptions, typically lasting 5–10 days, which are found in some novalike cataclysmic variables, including UU Aqr. The mechanism responsible for stunted outbursts is uncertain but is likely related to an accretion disk instability or to variations in the mass transfer rate. A campaign to monitor the eclipse light curves in UU Aqr has been conducted in order to detect any light curve distortions due to the appearance of a hot spot on the disk at the location of the impact point of the accretion stream. If stunted outbursts are due to a temporary mass transfer enhancement, then predictable deformations of the orbital light curve are expected to occur during such outbursts. This study used 156 eclipses on 135 nights during the years 2000–2012. During this interval, random samples found the system to be in stunted outbursts 4%–5% of the time, yielding ∼7 eclipses obtained during some stage of stunted outburst. About half of the eclipses obtained during stunted outbursts showed clear evidence for hot spot enhancement, providing strong evidence that the stunted outbursts in UU Aqr are associated with mass transfer variations. The other half of the eclipses during stunted outburst showed little or no evidence for hot spot enhancement. Furthermore, there were no systematic changes in the hot spot signature as stunted outbursts progressed. Therefore, we have tentatively attributed the changes in hot spot visibility during stunted outburst to random blobby accretion, which likely further modulates the strength of the accretion stream on orbital timescales.

  15. Underweight in ski jumping: The solution of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W; Gröschl, W; Müller, R; Sudi, K

    2006-11-01

    Underweight is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sports. Among world class ski jumpers, the body mass index BMI has decreased by 4 units since 1970. The BMI ignores different body properties of individuals. Particular care should be taken in groups with unusual leg length to avoid classifying them inappropriately as thin or overweight (WHO). The improved measure MI (mass index) for relative body weight overcomes this shortcoming. Anthropometric data of ski jumpers was collected during the Olympic Games in Salt Lake City (2002; participation 81 %, n = 57), during the Summer Grand Prix in Hinterzarten (2000; participation 100 %, n = 92), and during the World Cup in Planica (2000; n = 56). The BMI and the MI were determined. The MI considers the individual leg length: A person with longer legs than average has an MI > BMI, and vice versa: MI = 0.28 m/s2 (m: mass in kg, s: sitting height in meters). BMI classes of ski jumpers in the season 2004/2005 were calculated from their official individual ski length limitation which is a function of their BMI. BMI means were 19.84 in Planica, 19.58 in Hinterzarten, and 19.43 kg m(-2) in SLC. Lowest BMI was 16.4 kg m(-2). The percentage of underweight ski jumpers (BMI ski jumping regulations. The ratio s/h = C (s = sitting height, h = height, C = cormic index) ranged from 0.49 to 0.57. Accordingly, the MI values (which are leg length corrected BMI values according to MI = BMI (C /C) (k) with k = 2 and C = 0.53) deviated remarkably from BMI values. For the 49 cases with BMI or MI or both below 18.5 kg m(-2), the classification to be underweight or not changed in 69 % when the MI was used instead of the BMI. Underweight or overweight is not only a question of cut-off points; the measure used determines the classification accuracy. A substantial improvement of weight analyses in sports medicine, public health, and general medicine as well can be obtained by using the MI instead of the BMI.

  16. Household Food Insecurity, Underweight Status, and Associated Characteristics among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Assayita District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Jemal; Kahssay, Molla; Gebremedhin, Merhawi

    2018-01-01

    Poor nutritional status of women has been a serious problem in Ethiopia. Rural women are more likely to be undernourished than urban women. Afar region is the most likely to be undernourished (43.5%). Despite the humanitarian and food aid, food insecurity and maternal underweight are very high in the region. Household food insecurity is not adequately studied in Afar region. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of household food insecurity and underweight status and its association among reproductive age women. The study was conducted in Assayita district in June 2015. Community-based cross-sectional study design was used among nonpregnant women. Household data was collected using structured questionnaire. Multistage cluster sampling procedure was applied. Two pastoral and two agropastoral Kebeles have been selected by simple random sampling. Systematic random sampling was used to select respondents. The total sample size was 549 households. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and anthropometric data were used to determine food insecurity and underweight, respectively. Multivariate regression models were used to measure associations. Prevalence of HFIAS was 70.4 with a mean of 7.0 (3.6 ± SD); 26.1%, 30.20%, and 14.1% were mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity, respectively. Underweight prevalence (BMI 2 children below five years of age were statistically associated with household food insecurity and maternal underweight. Household food insecurity and maternal underweight were very high. Age, parity, and having ≥2 children below five years of age were associated with household food insecurity. Maternal underweight was associated with maternal age, marital status, parity, number of children below 5 years, household food insecurity, and vocation of the respondents.

  17. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzian, H.; Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Hobdell, M.; Mulder, J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental decay is the most common childhood disease worldwide and most of the decay remains untreated. In the Philippines caries levels are among the highest in the South East Asian region. Elementary school children suffer from high prevalence of stunting and underweight.The present study

  18. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition and age at menarche; cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, T.; Petersen, L. T.; Kariuki, S. K.; Oloo, A. J.; Kager, P. A.; ter Kuile, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nutritional status is an important marker of overall health and linear growth retardation has serious long-term physiological and economic consequences. Approximately 35 and 29% of preschool children in sub-Saharan Africa are stunted and underweight, respectively. There is relatively

  19. Grandparents and Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijner, Sandor; Smits, Jeroen

    2018-03-26

    Globally an estimated 159 million children under 5 years of age are being too short for one's age (stunted). More than one third of these children is living in Africa. Given the substantial number of sub-Saharan African (SSA) children living in households with co-residing grandparents and the negative effects of stunting on productivity and economic growth, gaining insight into the role grandparents play for children's stunting, has become increasingly important. By applying multilevel logistic regression analysis on a database with information on 344,748 children aged 6-60 months living in 31 SSA countries, the strength of the relationship between grandparental co-residence and children's stunting is examined. Interaction analysis is used to explore how this relationship is moderated by characteristics of the household and of the context in which the household is situated. Children in households with a co-residing grandmother have significantly lower odds of being stunted than other children, provided that the grandmother is in the 50-75 age range. When the grandmother is very young or very old, the likelihood of being stunted is higher. For grandfathers, no significant overall relationship is found, but our findings show that co-residence of a grandfather is associated with less stunting of girls, in poor households and in polygamous households. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations between oral health-related impacts and rate of weight gain after extraction of pulpally involved teeth in underweight preschool Filipino children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Sheiham, A.; Hobdell, M.H.; Itchon, G.; Monse, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe dental caries in young children is associated with underweight and failure to thrive. One possible mechanism for severe caries affecting growth is that the resulting pain and discomfort influences sleeping and eating, and that affects growth and weight. The objective of this study

  1. The effects of extraction of pulpally involved primary teeth on weight, height and BMI in underweight Filipino children: a cluster randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monse, B.; Duijster, D.; Sheiham, A.; Grijalva-Eternod, C.S.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.H.; Hobdell, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Severe dental caries and the treatment thereof are reported to affect growth and well-being of young children. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of extraction of severely decayed pulpally involved primary teeth on weight and height in underweight preschool Filipino

  2. A Community-Based Positive Deviance/Hearth Infant and Young Child Nutrition Intervention in Ecuador Improved Diet and Reduced Underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marion L; Marquis, Grace S; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Blouin, Brittany; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2017-03-01

    Underweight and stunting are serious problems in Ecuador that require interventions in the first 2 years of life. The researchers assessed the effectiveness of a Positive Deviance (PD)/Hearth community-based intervention using local foods to improve infant and young children's nutrition. A quasi-experimental nonrandomized study was conducted between March and October, 2009. The intervention and study were implemented in the Ecuadorian highlands provinces of Chimborazo and Tungurahua. Eighty mother-child pairs in 6 intervention communities and 184 mother-child pairs in 9 comparison communities. Mothers met in participatory peer-led PD/Hearth cooking and nutrition education sessions for 12 days. Dietary intake and nutritional status were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Multiple linear and logistic regression were used for growth outcomes, and ANCOVA for mean dietary intakes. Mothers in the intervention were 1.3-5.7 times more likely to feed their children the promoted foods (P Hearth interventions support mothers to improve infant and young children's nutrition practices and reduce underweight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Moore

    2010-01-01

    Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8% and obesity (9.3% most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.

  4. Maternal waist circumference as a prediction of children's stunted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Stunted Child and Overweight Mother (SCOM) pairs in a South African setting. After a ... this study measured waist circumference, while the Mexican group ... predictor of the mothers' children's metabolic syndrome status, but.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Socio-economic predictors of stunting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-01

    Jun 1, 2009 ... Childhood stunting continues to be a public health issue in many African ... risk of child and adult obesity.4 This wide range of effects is particularly relevant in a ... interventions, and disease control and treatment programmes.

  6. Model Pengendalian Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Bawah Tiga Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Kusumawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stunting merupakan masalah gizi, terbukti data pemantauan status gizi Kabupaten Banyumas 2012 prevalensi stunting sebesar 28,37% dan prevalensi tertinggi (41,6% di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis faktor risiko terkait faktor anak, ibu, lingkungan terhadap stunting bawah tiga tahun (batita agar dapat dikembangkan model pengendaliannya. Penelitian menggunakan desain kasus kontrol, populasi adalah seluruh anak usia 6 sampai 36 bulan di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas selama enam bulan tahun 2013. Sampel kasus adalah 50 batita stunting, sampel kontrol adalah 50 batita status normal. Teknik pengambilan sampel kasus diambil dari tujuh desa yang terbanyak stuntingnya, sedangkan kontrol adalah batita normal tetangga terdekat kasus dengan usia yang disamakan. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara dan pengukuran. Analisis data univariat, bivariat (uji kai kuadrat, dan multivariat (uji regresi logistik ganda. Hasil penelitian menemukan karakteristik batita stunting terkena penyakit infeksi (82%, riwayat panjang badan lahir < 48 centimeter (66%, riwayat pemberian ASI dan makanan pendamping ASI kurang baik (66%, riwayat berat badan lahir rendah (8%. Pada penelitian ini, faktor risiko stunting adalah penyakit infeksi, pelayanan kesehatan, immunisasi, pengetahuan ibu, pendapatan keluarga, ketersediaan pangan keluarga, dan sanitasi lingkungan. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah penyakit infeksi. Model pengendalian stunting melalui peningkatan pemberdayaan keluarga terkait pencegahan penyakit infeksi, memanfaatkan pekarangan sebagai sumber gizi keluarga dan perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan. Model of Stunting Risk Factor Control among Children under Three Years Old Stunting is a nutritional problem, proved by the evidence of nutritional status monitoring at Banyumas District in 2012, the prevalence of stunting was 28.37% and the highest prevalence 41.6% at Kedungbanteng Primary Health Care. This study aimed to analyze risk factors

  7. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lif......An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting...... the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education....... Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels....

  8. A Literature Review of the Effect of Malaria on Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Background: The current version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) maternal and child health impact modeling software does not include an effect of malaria on stunting. Objective: This literature review was undertaken to determine whether such a causal link should be included in the LiST model. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched by using broad search terms. The searches returned a total of 4281 documents. Twelve studies from among the retrieved documents were included in the review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: There was mixed evidence for an effect of malaria on stunting among longitudinal observational studies, and none of the randomized controlled trials of malaria interventions found an effect of the interventions on stunting. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to include malaria as a determinant of stunting or an effect of malaria interventions on stunting in the LiST model. The paucity and heterogeneity of the available literature were a major limitation. In addition, the studies included in the review consistently fulfilled their ethical responsibility to treat children under observation for malaria, which may have interfered with the natural history of the disease and prevented any observable effect on stunting or linear growth. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  10. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  11. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2013-01-01

    Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  12. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Fenske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. RESULTS: At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  13. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  14. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  15. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  16. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  17. Postoperative hypoxia and length of intensive care unit stay after cardiac surgery: the underweight paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ranucci

    Full Text Available Cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass can be associated with postoperative lung dysfunction. The present study investigates the incidence of postoperative hypoxia after cardiac surgery, its relationship with the length of intensive care unit stay, and the role of body mass index in determining postoperative hypoxia and intensive care unit length of stay.Single-center, retrospective study.University Hospital. Patients. Adult patients (N = 5,023 who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB.None.According to the body mass index, patients were attributed to six classes, and obesity was defined as a body mass index >30. POH was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 at the arrival in the intensive care unit. Postoperative hypoxia was detected in 1,536 patients (30.6%. Obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative hypoxia (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.05-2.78, P = 0.001 and postoperative hypoxia was a determinant of intensive care unit length of stay. There is a significant inverse correlation between body mass index and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, with the risk of postoperative hypoxia increasing by 1.7 folds per each incremental body mass index class. The relationship between body mass index and intensive care unit length of stay is U-shaped, with longer intensive care unit stay in underweight patients and moderate-morbid obese patients.Obese patients are at higher risk for postoperative hypoxia, but this leads to a prolonged intensive care unit stay only for moderate-morbid obese patients. Obese patients are partially protected against the deleterious effects of hemodilution and transfusions. Underweight patients present the "paradox" of a better lung gas exchange but a longer intensive care unit stay. This is probably due to a higher severity of their cardiac disease.

  18. EVALUASI PENATALAKSANAAN GIZI BALITA STUNTING DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SIRAMPOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himatul Khoeroh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition merupakan upaya global dalam rangka rencana aksi percepatan perbaikan gizi salah satunya menanggulangi balita stunting fokus pada 1000 HPK. Stunting merupakan prevalensi tertinggi di Wilayah kerja Puskesmas Sirampog di Kabupaten Brebes, ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas pelayanan kesehatan masih rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi penatalaksanaan status gizi balita stunting dengan unsur input, proses dan output. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Informan awal ditentukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Metode pegumpulan data melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi dan dokumentasi terhadap 6 informan awal yang terdiri dari kepala puskesmas, bidan koordinator KIA, koordinator gizi, bidan desa, kader dan ibu balita sasaran. Dua informan triangulasi yang terdiri dari koordinator kesehatan kelurga dan koordinator gizi Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada tahap input yaitu tenaga kesehatan yang terlibat masih memerlukan tambahan, belum ada tenaga gizi. Pada unsur proses, sebagian program terlaksana dengan baik meliputi program sehat bagi wanita hamil, pemberian ASI Eksklusif, pemantauan tumbuh kembang, pemberian makanan tambahan, pemberian vitamin A kecuali program pemberian taburia. Pada unsur output, cakupan prevalensi stunting di Puskesmas Sirampog Kabupaten Brebes tahun 2015 sebesar 16,74 %.   ABSTRACT   SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition is  the global efforts from all shorts of countries in the framework of program attractive speeding up of nutrition improvement one of them to cope with baby of stunting  focused to 1000 HPK. Stunting is highest prevalency in estate work clinik of sirampog brebes, this is indicate that quality of health treatment is too low. The porpose of This research is to evaluate management status nutrition of baby stunting included unsure input, proses and output.. This research is the qualitative reseearch in estate work clinik of

  19. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  20. Stunting is characterized by chronic inflammation in Zimbabwean infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Prendergast

    Full Text Available Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting.We conducted a case-control study of 202 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants who were stunted (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ -0.5; controls at 18 months. We measured biomarkers of intestinal damage (I-FABP, inflammation (CRP, AGP, IL-6 and growth hormone-IGF axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3 in infant plasma at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, and in paired maternal-infant plasma at birth. Adjusted mean differences between biomarkers were estimated using regression models. Multivariate odds ratios of stunting were estimated by logistic regression.At birth, cases were shorter (median (IQR HAZ -1.00 (-1.53, -0.08 vs 0.03 (-0.57, 0.62,; P<0.001 than controls and their mothers had lower levels of IGF-1 (adjusted mean difference (95%CI -21.4 (-39.8, -3.1 ng/mL. From 6 weeks to 12 months of age, levels of CRP and AGP were consistently higher and IGF-1 and IGFBP3 lower in cases versus controls; IGF-1 correlated inversely with inflammatory markers at all time-points. I-FABP increased between 3-12 months, indicating extensive intestinal damage during infancy, which was similar in cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, higher log10 levels of CRP (aOR 3.06 (95%CI 1.34, 6.99; P = 0.008 and AGP (aOR 7.87 (95%CI 0.74, 83.74; P = 0.087 during infancy were associated with stunting. There were no associations between levels of I-FABP, IL-6, sCD14 or EndoCAb and stunting.Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy

  1. Maize bush stunt and corn stunt: Diseases of corn caused by molicutes/ Enfezamentos vermelho e pálido: Doenças em milho causadas por molicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sidnei Massola Júnior

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize Bushy Stunt and Corn Stunt are diseases of corn caused respectively by a phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt phytoplasma and by Spiroplasma kunkelii. Both agents are restricted to the floem vessels of diseased plants. The leafhopper Dalbulus maidis is the vector of the diseases. The diseases are very harmfull to corn crops and can cause severe losses. Their importance increased very much in the last years mainly due to the continuous crops, which allow the perpetuation of corn, pathogens and vector over the year. Diseased plants show shortening, redening or yellowing and excessive proliferation of ears, among others symptoms. However, symptoms are variable according to the causal agent, environmental conditions and corn genotype. Correct diagnosis of the diseases has been reached with ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” and PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”. The use of resistant genotypes of corn is the main strategy of control of the diseases.Os enfezamentos vermelho e pálido são doenças do milho causadas, respectivamente, por um fitoplasma (“maize bushy stunt phytoplasma” e pelo Spiroplasma kunkelii, organismos restritos ao floema das plantas infectadas. Ambas são transmitidas pela cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis. São doenças bastante destrutivas, podendo causar sérios prejuízos aos agricultores. A importância dessas doenças aumentou muito nos últimos anos, devido principalmente aos cultivos “safrinha”, que perpetuam o milho, os patógenos e o vetor no campo durante o ano todo. As plantas doentes exibem redução de crescimento, avermelhamento ou amarelecimento, proliferação excessiva de espigas pequenas e improdutivas, além de outros sintomas. No entanto, esses sintomas dependem do agente causal, condições climáticas e genótipo do milho. A diagnose correta tem sido feita por testes de ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” e por PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”, devido à complexidade da

  2. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Sandhi M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m² and underweight (BMI or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.

  3. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhi M. Barreto

    Full Text Available The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m² and underweight (BMI or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.

  4. Two food-assisted maternal and child health nutrition programs helped mitigate the impact of economic hardship on child stunting in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Shannon; Maluccio, John A; Myers, Caitlin K; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Rigorous evaluations of food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs are stymied by the ethics of randomizing recipients to a control treatment. Using nonexperimental matching methods, we evaluated the effect of 2 such programs on child linear growth in Haiti. The 2 well-implemented programs offered the same services (food assistance, behavior change communication, and preventive health services) to pregnant and lactating women and young children. They differed in that one (the preventive program) used blanket targeting of all children 6-23 mo, whereas the other (the recuperative program) targeted underweight (weight-for-age Z score effects on height-for-age Z scores (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ growth in a time of deteriorating economic circumstances.

  5. Partial Molecular Characterization Of Cowpea Stunt Isolates Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partial molecular characterization of the coat protein of the cowpea stunt-causing isolates of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) from Arkansas and Georgia revealed that both isolates of CMV belong to CMV subgroup I and differ at eight nucleotides positions, resulting in two amino acids difference. There was only one amino ...

  6. Dietary determination of stunting and anaemia among pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morocco is undergoing nutrition transition with more than one third of women and children presenting anaemia while about 20% of children under the age of 15 years have stunted growth. Meanwhile the prevalence of obesity is increasing yearly by 0.5 to 1 point among women. Many nutritional strategies have been ...

  7. The effect of early childhood stunting on children's cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    The balance of the propensity score matching techniques was checked and found to be satisfied (P<0.01). Results: Early childhood stunting is significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance of .... linked to poorer cognitive attainment later in life (22). .... to the questionnaires and organization of the field work.

  8. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children who started complementary food either before or after the recommended 6 months time, were more likely to be stunted (P=0.01). Conclusion: The feeding practices of most mothers did not meet WHO recommendations. Behavior change communication about the importance of optimal complementary feeding and ...

  9. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  10. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  11. Has the prevalence of stunting in South African children changed in 40 years? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-06-05

    In the last 20 years, South Africa has experienced political, economic, and demographic transitions accompanied by an epidemiological transition. Like several sub-Saharan countries, the South African population is facing both under-and over-nutrition, and nutrition and lifestyle related chronic disease while the burden of infectious disease remains high. It is critical to understand these trends overtime in order to highlights the pitfalls and successful measures initiatives taken in the efforts to tackle malnutrition. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the changes in the prevalence of stunting, a chronic form of undernutrition, in South Africa over 40 years, and to derive lessons from the South African experience, a country in an advanced process of transition in sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a systematic review of publications selected from PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. We included studies and surveys published between 1970 and 2013 if they reported the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under-6 years of age living in South Africa. We excluded studies conducted in health facility outpatients or hospital wards, or children with known chronic and acute infectious diseases. We extracted Date of data collection, study setting, ethnicity, age, sex, sample size, growth references/standards, diagnostic criteria for stunting and prevalence of stunting from each study. Over the last decade, the national prevalence of stunting has decreased. However, between and within provincial, age and ethnic group disparities remain. Unlike other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, no sex or rural/urban differences were found in preschool children. However, the analysis of long-term trends and identification of vulnerable groups is complicated by the use of different growth references/standards and sampling methods. Despite economic growth, political and social transitions, and national nutritional programs, stunting remains

  12. Decomposing race and gender differences in underweight and obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2016-06-01

    To compare the BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of stunted and non-stunted children following different growth trajectories from low socio-economic strata in Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were measured. Information regarding the duration of breast-feeding, age at initiation of complementary feeding and income was obtained. Birth weight was obtained from records. BMI, body fat, WHtR and change in weight sd were calculated. Children who were beneficiaries of anganwadis, Mumbai city, India. Three hundred and thirty children aged 2-4 years were selected in each of the stunted and non-stunted groups after matching for age and sex. After adjusting for birth weight, change in weight sd, duration of breast-feeding, age at complementary feeding initiation and income, stunted children had significantly higher body fat, WHtR and BMI than the non-stunted (Pchildren were classified based on their change in weight sd. Stunted children with no change in weight sd had higher mean body fat, BMI (Pchildren had higher BMI and WHtR than the non-stunted (both Pchildren had higher BMI than the non-stunted (Pfat in young children. Such a tendency, if continued during later childhood and adolescence, can increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases.

  14. What Explains Cambodia's Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, ("covariate effects" and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes ("coefficient effects"? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries.

  15. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  16. Birth interval and stunting in children under five years of age in Peru (1996-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, M; Gutiérrez, C; Alarcón, J; Dávila, M; Cunha, A J

    2017-01-01

    Examine the evolution of stunting in birth interval (BI), and associated factors from 1996 to 2014. Data were extracted from the National Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (DHS) for the years 1996, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 on children birth (≤24 months vs. >24 months) and others sociodemographic variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in logistic regression for the effect of BI and other variables on stunting by each survey year. Between 1996 and 2014, stunting declined in both BI groups: ≤24 months: 35.8% to 21.8%; >24 months: 29.5% to 14.3%. BI was associated with stunting after adjustment for other variables in each survey except 2005. Of the other factors, sex, birth order (fourth child or more), maternal education and poverty were independently associated with stunting in all survey years. Residence in rural areas and in Amazon forest and highland regions was associated with stunting 1996 and 2000. Maternal age was not independently associated with stunting. While stunting showed a decreasing trend from 1996 to 2014, birth interval exceeding 24 months exerted a protective effect on stunting across the years surveyed. Poverty, low maternal education and high birth order were associated with stunting in all survey years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Household Food Insecurity as a Predictor of Stunted Children and Overweight/Obese Mothers (SCOWT) in Urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Nindya, Triska Susila; Andrias, Dini Ririn; Megatsari, Hario; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2018-04-26

    (1) Background : The double burden of malnutrition has been increasing in countries experiencing the nutrition transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between household food insecurity and the double burden of malnutrition, defined as within-household stunted child and an overweight/obese mother (SCOWT). (2) Methods : A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the urban city of Surabaya, Indonesia in April and May 2015. (3) Results : The prevalence of child stunting in urban Surabaya was 36.4%, maternal overweight/obesity was 70.2%, and SCOWT was 24.7%. Although many households were food secure (42%), there were high proportions of mild (22.9%), moderate (15.3%) and severe (19.7%) food insecurity. In a multivariate logistic regression, the household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) category significantly correlated with child stunting and SCOWT. Compared to food secure households, mildly food insecure households had the greatest odds of SCOWT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.789; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.540⁻5.083), followed by moderately food insecure (aOR = 2.530; 95% CI = 1.286⁻4.980) and severely food insecure households (aOR = 2.045; 95% CI = 1.087⁻3.848). (4) Conclusions : These results support the hypothesis that the double burden of malnutrition is related to food insecurity, and the HFIAS category is a predictor of SCOWT.

  18. Underweight in 14 to 16 year-old girls and boys: prevalence and associations with physical activity and sedentary activities

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Kantanista; Wiesław Osiński

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objectives. Underweight is associated with increased mortality of adults when compared to normal weight or overweight individuals. Studies of associations between underweight and physical activity levels in adolescents are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of underweight amongst 14 to 16 year-old girls and boys in tandem with the levels of physical activity and time spent in sedentary activities. The results were compared to those observed in norma...

  19. Stunting berhubungan dengan perkembangan motorik anak di Kecamatan Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreti Pantaleon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting (short body length is a body condition that is very short until surpass deficit at 2 SD under median of body length or body height of the population that be an international reference. The cause of stunting is food consumption that is not balanced and infectious disease. Many studies showed the correlation between stunting and poor motoric and mental development in early childhood, and poor cognitive performance and school performance in later childhood. The national prevalence of stunting in 2013 was 37.2%, it increased compared to 2010 (35.6% and 2007 (36.8%.Objectives: To know the correlation between stunting incidence and the development of 6-23 months old children in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was observational study with cross sectional design. The sample size was 100 children, whose aged 6-23 months old. They consisted of 50 stunting children and 50 non-stunting children who were selected by consecutive sampling methods. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and assisted by psychologist to measure the development of the children. Stunting in 6-23 months old children was measured by indicator of body length for age (WHO 2005 and the measurement of development used method of Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression test by 95% confidence interval.Results: Statistically, there was signifi cant correlation between stunting and motoric development of the toddler (p=0.002, but there was no significant correlation between stunting and the development of cognitive, language, socio- emotional, and adaptive of the toddler. The result of multivariate showed thatstunting and sex statistically had correlation to the motoric development (p<0.05.Conclusions: Stunting associated with children motoric development in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul,YogyakartaKEYWORDS: children development, stunting

  20. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI...

  1. The behavior of the full-term but underweight newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Als, H; Tronick, E; Adamson, L; Brazelton, T B

    1976-10-01

    Ten underweight full-term newborns were compared with 10 full-weight newborns on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. The Brazelton examination differentiated the two groups clearly on the reflexes of walking, crawling and passive movements of arms and legs, and on rooting and sucking. More importantly, it differentiated the two groups on behaviors which are important for the caretaker of the baby: these are attractiveness, need for stimulation, interactive processes and motor processes. The 10 underweight infants were followed up at a later date during the first year. They showed temperamental organizational difficulties and some indication of psychosomatic reaction to stress. It is possible that the underweight newborn's fragile organization elicits anxiety in the caretaker which makes interaction difficult.

  2. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992-2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight.

  3. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lohse

    Full Text Available Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle.We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992-2012, comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI category and smoking status.Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference, individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21] and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]. In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]. A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals.Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight.

  4. DETERMINAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 2-3 TAHUN DI TINGKAT PROVINSI (DETERMINANTS OF STUNTING IN CHILDREN 2-3 YEARS OF AGE AT PROVINCE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Prevalensi pendek (stunting pada balita masih 36,6 persen. Tingginya prevalensi stunting pada anak balita merupakan refleksi masalah gizi ibu selama kehamilan dan erat kaitannya dengan kemiskinan. Secara agregat, IPKM (Indeks Pembangunan Kesehatan Masyarakat merupakan indikator kemajuan pembangunan kesehatan dan IPM (Indeks Pembangunan Manusia termasuk salah satu dari 24 indikator dalam IPKM. Tujuan analisis: mempelajari determinan faktor yang menjadi pembeda terhadap tinggi rendahnya prevalensi stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Metode: analisis ini merupakan studi populasi. Data yang dianalisis adalah data agregat dari variabel IPKM, KEK pada ibu hamil dan rumah tangga defisit energi dari data Riskesdas 2007. Sementara variabel IPM dan kemiskinan tahun 2007 dari data BPS. Dalam analisis ini, stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun merupakan variabel terikat, sedangkan variabel lainnya merupakan variabel bebas. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah uji korelasi dan uji diskriminan. Hasil Analisis: Secara bivariat tidak ditemukan korelasi antara KEK pada bumil dengan stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun, namun ditemukan korelasi antara stunting dengan IPKM (r=-0,67; p=0,000, IPM (r=-0,52; p=0,002 dan kemiskinan (r=0,58;p=0,003. Hasil uji diskriminan menunjukkan bahwa IPKM adalah faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting rendah dan stunting tinggi pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Kontribusi varian IPKM terhadap perbedaan kedua kelompok stunting sebesar 34 persen. Fungsi diskriminan yang dihasilkan Z = -6.491 + 17.853 *IPKM dengan kemampuan prediksi sebesar 78,8 persen. Kesimpulan: IPKM merupakan faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting tinggi dan rendah pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi.     ABSTRACT Background: Stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age is still 36.6 percent, the high stunting in the age group shows that nutrition problem in mother during pregnancy is highly

  5. Perinatal Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Underweight before Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojner Bregar, Andreja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Verdenik, Ivan; Lučovnik, Miha; Tul, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of being underweight before pregnancy. Cohort study of a large population-based dataset of singleton births was used to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of pre-gravid underweight body mass index (BMI 4,000 g, less cesarean births and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders. A tradeoff exists between the advantages of being lean before pregnancy in terms of less maternal morbidity in return for gaining a more advanced gestational age and higher birth weight. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Santos, Carla Danusa da Luz; Martins, Vinicius J B; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Fachim, Mariana B; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether biochemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) into stunted (-1 > HAZ ≥ -2) and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ -1) groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile) insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. WC cut-off points of 58.25cm and 67.2cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively), the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively). The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  8. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Nurbaiti; Annis Catur Adi; Shrimarti R Devi; Timbuktu Harthana

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  9. Kebiasaan Makan Balita Stunting Pada Masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbaiti, Lina; Adi, Annis Catur; Devi, Shrimarti R; Harthana, Timbuktu

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  10. Underweight in 14 to 16 year-old girls and boys: prevalence and associations with physical activity and sedentary activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Underweight is associated with increased mortality of adults when compared to normal weight or overweight individuals. Studies of associations between underweight and physical activity levels in adolescents are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of underweight amongst 14 to 16 year-old girls and boys in tandem with the levels of physical activity and time spent in sedentary activities. The results were compared to those observed in normal weight and overweight adolescents. This study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged from 14 to 16 years from twelve gymnasium schools in Poznan (Poland). Based on BMI values, the participants were assigned to the following categories: a) underweight, b) normal weight, and c) overweight. The levels of physical activity, participation rates in physical education classes and the time spent in sedentary activities were determined by means of questionnaire survey. The fraction of underweight girls amounted to 11.6% and was similar to the percentage of obese girls (14.6%). The fraction of underweight boys was 7.0%, and was markedly lower than the percentage of overweight boys (17.0%). Underweight and overweight boys were characterized by significantly lower levels of physical activity compared to normal weight participants (p ≤.001). Both in girls and in boys, the prevalence of underweight and overweight was not significantly associated with the time spent in various sedentary activities. Underweight occurs in relatively high fraction of girls and boys. Underweight is associated with lower levels of physical activity in boys. The prevalence of underweight among adolescents is not associated with time spent in sedentary activities.

  11. The prevalence and risk factors of stunting among primary school children in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.

    2018-03-01

    Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (<-2 SD of height-for-age Z-score) were defined by using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.

  12. HUBUNGAN BBLR DAN ASI EKSLUSIF DENGAN KEJADIAN STUNTING DI PUSKESMAS LIMA PULUH PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Fitri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stunting is one of the long-term indicators for malnutrition. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia about 37.2%. Babies born with low birth weight is 10.2% and the achievement of exclusive breastfeeding is 30.2%. Survey in Limapuluh Health Centre Pekanbaru, from 18 children who perform measurements, obtained 13 infants suffered stunting. The result of interviews showed that three of them were born with low birth weight (BBLR and five are not given exclusive breastfeeding. This research is to find-out the correlation between low birth weight (BBLR and exclusive breastfeeding with stunting in Limapuluh Health Centre Pekanbaru in 2017.  This study was a quantitative analysis study used cross sectional strategy. Population consists of 300 people, sample consists of 75 people by accidental sampling technique. Analysis using univariat and bivariate. The result were 25 infant (33,3% are stunting, 22 infant (29,3% with low birth weight (BBLR and  not given exclusive breastfeeding are 55 infant (73,3%. There was a significant association between low birth weight (BBLR with stunting was obtained p value 0.000 and association between exclusive breastfeeding with stunting was obtained p value 0.021 its mean p<0,05. There is a relationship between BBLR and exclusive breastfeeding with stunting events, the Ha accepted.Stunting merupakan salah satu indikasi buruknya status gizi pada anak. Prevalensi stunting di Indonesia sebesar 37,2%. Angka kejadian bayi dengan BBLR sebanyak 10,2% dan pencapaian ASI ekslusif 30,2%. Survey di Puskesmas Lima Puluh kota Pekanbaru Provinsi Riau didapatkan dari 18 orang balita yang di ukur, 13 orang diantaranya mengalami stunting. Hasil wawancara memperlihatkan bahwa 3 orang diantaranya lahir dengan BBLR dan 5 orang tidak diberikan ASI ekslusif. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui hubungan berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR dan ASI ekslusif dengan kejadian stunting di Puskesmas Lima Puluh Pekanbaru. Jenis penelitian analitik kuantitatif

  13. Underweight, overweight and obesity among zaboli adolescents: A comparison between international and Iranians′ national criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Almost all definitions revealed coexistence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among Zaboli adolescents. Huge differences exist between different criteria. To understand the best appropriate criteria for Iranian adolescents, future studies should focus on the predictability of obesity-related co-morbidities by these criteria.

  14. Underweight, overweight and obesity in paediatric dialysis and renal transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Alonso Melgar, Ángel; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Mendes, Patricia; Molchanova, Elena A.; Paripović, Dušan; Peco-Antic, Amira; Printza, Nikoleta; Rees, Lesley; Rubik, Jacek; Stefanidis, Constantinos J.; Sinha, Manish D.; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Jager, Kitty J.; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight is rising worldwide, but in children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) a poor nutritional status is still the primary concern. We aimed to study the prevalence of, and factors associated with, underweight and overweight/obesity in the European paediatric RRT

  15. Risk Factors of Underweight in Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneke Tosheno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undernutrition in early childhood has irreversible and long-lasting implications. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing risk factors of child undernutrition. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 households with mothers to children pairs aged 6–59 months selected by a multistage systematic random sampling method. Child anthropometric measurements on weight were recorded using standardized and calibrated weighing scales. Weight-for-age was compared to the 2007 WHO growth reference by WHO Anthro software. Data were entered using Epi-Info and analyzed using SPSS. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between underweight children and their predictors; both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were reported. Results. One-fourth (25% of the children were underweight. Child age (AOR: 2.36, gender (AOR: 1.82, illness (AOR: 0.09, maternal decision making power (AOR: 0.07, maternal education (AOR: 0.19, employment/occupation (AOR: 5.29, and household income (AOR: 4.16 were found to be independent and significant predictors of underweight children. Conclusion. Significant proportion of the children were underweight. Maternal decision-making power persists as a strong predictor of children’s weight. Therefore, intervention programs focusing on improving mothers’ decision-making power on child nutrition would contribute to the efforts towards alleviating the problem.

  16. Underweight, Obesity and Exercise among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Accommodation in Northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E.

    2005-01-01

    Significant deviation from normal weight (obesity and underweight) and lack of physical exercise have been identified as three of the most significant global behavioural risks to health. Body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity were measured in a sample of 1542 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) receiving supported…

  17. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and normal weight in French youth from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Baudelet, Jean-Benoît; Fardy, Paul S; Béghin, Laurent; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zékya

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in French youth from 2009 to 2013 and to determine if there are differences in weight categories according to socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study performed in different regions of France. Physical measures included weight, height and BMI. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined according to age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points from the International Obesity Task Force. France. Children and adolescents (n 9670; 4836 boys, 4834 girls) from the French national BOUGE Program between 2009 and 2013. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than girls (P0·05) and remained unchanged in boys (7·1-7·3 %) between 2009 and 2013. Overweight and obesity were higher in low socio-economic families (Pobesity increased significantly. Changes in underweight, although not significant, were high in girls and merit further attention. Improving public health interventions, especially in high-risk low socio-economic populations, may help to modify the behaviour that contributes to underweight, overweight and obesity in young boys and girls.

  18. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa S. Flores

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: : The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates.

  19. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  20. Trends in underweight and overweight/obesity prevalence in Chinese youth, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Niu, Jingjing

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of recent data on Chinese childhood overweight and underweight prevalence especially since 2004. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in underweight and overweight/obesity ("overweight" hereafter) prevalence and energy balance-related behaviors of Chinese youth from 2004 to 2009. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2004-2009 (N = 4,061 students aged 6-18 years), were analyzed. Trained health workers took anthropometric measures at the participant's house or at a local clinic following a reference protocol recommended by the World Health Organization. The international age- and sex-specific body mass index reference standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force was used to define underweight and overweight children in this study. Among 6- to 11-year-old boys, underweight prevalence increased from 14.5% (2004) to 20.1% (2009, p = 0.068). Among 12- to 18-year-old boys, however, overweight prevalence increased from 7.5 to 12.6% (p = 0.034). From 2004 to 2009, after-school sedentary behavior increased from 2.3 to 3.4 h/day for 6- to 11-year-olds (p Chinese students are increasing, with underweight increases more pronounced in 6- to 11-year-olds and overweight increases more pronounced in 12- to 18-year-olds. Nationwide efficacious interventions are needed that improve the diet, decrease sedentary behavior, and encourage a healthy and realistic body image in Chinese youth.

  1. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students from the region of Anhui (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Tian, Li; Lu, Mi; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhognhua; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-12-16

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic worldwide. Our previous study found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary students is high. we sought to estimate whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity among university students is still high in China. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for university students in 2013. The height and weight of students were measured, and BMI was calculated with height and weight, we estimated the underweight and obesity prevalence of university students using by two references [Working Group on Obesity references in China (2004) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (2000)]. Depending on the China references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 14.7% and 4.2%, respectively; in female university students were 27.5%, 4.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Depending on the WHO references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 11.5% and 2.5%, respectively, in female university students were 27.5%, 2.4% and 0.3%, respectively. An interesting observation made was that the underweight prevalence of university students has an increasing trend, especially in female. The study showed that the prevalence of underweight in university students, especially in female students has become a critical health issue. Related department of school and government should pay more attention to student's physical health. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Underweight, overweight and obesity in paediatric dialysis and renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verrina, Enrico; Groothoff, Jaap W; Alonso Melgar, Ángel; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Mendes, Patricia; Molchanova, Elena A; Paripović, Dušan; Peco-Antic, Amira; Printza, Nikoleta; Rees, Lesley; Rubik, Jacek; Stefanidis, Constantinos J; Sinha, Manish D; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Jager, Kitty J; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight is rising worldwide, but in children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) a poor nutritional status is still the primary concern. We aimed to study the prevalence of, and factors associated with, underweight and overweight/obesity in the European paediatric RRT population. Moreover, we assessed the evolution of body mass index (BMI) after the start of RRT. We included 4474 patients younger than 16 years from 25 countries of whom BMI data, obtained between 1995 and 2010, were available within the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry. Prevalence estimates for under- and overweight/obesity were calculated using age and sex-specific criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, 0-1 year olds) and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs (2-15 year olds). The prevalence of underweight was 3.5%, whereas 20.8% of the patients were overweight and 12.5% obese. Factors associated with being underweight were receiving dialysis treatment and infant age. Among transplanted recipients, a very short stature (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.40-1.92) and glucocorticoid treatment (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03-1.47) were associated with a higher risk of being overweight/obese. BMI increased post-transplant, and a lower BMI and a higher age at the start of RRT were associated with greater BMI changes during RRT treatment. Overweight and obesity, rather than underweight, are highly prevalent in European children on RRT. Short stature among graft recipients had a strong association with overweight, while underweight appears to be only a problem in infants. Our findings suggest that nutritional management in children receiving RRT should focus as much on the prevention and treatment of overweight as on preventing malnutrition.

  3. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim Tasnim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. Methods This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3. Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor. The statistical analysis used Cox regression. Results A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; p<0.001, a lack of latrine availability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001, and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02 significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively. Conclusions Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children’s nutritional status. Children’s health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  4. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Tasnim; Dasvarma, Gouranga; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3). Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor). The statistical analysis used Cox regression. A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; pavailability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001), and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02) significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively). Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children's nutritional status. Children's health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  5. PERAN KONTEKSTUAL TERHADAP KEJADIAN BALITA PENDEK DI INDONESIA (THE CONTEXTUAL ROLE OF OCCURRENCE STUNTED ON CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihadi Suhadi

    2013-07-01

    ? Pasang Google Toolbar supaya Anda tidak perlu kesulitan lagi dengan kosakata bahasa asing.Bangun bisnis global Anda. Iklankan ke berbagai bahasa menggunakan Google Peluang Pasar Global. Kesimpulan: Variabel yang terkait dengan terjadinya anak balita pendek, yaitu pada level individu adalah konsumsi energi anak balita. Pada level rumah tangga, terutama adalah pola asuh anak, tinggi badan ibu, sanitasi, dan status ekonomi rumah tangga. Pada level provinsi adalah kemiskinan. Saran: Perlu kerjasama lintas sektor untuk memperbaiki variabel-variabel yang terkait, agar proporsi balita pendek turun. ABSTRACT Backgrounds: The prevalence of stunted in Indonesia is 36.8 percent. Children who have severe stunted IQ 11 points lower than children who were not stunted. This analysis looking for factors that cause stunted from the contextual (from level of individual, household, and the Province to the occurrence of stunted children under five. Objectives: To know the causes of the level of individuals, households, and the province on the occurrence of stunted children under five. Methods: Data used secondary data derived from data Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010, the tertiary data from BPS, IPKM, and IPM. The number of samples analyzed 9 897 children under five. The statistical analysis data used multilevel statistical model binary logistic regression. Results: Provincial levels have contributed 51.9 percent, 34.9 percent individuals, and households of 13.2 percent to the occurrence of stunted children under five. The proportion of stunted children under five was reduced from 44.5 to 42.5 percent if children under five improved energy consumption, to 40.8 percent if the household energy consumption improved, to 43.2 percent if the household economy improved, to 32.6 percent when corrected parenting, becomes 35.8 percent if the mother is not stunted, to 39.4 pecent when the mother's education improved, and becomes 41.4 percent if the poverty at the provincial level improved. Simak

  6. Lower waist circumference in mildly‐stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut‐off point than in non‐stunted counterparts.

  7. Mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting: evidence from semi-urban communities in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Nomura, Marika; Ogino, Hina; Yoshikawa, Kanako; Siengsounthone, Latsamy; Xangsayarath, Phonepadith

    2018-05-22

    Childhood stunting (height-for-age z-scores below - 2), a form of chronic undernutrition, remains a global health burden. Although a growing literature has examined the association between mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting, these studies have been limited to countries in South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa where women have relatively lower social status than do men. Little research has analyzed the effect of mothers' autonomy on childhood stunting in Lao PDR, where women's social status is relatively high compared to that in other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire and body scale measurement targeting 100 mothers and their 115 children (autonomy, we measured self-esteem, self-efficacy, decision-making power, freedom of mobility, and control of money. We then analyzed how each dimension was associated with the likelihood of childhood stunting. The likelihood of childhood stunting was significantly lower if mothers had higher self-efficacy for health care (OR = 0.15, p = 0.007), self-esteem (OR = 0.11, p = 0.025), or control of money (OR = 0.11, p = 0.041). In contrast, mothers' decision-making power and freedom of mobility were not significantly associated with childhood stunting. We clarified which dimensions of women's autonomy were associated with childhood stunting in Lao PDR. A closer examination of mothers' autonomy will aid proper understanding of the determinants of childhood stunting.

  8. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  9. Progression of stunting and its predictors among school-aged children in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, J. F.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Mirel, L. B.; Terlouw, D. J.; Okello, N.; Vulule, J. M.; Hawley, W. A.; Nahlen, B. L.; ter Kuile, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess whether a cohort of school-aged children experiences progression of stunting over a 2-y-period of observation and (2) to identify baseline nutritional and body composition risk factors for the progression of stunting. As part of a large-scale,

  10. Maternal perception of sickness as a risk factor of stunting in children aged 2-5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Dete Dellu

    2016-11-01

    Maternal perception of sickness was the most dominant risk factor of stunting in children 2-5 years of age. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to address the range of raised issues and so combat stunting in children.

  11. Lactoferrin and lysozyme to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ulti...

  12. Status stunted dan hubungannya dengan perkembangan anak balita di wilayah pesisir Pantai Utara Kecamatan Lemahwungkuk Kota Cirebon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Hizni

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: There was no association between stunted status and child development; however stunted status had greater risk for delay in language development, and risk factors dominantly affecting child development were occupation and education of mothers.

  13. Chronic stunting among under-5 children in Bangladesh: A situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major problem in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Chronic malnutrition is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five years. Although Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing mortality in the under-fives, chronic stunting remains a formidable challenge for the country. Based on an analysis of available secondary data, this paper illustrates the current status of chronic stunting in Bangladesh. Data on selected relevant indicators such as gender, urban/rural residence, level of mother’s education, and income by wealth quintiles were extracted from the Bangladesh Health and Demography Surveys from 2004, 2007, and 2011. The data clearly suggest a strong relationship between selected socio-economic variables and stunting among children under the age of five. In rural areas, stunting prevalence rate was found to be more than six times higher than in urban areas. Income inequality was also a significant predictor of stunting. Children from the lowest wealth quintile are twice as likely to be stunted as children from the highest wealth quintile (54% of children under five in the lowest quintile compared to 27% of their counterparts in the highest wealth quintile. Similarly, the level of mother’s education is strongly related to stunting: the higher the level of mothers’ education, the lower the prevalence rate of stunting among children under five. Since wealth or income is a strong predictor of place of residence (urban/rural as well as mothers’ level of education, it can be generally concluded that inequity is the primary determinant of stunting among children under five. Bangladesh must forcefully address inequity in order to tackle the overwhelming prevalence of stunting among children under five. Despite making impressive gains to improve major health and development indicators at the macro level, Bangladesh has so far failed to adequately address the underlying

  14. Effect of Obesity and Underweight Status on Perioperative Outcomes of Congenital Heart Operations in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: An Analysis of Data From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Kim, Sunghee; Hornik, Christoph P; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Matsouaka, Roland A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L; Jonas, Richard A

    2017-08-22

    Extreme body mass index (BMI; either very high or very low) has been associated with increased risk of adverse perioperative outcome in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. The effect of BMI on perioperative outcomes in congenital heart disease patients has not been evaluated. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed studying patients 10 to 35 years of age undergoing a congenital heart disease operation in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. The primary outcomes were operative mortality and a composite outcome (1 or more of operative mortality, major adverse event, prolonged hospital length of stay, and wound infection/dehiscence). The associations between age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles and these outcomes were assessed, with adjustment for patient-level risk factors, with multivariate logistic regression. Of 18 337 patients (118 centers), 16% were obese, 15% were overweight, 53% were normal weight, 7% were underweight, and 9% were severely underweight. Observed risks of operative mortality ( P =0.04) and composite outcome ( P obese subjects. Severely underweight BMI was associated with increased unplanned cardiac operation and reoperation for bleeding. Obesity was associated with increased risk of wound infection. In multivariable analysis, the association between BMI and operative mortality was no longer significant. Obese (odds ratio, 1.28; P =0.008), severely underweight (odds ratio, 1.29; P Obesity and underweight BMI were associated with increased risk of composite adverse outcome independently of other risk factors. Further research is necessary to determine whether BMI represents a modifiable risk factor for perioperative outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. A shift from underweight to overweight and obesity in Asian children and adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-An; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lue, Hung-Chi; Hua, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    In Western countries, obesity is a common problem in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, this problem may have racial difference, and little is known about the shift of this trend as patients grow up. The present study sought to investigate the prevalence and trends of being underweight, overweight and obesity in an Asian CHD cohort using a 5-year citywide school survey database. Patient group consisted of 705 first grade elementary school students (children) and 219 first grade senior high school students (adolescents), while 18753 healthy children and 15014 healthy adolescents served as controls. Body mass index (BMI) percentile was calculated to define underweight (BMI obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile). In CHD children, the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity was 21.0% (control 16%, P obese than children with non-cyanotic CHD. The prevalence of underweight (23.3%) and overweight/obesity (26.5%) in CHD adolescents became close to that in controls. From childhood to adolescence, different shifts in BMI distribution were noted; controls became more underweight and overweight/obese for males and more underweight and less overweight/obese for females, while CHD patients became more overweight/obese for both genders, including cyanotic CHD. In this Asian CHD cohort, we demonstrates a shift of BMI distribution from more underweight and less overweight/obese compared with healthy children, to a pattern similar to that in healthy adolescents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  17. Wealth gradient-based divergence in the prevalence of underweight among women by marital status in Quoc Oai district, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Yu, Soo-Young; Yi, Jinseon; Nam, You-Seon; Son, Dinh Thai; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of underweight is high among women in Asian countries, despite nutritional changes in the region. Previous studies have demonstrated independent associations between female body weight, marital status and economic status. However, few studies have investigated possible interaction between marital and economic status in relation to Asian women's body weight. This study aimed to test associations between household wealth, marital status and underweight among women living in the Quoc Oai district of Vietnam and to identify wealth-marital status interaction in relation to body weight in these women. Data from 1087 women aged 19-60 years were collected via a baseline community survey conducted in the Quoc Oai district of Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2016. Underweight was defined using an Asian-specific body mass index cut-off (wealth index quintiles. Multivariable logistic regressions tested association between wealth and underweight after adjusting for marital status and other confounders. An interaction term (wealth index*marital status) was fitted to determine whether the association between wealth and body weight is modified by marital status. Our results show that underweight was independently associated with a wealth status (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.98, p = 0.026) and ever-married status (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.75, p = 0.002). A significant interaction effect (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50-0.90, p = 0.010) indicated that wealthy married women were less likely to be underweight, whereas wealthy never-married women were more likely to be underweight. Our results suggest that the interaction between wealth and marital status has divergent effects on underweight among Asian women. Interventions to reduce underweight among Asian women should simultaneously consider economic and marital status.

  18. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  19. Trends in Child Obesity and Underweight in Spain by Birth Year and Age, 1983 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Sánchez-Cruz, José Juan; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-08-01

    The prevalences of child obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and are a significant public health issue, particularly in terms of long-term cardiovascular risk profiles, which continue into adulthood unless obesity is reversed. Accurately identifying trends and at-risk subgroups is crucial to correctly target public health initiatives. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalences of child obesity and underweight in Spain from 1983 to 2011 taking into consideration both age and birth year. A series of cross-sectional studies representative of the pediatric population in Spain between 1987 and 2011 was used to calculate the prevalence and trends of excess weight and underweight in girls and boys aged 2 to 14 years per survey year and per birth year. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity remained relatively stable. The prevalence of overweight in boys aged 10 to 14 years increased from 13.9% to 22.2%. The prevalence of obesity in girls aged 2 to 5 years decreased from 30% to 19.8%, whereas the prevalence of underweight in this group increased from 13.7% to 22.6%. Child obesity trends in Spain over the last 2 decades appear to be stable with some fluctuations, but the trends differ depending on age and sex, and have stabilized at too high a level. The prevalence of underweight also appears to have increased and should be considered alongside excess weight when designing and implementing child health and weight measures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.F.; Hashmi, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  1. Perbedaan Intelligence Quotient (Iq) antara Anak Stunting dan Tidak Stunting Umur 7 €“ 12 Tahun di Sekolahdasar (Studi pada Siswa SD Negeri Buara 04 Kecamatan Ketanggungan Kabupaten Brebes)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunitasari, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Stunted is one form of malnutrition on children are calculated based on height measurement according to age (TB/U), where the value of z-score ‰¤ -2 SD (standart deviation). Child stunted have lower cognitive scores than the normal child. United Nations Imergency Children€™s Fund (UNICEF) said that children are stunted have an average IQ of 11 points lower than the average child who does stunted. The purpose of this research is to know the difference Intelligence quotient (IQ) on child stunte...

  2. Scale up of nutrition and health programs in Ethiopia and their overlap with reductions in child stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Matji, Joan; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chamois, Sylvie; Getahun, Zewditu; White, Jessica M; Rohner, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa has changed little since 2000, and the number of stunted children has increased. In contrast, Ethiopia is an example where the national stunting prevalence and number of stunted children have decreased consistently. We compare regional differences and temporal patterns in stunting with large-scale program coverage to identify where and when programs may have led to reductions in stunting. Data from three national demographic and health surveys and population statistics illustrate, at the regional level, where and when the prevalence and number of stunted children changed since 2000. Reports from large-scale nutrition and health programs were used to identify ecologic associations between geographic program coverage and reductions in stunting. From 2000 to 2005, the decline in the national stunting prevalence was mainly a result of reductions in Oromiya, SNNP and Tigray. Few nutrition programs had high coverage during this time, and economic growth may have contributed to stunting reduction by increasing household wealth and investments in sanitation. From 2005 to 2011, declines in stunting prevalence in Amhara, SNNP, Somali and Oromiya were largely responsible for national reductions. Numerous programs were implemented at scale and could have plausibly improved stunting. While ecologic relationships suggest that economic growth and large-scale programs may have contributed to the reduction in stunting in Ethiopia, stunting did not decrease in all regions despite increased program coverage expansion of the health system. Additional impact evaluations are needed identify the most effective programs to accelerate the reduction in the prevalence and number of stunted children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early life risk exposure and stunting in urban South African 2-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemming, W; Kagura, J; Saloojee, H; Richter, L M

    2017-06-01

    Stunting is a measure of overall nutritional status and is a major public health concern because of its association with child mortality and morbidity and later adult performance. This study examined the effects of pregnancy events, birth characteristics and infant risk exposure on stunting at age 2 years. The study, established in 1990 in Soweto, an urban South African township, included 1098 mother-infant pairs enroled in the Birth to Twenty Plus longitudinal birth cohort study. In total, 22% of children were stunted at age 2 years, with males at greater risk than females [24.8 v. 19.4%, odds ratio (OR)=1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.83]. In unadjusted analysis, male sex, household socio-economic status (SES), overcrowding, maternal age, maternal education, single motherhood, ethnicity, birth weight, gestational age and duration of infant breastfeeding were all significantly associated with stunting. In multivariable analysis, higher birth weight was protective against stunting for both sexes. Higher maternal education was protective for females only (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.35; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.87), whereas wealthier household SES protected males (AOR for richest SES group=0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92). In this and other similar settings, current stunting prevention efforts focussing on primarily providing targeted proximal interventions, such as food supplements, risk undermining the critical importance of addressing key distal determinants of stunting such as SES and maternal education.

  4. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-05-01

    Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high-burden settings, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far‐reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high‐burden settings, such as South Asia and sub‐Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. PMID:27187910

  6. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  7. Use and Misuse of Stunting as a Measure of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2018-03-01

    The term "stunting" has become pervasive in international nutrition and child health research, program, and policy circles. Although originally intended as a population-level statistical indicator of children's social and economic deprivation, the conventional anthropometric definition of stunting (height-for-age z scores define chronic malnutrition. Epidemiologists often portray it as a disease, making inferences about the causes of growth faltering based on comparisons between stunted (i.e., undernourished) and nonstunted children. Stunting is commonly used to monitor public health and nutrition program effectiveness alongside calls for the "elimination of stunting." However, there is no biological basis for the -2 SD cutoff to define stunting, making it a poor individual-level classifier of malnutrition or disease. In fact, in many low- and middle-income countries, children above and below the threshold are similarly affected by growth-limiting exposures. We argue that the common use of stunting as an indicator of child linear growth has contributed to unsubstantiated assumptions about the biological mechanisms underlying linear growth impairment in low- and middle-income countries and has led to a systematic underestimation of the burden of linear growth deficits among children in low-resource settings. Moreover, because nutrition-specific short-term public health interventions may result in relatively minor changes in child height, the use of stunting prevalence to monitor health or nutrition program effectiveness may be inappropriate. A more nuanced approach to the application and interpretation of stunting as an indicator in child growth research and public health programming is warranted.

  8. DEFISIENSI VITAMIN A DAN ZINC SEBAGAIFAKTOR RISIKO TERJADINYA STUNTING PADA BALITA DI NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Taufiqurrahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Children of 1 - 5 years old often face nutrition problems such as undernourishment, vitamin A and zinc deficiency, anemia, stunting and low mental development index (MDI. Vitamin A deficiency can cause growth disorder and declining zinc transport and mobilization in the heart meanwhile zinc is needed in retinol binding protein synthesis. If the deficiency lasts for long it can cause growth disorder as manifested in stunting incidence. To study vitamin A and zinc deficiency as risk factors for the incidence of stunting among underfives at Nusa Tenggara Barat. The study was analytic observational with cross sectional design. Subject of the study were 327 underfives of 6 - 59 months at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Barat. Nutrition status was assessed through measurement of anthopometry, retinol serum level using HPLC, zinc serum level using AAS and hemoglobin using hemoCue. Data of individual characteristics and rearing pattern were obtained through interview and nutrient intake were measured using recall 2 x 24 hours. Data analysis used bivariate technique for variable related to stunting, chi square test for category data, independent t-test for ratio and logistic regression test to measure risk of some variables simultaneously related to incidence of stunting. The result of bivariate analysis showed that was difference in age between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05 . In the group of underfives that were no longer breastfed there was difference in intake of zinc between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis showed that underfives that were no longer breastfed had risk 2 times greater for being stunted after the control of age, status of vitamin A and zinc. The effect is modified by age and breast-feeding. There was no evidence that showed that vitamin A and zinc deficiency among underfives were risk factors for the incidence of stunting. Variable that was individually as well as simultaneously

  9. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: Are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapop; Strydom, Gert; Twisk, Jos; Kemper, Han

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Underweight and overweight are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with undernutrition and overnutrition in children. In line with the health promotion strategies, periodical tracking of underweight and overweight in children as well as promotion of government feeding scheme policies are recommended to improve children nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to review available literature regarding the prevalence’s of underweight and overweight and evaluate government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. Methods: The electronic search included PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and library catalogue journal for prospective longitudinal or cross-sectional studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African children within the age ranges of 0 to 14 between 1990 and 2013. Results: Fourteen cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Data synthesis revealed the small number of prospective studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. Overall, a higher percentage of the studies (ten) were reported in the rural areas compared to two studies in urban areas. The remaining four studies were a mixed of rural and urban. In this review, a high percentage of underweight (0.7-66%) was reported among children in rural areas compared to a similarly higher proportion of overweight (3.1-32.4%) in urban areas. Similarly, all studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight affected the adolescent’s performances in many forms including physical activity and fitness, academic performance and

  10. Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

  11. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Nurbaiti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Community Health Center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat/Puskesmas in Sengkol, District of Central Lombok. This article concludes that there are diatery habit in Sasak people which became predisposing factors to the occurrence of stunting to the children in Sasak. Those are the lack of animal protein intake, mistreatment of breast milk pattern giving which causes failure to fulfill nutrition standard, and there are myth-related belief that opposes the principal of nutrition fulfillment in children.

  12. ANALISIS DETERMINAN DAN PENGARUH STUNTING TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR ANAK SEKOLAH DI KUPANG DAN SUMBA TIMUR, NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intje Picauly

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe research was conducted to find out determinant factors that can cause the incidence of stunting and how it may affect elementary school children performance. The research areas were selected based on the difference access of nutrition information. Kabupaten Sumba Timur and Kota Kupang were selected as research areas. Related primary data was taken covering anthropometric index namely body height for age (HFA; weight for age (WFA, and weight for height (WFH, and academic school performances before and after research treatment. Other data was collected by interview using questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to know determinant factors that may bring about stunting. The results showed that determinant factors of stunting were family income, mother’s nutrition knowledge, child care practices, the history of infection, immunization, protein intake, and mother education. While, stunted elementary school children had low academic performances. The higher level of stunting is the lower academic performance of elementary school children.Keywords: academic performances, determinant of Stunting, elementary school studentsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting serta dampaknya terhadap prestasi anak sekolah dasar. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Kupang dan Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Lokasi penelitian sengaja diambil dua wilayah yang berbeda jangkauan informasi tentang gizi dan manfaatnya serta ketersediaan sarana prasarana yang dapat digunakan untuk pencapaian kondisi bebas masalah gizi. Subjek yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini masing-masing sebanyak 265 siswa di Kota Kupang dan 274 di Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Adapun jenis data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang meliputi data indeks antropometri (TB/U; BB/U; BB/TB dan data hasil pengukuran nilai siswa. Selain itu data–data lain dilengkapi dan diukur menggunakan instrumen kuesioner yang bersifat terstruktur. Analisis

  13. Dietetic determinants of zinc consumption in stunted children under five in maya communities from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy-Valle, Michele; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Coyoy, Wendy; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición; De León, Jorge; Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Flórez, Iván D.; Departamento de Pediatría y Puericultura, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the elements from feeding patterns that influence the intake and bioavailability of zinc in stunted children (SC) 1-5 years from Maya communities living in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 138 stunted children aged 1-5 years. It was applied: an inventory of zinc food sources availability, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, a questionnaire about living conditions. anthropometrics measurements and informat...

  14. Berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-24 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Nasution

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is one of the main problems of malnutrition often found in under-five children. The impacts include a delay in child’s growth, low endurance, lack of intelligence and productivity. The direct factors that influence the incidence of stunting are low birth weight (LBW while the indirect factors are socioeconomic factors such as maternal education, low family income and a large number of family members. Objective: To analyze the relationship between LBW and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months in Yogyakarta Municipality. Method: This was a case-control study. The subjects were children aged 6-24 months with a group of cases comprising stunted children based on the indicator of height/age with a cut-off < -2 SD Z-score and the control group comprising normal children. The number of subjects for the study was 242 with the under-five children’s mothers as the research respondents. The sample selection used non-probability sampling with a consecutive sampling method. The data were analyzed by Chi-Square and multiple logistic regression. Results: The proportion of children 6-24 months who had low birth weight was 15.7 %. There was a significant relationship between LBW and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months (OR=5.60; 95%CI:2.27 to 15.70. There was a relationship between maternal height and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months (OR=2.14; 95%CI:1.08 to 4.33. Socioeconomic factors (maternal education, family income and a number of family members did not have a significant relationship with the incidence of stunting. Conclusion: LBW had a relationship with the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months in Yogyakarta Municipality.

  15. Socio-economic differentials in child stunting are consistently larger in urban than rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover

    2000-01-01

    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the...

  16. ASUPAN SUPLEMEN BUKAN DETERMINAN KEJADIAN STUNTING ANAK BALITA (1-3 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Hariyadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Supplement Intake Not Determinants Stunting Events Children (1-3 Years. This study aims relationship supplement intake with the incidence of stunting among Children aged 1-3 years who live in urban areas Kubu Raya. An observational study with the cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in Kubu Raya in August to November 2014. Measurement of nutritional status using indicators PB/U. Supplement intake asked to interview. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test.The results showed the percentage of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the amount of 39.51%.The most consumed form of supplements which are of the type syrup as much as 34.6% of 82.7% respondents toddler supplements. No significant relationship exists between supplement intake with the incidence of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the urban area of Kubu Raya. Abstrak: Asupan Suplemen Bukan Determinan Kejadian Stunting Anak balita (1-3 Tahun. Penelitian ini bertujuan hubungan asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada anak balita usia 1-3 tahun yang tinggal di daerah urbanKubu Raya. Penelitian ini bersifat observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Kubu Raya pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014. Pengukuran status gizi menggunakan indikator PB/U. Asupan suplemen ditanyakan dengan wawancara. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Chi square.Hasil penelitian menunjukan persentase kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun yaitu sebesar 39,51%. Sebanyak 82.7% balita responden mengonsumsi suplemen, dengan bentuk suplemen yang terbanyak dikonsumsi adalah dari jenis sirup sebanyak 34.6%.Tidak ada hubungan yang bemakna antara asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun di daerah urban Kubu Raya.

  17. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native Amazonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Emmett, Susan D; Kidd, Celeste; Leonard, William R; Piantadosi, Steven T; Reyes-García, Victoria; Sharma, Abhishek; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2018-01-01

    We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002-2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills. Stunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13-15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18-21% and 15-21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children. The results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas

  20. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L.; de Ridder, J. Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South African studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are

  1. Molecular diversity of Rice grassy stunt virus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Hoang-Anh; Nguyen, Doan-Phuong; Causse, Sandrine; Nguyen, Thanh-Duc; Ngo, Vinh-Vien; Hébrard, Eugénie

    2013-04-01

    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV, Tenuivirus) recently emerged on rice in Vietnam, causing high yield losses during 2006-2009. The genetic diversity of RGSV is poorly documented. In this study, the two genes encoded by each ambisense segment RNA3 and RNA5 of RGSV isolates from six provinces of South Vietnam were sequenced. P3 and Pc3 (RNA3) have unknown function, P5 (RNA5) encodes the putative silencing suppressor, and Pc5 (RNA5) encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N). The sequences of 17 Vietnamese isolates were compared with reference isolates from North and South Philippines. The average nucleotide diversity among the isolates was low. We confirmed a higher variability of RNA3 than RNA5 and Pc3 than P3. No relationships between the genetic diversity and the geographic distribution of RGSV isolates could be ascertained, likely because of the long-distance migration of the insect vector. This data will contribute to a better understanding on the RGSV epidemiology in South Vietnam, a prerequisite for further management of the disease and rice breeding for resistance.

  2. Health-care costs of underweight, overweight and obesity: Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Susan A; Gold, Lisa; Mensah, Fiona K; Jansen, Pauline W; Lucas, Nina; Nicholson, Jan M; Wake, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    Child health varies with body mass index (BMI), but it is unknown by what age or how much this attracts additional population health-care costs. We aimed to determine the (1) cross-sectional relationships between BMI and costs across the first decade of life and (2) in longitudinal analyses, whether costs increase with duration of underweight or obesity. Baby (n = 4230) and Kindergarten (n = 4543) cohorts in the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Medicare Benefits Scheme (including all general practitioner plus a large proportion of paediatrician visits) plus prescription medication costs to federal government from birth to sixth (Baby cohort) and fourth to tenth (Kindergarten cohort) birthdays. biennial BMI measurements over the same period. Among Australian children under 10 years of age, 5-6% were underweight, 11-18% overweight and 5-6% obese. Excess costs with low and high BMI became evident from age 4-5 years, with normal weight accruing the least, obesity the most, and underweight and overweight intermediate costs. Relative to overall between-child variation, these excess costs per child were very modest, with a maximum of $94 per year at age 4-5 years. Nonetheless, this projects to a substantial cost to government of approximately $13 million per annum for all Australian children aged less than 10 years. Substantial excess population costs provide further economic justification for promoting healthy body weight. However, obese children's low individual excess health-care costs mean that effective treatments are likely to increase short-term costs to the public health purse during childhood. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. World Perspective on the Epidemiology of Stunting between 1990 and 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Susan C; Cherian, Arlin Mary; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Stunting is the most prevalent form of child undernutrition with current worldwide estimates at 156 million. The majority of these children reside in low- and middle-income countries. When stunting prevails to adulthood, optimal growth potential and economic productivity are minimized. In 2015 there were 98.5 million fewer stunted children under 5 years of age than in 1990. In East Asia and Pacific and South Asia, the stunting prevalence decreased by 24.8 and 25%, respectively. Minimal declines were observed in Latin America and the Caribbean at 12.6%, in the Middle East and North Africa at 12.9%, and in sub-Saharan Africa at 13.4%. But because large populations of children under 5 years of age are distributed disproportionately, decreases in prevalence do not translate to fewer numbers of stunted children globally. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of stunted children increased by 12.4 million between 1990 and 2015. Adult height is dependent on nutrition-specific or nutrition-sensitive factors. Nutrition-specific factors can be targeted according to their impact at critical points of development and therefore offer multiple windows of opportunity for interventions. To date, many interventions focus on the first 1,000 days, but opportunities may extend into later childhood and adolescence.
. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA, a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  5. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Turner, John G

    2008-01-01

    When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA), a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  6. Underweight, overweight and obesity among a Piedmont (Northern Italy) children sample

    OpenAIRE

    M. Micheletti Cremasco; A. Lorè; F. Zanon; E. Fubini

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M.) [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in c...

  7. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  8. Berat badan lahir rendah berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeyen Supriyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is a growth impairment resulting from chronic malnutrition condition or prolonged infectious diseases. It may cause growth retardation, low endurance, lack of intelligence and productivity. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia reached 37.2% where Special Region of Yogyakarta reached 27% and Bantul District was 18.08%. Low birth weight babies have a life chance, however, when they survive they are still vulnerable to diseases, growth retardation, and developmental disorders. Statistics showed that 90% low birth weight cases found in developing countries and the mortality rate was 35 times higher in infants with low birth weight compared to infants with normal birth weight. Objectives: To understand the relationship between weight low birth (BBLR and stunting in children 6-23 month in Sedayu District Bantul Yogyakarta.Methods: This study used observational research with cross-sectional design. The population in this study were parents and children from 6-23 months which were 1217 subjects. The sample used in this study as many as 190 subjects were selected by using proportional probability to size techniques. Data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results: Bivariate analysis showed that low birth weight infants was significantly related with stunting (OR= 6.16; 95% CI: 3.007-12.656. In other words, children born with low birth weight status had a chance 6.16 times greater to become stunting than the children who birth weight normal Conclusion: There was a relationship between low birth weight infants and stunting in children 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul District, Yogyakarta. KEYWORDS: low birth weight, stunting, children aged 6-23 months ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting adalah gangguan pertumbuhan yang terjadi akibat kondisi kekurangan gizi kronis atau penyakit infeksi kronis. Dampak yang ditimbulkan antara lain lambatnya pertumbuhan anak, daya tahan tubuh yang rendah, kurang kecerdasan dan produktivitas

  9. The late positive potential as a marker of motivated attention to underweight bodies in girls with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H

    2012-12-01

    In anorexia nervosa (AN), aspects of motivational salience and reward are increasingly discussed. Event related potentials, particularly the late positive potential (LPP), have been investigated as a marker for motivational salience of stimuli, for example in addictive disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the LPP as a possible indicator of motivated attention towards disease-specific pictures of underweight female bodies in adolescents with AN in comparison to typically developing (TD) adolescent girls. 13 girls with AN and 18 TD adolescent girls (aged 12 to 18 years) viewed pictures of underweight, normal-weight and overweight women while EEG activity was recorded. An earlier (450-680 ms after stimulus onset) as well as a later time window (850-1250 ms after stimulus onset) of the LPP were examined for the different picture categories. Participants were also asked to rate subjective emotions (fear, disgust, happiness) elicited by the pictures. Subjective ratings showed no differential experience of emotions for the two groups. For AN patients, highest LPP amplitudes were found for underweight women in the earlier as well as in the later time window. In TD girls, highest amplitudes for pictures of overweight women were observed in the earlier time window. A differential LPP pattern for girls with AN and TD girls when viewing pictures of women's bodies of different weight categories was obtained. Highest amplitudes in AN patients for pictures of underweight women may reflect motivational significance of strongly underweight body shapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between maternal depression and child stunting in Northern Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemakor, Anthony; Mensah, Kofi Akohene

    2016-08-24

    Stunting indicates failure to attain genetic potential for height and is a well-documented indicator for poor growth. Depression is common in women of reproductive age and women's mental health problems may affect the growth of young children. We examined the association between maternal depression and stunting in mother-child pairs attending Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) in Northern Ghana. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed involving mothers (15-45 years) and their children (0-59 months) who attended CWC at Bilpeila Health Centre, Tamale, Ghana. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, maternal depression was measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Screening Scale, and anthropometry was conducted on children following standard procedures. The association between maternal depression and child stunting was examined in logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence rates of child stunting and maternal depression were estimated at 16.1 and 27.8 % respectively in Northern Ghana. Mothers with depression when compared with those without depression tended to be younger, be currently unmarried, belong to the poorest household wealth tertile, and were more likely to have low birth weight babies, so these characteristics were adjusted for. In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, children of depressed mothers were almost three times more likely to be stunted compared to children of non-depressed mothers (Adjusted OR = 2.48, 95 % CI 1.29-4.77, p = 0.0011). There is a high prevalence of depression among mothers in Northern Ghana which is associated with child stunting. Further studies are needed to identify the determinants of maternal depression and to examine its association with child stunting to inform nutrition programming.

  11. A review of the evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Krishna, Aditi; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, SV

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. Methods We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth. Throughout, we consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental approaches and observational studies. Results Long-run evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to the programmes (a 25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost-benefit analyses of nutrition interventions using calibrated return estimates report a median return of 17.9:1 per child. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, we find that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase in wages for men and a 6% increase in wages for women in our preferred set of studies which attempt to address unobserved confounding and measurement error. In contrast, the evidence on the association between economic growth and stunting is mixed. Conclusions Countries with high rates of stunting, such as those in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments that expand the economic opportunities of their children, better allowing them and their countries to reach their full potential. However, economic growth as a policy will only be effective at reducing the prevalence of stunting when increases in national income are directed at improving the diets of children, addressing gender inequalities and strengthening the status of women, improving sanitation and reducing

  12. A review of the evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Krishna, Aditi; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth. Throughout, we consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental approaches and observational studies. Long-run evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to the programmes (a 25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost-benefit analyses of nutrition interventions using calibrated return estimates report a median return of 17.9:1 per child. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, we find that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase in wages for men and a 6% increase in wages for women in our preferred set of studies which attempt to address unobserved confounding and measurement error. In contrast, the evidence on the association between economic growth and stunting is mixed. Countries with high rates of stunting, such as those in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments that expand the economic opportunities of their children, better allowing them and their countries to reach their full potential. However, economic growth as a policy will only be effective at reducing the prevalence of stunting when increases in national income are directed at improving the diets of children, addressing gender inequalities and strengthening the status of women, improving sanitation and reducing poverty and inequities. © The Author 2017

  13. Economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Mannan, Munim; Long, Kurt Z; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    To assess the economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Systematic review of articles published until March 2015. Seventeen suitable articles were found, of which 13 assess the economic burden of overweight/obesity and estimate that it accounts for 1.5-9.9% of a country's total healthcare expenditure. Four articles on the economic burden of underweight estimate it at 2.5-3.8% of the country's total GDP. Using hospital data, and compared to normal weight individuals, four articles estimated extra healthcare costs for overweight individuals of 7-9.8% and more, and extra healthcare costs for obese individuals of 17-22.3% and higher. Despite methodological diversity across the studies, there is a consensus that both underweight and overweight impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Competition and Facilitation between a Disease and a Predator in a Stunted Prey Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten C Boerlijst

    Full Text Available The role of diseases and parasites has received relatively little attention in modelling ecological dynamics despite mounting evidence of their importance in structuring communities. In contrast to predators, parasites do not necessarily kill their host but instead they may change host life history. Here, we study the impact of a parasite that selectively infects juvenile prey individuals and prevents them from maturing into adults. The model is inspired by the Ligula intestinalis tape worm and its cyprinid fish host Rutilis rutilis. We demonstrate that the parasite can promote as well as demote the so-called stunting in its host population, that is, the accumulation of juvenile prey, which leads to strong exploitation competition and consequently to a bottleneck in maturation. If competition between infected and uninfected individuals is strong, stunting will be enhanced and bistability between a stunted and non-stunted prey population occurs. In this case, the disease competes with the predator of its host species, possibly leading to predator extinction. In contrast, if the competition between infected and uninfected individuals is weak, the stunting is relieved, and epi-zoonotic cycles will occur, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks. Here, the disease facilitates the predator, and predator density will be substantially increased. We discuss the implications of our results for the dynamics and structure of the natural Ligula-Roach system.

  15. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  16. Regulation of pathogenicity in hop stunt viroid-related group II citrus viroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reanwarakorn, K; Semancik, J S

    1998-12-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for two hop stunt viroid-related Group II citrus viroids characterized as either a cachexia disease non-pathogenic variant (CVd-IIa) or a pathogenic variant (CVd-IIb). Sequence identity between the two variants of 95.6% indicated a conserved genome with the principal region of nucleotide difference clustered in the variable (V) domain. Full-length viroid RT-PCR cDNA products were cloned into plasmid SP72. Viroid cDNA clones as well as derived RNA transcripts were transmissible to citron (Citrus medica L.) and Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. To determine the locus of cachexia pathogenicity as well as symptom expression in Luffa, chimeric viroid cDNA clones were constructed from segments of either the left terminal, pathogenic and conserved (T1-P-C) domains or the conserved, variable and right terminal (C-V-T2) domains of CVd-IIa or CVd-IIb in reciprocal exchanges. Symptoms induced by the various chimeric constructs on the two bioassay hosts reflected the differential response observed with CVd-IIa and -IIb. Constructs with the C-V-T2 domains region from clone-IIa induced severe symptoms on Luffa typical of CVd-IIa, but were non-symptomatic on mandarin as a bioassay host for the cachexia disease. Constructs with the same region (C-V-T2) from the clone-IIb genome induced only mild symptoms on Luffa, but produced a severe reaction on mandarin, as observed for CVd-IIb. Specific site-directed mutations were introduced into the V domain of the CVd-IIa clone to construct viroid cDNA clones with either partial or complete conversions to the CVd-IIb sequence. With the introduction of six site-specific changes into the V domain of the clone-IIa genome, cachexia pathogenicity was acquired as well as a moderation of severe symptoms on Luffa.

  17. Underweight, overweight and obesity among a Piedmont (Northern Italy children sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Micheletti Cremasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M. [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in chilhood, is an emergent social problem that can produce adverse health effects in adulthood. It could be prevented encouraging correct eating behaviors and active lifestyle among children.

  18. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  19. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nordenson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anita Nordenson2, Anne Marie Grönberg1,2, Lena Hulthén1, Sven Larsson2, Frode Slinde11Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: Malnutrition is a serious condition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Successful dietary intervention calls for calculations of resting metabolic rate (RMR. One disease-specific prediction equation for RMR exists based on mainly male patients. To construct a disease-specific equation for RMR based on measurements in underweight or weight-losing women and men with COPD, RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry in 30 women and 11 men with a diagnosis of COPD and body mass index <21 kg/m2. The following variables, possibly influencing RMR were measured: length, weight, middle upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance, lung function, and markers of inflammation. Relations between RMR and measured variables were studied using univariate analysis according to Pearson. Gender and variables that were associated with RMR with a P value <0.15 were included in a forward multiple regression analysis. The best-fit multiple regression equation included only fat-free mass (FFM: RMR (kJ/day = 1856 + 76.0 FFM (kg. To conclude, FFM is the dominating factor influencing RMR. The developed equation can be used for prediction of RMR in underweight COPD patients.Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, basal metabolic rate, malnutrition, body composition

  20. Factors behind the success story of under-five stunting in Peru: a district ecological multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Segura, Eddy R; Niño de Guzman, Jessica; Rivera-Ch, María; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-01-19

    Stunting prevalence in children less than 5 years has remained stagnated in Peru from 1992 to 2007, with a rapid reduction thereafter. We aimed to assess the role of different predictors on stunting reduction over time and across departments, from 2000 to 2012. We used various secondary data sources to describe time trends of stunting and of possible predictors that included distal to proximal determinants. We determined a ranking of departments by annual change of stunting and of different predictors. To account for variation over time and across departments, we used an ecological hierarchical approach based on a multilevel mixed-effects regression model, considering stunting as the outcome. Our unit of analysis was one department-year. Stunting followed a decreasing trend in all departments, with differing slopes. The reduction pace was higher from 2007-2008 onwards. The departments with the highest annual stunting reduction were Cusco (-2.31%), Amazonas (-1.57%), Puno (-1.54%), Huanuco (-1.52%), and Ancash (-1.44). Those with the lowest reduction were Ica (-0.67%), Ucayali (-0.64%), Tumbes (-0.45%), Lima (-0.37%), and Tacna (-0.31%). Amazon and Andean departments, with the highest baseline poverty rates and concentrating the highest rural populations, showed the highest stunting reduction. In the multilevel analysis, when accounting for confounding, social determinants seemed to be the most important factors influencing annual stunting reduction, with significant variation between departments. Stunting reduction may be explained by the adoption of anti-poverty policies and sustained implementation of equitable crosscutting interventions, with focus on poorest areas. Inclusion of quality indicators for reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health interventions may enable further analyses to show the influence of these factors. After a long stagnation period, Peru reduced dramatically its national and departmental stunting prevalence, thanks to a combination

  1. Detection of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) by nucleic acid spot hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothma, G C

    1985-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) was extracted from Chrysanthemum stunt viroid-infected Chrysanthemum plants. The CSV was then purified to homogenicity from this extract by one cycle of non-denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis and was followed by one cycle of denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis. No pure circular CSV was obtained. The 3' terminal of purified ASBV was polyadenylated using poly (A) polymerase. The polyadenylated ASBV was used as a template to synthesise radioactively labelled single stranded ASBV cDNA using reverse transcriptase. The radioactively labelled recombinant DNA was hybridised to crude extracts from avocado leaves and chrysanthemum leaves. Autoradiography was employed to detect cDNA-RNA hybrids.

  2. ASUPAN SENG, KADAR SERUM SENG, DAN STUNTING PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DI PESISIR SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriyan Pramono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc, and to analyze differences of zinc serum level between dietary zinc quintile and stunting status. A cross sectional study was conducted to 70 school children (9-12 years selected by simple random sampling. Height was measured by stadiometer and weight was measured using calibrated digital weight-scale. Zinc serum level was analyzed by Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS method, and dietary intake of zinc and iron was obtained using semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using Anova test. Seventy percent subjects were at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc based on Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut off and zinc serum levels among all subjects in this study were <65 μg/dl. There were 47.1% stunting children found in this study. Mean zinc serum levels significantly differences between dietary zinc quintile (p=0.000 and between stunting status (p=0.000. At risk inadequate dietary zinc still contributed to zinc deficiency in coastal school children population. Zinc status was significantly different between stunted and normal children.Keywords: coastal area, dietary zinc, EAR, stunting, zinc serum levelsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi risiko kurangnya asupan seng dan menganalisis perbedaan kadar serum seng antara kuintil asupan seng dan status stunting. Studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap 70 anak sekolah (9-12 tahun yang dipilih secara acak sederhana. Tinggi badan diukur dengan stadiometer dan berat diukur dengan menggunakan timbangan digital terkalibrasi. Kadar seng serum dianalisis dengan metode Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS, dan data asupan seng dan besi diperoleh melalui wawancara dengan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data dianalisis dengan metode analisis statistik Anova. Sejumlah 70% subjek berisiko kurangnya asupan seng makanan berdasarkan

  3. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wolnicka

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  4. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Awotidebe, A.; Strydom, G.L.; de Ridder, J.H.; Mamabolo, R.L.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available

  5. The CDC and IOTF cut points show inconsistent prevalence of underweight and overweight in chinese, indonesian, and vietnamese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare prevalence of underweight and overweight defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) BMI cut points. We evaluated the consistency i...

  6. The Effects of Thin and Heavy Media Images on Overweight and Underweight Consumers: Social Comparison Processes and Behavioral Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); T. Mussweiler (Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines how advertisements containing thin or heavy models influence the self‐esteem of overweight, normal, and underweight consumers. Previous research has mainly examined the influences of variations of the comparison standard on self‐evaluative outcomes, whereas we examine

  7. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  8. Factors associated with being underweight, overweight and obese among ever-married non-pregnant urban women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Kraemer, A

    2009-08-01

    Extremes of body mass index (BMI), viz. underweight, overweight and obese categories, are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, low birth weight, poor quality of life and higher mortality. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of underweightness is very high with an increasing trend of overweightness and obesity. This is a serious public health concern as it indicates a dual burden of disease. The present study assessed the associations of being underweight, overweight and obese with socioeconomic, demographical and migration variables among ever-married non-pregnant urban Bangladeshi women aged 13-49 years. The data was extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Bivariable, factor and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed in this study. The prevalence of being underweight, overweight and obese among ever-married non-pregnant urban women in Bangladesh was 25.2 percent, 15.7 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively. Age, education, region of residence, marital status, current use of contraception and type of occupation were significantly associated with BMI categories. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that women with a high socioeconomic status were significantly negatively associated with being underweight (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.63) but positively associated with being overweight (OR 1.70, 95 percent CI 1.48-1.96) and obese (OR 2.48, 95 percent CI 1.89-3.26), as compared to the women with normal BMI. In contrast, women who migrated from rural to urban areas showed a significantly positive association with being underweight (OR 1.15, 95 percent CI 1.04-1.27) but negative associations with being overweight (OR 0.80, 95 percent CI 0.71-0.89) and obese (OR 0.75, 95 percent CI 0.62-0.92), when compared with women who did not migrate. Suitable interventions based on further studies are needed to reduce the

  9. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  10. Household food insecurity associated with stunting and underweight among preschool children in Antioquia, Colombia Inseguridad alimentaria en los hogares asociada con el retraso del crecimiento y el bajo peso en niños preescolares de Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hackett

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess criterion validity of a household food security scale through its associations with child health status in participants of the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia (MANA. METHODS: A 12-item household food security survey (Colombian Household Food Security Scale, CHFSS was applied to a cross-sectional stratified random sample of 2 784 low-income households with preschool children receiving MANA food supplements in Antioquia, Colombia. Anthropometrics and health status of the children were also assessed. Chi-square tests were used to initially compare child health status and household food security status. Logistic regression models were further developed to assess this relationship in bivariate and multiple regression models. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were found between household food insecurity and diagnoses of children's diarrhea, respiratory infections, and parasitosis (P OBJETIVO: Evaluar la validez de una escala de seguridad alimentaria en hogares mediante su asociación con el estado de salud de niños participantes en el plan colombiano Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia (MANA. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó una encuesta de seguridad alimentaria en hogares (CHFSS, compuesta por 12 preguntas, a una muestra transversal estratificada y aleatoria de 2 784 hogares de bajos ingresos con niños preescolares que recibían suplementos alimenticios del programa MANA en Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluó el estado de salud y antropométrico de los niños. Se comparó el estado de salud de los niños y de seguridad alimentaria de los hogares mediante la prueba de la ji al cuadrado. Se elaboraron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar esa relación mediante regresiones bifactoriales y multifactoriales. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre la inseguridad alimentaria de los hogares y el diagnóstico de diarrea, infecciones respiratorias y parasitosis en los niños (P < 0,0001. El riesgo de retraso del crecimiento y bajo peso en los niños se incrementó según una relación dosis-respuesta a medida que se agravaba la inseguridad alimentaria. CONCLUSIONES: Se estableció un vínculo importante entre la inseguridad alimentaria de los hogares y el estado nutricional de los niños participantes en un programa de asistencia alimentaria. Estos resultados confirman la validez del CHFSS, por lo que este instrumento es válido para evaluar la inseguridad alimentaria en poblaciones en alto riesgo.

  11. Economic inequality and child stunting in Bangladesh and Kenya: an investigation of six hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold, Gary W

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with the increasing focus on issues of equity in developing countries, I extend the literature analyzing the relationship between economic inequality and individual health to the developing world. Using survey data from Bangladesh and Kenya with economic status measured by a wealth index and with three different geographic definitions of community, I analyze six competing hypotheses for how economic inequality may be related to stunting among children younger than 5 years old. I find little support for the predominant hypothesis that economic inequality as measured by a Gini index is an important predictor of individual health. Instead, I find that the difference between a household's wealth and the mean household wealth in the community is the measure of economic inequality that is most closely related to stunting in these countries. In particular, a 1 standard deviation increase in household wealth relative to the community mean is associated with a 30–32 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Bangladesh and a 16–21 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Kenya.

  12. Short-term protein intake and stimulation of protein synthesis in stunted children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, Vincent G. M.; Oudshoorn, Johanna H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Schilte, Piet; Ruiter, An F. C.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Endert, Erik; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Heymans, Hugo S. S.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stunted children with cystic fibrosis (CF) have less net protein anabolism than do children without CF, and the result is retarded growth in the CF patients. It is not known whether protein intake above that recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation would further stimulate whole-body

  13. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.T.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under

  14. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  15. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  16. Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increases risk of stunting in children aged 12-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijra Hijra

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increased the risk of stunting in 12-24 months old children by 8.26. This study confirms the need to scale up interventions during the first 2 years of life, including appropriate infant feeding practices.

  17. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may

  18. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency,

  19. Perspective: The potential role of essential amino acids and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the pathogenesis of child stunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missi...

  20. FAKTOR PENENTU STUNTING ANAK BALITA PADA BERBAGAI ZONA EKOSISTEM DI KABUPATEN KUPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmanu Cahyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to analyze difference and compare the determinants of stunting among under five years children considering different ecosystem in Kupang. It is an observational study using case control of under five children with and without stunting. There were 132 subjects chosen from lowland, middleland region, and mountainous ecosystem zones. Data was analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis. The analysis resumes that determinants of stunting in lowland area is energy intake (p=0.002; OR=0.059; 95%CI:0.010-0.359, energy intake is a protective factor, in the middleland region is love and cares (p=0.002; OR=9.247; 95%CI:2.213-38.644 and sanitation (p=0.046; OR=2.832; 95%CI:1.020-7.860. Furthermore, the environmental sanitation as the factor in mountainous area (p=0.034; OR=3.978; 95%CI:1.112-14.230. The impact of stunting if left untreated will cause problems for generation in the future, for example impairment of mental development and physical growth, and it will end in poverty and the threat of life survival, so it need a proper intervention to handle it.Keywords: determinants, ecosystem zone, stuntingABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis gambaran dan membandingkan pengaruh variabel faktor penentu stunting anak balita pada berbagai zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang. Jenis penelitian menggunakan desain observational dengan rancangan case control antara kelompok balita stunting dan normal. Jumlah subjek penelitian ini sebanyak 132 subjek yang terbagi pada tiga zona ekosistem dataran rendah, dataran sedang, dan pegunungan pada bulan Maret 2015. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analisis Regresi Logistik Berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor penentu stunting pada zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang adalah sanitasi lingkungan (p=0,002; OR=2,307; 95%CI:0,120-0,721, dan kejadian sakit (p=0,007; OR=0,294; 95%CI:0,120-0,721; di zona ekosistem dataran rendah adalah asupan energi (p=0,002; OR=0

  1. Association of the Familial Coexistence of Child Stunting and Maternal Overweight with Indigenous Women in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Houser, R; Must, A; Palma, P; Bermudez, O

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15.9 vs. 22.2%). Compared with normal-weight mothers, overweight mothers were less likely to have stunted children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88]. However, compared with mothers who were not short and overweight, short and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to have stunted children (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73) and were more likely to be indigenous women living in urban areas (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.19-7.60) or rural areas (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28-7.14). The order of observed prevalence of SCOM pairs in different types of households was as follows: urban indigenous (25.0%), rural indigenous (21.2%), rural non-indigenous (19.8%), and urban non-indigenous households (10.7%). Conclusions for Practice Urban indigenous households were more likely to have SCOM pairs. This study provided useful information for identifying the most vulnerable groups and areas with a high prevalence of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight.

  2. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8. Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ was associated with 0.07 standard units’ increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth.

  3. Catch-up growth or regression to the mean? Recovery from stunting revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Noël; Preece, Michael A; Cole, Tim J

    2005-01-01

    An important question for policy is the extent to which catch-up growth can ease the impact of early stunting. Martorell et al. (1992) showed that stunted Guatemalan infants remain stunted into adulthood, whereas Adair (1999) found appreciable catch-up growth in Filipino children from 2-12 years. Both groups defined catch-up as an inverse correlation between early height and subsequent growth, but Martorell based the correlation on height, whereas Adair used height z scores. The statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean is much like catch-up growth, an inverse correlation between initial height and later height gain. The objective of this study was to reexamine the relationship between stunting and later catch-up growth in the context of regression to the mean. The design was a theoretical analysis showing that catch-up growth is more evident based on height z scores than on height, validated using data on 495 stunted South African children seen at 2 and 5 years of age. The correlation between height at 2 and height change from 2 to 5 was small based on height (-0.11) but large and highly significant based on height z score (-0.58), providing strong evidence of catch-up growth. We argue that catch-up growth should be estimated using height z score not height and that catch-up is present only when the change in z score exceeds that predicted by regression to the mean. This leads to a compact definition of catch-up growth: if z1 and z2 are the initial and final (mean) height z scores, and r is the correlation between them, then catch-up growth for groups or individuals is given by (z2 - rz1). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  4. The Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight/Obesity and Their Related Lifestyle Factors in Indonesia, 2014–15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supa Pengpid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and its related factors (socio-demographic, health behavior, health status in a national adult population in Indonesia. Material and Methods: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in 2014–15 in Indonesia, 29509 adults (median age 41.0 years, Inter Quartile Range=22.0, age range of 18–103 years completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic, health behavior and health status factors and underweight and overweight or obesity. Results: Of total sample (n = 29509, 11.2% measured underweight (13.5% among men and 9.1% among women (<18.5 kg/m2, 39.8% normal weight (48.1% among men and 32.0% among women and 49.0% had overweight or obesity (≥23 kg/m2 (38.3% among men and 58.9% among women; 24.6% of the overall sample had class I obesity (25–29.9 kg/m2, and 8.5% had class II obesity (30 or more kg/m2. Among different age groups, underweight was the highest among 18–29 year-olds (20.0% and those 70 years and older (29.8%, while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 59 years (more than 53%. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, having less education, living in rural areas and not having chronic conditions were associated with underweight status. While better education, higher economic status, urban residency, dietary behavior (infrequent meals, frequent meat, fried snacks and fast food consumption, physical inactivity, not using tobacco, having chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterol, and better perceived health and happiness status were associated with overweight or obesity. Conclusions: A dual burden of both adult underweight and having overweight or obesity was found in Indonesia. Sociodemographic, health risk behavior and health status risk factors were identified, which can guide

  5. Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu; Irie, Yuki; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-05-01

    To assess how changes in socioeconomic and public health determinants may have contributed to the reduction in stunting prevalence seen among Cambodian children from 2000 to 2010. A nationally representative sample of 10 366 children younger than 5 years was obtained from pooled data of cross-sectional surveys conducted in Cambodia in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The authors used a multivariate hierarchical logistic model to examine the association between the prevalence of childhood stunting over time and certain determinants. They estimated those changes in the prevalence of stunting in 2010 that could have been achieved through further improvements in public health indicators. Child stunting was associated with the child's sex and age, type of birth, maternal height, maternal body mass index, previous birth intervals, number of household members, household wealth index score, access to improved sanitation facilities, presence of diarrhoea, parents' education, maternal tobacco use and mother's birth during the Khmer Rouge famine. The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use. Child stunting in Cambodia has decreased owing to socioeconomic development and public health improvements. Effective policy interventions for sanitation, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use, as well as equitable economic growth and education, are the keys to further improvement in child nutrition.

  6. Tracking for underweight, overweight and obesity from childhood to adolescence: a 5-year follow-up study in urban Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, M; van Weissenbruch, M M; Prawirohartono, E P; Surjono, A; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2008-01-01

    To assess tracking of body mass index (BMI) of urban Indonesian children from childhood to adolescence and to compare the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children from two surveys: years 1999 and 2004. A longitudinal study assessing BMI tracking of 308 urban children followed from age 6-8 to 11-13 years and two cross-sectional surveys comparing the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old children: year 1999 (n = 1,524) and 2004 (n = 510). Childhood BMI determined 52.3% variation of later BMI. After 5.1 (0.6) years the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 4.2 and 1.9% in childhood to 8.8 and 3.2% in adolescence. The prevalence of underweight decreased from 27.3 to 18.8%. All obese children remained obese, 84.6% overweight children stayed overweight, 56.0% underweight children remained underweight. In cross-sectional comparison the prevalence of overweight and obesity raised from 5.3 to 8.6% and from 2.7 to 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of underweight remained constant. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increases as children grow into adolescence. Overweight or obese children are more likely to remain overweight or obese. Cross-sectional comparison shows, while the prevalence of underweight stays constant, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  8. Undernutrition among adults in India: the significance of individual-level and contextual factors impacting on the likelihood of underweight across sub-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which individual-level as well as macro-level contextual factors influence the likelihood of underweight across adult sub-populations in India. Population-based cross-sectional survey included in India's National Health Family Survey conducted in 2005-06. We disaggregated into eight sub-populations. Multistage nationally representative household survey covering 99 % of India's population. The survey covered 124 385 females aged 15-49 years and 74 369 males aged 15-54 years. A social gradient in underweight exists in India. Even after allowing for wealth status, differences in the predicted probability of underweight persisted based upon rurality, age/maturity and gender. We found individual-level education lowered the likelihood of underweight for males, but no statistical association for females. Paradoxically, rural young (15-24 years) females from more educated villages had a higher likelihood of underweight relative to those in less educated villages; but for rural mature (>24 years) females the opposite was the case. Christians had a significantly lower likelihood of underweight relative to other socio-religious groups (OR=0·53-0·80). Higher state-level inequality increased the likelihood of underweight across most population groups, while neighbourhood inequality exhibited a similar relationship for the rural young population subgroups only. Individual states/neighbourhoods accounted for 5-9 % of the variation in the prediction of underweight. We found that rural young females represent a particularly highly vulnerable sub-population. Economic growth alone is unlikely to reduce the burden of malnutrition in India; accordingly, policy makers need to address the broader social determinants that contribute to higher underweight prevalence in specific demographic subgroups.

  9. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe

  10. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe

  11. Ketahanan pangan rumah tangga berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrin Masrin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Food is one of human basic needs. If it is not fullfilled, both in their number and quality in the individual and household level will disturb the achievement of the life quality that are health, active, and sustainable and able to rise various health and nutrition problems. Stunting in children 6-23 monthswas one of chronical nutrition problems that was caused by access and afford to the food still low.Objectives: To analyze the correlation between food security of the household and stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was an observational study with case-control design. The samples of the study were 126 children aged 6-23 months, each for case, and control group. The samples were chosen by total sampling method. Data were analyzed by using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate. Statistic test in bivariate analysis used chi-square test and in multivariate analysis used logistic regression test.Results: Bivariate analysis showed that food security of the household had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months (p=0.04, OR=2.70, 95% CI:0.94-8.77. The confounding variable which had significant correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months were mother height (p=0.00, OR=2.03, 95% CI:1.14-3.65 and low birth weigth history (p=0.03, OR=3.02, 95% CI:0.98-11.04. Multivariate analysis by controlling mother height and low birth weigth history in children aged 6-23 months,showed that household food security had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged their 6-23 months (p=0.05, OR=2.62, 95% CI:0.97-7.12.Conclusions: There was significant correlation between household food security and stunting incidence in children aged at their 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.KEYWORDS: household food security, stunting, children aged in 6-23 monthsABSTRAKLatar belakang: Pangan merupakan salah satu

  12. The Effects of Thin and Heavy Media Images on Overweight and Underweight Consumers: Social Comparison Processes and Behavioral Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Smeesters, Dirk; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines how advertisements containing thin or heavy models influence the self‐esteem of overweight, normal, and underweight consumers. Previous research has mainly examined the influences of variations of the comparison standard on self‐evaluative outcomes, whereas we examine how the relative position of the self on the comparison dimension may moderate these effects. Three studies manipulated the size (thin vs. heavy) and extremity of the size (moderate vs. extreme) o...

  13. Eating-related environmental factors in underweight eating disorders and obesity: are there common vulnerabilities during childhood and early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, I; Villarejo, C; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Perpiñá, C; Vilarrasa, N; Granero, R; Cebolla, A; Botella, C; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabe, M; Penelo, E; Casella, S; Islam, M A; Orekhova, E; Casanueva, F F; Karwautz, A; Menchón, J M; Treasure, J; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between individual, social and family influences and dysfunctional eating patterns early in life and the likelihood of developing a subsequent underweight eating disorder (ED) or obesity. The total sample comprised 152 individuals (underweight ED, n = 45; obese patients, n = 65; healthy controls; n = 42) from Barcelona, Spain. The Cross-Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ) was used to assess early eating influences as well as individual and family eating patterns and attitudes towards food. Even though a few shared eating influences emerged for both groups, unique factors were also observed. Whereas relationship with friends, teasing about eating habits by family members and the mass media were of specific relevance to the underweight ED group, the patient's own physical appearance, body dissatisfaction, teasing about eating habits by friends, teasing about body shape by family members and dysfunctional eating patterns were unique to obesity. Overlapping environmental risk factors provide evidence for integral prevention and intervention approaches that simultaneously tackle a range of weight-related problems. The unique factors might be important for targeting high-risk individuals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Freshwater Clams (Pilsbryoconcha Exilis) as an Potential Local Mineral Sources in Weaning Food to Overcome Stunting in Grobogan, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, S. R.; Anjani, Gemala; Wijayanti, Hartanti Sandi; Nuryanto

    2018-02-01

    Based on a preliminary survey in Grobogan Central Java, one of the local food that has a prospective nutrient content developed is freshwater clams. Results of PSG report in 2015, especially in Grobogan district with stunting problem of 31.5% consisting of 7.2% very short and 24.1% short. From the stunting event factor, the role of weaning food in the form of baby porridge is the most important component in the fulfillment of infant nutrition. The research is divided into two stages of the research is the initial stage to make the formulation process by way of freshwater clams, nutrient analysis, and formula calculation. The second stage is the process of formulation weaning food by way of formula making, nutrient analysis, and acceptance test of weaning food on the baby slurry is substituted by the freshwater clams. The influence statistically different substitution of freshwater clams on protein content (p=0.014), fat (p=0,041), carbohydrate (p=0,039), water (p=0,0001), ash (p=0.0001), iron (p=0.0001), and zinc (p=0.0001). There is no influence substitution of freshwater clams on energy content (p=0,129) and fiber (p=0,225). The percentage of favorite level on the acceptance test of color (p=0,005) and taste (p=0,006) was statistically different, but there was no difference flavour (p=0,913) and texture (p=0,198). freshwater clams flour is rich in iron and zinc content, so it can serve as local food, especially in Grobogan Central Java as a stunting handling. Obtained from the results of several formulations substituted of freshwater clams in formulation 2 is a formula that can meet the standards of KEPMENKES except on the content of protein and moisture content. Formula 2 acceptable to the panelists, except for the assessment of taste.

  15. Assessment of the effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on reducing anaemia and stunting in refugee populations in the Horn of Africa: Secondary data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Style

    Full Text Available Stunting and micronutrient malnutrition are persistent public health problems in refugee populations. UNHCR and its partner organisations implement blanket supplementary feeding programmes using a range of special nutritional products as one approach to address these issues. The evidence base for the efficacy and effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement, Nutributter®, in reducing stunting and anaemia is limited. Secondary data analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of Nutributter® distribution on anaemia and stunting in children aged 6-23 months (programme target group and 6-59 months (the standard age group sampled in routine nutrition surveys. Analysis was conducted using routine pre and post-intervention cross-sectional nutrition survey data collected between 2008-2011 in five refugee camps in Kenya and Djibouti. Changes in total anaemia (Haemoglobin<110g/L, anaemia categories (mild, moderate and severe, and stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2 were explored using available data on the Nutributter® programme and contextual factors. A significant reduction in the prevalence of anaemia in children aged 6-23 months and 6-59 months was seen in four of five, and in all five camps, respectively (p<0.05. Reductions ranged from 12.4 to 23.0, and 18.3 to 29.3 percentage points in each age group. Improvements were largely due to reductions in moderate and severe anaemia and occurred where the prevalence of acute malnutrition was stable or increasing. No change in stunting was observed in four of five camps. The replicability of findings across five sites strongly suggests that Nutributter® distribution was associated with a reduction in anaemia, but not stunting, among refugee children in the Horn of Africa. Benefits were not restricted to the 6-23 month target group targeted by the nutrition programme. However, even following this intervention anaemia remained a serious public health problem and additional work to

  16. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  17. Relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting in South Asia: Insights from nationally representative data from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rockli; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Corsi, Daniel J; Aguayo, Víctor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    Optimal growth and development in early childhood is determined by a complex interplay of child, maternal, household, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that influence nutritional intake, but interventions to reduce child undernutrition sometimes target specific risk factors in isolation. In this analysis, we assess the relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting selected based on a collective review of existing multi-factorial frameworks: complementary feeding, breastfeeding, feeding frequency, dietary diversity, maternal height, body mass index (BMI), education, age at marriage, child vaccination, access to improved drinking source and sanitation facilities, household indoor air quality, and household wealth. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh (2014), India (2005), Nepal (2011), and Pakistan (2013), and from the National Nutrition Survey for Afghanistan (2013). In the mutually adjusted logistic regression model for 3,159 infants aged 6-8 months, short maternal stature (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.93-4.46) and lack of complementary foods (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12-1.93) were associated with significantly higher risk of stunting. For 18,586 children aged 6-23 months, the strongest correlates of child stunting were: maternal height (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 2.82-4.03), household wealth (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72-2.94), maternal BMI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-2.00), minimum dietary diversity (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), maternal education (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18-1.56), and age at marriage (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30). Full vaccination and minimum dietary frequency were also found to be important for severe stunting for children of this age group. Some differences were found in the relative ordering and statistical significance of the correlates in country-specific analyses. Our findings indicate that comprehensive strategies incorporating a broader progress

  18. Narrowing socioeconomic inequality in child stunting: the Brazilian experience, 1974-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Conde, Wolney Lisboa; Konno, Silvia; Lovadino, Ana Lucia; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2010-04-01

    To assess trends in the prevalence and social distribution of child stunting in Brazil to evaluate the effect of income and basic service redistribution policies implemented in that country in the recent past. The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age z score below -2 using the Child Growth Standards of the World Health Organization) among children aged less than 5 years was estimated from data collected during national household surveys carried out in Brazil in 1974-75 (n = 34,409), 1989 (n = 7374), 1996 (n = 4149) and 2006-07 (n = 4414). Absolute and relative socioeconomic inequality in stunting was measured by means of the slope index and the concentration index of inequality, respectively. Over a 33-year period, we documented a steady decline in the national prevalence of stunting from 37.1% to 7.1%. Prevalence dropped from 59.0% to 11.2% in the poorest quintile and from 12.1% to 3.3% among the wealthiest quintile. The decline was particularly steep in the last 10 years of the period (1996 to 2007), when the gaps between poor and wealthy families with children under 5 were also reduced in terms of purchasing power; access to education, health care and water and sanitation services; and reproductive health indicators. In Brazil, socioeconomic development coupled with equity-oriented public policies have been accompanied by marked improvements in living conditions and a substantial decline in child undernutrition, as well as a reduction of the gap in nutritional status between children in the highest and lowest socioeconomic quintiles. Future studies will show whether these gains will be maintained under the current global economic crisis.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  20. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  1. Effect of parental formal education on risk of child stunting in Indonesia and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; de Pee, Saskia; Sun, Kai; Sari, Mayang; Akhter, Nasima; Bloem, Martin W

    2008-01-26

    Child stunting is associated with poor child development and increased mortality. Our aim was to determine the effect of length of maternal and paternal education on stunting in children under the age of 5 years. Data for indicators of child growth and of parental education and socioeconomic status were gathered from 590,570 families in Indonesia and 395,122 families in Bangladesh as part of major nutritional surveillance programmes. The prevalence of stunting in families in Indonesia was 33.2%, while that in Bangladesh was 50.7%. In Indonesia, greater maternal formal education led to a decrease of between 4.4% and 5% in the odds of child stunting (odds ratio per year 0.950, 95% CI 0.946-0.954 in rural settings; 0.956, 0.950-0.961 in urban settings); greater paternal formal education led to a decrease of 3% in the odds of child stunting (0.970, 0.967-0.974). In Bangladesh, greater maternal formal education led to a 4.6% decrease in the odds of child stunting (0.954, 0.951-0.957), while greater paternal formal education led to a decrease of between 2.9% and 5.4% in the odds of child stunting (0.971, 0.969-0.974 in rural settings; 0.946, 0.941-0.951 in urban settings). In Indonesia, high levels of maternal and paternal education were both associated with protective caregiving behaviours, including vitamin A capsule receipt, complete childhood immunisations, better sanitation, and use of iodised salt (all peducation are strong determinants of child stunting in families in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

  2. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  3. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  4. [Coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children in south-western Benin households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Bernard; Sossa Jérôme, Charles; Saizonou, Jacques; Makoutodé, Patrick Charles; Mongbo Adé, Virginie; Guedègbé Capo-Chichi, Justine; Dona Ouendo, Marius-Edgard

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children (DBM / SCOM) in south-western Benin households. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2015 on 357 mother-child pairs randomly selected by a two-stage sampling technique in the city of Comè and its surroundings. Data on socio-economic factors, family, health care, dietary quality were collected by questionnaires, observation and documentary review. Anthropometric measurements were performed in mothers and children. A logistic regression analysis model was used to search for determinants of the coexistence of the two aspects of malnutrition. 19.3% of mothers were overweight and 5.7% were obese. 46% of children were stunted. The prevalence of DBM / SCOM was 11.5%. The main factors associated with DBM/SCOM were the child's age, the mother's occupation, ethnicity, social status and educational level, and the size, economic level, transportation means and food insecurity of the household. A high frequency of the coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunting was observed in Comè households. Interventions based on the identified determinants are needed to act simultaneously on the double burden of malnutrition in Comè.

  5. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  6. An analysis of cross sectional survey data of stunting among Palestinian children less than five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nahida H; Halileh, Samia

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is to report on determinants of stunting, defined as low height for age, among children in the occupied Palestinian territories. Using 2006-2007 cross sectional survey data collected by the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics and using multivariate mixed model techniques for logistic regression, the relationships of stunting to characteristics of 9,051 Palestinian children less than 5 years of age living in the Palestinian territories were estimated. These characteristics included demographic and social characteristics of the child, geographic region, type of location (urban, rural, refugee camp) and food insecurity for each governorate. Listed in order of the greater contribution to the explained variation in stunting, children with lower birth weight (P refugee camps have lower rates of stunting than urban areas; however the difference does not reach statistical significance. The relationship between the child's gender and stunting is not statistically significant. Lack of food security is directly linked to stunting. The continuing incidence of food insecurity means that the deleterious effects of under-nutrition will continue to affect the children of Palestine. Removing the avoidable causes of food insecurity in the occupied Palestinian territories will alleviate under-nutrition and its deleterious effects.

  7. Faktor sosiodemografi dan tinggi badan orang tua serta hubungannya dengan kejadian stunting pada balita usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afia Amin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is linear growth disturbance indicated by the value of the z-score of TB/U less than -2 SD. There are various factors associated with the incidence of stunting. Social demographics such as low income, low parental education and the number of members in the household, also indirectly related to the incidence of stunting. Parental height is also associated with the incidence of stunting. Short mothers have the possibility of having short baby. The results of the study in Egypt showed that children born from mothers with the height of <150 cm have a higher risk to be stunted.Objectives: To determine whether sociodemographic factors and parental height were risk factors for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: The design used case-control study. The research was conducted in April-June 2014 in the Sedayu Subdistrict. Number of samples were 252 children aged 6-23 months. The instruments were a questionnaire to determine the identity of children, the identity of respondents, nutritional status, and sociodemographic data. Infantometer used to measure the length of the children body and microtoise to measure the height of parents. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression test.Results: The prevalence of children stunting was 16.20%. Bivariate test showed that the height of mothers significantly associated with the incidence of stunting. Multivariate analysis showed that the most influential factors to the was maternal height, while variables of employment, education, income, expenditure, number of family members, and height of father did not show significant results.Conclusions: Maternal height were the risk factor for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, but sociodemographic were not.KEYWORDS: stunting, sociodemographic, parental heightABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting

  8. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A case study comparing Positive Deviance/Hearth vs. the traditional health/nutrition education (Mother Care Groups) approach to prevent MAM and rehabilitate underweight children in Soroti, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full text: BACKGROUND: Globally, 52 million children under 5 are moderately/severely wasted. To date, Supplementary Feeding Program (SFP) has been most commonly used to address moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) (low weight-for-height) where food rations are distributed. However, recently, high levels of wasting are being found even in areas with food security. Thus, rather than creating a dependence on food aid, different approaches need to be explored to address the global burden of MAM. World Vision (WV) has been implementing Positive Deviance/Hearth (PDH) since 1999 and has now expanded to more than 40 countries. WV believes PDH is an effective sustainable rehabilitation program for underweight children (low weight-for-age). However, since 2012, WV began using PDH to also rehabilitate MAM children, especially in areas with food security and no treatment for children with acute malnutrition. PDH is a behaviour change program that aims to rehabilitate children in the context of their own homes, to sustain the rehabilitation and prevent future malnutrition using existing resources, local solutions, and a food-based approach. Internationally, to date, there are mixed results in the effectiveness of PDH and the traditional health and nutrition education program called, “Mother Care Groups” (MCG), in successfully improving the behaviours of caregivers and rehabilitating underweight children. As PDH was being implemented in Soroti, Uganda, it was assessed and compared to MCG. METHODS: A comparative case study – quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effectiveness of the two programs in improving the knowledge, behaviour and confidence levels of primary caregivers of malnourished children aged 6-36 months of age in child feeding, hygiene, caring, and health-seeking practices in Soroti, Uganda. If change was seen, the improvement in the nutritional status of malnourished children was also assessed. 64 caregivers with underweight children were included in

  10. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  11. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Overweight and Underweight Prevalence Trends in Children from Romania - Pooled Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies between 2006 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Cinteza, Elena Eliza; Chesaru, Bianca Ioana; Gafencu, Mihai; Mocanu, Veronica; Pascanu, Ionela M; Tatar, Simona Alexandra; Balgradean, Mihaela; Dobre, Michaela; Fica, Simona Vasilica; Ichim, Gabriela Edita; Pop, Raluca; Puiu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015. Children's BMI was classified using the current WHO, IOTF, and CDC references. 25,060 children from 8 Romanian counties were included in the analysis. The prevalence of underweight children was 5%/4.5%/8.5% (WHO/IOTF/CDC), while the prevalence of overweight (including obese) children was 28.3%/23%/23.2% (WHO/IOTF/CDC). The prevalence of overweight children did not change significantly over the last decade (chi-square test p = 0.6). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; 95% CI 1.29-1.45, compared to female); prepubertal age (OR = 3.86; 95% CI 3.41-4.36,compared to postpubertal age), and urban environment (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.26, compared to rural environment) had higher risk for overweight. While the prevalence of underweight children was low, almost one in four children in Romania was overweight or obese (according to WHO criteria) between 2006 and 2015. This prevalence remained relatively stable over the last decade. Male gender, prepubertal age, and urban environment, were the most relevant risk factors associated with overweight status in Romanian children. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Deranged endocannabinoid responses to hedonic eating in underweight and recently weight-restored patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Aveta, Teresa; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Monteleone, Palmiero; Maj, Mario

    2015-02-01

    A dysregulation of reward mechanisms was suggested in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), but the role of the endogenous mediators of reward has been poorly investigated. Endocannabinoids, including anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and the endocannabinoid-related compounds oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide modulate food-related and unrelated reward. Hedonic eating, which is the consumption of food just for pleasure and not homeostatic need, is a suitable paradigm to explore food-related reward. We investigated responses of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds to hedonic eating in AN. Peripheral concentrations of anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamide were measured in 7 underweight and 7 weight-restored AN patients after eating favorite and nonfavorite foods in the condition of no homeostatic needs, and these measurements were compared with those of previously studied healthy control subjects. 1) In healthy controls, plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations decreased after both types of meals but were significantly higher in hedonic eating; in underweight AN patients, 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations did not show specific time patterns after eating either favorite or nonfavorite foods, whereas in weight-restored patients, 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations showed similar increases with both types of meals. 2) Anandamide plasma concentrations exhibited no differences in their response patterns to hedonic eating in the groups. 3) Compared with 2-arachidonoylglycerol, palmitoylethanolamide concentrations exhibited an opposite response pattern to hedonic eating in healthy controls; this pattern was partially preserved in underweight AN patients but not in weight-restored ones. 4) Like palmitoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide plasma concentrations tended to be higher in nonhedonic eating than in hedonic eating in healthy controls; moreover, no difference between healthy

  14. Preserved C-peptide levels in overweight or obese compared with underweight children upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeoh Won Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe hypothesized that overweight or obese children might develop type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM early despite residual beta-cell function. Factors independently associated with preservation of C-peptide level were analyzed.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical data of 135 children aged 2.1-16.5 years with autoimmune T1DM. Body mass index (BMI, pubertal stage, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and C-peptide levels were evaluated. Patients were assigned to underweight (22.2%, normal weight (63.7%, and overweight or obese (14.1% groups according to their BMI.ResultsPreservation of serum C-peptide levels (≥0.6 ng/mL was found in 43.0% of subjects. With increasing BMI, the proportions of children with preserved C-peptide levels increased from 33.3% to 41.9% to 63.2%, with marginal significance (P=0.051. Interaction analysis indicated no effect of BMI score on age at onset associated with serum C-peptide levels. The lower the C-peptide level, the younger the age of onset (P<0.001, after adjustment for BMI z-score and HbA1c level. However, no significant relationship between BMI z-score or category and onset age was evident. Upon multivariate-adjusted modeling, the odds that the C-peptide level was preserved increased by 1.2 fold (P=0.001 per year of life, by 3.1 folds (P=0.015 in children presenting without (compared to with ketoacidosis, and by 5.0 folds (P=0.042 in overweight or obese (compared to underweight children.ConclusionOverweight or obese children had slightly more residual beta-cell function than did underweight children. However, we found no evidence that obesity temporally accelerates T1DM presentation.

  15. Association of food access and neighbor relationships with diet and underweight among community-dwelling older Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideko; Nakamura, Mieko; Okada, Eisaku; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-11-01

    Food access is important for maintaining dietary variety, which predicts underweight. The aim of this study was to examine the association of food access and neighbor relationships with eating and underweight. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 102,869 Japanese individuals aged 65 years or older. The perceived availability of food was assessed using the presence or absence of food stores within 1 km of the home. Level of relationships with neighbors was also assessed. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for infrequent food intake and underweight were determined using logistic regression analysis. The proportion of men and women having low access to food was 25-30%. Having low food access (OR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25 for men and OR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1.33 for women) and a low level of relationship with neighbors (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.31-1.45 for men and OR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.48-1.67 for women) was associated with infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables in both sexes. Association between low food access and infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables was higher among men with low levels of neighbor relationship (OR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.46) than among men with high levels of relationship (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18). Low perceived availability of food is a risk factor for low dietary variety among older people. Furthermore, high levels of relationship with neighbors may relieve the harmful effect of low food access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Overweight/obesity and underweight are both risk factors for osteoporotic fractures at different sites in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Kuroda, T; Saito, M; Shiraki, M

    2013-01-01

    This cohort study of 1,614 postmenopausal Japanese women followed for 6.7 years showed that overweight/obesity and underweight are both risk factors for fractures at different sites. Fracture risk assessment may be improved if fracture sites are taken into account and BMI is categorized. The effect of body mass index (BMI) on fracture at a given level of bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial, since varying associations between BMI and fracture sites have been reported. A total of 1,614 postmenopausal Japanese women were followed for 6.7 years in a hospital-based cohort study. Endpoints included incident vertebral, femoral neck, and long-bone fractures. Rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression models adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, BMD, prior fracture, back pain, and treatment by estrogen. Over a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years, a total of 254 clinical and 335 morphometric vertebral fractures, 48 femoral neck fractures, and 159 long-bone fractures were observed. Incidence rates of vertebral fracture in underweight and normal weight women were significantly lower than overweight or obese women by 0.45 (95 % confidence interval: 0.32 to 0.63) and 0.61 (0.50 to 0.74), respectively, if BMD and other risk factors were adjusted, and by 0.66 (0.48 to 0.90) and 0.70 (0.58 to 0.84) if only BMD was not adjusted. Incidence rates of femoral neck and long-bone fractures in the underweight group were higher than the overweight/obese group by 2.15 (0.73 to 6.34) and 1.51 (0.82 to 2.77) and were similar between normal weight and overweight/obesity. Overweight/obesity and underweight are both risk factors for fractures at different sites. Fracture risk assessment may be improved if fracture sites are taken into account and BMI is categorized.

  17. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Barr, Dana B; Debes, Frodi

    2006-03-01

    To examine possible effects on blood pressure, neurological function, and neurobehavioral tests in school-aged children with and without prenatal pesticide exposure in an area where stunting is common. In a community of Northern Ecuador with intensive floriculture and a high female employment rate, we invited 79 children attending the 2 lowest grades of a public school for clinical examinations. In addition to a thorough physical examination, we administered simple reaction time, Santa Ana dexterity test, Stanford-Binet copying, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Digit Spans forward. Maternal interview included detailed assessment of occupational history to determine pesticide exposure during pregnancy. Recent and current pesticide exposure was assessed by erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity and urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites. All eligible children participated in the study, but 7 children were excluded from data analysis due to other disease or age >9 years. A total of 31 of the remaining 72 children were classified as stunted based on their height for age. Maternal occupational history revealed that 37 children had been exposed to pesticides during development. After confounder adjustment, prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure than in the controls. On neurological examination, 14 exposed children and 9 controls showed > or =1 abnormalities. Of 5 neurobehavioral tests, the Stanford-Binet copying test showed a lower drawing score for copying designs in exposed children than in controls. Stunting was associated with a lower score on this test only, and both risk factors remained statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and social confounders. Increased excretion of dimethyl and diethyl metabolites of organophosphates was associated with increased reaction time and no other outcomes. Prenatal pesticide exposure may cause lasting

  18. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Kattula

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India.A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL, the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting.The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%. Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%.There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  19. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther

    2017-07-01

    This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p early childbearing was not the sole pathway through which girl child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedir N. Turi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420 and their children (N = 1,099 using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35, and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29 but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78 area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda.

  2. INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD INTAKE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, AND ECONOMIC STATUS IN KENDARI, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is characterized by inhibition of growth in children that lead to failure in getting normal heights and healthy child's age. It is a public health problem in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kelurahan Mangga Dua in Kendari in 2016. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between food intake, infectious diseases, economic status and the incidence of stunting in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study with retrospective approach. This research was conducted in Public Health Center of Mata. There were 41 respondents were selected as the samples. Data were collected by questionnaires, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test. Results: The results showed that there were significant associations between food intake (p= 0.001, infectious diseases (p= 0.000, economic status (p= 0.000, and the incidence of stunting in infants. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a relationship between food intake, infectious diseases and economic status with the incidence of stunting in children aged 2-4 years in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kendari. Therefore, good food intake is needed for the growth and development of the child. Moreover, changing the behavior of parents by doing the healthy and clean behavior in the household to prevent infectious diseases in children infectious diseases is also very important. Economic status however also plays key role in the incidence of stunting in children

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  5. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  6. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Le B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects. Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%. Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI 2 of 20.9% in 2005 was lower than the rate of 25.0% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight as compared to men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were clearer among the higher food expenditure levels. Conclusions The double nutrition burden was clearly present in Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level

  7. A baixa estatura leve está associada ao aumento da pressão arterial em adolescentes com sobrepeso La baja estatura leve está asociada al aumento de la presión arterial en adolescentes con sobrepeso Mild stunting is associated with higher blood pressure in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2012-01-01

    de baja estatura leve con sobrepeso presentaron mayor PAS que los de estatura normal y sobrepeso. Esos hallazgos confirman que la baja estatura leve aumenta el riesgo futuro de hipertensión y esas alteraciones son evidentes en individuos jóvenes.BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that pre/postnatal undernutrition leads to higher risk of non communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether overweight adolescents with mild stunting [height-for-age Z scores (HAZ in the range -2] have higher blood pressure than overweight individuals with normal stature (HAZ >-1. MEHTODS: Participants were classified as mildly stunted or of normal stature, and further stratified according to body mass index-for-age percentiles as overweight, normal or underweight. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DPB blood pressures were determined according to guidelines, and abdominal fat was analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Mild stunted overweight individuals showed higher DBP values (p=0.001 than their underweight counterparts (69.75 ± 12.03 and 54.46±11.24 mmHg, respectively, but similar to those of normal BMI. No differences were found in DBP values of normal, overweight and underweight individuals among the normal stature groups. An increase in SBP (p=0.01 among mild stunted individuals was found when those with overweight were compared to their underweight and normal BMI counterparts (114.70 ± 15.46, 97.38 ± 10.87 and 104.72 ± 12.24 mmHg, respectively. Although no differences were observed in the means of SBP between mild stunting and normal stature groups, a significant intercept was found (p=0.01, revealing higher SBP among stunted individuals. There was a correlation between SBP and abdominal fat (r=0.42, ρ=0.02 in the stunted group. CONCLUSION: Stunted individuals with overweight showed higher SBP than those of normal stature and overweight. These findings confirm that mild stunting increase the risk of future

  8. Underweight and overweight among children and adolescents in Tuscany (Italy). Prevalence and short-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Rossi, S; Pammolli, A; Pilato, V; Pozzi, T; Giacchi, M V

    2008-03-01

    The recent increase in both childhood obesity and adolescent anorexia nervosa in developed countries has underlined the important consequences that these trends may have on public health, as there is an increased risk that these conditions may become chronic diseases in adulthood. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor prevalence rates and trends in thinness and overweight (including obesity) among children and adolescents at different levels: international, national and sub-national. Since 2001/2002, a nutritional surveillance system has been implemented in the Tuscany Region to estimate the nutritional status and lifestyles of children and adolescents. The main objectives were to assess the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Tuscan children and adolescents and to provide baseline information on the prevalence of thinness, for the first time calculated according to the new international definitions, for geographical comparisons and descriptions of time trends. Independent cross-sectional sample surveys were conducted in 2002, 2004 and 2006 in Tuscany, North-Central Italy. Data were collected from stratified two-stage cluster samples of children aged 9 years (n = 3,048 in 2002 and n = 1,430 in 2006) and of adolescents aged 11-13-15 years (n = 1,066, n = 1185 and n = 1,160 in 2004 and n = 1,189, n = 1,211 and n = 1,178 in 2006, respectively). Weights and heights of primary school children were measured by means of standardized methods, while those of adolescents were self-reported. Decimal age was calculated from the date of birth to the date of measurement. Body Mass Index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Instead of the term underweight in children, we used the term thinness, which the World Health Organization uses to mean low Body Mass Index for age in adults and adolescents. According to Cole's recently published cut-offs for thinness, we divided our Body Mass Index values below 18.5 into three

  9. Riwayat gizi buruk masa lalu (stunted tidak berhubungan dengan prestasi belajar siswa SD di Kabupaten Sikka Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobianus Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The main nutritional problem existed in Sikka District was high prevalence of stunting in children (49.6%. Sikka District Health Office data at 2009 and 2010 confirmed that Mego Subdistrict was categorized as area in which the citizens (particularly infants had high risk experiencing health and nutritionissues with percentage of 43.3 in 2009 and 42.3 in 2010. Elementary school student’s passing percentage at Mego Subdistrict in education year of 2009/2010 placed in rank of 15 of 21 subdistricts in Sikka District.Objectives: To determine the association between history of malnutrition (stunted and academic achievement of elementary school students at Sikka District, NTT.Methods: This was an observational study with cross sectional study design. Sample of this research were 3rd grade elementary school students who met inclusive and exclusive criteria. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used ini this research.Results: Research result showed that bivariatelly stunted condition affects study achievement (p=0.027. External factors affecting study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001, father’s education (p=0.001 and child’s intelligence (p=0.027. Multivariatelly, most affective factor in student’s study achievement at Mego Subdistrict was parent’s education. The most dominant factor affecting elementary student’s study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001.Conclusions: Most students suffering stunted had low study achievement (87.2% and stunted had no significant relation to study achievement. Student’s study achievement was affected by parent’s education.KEYWORDS: stunted, study achievementABSTRAKLatar belakang: Masalah gizi utama yang ada di Kabupaten Sikka adalah tingginya balita dengan status pendek dan sangat pendek yang mencapai 49,6%. Data Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sikka tahun 2009 dan 2010 menyatakan bahwa Kecamatan Mego dikategorikan sebagai wilayah dengan masyarakat

  10. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Kim, Jeong Im; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Anderson, Nickolas A; Ximenes, Eduardo; Maeda, Junko; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2014-05-15

    Lignin is a phenylpropanoid-derived heteropolymer important for the strength and rigidity of the plant secondary cell wall. Genetic disruption of lignin biosynthesis has been proposed as a means to improve forage and bioenergy crops, but frequently results in stunted growth and developmental abnormalities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here we show that the phenotype of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant is dependent on the transcriptional co-regulatory complex, Mediator. Disruption of the Mediator complex subunits MED5a (also known as REF4) and MED5b (also known as RFR1) rescues the stunted growth, lignin deficiency and widespread changes in gene expression seen in the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant ref8, without restoring the synthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits. Cell walls of rescued med5a/5b ref8 plants instead contain a novel lignin consisting almost exclusively of p-hydroxyphenyl lignin subunits, and moreover exhibit substantially facilitated polysaccharide saccharification. These results demonstrate that guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits are largely dispensable for normal growth and development, implicate Mediator in an active transcriptional process responsible for dwarfing and inhibition of lignin biosynthesis, and suggest that the transcription machinery and signalling pathways responding to cell wall defects may be important targets to include in efforts to reduce biomass recalcitrance.

  12. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  13. Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus: A New Polerovirus Infecting Cool-Season Food Legumes in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Lesemann, D-E; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H J

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Serological analysis of diseased chickpea and faba bean plantings with yellowing and stunting symptoms suggested the occurrence of an unknown or uncommon member of the family Luteoviridae in Ethiopia. Degenerate primers were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral coat protein (CP) coding region from both chickpea and faba bean samples. Cloning and sequencing of the amplicons yielded nearly identical (96%) nucleotide sequences of a previously unrecognized species of the family Luteoviridae, with a CP amino acid sequence most closely related (identity of approximately 78%) to that of Groundnut rosette assistor virus. The complete genome (5,900 nts) of a faba bean isolate comprised six major open reading frames characteristic of polero-viruses. Of the four aphid species tested, only Aphis craccivora transmitted the virus in a persistent manner. The host range of the virus was confined to a few species of the family Fabaceae. A rabbit antiserum raised against virion preparations cross-reacted unexpectedly with Beet western yellows virus-like viruses. This necessitated the production of murine monoclonal antibodies which, in combination with the polyclonal antiserum, permitted both sensitive and specific detection of the virus in field samples by triple-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of the characteristic field and greenhouse symptoms in chickpea, the name Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus is proposed for this new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae).

  14. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  15. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  17. Praktik pemberian makanan pendamping ASI (MP-ASI bukan faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildagardis M.E Nai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting reflects a process of failure to reach linear growth potential as a result of suboptimal health or nutrition conditions. One of causal factors of stunting is inadequate of quality and quantity of complementary foods.Objectives: To identify complementary feeding practices such as introduction age of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency as risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: Study design was case-control with ratio (1:1. The study used both quantitative methods as well as case control design and qualitative through interview. Cases were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score <-2SD. Controls were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score ≥-2SD who live adjacent to the case. Data were analyzed by using univariable (descriptive, bivariable (chi-square test, and multivariable analysis (multiple logistic regression.Results: The result of bivariate analysis showed that introduction age of complementary foods (OR=1.07, dietary diversity (OR=1.17, and meal frequency (OR=1.69 were not risk factors of stunting. However, compared with high dietary diversity score, low dietary diversity score (≤2, 3, 4 food groups associated with increased odds of being stunted among children aged 6-23 months (OR=2.24, 95% CI:1.00-5.01, OR=1.82, 95% CI:0.96-3.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI:0.81-3.46 respectively. The result of multivariate analysis showed that mother’s height (OR=1.86 and story of low birth weight (OR=3.23 were risk factors of stunting.Conclusions: Complementary feeding practices such as age introduction of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were not risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months. Mother’s height and story of low birth weight were risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months.KEYWORDS: stunting, nutritional intake, nutritional

  18. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-16

    Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m 2 per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m 2 per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m 2 per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m 2 per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m 2 per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and

  19. Internalization of the ultra-thin ideal: positive implicit associations with underweight fashion models are associated with drive for thinness in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Amy L; Bennett, Kate M; Hetherington, Marion M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young women who make implicit associations between underweight models and positive attributes report elevated eating disorder symptoms. Ninety nine female undergraduates completed a weight based implicit association test (IAT) and self report measures of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization and eating disorder symptoms. IAT scores were associated with drive for thinness (r = -0.26, p fashion and being attractive. The IAT used in the current study is sensitive enough to discriminate between participants on drive for thinness. Women who have developed cognitive schemas that associate being underweight with positive attributes report higher eating disorder symptoms. Attitude importance is highlighted as a key construct in thin ideal internalization.

  20. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted-obese subjects

  1. Maternal underweight and obesity and risk of orofacial clefts in a large international consortium of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutbi, Hebah; Wehby, George L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Romitti, Paul A; Carmichael, Suzan; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; DeRoo, Lisa; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T; Munger, Ronald G

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent. Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates. Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (≥ 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI. In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  2. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Guerrant

    Full Text Available Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6-26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old, and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption; and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA (suggesting impaired defenses. In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation. Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1 functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2 structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3 systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how

  3. Digestion of chrysanthemum stunt viroid by leaf extracts of Capsicum chinense indicates strong RNA-digesting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraklis, Boubourakas; Kanda, Hiroko; Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Onda, Mayu; Ota, Nao; Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. CSVd infection was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) 3 weeks after inoculation. When Capsicum extract was sprayed or painted onto N. benthamiana before inoculation, it was effective in preventing infection by CSVd. To evaluate CSVd digestion activity in leaf extracts, CSVd was mixed with leaf extracts of Mirabilis, Phytolacca, Pelargonium and Capsicum. CSVd-digesting activities were examined by quantifying undigested CSVd using qRT-PCR, and RNA gel blotting permitted visualization of the digested CSVd. Only Capsicum leaf extract digested CSVd, and in the Capsicum treatment, small digested CSVd products were detected by RNA gel blot analysis. When the digesting experiment was performed for various cultivars and species of Capsicum, only cultivars of C. chinense showed strong CSVd-digesting activity. Our observations indicated that Capsicum extract contains strong RNA-digesting activity, leading to the conclusion that this activity is the main mechanism for protection from infection by CSVd through spraying or painting before inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strong RNA-digesting activity by a plant extract.

  4. Association of urban slum residency with infant mortality and child stunting in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15-49 years) and their children (0-59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15-1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16-1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies.

  5. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  6. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  7. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  8. Cauliflower is a new host of a subgroup 16SrVII-B phytoplasma associated with stunting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauliflower stunt has occurred with high levels of incidence and provoked significant yield reduction in Brazilian crops. Phytoplasmas belonging to the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrXV-A were previously reported in association with the disease. In 2014, plants with typical symptoms of the disease were...

  9. Drosophila insulin release is triggered by adipose Stunted ligand to brain Methuselah receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoue, Renald; Meschi, Eleonora; Agrawal, Neha; Mauri, Alessandra; Tsatskis, Yonit; McNeill, Helen; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-09-30

    Animals adapt their growth rate and body size to available nutrients by a general modulation of insulin-insulin-like growth factor signaling. In Drosophila, dietary amino acids promote the release in the hemolymph of brain insulin-like peptides (Dilps), which in turn activate systemic organ growth. Dilp secretion by insulin-producing cells involves a relay through unknown cytokines produced by fat cells. Here, we identify Methuselah (Mth) as a secretin-incretin receptor subfamily member required in the insulin-producing cells for proper nutrient coupling. We further show, using genetic and ex vivo organ culture experiments, that the Mth ligand Stunted (Sun) is a circulating insulinotropic peptide produced by fat cells. Therefore, Sun and Mth define a new cross-organ circuitry that modulates physiological insulin levels in response to nutrients. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomy of Cycas necrotic stunt virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S S; Karasev, A V; Ieki, H; Iwanami, T

    2002-11-01

    Cycas necrotic stunt virus (CNSV) is the only well-characterized virus from gymnosperm. cDNA segments corresponding to the bipartite genome RNAs (RNA1, RNA2) were synthesized and sequenced. Each RNA encoded a single polyprotein, flanked by the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCR) and followed by a poly (A) tail. The putative polyproteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2 had sets of motifs, which were characteristic of viruses in the genus Nepovirus. The polyproteins showed higher sequence identities to Artichoke Italian latent virus, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus and Tomato black ring virus, all of which belong to subgroup b of the genus Nepovirus, than to other nepoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA dependent RNA polymerase and coat protein also showed closer relationships with these viruses than other viruses. The data obtained supported the taxonomical status of CNSV as a definitive member of the genus Nepovirus, subgroup b.

  11. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  12. The recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM for normal and underweight women to reduce the risk of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yieh-Loong Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: For underweight women, it is suggested that they follow the upper range of the IOM recommendation in order to avoid LBW. For normal weight women, although the IOM guidelines provide a good basis, it is suggested that they carefully follow the recommended GWG and the RWG values during the 2nd trimester, which is a very important period for fetal growth.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of rural Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Khandelwal, Ritika; Khenduja, Preetika; Sareen, Neha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2018-03-15

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of India. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and anthropometric parameters. Weight and height measurements were utilized for calculation of BMI. Nutrient intake data were collected using 24 h dietary recall. High-altitude region of Nainital District, Uttarakhand State, North India. Community-dwelling geriatric subjects (n 981) aged 60 years or above. We found that 26·6 % of the elderly subjects were underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI 25·0-29·9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30·0 kg/m2) was seen among 18·0 % and 4·6 %, respectively. After controlling for potential cofounders, risk factors such as low level of education and income, chewing problems and lower number of daily meals were found to be associated with underweight. On the other hand, risk factors for overweight/obesity were lower age, high income and unskilled work. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to prevent underweight, overweight and obesity among the geriatric population of India.

  14. Trends in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and their related lifestyle factors in Korean young adults, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-05-05

    This study aimed to assess trends of underweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity and related lifestyle factors in young Korean adults. The analysis focused on adults aged 19-39 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I-V (1998-2012). Underweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) obesity as BMI≥30kg/m 2 ; and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥90cm in men and ≥85cm in women. We evaluated trends by analyzing the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and the proportions and ORs of lifestyles. As compared with KNHANES I, the ORs for obesity were higher in III, IV, and V and the ORs for abdominal obesity were higher in IV and V in men, which showed an increasing trend (P for trendobesity showed a significant increasing tendency (P for trendobesity in young men and women, and abdominal obesity in young men is needed. Meanwhile, management of underweight in young women is simultaneously required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  16. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE OF STUNTED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDERGOING NUTRITIONAL RECOVERY TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaíse Morais; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Azevedo, Maria de Lourdes da Silva Gomes de; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo

    2018-01-01

    To determine if the treatment of stunted children offered at a specialized center influences their cognitive performance. Two groups of children from vulnerable families were selected, one consisting of stunted children being treated at the Nutrition Education and Recovery Center (CREN), and the other group of eutrophic children from a local, public day care center. At CREN, children are treated in a day-hospital system (9 hours/day, 5 days/week), receiving medical, nutritional and psycho-pedagogical support. All children were submitted to the Denver-II Development Screening Test and had their development and the height-for-age index assessed at 3 moments: at the beginning of the follow-up, and after 6 and 12 months. The socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria, was assessed at the beginning of the follow-up. Data were treated by prevalence ratios for cross-sectional baseline analysis, using the Poisson regression, and by pooled prevalence ratios for longitudinal analysis, using a generalized equation estimation model, both adjusted by age, sex and economic status. Seventy-four children were included, 37 for each group. There were no differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status between groups. In the longitudinal analysis, the CREN group showed better performance in the personal-social domain (pooled prevalence ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval - 95%IC 0.82-0.95), with no differences in the other domains. The treatment offered at CREN satisfactorily improved the social skills of the treated children, without changing other domains.

  17. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and their related socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among adult women in Myanmar, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Lwin, Kyi Tun; Aung, La Seng

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. Material and methods In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18–49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (23.0–27.4 kg/m2), and obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2). Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and weight status. Results The prevalence of underweight was 14.1%, overweight 28.1% and obesity 13.1%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of underweight was the highest among 18 to 29 year-olds (20.2%), while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 49 years (around 50%). In multinomial logistic regression, being 30 to 49 years old, poorer and richer wealth status, living in all the other regions of Myanmar and ever contraceptive use were inversely and current tobacco use, not working and having less than two children ever born were positively associated with underweight relative to normal weight. Older age, having secondary education, urban residence, wealthier economic status, living with a partner, living in the Northern and Southern regions of Myanmar, having less than two children ever born and having ever used contraceptives were positively and current tobacco use was negatively associated with overweight or obesity relative to normal weight. Conclusions A dual burden of both underweight and overweight or obesity among female adults was found in Myanmar. Sociodemographic and health risk behaviour factors were identified for underweight and overweight or obesity that can guide public health interventions to

  18. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca-Gómez, Leandra; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Acuin, Cecilia; Adams, Robert J.; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afsana, Kaosar; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Ajlouni, Kamel; Akhtaeva, Nazgul; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Buhairan, Fadia; Al Dhukair, Shahla; Ali, Mohamed M.; Ali, Osman; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Andrade, Dolores S.; Ängquist, Lars H.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araújo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Arveiler, Dominique; Aryal, Krishna K.; Aspelund, Thor; Assah, Felix K.; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Aung, May Soe; Avdicová, Mária; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahijri, Suhad; Baker, Jennifer L.; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Banach, Maciej; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, José R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batista, Rosangela L.; Batyrbek, Assembekov; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Benedics, Judith; Benet, Mikhail; Bennett, James E.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bi, HongSheng; Bi, Yufang; Biehl, Anna; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bista, Bihungum; Bjelica, Dusko J.; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Björkelund, Cecilia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Boddy, Lynne M.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boeing, Heiner; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bongard, Vanina; Bovet, Pascal; Braeckevelt, Lien; Braeckman, Lutgart; Bragt, Marjolijn C. E.; Brajkovich, Imperia; Branca, Francesco; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Breda, João; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Brian, Garry R.; Brinduse, Lacramioara; Bruno, Graziella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. As; Bugge, Anna; Buoncristiano, Marta; Burazeri, Genc; Burns, Con; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Cai, Hui; Cama, Tilema; Cameron, Christine; Camolas, José; Can, Günay; Cândido, Ana Paula C.; Capanzana, Mario; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chan, Angelique W.; Chan, Queenie; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Huashuai; Chen, Shuohua; Chen, Zhengming; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chetrit, Angela; Chikova-Iscener, Ekaterina; Chiolero, Arnaud; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Christensen, Kaare; Christofaro, Diego G.; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Cinteza, Eliza; Claessens, Frank; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Confortin, Susana C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Coppinger, Tara C.; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Craig, Cora L.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Cucu, Alexandra; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Danaei, Goodarz; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dastgiri, Saeed; Dauchet, Luc; Davletov, Kairat; de Backer, Guy; de Bacquer, Dirk; de Curtis, Amalia; de Gaetano, Giovanni; de Henauw, Stefaan; de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; de Ridder, Karin; de Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Hélène; Delpeuch, Francis; Deschamps, Valérie; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Diaz, Alejandro; Dika, Zivka; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Ha T. P.; Dobson, Annette J.; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Döring, Angela; Dorobantu, Maria; Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Duan, Jia Li; Duante, Charmaine; Duleva, Vesselka; Dulskiene, Virginija; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Egbagbe, Eruke E.; Eggertsen, Robert; Eiben, Gabriele; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Elliott, Paul; Engle-Stone, Reina; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Eriksson, Johan G.; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandes, Romulo A.; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Finn, Joseph D.; Fischer, Krista; Flores, Eric Monterubio; Föger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Fujita, Yuki; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gafencu, Mihai; Galeone, Daniela; Galvano, Fabio; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli; Gareta, Dickman; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Geiger, Harald; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gill, Tiffany K.; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Giwercman, Aleksander; Godos, Justyna; Gogen, Sibel; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.; Goltzman, David; Gonçalves, Helen; González-Leon, Margot; González-Rivas, Juan P.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Graça, Antonio Pedro; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grafnetter, Dušan; Grajda, Aneta; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grøntved, Anders; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruden, Gabriella; Grujic, Vera; Gu, Dongfeng; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudmundsson, Elias F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Xiuhua; Guo, Yin; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gupta, Rajeev; Gureje, Oye; Gurzkowska, Beata; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hadaegh, Farzad; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A.; Si-Ramlee, Khairil; Halkjær, Jytte; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hassapidou, Maria; Hata, Jun; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; Heidinger-Felso, Regina; Heinen, Mirjam; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Cadena, Leticia Hernandez; Herrala, Sauli; Herrera, Victor M.; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Heshmat, Ramin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Hopman, Wilma M.; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Hu, Yonghua; Huerta, José María; Huidumac, Petrescu Constanta; Huisman, Martijn; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Hyska, Jolanda; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibarluzea, Jesús M.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ivkovic, Vanja; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jackson, Rod T.; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jaddou, Hashem; Jafar, Tazeen; Jamil, Kazi M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Jarani, Juel; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Ana; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jennings, Garry; Jeong, Seung-Lyeal; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jiménez-Acosta, Santa Magaly; Joffres, Michel; Johansson, Mattias; Jonas, Jost B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Jovic, Dragana P.; Józwiak, Jacek; Juolevi, Anne; Jurak, Gregor; Jureša, Vesna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kafatos, Anthony; Kajantie, Eero O.; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kapantais, Efthymios; Karki, Khem B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Boker, Lital Keinan; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Kelleher, Cecily; Kemper, Han C. G.; Kengne, Andre P.; Kerimkulova, Alina; Kersting, Mathilde; Key, Timothy; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khang, Young-Ho; Khateeb, Mohammad; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khouw, Ilse M. S. L.; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Klimont, Jeannette; Klumbiene, Jurate; Knoflach, Michael; Koirala, Bhawesh; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Kos, Jelena; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Kovacs, Viktoria A.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Koziel, Slawomir; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kriemler, Susi; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steinar; Kromhout, Daan; Kruger, Herculina S.; Kubinova, Ruzena; Kuciene, Renata; Kuh, Diana; Kujala, Urho M.; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Kumar, R. Krishna; Kunešová, Marie; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kyobutungi, Catherine; La, Quang Ngoc; Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Laugsand, Lars E.; Lauria, Laura; Laxmaiah, Avula; Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen; Le, Tuyen D.; Lebanan, May Antonnette O.; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimäki, Terho; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Liu, Jing; Loit, Helle-Mai; Lopes, Luis; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, José Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Jun; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Magriplis, Emmanuella; Mahaletchumy, Alagappan; Maire, Bernard; Majer, Marjeta; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rahul; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Malyutina, Sofia; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim I.; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Markaki, Anastasia; Markey, Oonagh; Marques, Larissa P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Marrugat, Jaume; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Martin, Rosemarie; Martorell, Reynaldo; Martos, Eva; Marventano, Stefano; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mazur, Artur; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McKee, Martin; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McLean, Scott B.; McNulty, Breige A.; Yusof, Safiah Md; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Medzioniene, Jurate; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisfjord, Jørgen; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Mensink, Gert Bm; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Haakon E.; Mi, Jie; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Michels, Nathalie; Mikkel, Kairit; Miller, Jody C.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mirkopoulou, Daphne; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Mistretta, Antonio; Mocanu, Veronica; Modesti, Pietro A.; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohanna, Salim; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Molbo, Drude; Møllehave, Line T.; Møller, Niels C.; Molnár, Dénes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monterrubio, Eric A.; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.; Moon, Jin Soo; Moreira, Leila B.; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Mu, Thet Thet; Muc, Magdalena; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil; Mursu, Jaakko; Murtagh, Elaine M.; Musil, Vera; Nabipour, Iraj; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Nakamura, Harunobu; Námešná, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Nankap, Martin; Narake, Sameer; Nardone, Paola; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Neal, William A.; Nenko, Ilona; Neovius, Martin; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Chung T.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis E.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nishtar, Sania; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Norat, Teresa; Norie, Sawada; Noto, Davide; Nsour, Mohannad Al; O'Reilly, Dermot; Obreja, Galina; Oda, Eiji; Oehlers, Glenn; Oh, Kyungwon; Ohara, Kumiko; Olafsson, Örn; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Oltarzewski, Maciej; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ong, Sok King; Ono, Lariane M.; Ordunez, Pedro; Ornelas, Rui; Ortiz, Ana P.; Osler, Merete; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Ostovar, Afshin; Otero, Johanna A.; Overvad, Kim; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Padez, Cristina; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palli, Domenico; Palloni, Alberto; Palmieri, Luigi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandey, Arvind; Panza, Francesco; Papandreou, Dimitrios; Park, Soon-Woo; Parnell, Winsome R.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Pascanu, Ionela M.; Patel, Nikhil D.; Pecin, Ivan; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peeters, Petra H.; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Perez-Farinos, Napoleon; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Peters, Annette; Petkeviciene, Janina; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Peykari, Niloofar; Pham, Son Thai; Pierannunzio, Daniela; Pigeot, Iris; Pikhart, Hynek; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Pistelli, Francesco; Pitakaka, Freda; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Plans-Rubió, Pedro; Poh, Bee Koon; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Pop, Raluca M.; Popovic, Stevo R.; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen Lp; Posch, Georg; Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Pouraram, Hamed; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prashant, Mathur; Price, Jacqueline F.; Puder, Jardena J.; Pudule, Iveta; Puiu, Maria; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Bao, Tran Quoc; Radic, Ivana; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mahmudur; Raitakari, Olli; Raj, Manu; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramke, Jacqueline; Ramos, Elisabete; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rampal, Sanjay; Rascon-Pacheco, Ramon A.; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Riboli, Elio; Rigo, Fernando; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Rito, Ana; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Daniela; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, María; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Romaguera, Dora; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Rosengren, Annika; Rouse, Ian; Roy, Joel G. R.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rühli, Frank J.; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Russo, Paola; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Salanave, Benoit; Martinez, Eduardo Salazar; Salmerón, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Sandjaja, N. N.; Sans, Susana; Marina, Loreto Santa; Santos, Diana A.; Santos, Ina S.; Santos, Osvaldo; dos Santos, Renata Nunes; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas; Savy, Mathilde; Scazufca, Marcia; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Schargrodsky, Herman; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schipf, Sabine; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Schmidt, Ida Maria; Schultsz, Constance; Schutte, Aletta E.; Sein, Aye Aye; Sen, Abhijit; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serra-Majem, Luis; Shalnova, Svetlana A.; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Shiri, Rahman; Siani, Alfonso; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Silva, Antonio M.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Sjöström, Michael; Skovbjerg, Sine; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Smith, Margaret C.; Snijder, Marieke B.; So, Hung-Kwan; Sobngwi, Eugène; Söderberg, Stefan; Soekatri, Moesijanti Ye; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Song, Yi; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Soric, Maroje; Jérome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Spinelli, Angela; Spiroski, Igor; Staessen, Jan A.; Stamm, Hanspeter; Starc, Gregor; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Staub, Kaspar; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stieber, Jutta; Stöckl, Doris; Stocks, Tanja; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stratton, Gareth; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Sun, Chien-An; Sundström, Johan; Sung, Yn-Tz; Sunyer, Jordi; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Swinburn, Boyd A.; Sy, Rody G.; Szponar, Lucjan; Tai, E. Shyong; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tan, Eng Joo; Tang, Xun; Tanser, Frank; Tao, Yong; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarp, Jakob; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Braunerová, Radka Taxová; Taylor, Anne; Tchibindat, Félicité; Theobald, Holger; Theodoridis, Xenophon; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Topór-Madry, Roman; Tormo, María José; Tornaritis, Michael J.; Torrent, Maties; Toselli, Stefania; Traissac, Pierre; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trinh, Oanh Th; Trivedi, Atul; Tshepo, Lechaba; Tsigga, Maria; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tullu, Fikru; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Turley, Maria L.; Tynelius, Per; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice E.; Ukoli, Flora A. M.; Ulmer, Hanno; Unal, Belgin; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Vale, Susana; Valvi, Damaskini; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; van Herck, Koen; van Minh, Hoang; van Rossem, Lenie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Veidebaum, Toomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Velika, Biruta; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Victora, Cesar G.; Viegi, Giovanni; Viet, Lucie; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Vineis, Paolo; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vlasoff, Tiina; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Voutilainen, Sari; Vrijheid, Martine; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Waldhör, Thomas; Walton, Janette; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wanderley, Rildo S.; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Ying-Wei; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wareham, Nicholas; Weber, Adelheid; Wedderkopp, Niels; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Wong, Justin Yy; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, JianFeng; Wu, Shouling; Xu, Haiquan; Xu, Liang; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yardim, Nazan; Ye, Xingwang; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yngve, Agneta; Yoshihara, Akihiro; You, Qi Sheng; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Faudzi; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M.; Zaccagni, Luciana; Zafiropulos, Vassilis; Zainuddin, Ahmad A.; Zambon, Sabina; Zampelas, Antonis; Zamrazilová, Hana; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zeng, Yi; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zholdin, Bekbolat; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Dan; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Zimmermann, Esther; Cisneros, Julio Zuñiga; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bilano, Ver; Bixby, Honor; Zhou, Bin; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Taddei, Cristina; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Savin, Stefan; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Zhu, Aubrianna; Ezzati, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children

  19. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily M; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Thumbi, Samuel M; Montgomery, Joel M; Palmer, Guy H; May, Susanne; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; Walson, Judd L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from Ethiopia (2011), Kenya (2008-2009), and Uganda (2010) among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97), but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  20. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  1. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  2. The stunted child with an overweight mother as a growing public health concern in resource-poor environments: a case study from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are emerging at alarming rates in low income women in many countries. Guatemala has the additional burden of a high prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) in children. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual burden of infant and child (5-23 months) under-nutrition and maternal over-weight and obesity in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Anthropometric measures were collected in 446 mother-infant dyads in a metropolitan population of mixed indigenous (Maya) and non-indigenous descent in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Children were identified as stunted based on a height for age <-2 below the WHO reference median and maternal overweight/obesity defined as a BMI ≥25. Stunted children with an overweight/obese mother were compared to other children who were not stunted and/or who did not have an overweight/obese mother. The prevalences of stunting (38%) and maternal overweight/obesity (45%) were high, but just 17% of the mother and child pairs were dual burden. The socio-demographic characteristics of stunted children were not influenced by maternal overweight or obesity. Policies are needed to address under-nutrition as well as preventing obesity and obesity-related chronic disease risks of stunted children and their mothers.

  3. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  4. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  5. Breast Feeding, Sex and Body Composition as Correlates of Stunting Among Kenyan Children at 6 and 15 Months of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyole, Silvenus; Omollo, Selina; Skau, Jutta; Michaelsen, Kim; Roos, Nanna; Friis, Henrik; Kinyuru, John; Owuor, Bethuel; Estambale, Benson; Owino, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction and objective: Stunting is prevalent in young children in low-income countries, and has detrimental effects on psychomotor development and later working capacity. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body composition (fat-free mass and fat mass), breastfeeding and sex with stunting in Kenyan children aged 6 and 15 months Subjects and Method: As part of a nutrition trial conducted in Western Kenya, 449 six months old infants were recruited if MUAC≥11.5 cm. At six and 15 months of age, weight, recumbent length, skinfolds and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured. Deuterium oxide dilution method was used to determine body fat and fat-free-mass. A predose saliva sample was taken prior to a dose to the infant of 0.5 g deuterium oxide per kg of body weight. Postdose saliva samples were taken after 2 and 3 hours, respectively. Deuterium enrichment was measured using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer. Linear regression was used to assess the association of sex, breastfeeding, fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI) and body mass index (BMI) as correlates of stunting Results: At 6 months, males had FMI being 14.03 kg/m2 (95% CI 13.80; 14.26) compared to females at 13.67(95% CI 13.40; 13.94). At 15 months males had an FMI of 14.74(95% CI 14.48; 14.99) while females had 14.41(95% CI 14.18; 14.64). At age 6 and 15 months, females had a lower -0.45 (95% CI -2.37; 1.46) kg/m2 and -0.36 (95% CI -0.59;-0.13) kg/m2 FFMI compared to girls, respectively. Stunting was not associated with body composition at neither 6 nor 15 months. Those who stopped breastfeeding before 15 months (11.1%) had a 0.01(95% CI 0.002; 0.02) kg/m2 lower FFMI when they reached 15 months. Conclusion: Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher FFMI in early infancy in resource poor settings .Stunting was associated with lower FMI at the age of 6 months but not at 15 months. Wasting was associated with a deficit

  6. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata

    2016-06-02

    Overweight adversely affects not only the health and development of children and adolescents but also their health in adulthood, increasing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities. The frequency of nutritional disorders among children and adolescents is increasing in many countries worldwide, including Poland. To demonstrate differences in the nutritional well-being of school-age children depending on the school location: rural and urban areas. The study conducted in 2010 covered a total of 1,255 pupils, 627 girls and 628 boys, aged nine, from the area of five provinces of Poland: Pomorskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Podkarpackie and Masovian, representing the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of the country. Based on the height and weight measurements of children, the body mass index was calculated. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Cole et al. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls and boys in separate regions of the country (villages, cities with less than 100,000 residents and cities with more than 100,000 residents) did not differ significantly. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  7. 24-h actigraphic monitoring of motor activity, sleeping and eating behaviors in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Monica; Carissimi, Alicia; Fabbri, Marco; Filardi, Marco; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Within a chronobiological perspective, the present study aimed to describe 24 h of sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and food intake patterns in different body mass index (BMI) categories of children through 7 days of actigraphic recording. Height and weight were objectively measured for BMI calculation in a sample of 115 Italian primary schoolchildren (10.21 ± 0.48 years, 62.61 % females). According to BMI values, 2.60 % were underweight, 61.70 % were of normal weight, 29.60 % were overweight and 6.10 % were obese. Participants wore a wrist actigraph continuously for 7 days to record motor activity and describe sleep-wake patterns. In addition, participants were requested to push the event-marker button of the actigraph each time they consumed food to describe their circadian eating patterns. BMI group differences were found for sleep quantity (i.e. midpoint of sleep and amplitude), while sleep quality, 24-h motor activity and food intake patterns were similar between groups. Regression analyses showed that BMI was negatively predicted by sleep duration on schooldays. BMI was also predicted by motor activity and by food intake frequencies recorded at particular times of day during schooldays and at the weekend. The circadian perspective seems to provide promising insight into childhood obesity, but this aspect needs to be further explored.

  8. Les coulisses du sublime Behind the scenes of the sublimeMovie stunts, machinery, special effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Grimaud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toute cascade de cinéma peut être perçue comme une configuration expérimentale posant au spectateur un problème d’attribution. Le cinéma livre en effet depuis ses origines une course frénétique pour rendre visuellement plausibles des actions physiquement impossibles en camouflant leurs conditions de réalisation. Qui est à l’origine de quoi ? Y a-t-il procédé et lequel ? L’acteur était-il soutenu par des machines ou par des câbles ? A-t-il effectué la cascade lui-même ? etc. Or l’acte impossible que le plateau prétend réaliser n’est jamais simplement attribuable à l’acteur, aux techniciens ou à la caméra. Il n’est jamais non plus complètement réductible à du trucage. À la fois de l’ordre de la performance physique (mais pas uniquement, un brin machinique, en grande partie collective (ou distribuée, l’effet de virtuosité au cinéma reste par ailleurs toujours inachevé sans la perception d’un spectateur pour donner à la cascade sa continuité finale. En examinant comment les cascades se font, camouflent et confondent le spectateur sur leurs sources et leur processus, cet article explore les enjeux de cette virtuosité hybride et compliquée qui arrache de façon optique l’acte à ses conditions matérielles d’exécution.Cinema is engaged from its origins in a frantic race to make physically impossible actions visually plausible by camouflaging their conditions of application. Who is at the origin of what? Is there a method and which one? Was the actor supported by machines or by cables? Did he perform the stunt himself? etc. But the impossible act which the set contends to achieve is never simply due to the actor, the technicians or the camera. It is also never completely reducible to special effects. Both physical performance (but not only, a strand machinic and largely collective (or distributed, the effect of virtuosity in movies is also still incomplete without the perception of an

  9. The Philani Mentor Mothers Intervention: Neighbourhood wide impact on child growth in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mark; Hartley, Mary; le Roux, Ingrid; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not routine home visiting (by the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Project) influences the prevalence of stunted, wasted and underweight children in Cape Town peri-urban settlements. The study was a cross-sectional cohort in which weight and height measurements were collected for all children from 24 matched neighbourhoods; three years earlier 12 of these neighbourhoods were randomized to receive the home visiting intervention and 12 did not. The research took place at all households located within the 24 neighbourhoods in Khayelitsha and Mfuleni peri-urban settlements. Participants included 8715 children aged 0-6 years old (4694 intervention; 4021 control). A total of 41.3% of children were stunted, 3.1% were underweight and 1.4% were wasted. Children in the intervention group were significantly less likely to be underweight or severely underweight for age than children in the control group. While the rates of stunting were also significantly lower in intervention areas, the effect was not clinically significant, and no significant differences were found between the study arms on the prevalence of wasting. The Philani model is effective in the prevention and rehabilitation of underweight children. Philani could strengthen their intervention by focussing specifically on screening for child stunting in addition to underweight children. The results also suggests that efforts to address the long-term adverse effects of undernutrition require structural and economic transformation, in addition to socio-medical intervention.

  10. Decreasing stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru: results of the Good Start in Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Cornale, Guido; Ugaz, María Elena; Arias, Lena

    2009-03-01

    The rates of stunting, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru are among the highest in South America. There is little scaled-up experience on how to solve these problems countrywide. To evaluate the Good Start in Life Program during the period from 2000 to 2004. Data on weight, height, hemoglobin, serum retinol, urinary iodine, and age were obtained from children under 3 years of age during two transverse surveys in 2000 and 2004. In 2004, the program covered 75,000 children, 35,000 mothers, and 1 million inhabitants from 223 poor communities. The rate of stunting decreased from 54.1% to 36.9%, the rate of iron-deficiency anemia decreased from 76.0% to 52.3%, and the rate of vitamin A deficiency decreased from 30.4% to 5.3% (p anemia, and vitamin A deficiency at the national scale in Peru and many other countries.

  11. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  12. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  13. An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A; Grisham, Thomas; Slawsky, Erik; Narine, Lutchmie

    2017-06-01

    A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access. Using 301 two-stage demographic health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 1990 and 2015 we calculated the sanitation access in the community as the proportion of households in the sampled cluster that had household access to any type of sanitation facility. We then conducted exact matching of children based on various predictors of living in a community with high access to sanitation. Using logistic regression with the matched group as a random intercept we examined the association between the child health outcomes of stunted growth, any anemia, moderate or severe anemia, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks and the exposure of living in a community with varying degrees of community-level sanitation access. For children with household-level sanitation access, living in a community with 100% sanitation access was associated with lowered odds of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.00; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any anemia (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.67-0.78; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children), moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.68-0.77; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children) and diarrhea (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.91-0.97); n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to living in a community with sanitation access. For children without household-level sanitation access, living in communities with 0% sanitation access was associated with higher odds of stunting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any

  14. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  15. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  16. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  17. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  18. Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd, a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1 were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants.

  19. Role of growth hormone in stunted head growth after cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, P E; Shalet, S M; Price, D A; Surtees, R A; Pearson, D

    1987-10-01

    The head sizes of 38 patients, growth hormone (GH) deficient following craniospinal (n = 26) or cranial irradiation (n = 12), have been assessed before (n = 38) and on completion of GH therapy (n = 15) or at the end of a similar period of observation without GH (n = 7). These results were compared to the change in head size seen in idiopathic GH deficiency following GH therapy (n = 14). Before GH therapy, the latter had small heads (mean occipitofrontal circumference SD score (SDS) -1), which were relatively large compared to the height deficit (height SDS (CA) -4.7), and they exhibited catch-up growth with GH (delta occipitofrontal circumference SDS + 0.7, final occipitofrontal circumference SDS -0.2). In contrast, over a similar period all patients, who previously had received cranial irradiation in the dosage range 2700-4750 centi-Geigy, irrespective of the radiation schedule or GH treatment, showed a decrease in occipitofrontal circumference SDS (mean delta -0.9), a significant difference to the expected head growth of normal children over a similar period (p less than 0.01). We have noted that restricted head growth occurs in the years following cranial irradiation and is unaffected by GH therapy. Earlier work has shown that cranial irradiation may impair intelligence. The exact relationship between intellectual impairment and stunted head growth remains to be determined.

  20. INFLUENCE OF LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH INTENSITY OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY, AND SELECTED HEALTH RELATED FITNESS VARIABLES AMONG UNDERWEIGHT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Kaukab Azeem; Erdogan Tabur

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Underweight (UW) individuals face lot of problems in increasing muscle size and also increasing body weight and fitness levels. Resistance training (RT) plays a very important role in increasing hypertrophy of the muscles one and all in general. (ACSM, 2009) stated that the resistance exercise for healthy adults provides program design recommendations for muscle hypertrophy [3]. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of low, Medium and high intensity of (RT) on t...

  1. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction. Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. Objective. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. Material and methods. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13–18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions. The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES included 6 features. The SES index (SESI was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR of underweight (BMI0.05. The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05. The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05. Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Conclusions. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  2. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor - incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMI0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  3. Modelling the Ecological Comorbidity of Acute Respiratory Infection, Diarrhoea and Stunting among Children Under the Age of 5 Years in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Manda, Samuel O; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess spatial co-occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhoea and stunting among children of the age between 6 and 59 months in Somalia. Data were obtained from routine biannual nutrition surveys conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization 2007-2010. A Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical shared component model was fitted to the residual spatial components of the three health conditions. Risk maps of the common spatial effects at 1×1 km resolution were derived. The empirical correlations of the enumeration area proportion were 0.37, 0.63 and 0.66 for ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. Spatially, the posterior residual effects ranged 0.03-20.98, 0.16-6.37 and 0.08-9.66 for shared component between ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. The analysis showed clearly that the spatial shared component between ARI, diarrhoea and stunting was higher in the southern part of the country. Interventions aimed at controlling and mitigating the adverse effects of these three childhood health conditions should focus on their common putative risk factors, particularly in the South in Somalia.

  4. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Augusto Silva Mantovani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children’s conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother’s height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother’s characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Calculation of optimal gestation weight gain in pre-pregnancy underweight women due to body mass index change in relation to mother's height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meštrović, Zoran; Roje, Damir; Vulić, Marko; Zec, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Optimal gestational weight gain has not yet been clearly defined and remains one of the most controversial issues in modern perinatology. The role of optimal weight gain during pregnancy is critical, as it has a strong effect on perinatal outcomes. In this study, gestational body mass index (BMI) change, accounting for maternal height, was investigated as a new criterion for gestational weight gain determination, in the context of fetal growth assessment. We had focused on underweight women only, and aimed to assess whether the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines could be considered acceptable or additional corrections are required in this subgroup of women. The study included 1205 pre-pregnancy underweight mothers and their neonates. Only mothers with singleton term pregnancies (37th-42nd week of gestation) with pre-gestational BMI gestational age (SGA) infants in the study population was 16.2 %. Our results showed the minimal recommended gestational weight gain of 12-14 kg and BMI change of 4-5 kg/m 2 to be associated with a lower prevalence of SGA newborns. Based on our results, the recommended upper limit of gestational mass change could definitely be substantially higher. Optimal weight gain in underweight women could be estimated in the very beginning of pregnancy as recommended BMI change, but recalculated in kilograms according to body height, which modulates the numerical calculation of BMI. Our proposal presents a further step forward towards individualized approach for each pregnant woman.

  6. Tomato bushy stunt virus and DI RNAs as a model for studying mechanisms of RNA virus replication, pathogenicity and recombination. Final technical report for 1994--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, T.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Jackson, A.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1997-12-31

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a small icosahedral virus with a very broad host-range. The symptoms of systemic infection range from mild mosaic to severe necrosis that often results in death. The genome of TBSV is composed of a single plus stranded RNA molecule with five genes. Two 5 inch genes are translated from the viral RNA, and the remaining three are translated from two subgenomic RNAs. Prior to the DOE supported studies, TBSV gene function had been assigned solely on the basis of sequence similarity with other virus genes of known function. The two 5 inch proximal genes (p33 and p92) were thought to be involved in viral replication, the middle gene encoded the capsid protein (p41), but no clear function was assigned to two nested 3 inch genes (p19 and p22), although it was suggested that at least one could be involved in movement. This research has determined the roles of each of the viral genes in the infection process, and the authors have obtained considerable genetic information pertinent to the contributions of the coat protein and the nested genes to the disease phenotypes observed in several host plants. They have also identified another genetic element with a short open reading frame in the 3 inch-noncoding region of the genome that provides a host-dependent replication function.

  7. Faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak umur 6-36 bulan di Wilayah Pedalaman Kecamatan Silat Hulu, Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Wahdah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting in children under five is an indicator of nutritional status that can reflect problem of overall social economic condition in the past. Stunting that occurs in childhood is a risk factor of increasing in mortality rate, low cognitive capability and motoric development, and improper physical function. The incidence of stunting is associated with many factors such as family environment (education, occupation, income, rearing pattern, eating pattern, and number of family members, nutritional factors (exclusivebreastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding, genetic factor, infection disease, and the incidence of low birth weight. The scope of stunting in 2010 were 35,6% and 39,7% in Indonesia and Province of Kalimantan Barat.Objectives: To identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of stunting in children of 6-36 months in Silat Hulu District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat.Methods: This was an analytic observational study with cross sectional design. Population of the study were all of underfi ves children at remote area of Subdistrict of Silat Hulu, District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat. Data analysis used chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify themost dominantly determinant stunting variable.Results: The incidence of stunting was significantly associated with occupation of mother, height of father, height of mother, income, number of family members, rearing pattern, and exclusive breastfeeding supplementation (p<0.05. The incidence of stunting was not associated with occupation of father, eating pattern, duration of breastfeeding, infection disease, and education of mother (p>0.05.Conclusions: Factors associated with the incidence of stunting were the work of mothers, rearing pattern, family income, number of household members, father’s height, maternal height, and exclusive breastfeeding. The most dominant determinant of risk factors on the

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  9. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Faeh, David; Staub, Kaspar; Rühli, Frank J; et al

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million p...

  10. Inadequate dietary intake is not the cause of stunting amongst young children living in an informal settlement in Gauteng and rural Limpopo Province in South Africa: the NutriGro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, M; Amissah, A; Kleynhans, I C; Albertse, E; MacIntyre, U E

    2007-04-01

    To measure dietary intakes of young children aged 12-24 months and to determine the impact of poor diets on stunting. A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was adapted, tested and standardised. Trained enumerators conducted in-depth interviews with the mothers/caregivers of the children. Forty stunted children in urban informal settlements and 30 stunted children in rural areas were selected and pair-matched with controls. The data were captured on the Food Finder Program of the Medical Research Council. In both urban and rural areas, the diet of stunted and non-stunted groups did differ significantly and all diets were of poor nutritional quality. Diets in both areas resembled the recommended prudent diet, i.e. low in fat and high in carbohydrates. Poor quality diets were not the primary cause of stunting.

  11. Energy and Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Protein and Amino Acid Kinetics or Pregnancy Outcomes in Underweight Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Hsu, Jean W; Tang, Grace J; Anand, Pauline; Thomas, Tinku; Thomas, Annamma; Sheela, C N; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-02-01

    In India, the prevalence of low birth weight is high in women with a low body mass index (BMI), suggesting that underweight women are not capable of providing adequate energy and protein for fetal growth. Furthermore, as pregnancy progresses, there is increased need to provide methyl groups for methylation reactions associated with the synthesis of new proteins and, unlike normal-BMI American women, low-BMI Indian women are unable to increase methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates as pregnancy progresses from trimester 1 to 3. This also negatively influences birth weight. The aim was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with energy and protein from 12 ± 1 wk of gestation to time of delivery compared with no supplement on pregnancy outcomes, protein kinetics, and the fluxes of the methyl group donors serine and glycine. Protein kinetics and serine and glycine fluxes were measured by using standard stable isotope tracer methods in the fasting and postprandial states in 24 pregnant women aged 22.9 ± 0.7 y with low BMIs [BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≤18.5] at 12 ± 1 wk (trimester 1) and 30 ± 1 wk (trimester 3) of gestation. After the first measurement, subjects were randomly assigned to either receive the supplement (300 kcal/d, 15 g protein/d) or no supplement. Supplementation had no significant effect on any variable of pregnancy outcome, and except for fasting state decreases in leucine flux (125 ± 7.14 compared with 113 ± 5.06 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.04) and nonoxidative disposal (110 ± 6.97 compared with 101 ± 3.69 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.02) from trimesters 1 to 3, it had no effect on any other leucine kinetic variable or urea, glycine, and serine fluxes. We conclude that in Indian women with a low BMI, supplementation with energy and protein from week 12 of pregnancy to time of delivery does not improve pregnancy outcome, whole-body protein kinetics, or serine and glycine fluxes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Riwayat pola asuh, pola makan, asupan zat gizi berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak 24–59 bulan di Biboki Utara, Timor Tengah Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Debora Nabuasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is an indicator of chronic malnutrition that reflects problem of overall social economic condition in the past and as a manifestation of further consequences of the prevalence of low birth weight and undernutrition in children underfive and absence of supreme catch-up growth in the followingyears. Stunting brings impact to physical growth disorder that results in low capacity in working memory, learning memory, visuospatial ability and cognitive function. Low economic condition, rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake for a long time cause high prevalence of stunting in children underfives. The result of basic health survey 2007 showed the prevalence of stunting at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur was 46.7%, in District of Timor Tengah Utara was 59.6% and at Subdistrict of Biboki Utara in two subsequent years were 64.6% and 60.2%.Objectives: To identify association between history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake and stunting in children of 24-59 months in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara District of Timor Tengah Utara Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Methods: The study was observational with case control design. Research instrument was questionnaire that was used to identify history of rearing pattern, eating pattern and nutrient intake through recall 4x24 hours subsequently. The study was carried out in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara with subject of the study were children of 24-59 months old involving a total of 152 subjects consisting of 76 children underfive as cases and 76 as control.Results: History of inadequate rearing pattern was 53.9%, eating pattern 55.9%, energy intake 55.9%, protein intake 52.6%, calcium intake 52.0%, infection disease 51.3%, family economy 61.8%, food tenacity 71.7%. The result of bivariate analysis showed variables of history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, infection disease, family economy had significant association (p<0

  13. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal

  14. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  15. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged economic inequality in stunting was -0·1913. Mother's education contributed 70 % in decomposition of this index. Mean height-for-age Z-score was -0·544 and -0·335 for low and high socio-economic groups, respectively. Mother's education was the factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  16. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.; Bechere Fernandes, M.T.; Martins, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted - obese subjects. Hypothesis: previous malnutrition as judged by height-for-age could be associated with alterations in fat patterning, circulating hormones such as insulin and IGF-1. In addition, previous malnutrition could be also associated with alterations in plasma lipid profiles, such as high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hypertension. Sample and Methods: We recruited a population of 58 girls and boys with 11-14 years of age from the shantytown population in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Half of this population was of normal weight and height, and the other half was stunted. More than 300 children from to 11 years old were screened to participate in the study and were eligible if they had weight-for-height Z scores (WHZ) of -2 to +2 according to the IVCHS standards. Children recruited for the stunted group (n=28) had height-for-age (HAZ) ≤-1.5 Z score and those for the non-stunted group (n=30) had HAZ >1.50. In addition, the two groups were selectively recruited to assure group similarities in mean age and WH. General anthropometry, blood sampling for fasting insulin, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density cholesterol and IGF-1 were made as well as blood pressure. Results: Ninety two percent of the population had low values of IGF-1 indicating impaired growth. Stunted boys and girls had delayed pubertal stages. Lower fasting insulin levels and lower beta cell production according to HAM analysis in comparison to non-stunted children were found, after adjustment for differences in pubertal stages. In addition, a positive association was found between fasting insulin with age for the

  17. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed.

  19. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  20. [Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, energy intake and dietary caloric profile in university students from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    University students are a part of the population potentially vulnerable in relation to their nutritional status. To evaluate energy intake, energy profile of the diet and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students. The study was conducted in 223 students (53% female) from the University of Murcia (Spain), mean age 21.4 ± 2.7 years. Dietary intake was estimated by a continuous 7 days dietary record, previously validated. Afterwards, total energy intake and macronutrients distribution were obtained using the software "GRUNUMUR 2.0". Physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated as [weight (kg)/height (m)(2)]. Average energy intake was lower than the recommendations. In relation with the energy profile of the diet, it was higher in protein and fat, and lower in carbohydrates compared with the recommendations in the balanced diet. The prevalence of overweight was of 9.3% in female and of 24.2% in males. However, 10.2% females and 1.1% males were underweight. Only a 35,4% of the studied collective usually practiced physical activity (3-4 hours/week). Significant correlations were found between age and percentage of energy from carbohydrate (negative) and lipids (positive), indicating that older students (young adults) had significantly higher dietary unbalances than younger (adolescents). Students from the University of Murcia have characteristics very similar to those described in other university populations of Spain and other Western countries: low energy intake, unbalances in the energy profile of the diet, and high percentages of overweight and also of underweight. Both physical inactivity and energy unbalance of the diet could be determinants of the overweight observed. Age is a factor in worsening the energy profile of the diet, which presumably will have undesirable consequences on the health of this young population group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES

  1. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 5-year-old children in Saint Lucia by three methods of classification and a comparison with historical rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K; Bird, J; Canning, P M; Frizzell, L M; Smith, L M

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if child obesity rates have risen in the Caribbean nation of Saint Lucia, as found globally, and whether under-nutrition coexists, as in other developing nations. The average adult in Saint Lucia is overweight, thus considerable child obesity might be expected, but there are no current data. Heights and weights were obtained from a sample (n= 425) of the 2001 birth cohort of Saint Lucian children measured during the nation-wide 2006/2007 Prior to School Entry Five-Year Assessment. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight were estimated by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cole et al. and new World Health Organization (WHO) methods. Previously reported 1976 estimates, including children ≤60 months of age only, based on National Centre for Health Statistics curves, were adjusted to new WHO equivalents using an algorithm developed by Yang and de Onis, and compared with rates in our subsample of children ≤60 months of age (n= 99). Regardless of classification method, overweight and obesity rates were high: 14.4% and 9.2% (WHO); 11.3% and 12.0% (CDC); and 9.9% and 7.1% (Cole et al.), respectively. Underweight estimates also varied: 4.7% (WHO); 11.3% (CDC) and 6.6% (Cole et al.). Obesity in our young subsample (15.2%; WHO) was more than 3 times the adjusted 1976 rate (4.3%). Obesity among Saint Lucian pre-schoolers has tripled in 30 years. Our findings also suggest that this country, like many undergoing a 'nutrition transition', faces the dual challenge of over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Routine monitoring of overweight and underweight is needed in Saint Lucia, as is the implementation and evaluation of programmes to address these problems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  3. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  4. Present status of some virus diseases affecting legume crops in Tunisia, and partial characterization of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted in Tunisia during the 2005‒2006, 2006‒2007 and 2009‒2010 growing seasons to identify viruses which produce yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms of chickpea, faba bean and pea crops. Tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA results showed that Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV was the most common virus, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Beet western yellows virus. The coat protein (CP gene nucleotide sequence of seven CpCSV isolates collected from different regions of Tunisia was compared with sequences of five other isolates in the NCBI database. A homology tree of the CP nucleotide sequences was prepared and CpCSV isolates were grouped into two clusters. The first group contained two Tunisian CpCSV chickpea isolates collected from Bizerte and Kef; sequenced regions showed a high nucleotiode homology (95% to that of the Ethiopian and Sudanese CpCSV isolates. The second group included five Tunisian isolates: two from chickpea, two from pea and one from faba bean, which showed a high homology (96% when compared with the Moroccan, Egyptian and Syrian CpCSV isolates.

  5. Trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian pre-schoolers from 1991 to 2011: findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Valdivia, Martín

    2014-11-01

    To examine trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian children, using 2006 WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study criteria. Trend analyses using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from Demographic and Health Surveys (1991-2011). We performed logistic regression analyses of stunting and overweight trends in sociodemographic groups (sex, age, urban-rural residence, region, maternal education and household wealth), adjusted for sampling design effects (strata, clusters and sampling weights). Peru. Children aged 0-59 months surveyed in 1991-92 (n 7999), 1996 (n 14 877), 2000 (n 11 754), 2007-08 (n 8232) and 2011 (n 8186). Child stunting declined (F(1, 5149) = 174·8, P ≤ 0·00) and child overweight was stable in the period 1991-2011 (F(1, 5147) = 0·4, P ≤ 0·54). Over the study period, levels of stunting were highest in rural compared with urban areas, the Andean and Amazon regions compared with the Coast, among children of low-educated mothers and among children living in households in the poorest wealth quintile. The trend in overweight rose among males in coastal areas (F(1, 2250) = 4·779, P ≤ 0·029) and among males in the richest wealth quintile (F(1, 1730) = 5·458, P ≤ 0·020). The 2011 levels of stunting and overweight were eight times and three and a half times higher, respectively, than the expected levels from the 2006 WHO growth standards. The trend over the study period in stunting declined in most sociodemographic subgroups. The trend in overweight was stable in most sociodemographic subgroups.

  6. Understanding the association between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries: Next steps for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-11-01

    Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development

  7. A combined intervention of zinc, multiple micronutrients, and albendazole does not ameliorate environmental enteric dysfunction or stunting in rural Malawian children in a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and linear growth stunting affect many rural agrarian children in the developing world and contribute to the persistently high rates of stunting that are observed worldwide. Effective interventions to consistently ameliorate EED are lacking. We tested whether ...

  8. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, general and central obesity among 8-15-years old Bulgarian children and adolescents (Smolyan region, 2012-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of underweight, overweight, the general and central obesity in 8-15-year-old Bulgarian children and adolescents, through the use of the anthropometric indices BMI and WHtR. Subject of this study are 878 children and adolescents (437 boys and 441 girls) of Smolyan region, Bulgaria, at the age of 8 to 15 years. The study is cross-sectional and was conducted in the period 2012-2014. The body height, weight and waist circumference were measured. In addition, the body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut-off points of BMI, recommended of IOTF and developed by Cole et al. (2000; 2007). The central obesity was defined according to the discriminatory values of 0.500 of WHtR. The collected data were analysed by statistical software packages STATISTICA 10.0 and SPSS 16. Overweight occurs among 18.8% of the boys and 17.0% of the girls, and obesity occurs among 7.6% of boys and 3.7% of the girls. The underweight are 8.0% of the boys and 10.4% of the girls. Central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) occur among average 12.75% of all investigated children independently of their nutritional status (16.2% of boys and 9.3% of girls). With central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are on average 2.7% of all boys and girls with normal weight (n = 96) and an average 46.82% of all participants with overweight and with obesity (n = 205). With increased health risk (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are total of 2.01% (n=16) of all surveyed children (n = 793) from categories normal weight. There has been an increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Bulgarian children and adolescents from Smolyan region during the over one last decade. The relatively high percentage of underweight children, especially among in group of the girls alter puberty. The central obesity, as well as its combination with overweight or general obesity is more frequent in boys than in girls

  9. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study Obesidade e baixo peso entre idosos brasileiros: Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhi M. Barreto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m² and underweight (BMI or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.A coexistência de obesidade (Índice de Massa Corpórea: IMC > ou = 30kg/m² e de baixo peso (IMC <=20kg/m² e seus fatores relacionados foram investigados em 1.451 idosos, 85,5% da população com 60+ anos residente em Bambuí, Minas Gerais, utilizando-se a análise logística multinomial. O IMC (média = 25,0; DP = 4,9kg/m² foi maior nas mulheres e diminuiu com a idade. A obesidade ocorreu em 12,5% dos idosos; foi associada positivamente ao sexo feminino, à maior renda familiar e presença de hipertensão e diabete, e inversamente à atividade física. O baixo peso ocorreu em 14,8% dos idosos, aumentou com a idade, foi maior nos homens e nas famílias com menor renda, esteve inversamente associado à presença de hipertensão e de hiperglicemia e diretamente associado à infecção por Tripanossoma cruzi e duas ou mais internações no último ano. A obesidade e o baixo peso foram ambos associados a uma maior morbidade. A associação do baixo peso com a infecção por T. cruzi, maior hospitalização e menor renda pode estar refletindo a perda de peso secundária a doenças ou à privação social do idoso nesta comunidade. Envelhecer na pobreza pode aumentar as deficiências nutricionais e os problemas de saúde entre idosos.

  10. Nucleotide sequence analyses of genomic RNAs of peanut stunt virus Mi, the type strain representative of a novel PSV subgroup from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.; Xu, Z.; Goldbach, R.W.; Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Peanut stunt virus strain Mi (PSV-Mi) from China was determined and compared to other viruses of the genus Cucumovirus. The tripartite genome of PSV-Mi encoded five open reading frames (ORFs) typical of cucumoviruses. Distance analyses of four ORFs indicated that

  11. Association of whole blood n-6 fatty acids with stunting in 2-to-6-year-old Northern Ghanaian children: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Adjepong

    Full Text Available In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids (FA are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis. Of the 307 children who participated, 29.7% were stunted and 8% were essential FA deficient (triene/tetraene ratio>0.02. Essential FA did not differ between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with height-for-age z-score (HAZ or weight-for-age z-score (WAZ. In hemoglobin adjusted regression models, both HAZ and WAZ were positively associated with arachidonic acid (p≤0.01, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, p≤0.05, docosatetraenoic acid (p≤0.01 and the ratio of DGLA/linoleic acid (p≤0.01. These data add to the growing body of evidence indicating n-6 FAs are critical in childhood linear growth. Our findings provide new insights into the health status of an understudied Northern Ghanaian population.

  12. Molecular detection and characterization of Hop stunt viroid sequence variants from naturally infected pomegranate (Punica granatum L. in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten GORSANE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian pomegranate Hop stunt viroid (HSVd variants are described. Dot-blot hybridization, S-Page, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of RNA extracts from infected tissues were carried out. Results obtained by these techniques were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. The genetic diversity among the Tunisian variants was investigated, which also involved analysis of sequences of previously described HSVd variants from Tunisian citrus var. clementine and fig, and from fruit trees from other Mediterranean countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tunisian pomegranate HSVd variants were clustered into two groups: a cachexia strain within the citrus type group and a recombinant citrus-plum type group. Results also showed a high haplotype diversity which was not related either to the host or to the geographical origin. Selective neutrality and genetic network tests suggest that the HSVd isolates have spread rapidly.

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L M Wong

    Full Text Available Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous.We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA. Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10 and quintiles (Q1 and Q5 were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII and concentration index (CIX.In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels.Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kerry L M; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2017-01-01

    Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous. We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA). Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10) and quintiles (Q1 and Q5) were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX). In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels. Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  15. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on under-five mortality and stunting: Analysis of data from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Nutrition interventions may have favourable as well as unfavourable effects. The Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat, with early prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation, reduced infant mortality and were reported to be very cost-effective. However, the multiple micronutrients (MMS supplement was associated with an increased risk of stunted growth in infancy and early childhood. This unfavourable outcome was not included in the previous cost-effectiveness analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the MINIMat interventions remain cost-effective in view of both favourable (decreased under-five-years mortality and unfavourable (increased stunting outcomes.Pregnant women in rural Bangladesh, where food insecurity still is prevalent, were randomized to early (E or usual (U invitation to be given food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μg of folic acid. E reduced stunting at 4.5 years compared with U, MMS increased stunting at 4.5 years compared with Fe60, while the combination EMMS reduced infant mortality compared with UFe60. The outcome measure used was disability adjusted life years (DALYs, a measure of overall disease burden that combines years of life lost due to premature mortality (under five-year mortality and years lived with disability (stunting. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated using cost data from already published studies.By incrementing UFe60 (standard practice to EMMS, one DALY could be averted at a cost of US$24.When both favourable and unfavourable outcomes were included in the analysis, early prenatal food and multiple micronutrient interventions remained highly cost effective and seem to be meaningful from a public health perspective.

  17. Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberselassie, Selamawit Bekele; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Mutuku, Shadrack Mulinge; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2018-01-01

    Children in developing countries are highly vulnerable to impaired physical growth because of poor dietary intake, lack of appropriate care, and repeated infections. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Libo-Kemekem from October 15 to December 15, 2015. The multistage sampling technique was employed to select 1,320 children aged 6-59months. Data were collected by trained community health extension workers under regular supervision. Data were entered into EPI-Info version 3.5.1, and height for age was converted to Z-score with ENA-SMART software. Data were then exported to SPSS version 20 for descriptive and binary logistic regression analysees. The significance of associations was determined at p<0.05. Out of 1287 children included in the analysis, 49.4% (95% CI: 46.7%-52.3%) were found to be stunted. In the multivariate analysis, increased child age [AOR = 6.31, 95%CI: (3.65, 10.91)], family size of six and above [AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: (1.35, 2.32)] were positively associated with stunting, while, fathers with secondary school education [AOR = 0.50, 95%CI: (0.30, 0.81)], farmers as household heads [AOR = 0.56, 95%CI: (0.38, 0.84)] and self-employed parents as household head [AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.72)] were found to be preventive factors. The prevalence of stunting was high in the study area. We found that stunting was significantly correlated with child age, occupational status of household head, family size, and fathers' education. Therefore, intervention focusing on supporting housewives, family planning, and education on child feeding and nutrition should be implemented.

  18. Recent trends in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Korean adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1998 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Young Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent obesity studies have reported that the rising trend in obesity has stabilized or leveled off. Our study aimed to update estimates of the recent prevalence trend in obesity based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998–2014. Methods: A total of 66,663 subjects were included and defined as being either underweight, overweight, or obese, in accordance with a BMI of 18.5 kg/m2 or lower, 23 kg/m2 or higher, and 25 kg/m2 or higher, respectively. Results: The prevalence of underweight in KNHANES I through VI surveys was 5.4%, 6.1%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.6%, and 7.5%, respectively, in men (p for trend = 0.04, β = 0.003 and 4.7%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.3%, 2.7%, and 2.6%, respectively, in women (p for trend = 0.03, β = −0.002. Also for KNHANES I through VI, the respective prevalence of overweight/obesity was 50.3%, 57.2%, 62.5%, 62.3%, 61.4%, and 61.3% in men (p for trend<0.01, β = 0.009 and 48.3%, 50.3%, 50.0%, 47.8%, 47.0%, and 45.3% in women (p for trend<0.01, β = −0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The obesity occurrence in men was trending upward with respect to overweight/obesity and for grade 1 and 2 obesity, but not for abdominal obesity. However, the obesity trends in women were leveling off from overweight/obesity, grade 1 obesity, and abdominal obesity measures. Further studies are required with data on muscle mass and adiposity for effective obesity control policies.

  19. Childhood underweight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan-José; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2011-07-01

    To assess associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Participants were asked to select which of nine body images most closely represented their body shape at ages 5 and 20 years, and it was used as a proxy of BMI. An incident case of MetS was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult MetS were estimated by multiple-adjusted odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals. University of Navarra, Spain. The study included 5317 university graduates, followed-up for a median of 6·1 years. The incidence of MetS was 2·9 % (1·7 % in women and 5·1 % in men). Among men, body shape at age 5 years was inversely related to adult MetS (OR = 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97), whereas weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood was directly associated with adult MetS (OR = 1·49, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·18); both childhood underweight (OR = 5·20, 95 % CI 1·87, 14·50) and childhood obesity (OR = 4·66, 95 % CI 1·40, 15·51) increased the likelihood of adult MetS. No association was apparent among women. These results support treating childhood underweight and weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood as part of comprehensive adult MetS prevention efforts in men.

  20. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  1. Hubungan sosial ekonomi, pola asuh, pola makan dengan stunting pada siswa sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Lut Tawar, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Aramico

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: High prevalence of stunted children that indicates nutrition problem in Indonesia is a chronic problem associated with poverty, low education, and lack of service and environmental health. The low birth weight infant will have an impact on growth disorders in children.      Objectives: To identify association between social economic aspect of the family, rearing pattern, eating pattern and stunting in elementary school children in Lut Tawar Subditrict Central Aceh Regency.Methods: The study were analytic observational with cross sectional design and qualitative method. Data were obtained through observation and interview using questionnaire. Samples were 378 children from 11 elementary school in Lut Tawar Subdistrict Central Aceh Regency. Samples were selected by proportional random sampling. Analysis used chi-square at confi dence interval 95%. Number of samples were 378 children.Results: There were association between maternal education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=4.06; father education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=3.37; number of underfi ves with nutritional status (p=0.007 OR=2.71; income of parent and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=7.8; rearing pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=8.07; eating pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=6.01. There were dominant association between rearing pattern and nutritional status with OR 8, between eating patern,income of parent and nutritional status with OR of 6.01 There were no association between acces and utilization of health service and nutritional status (p=0,78 OR=0,93.Conclusions: There were signifi cant association between rearing pattern, eating pattern, and nutritional status.KEYWORDS: stunting, rearing pattern, eating patternABSTRAKLatar belakang: Tingginya prevalensi anak pendek yang menunjukkan masalah gizi di Indonesia merupakan masalah kronis yang berkaitan dengan kemiskinan, rendahnya pendidikan, dan kurang memadainya pelayanan

  2. A comparative study on Nutritional status of Preschool children in Kekirawa Divisional Secretariat area and Gampaha Divisional Secretariat area in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Kanattage Piumi Dananga Chamari; Weerasooriya, W.M.B.; Liyanage, Janitha A.

    2014-01-01

    .3% underweight among the served preschool children in Kekirawa divisional secretariat division and 14.4% wasting, 3.1% stunting and 8.2% underweight among the served preschool children in Gampaha divisional secretariat division. According to the survey prevelence of undernutrition was assesed as severly wasted, wasted, severly stunted, stunted and severly under weight, under weight. In Kekirawa Divisional Secretariat area, Male wasting status was 4% ≤ -3SD, 26% ≤ -2SD, Stunting status was 8% ≤ -3SD, 26% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status was 10% ≤ -3SD, 30% ≤ -2SD. Female wasting status is containing 0% ≤ -3SD, 29.2% ≤ - 2SD , Stunting status is 2.1% ≤ -3SD, 16.7% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status is 8.3% ≤ -3SD, 31.3% ≤ -2SD. In Gampaha Divisional Secretariat area, Male wasting status was 0% ≤ -3SD, 11.1% ≤ -2SD, Stunting status was 0% ≤ -3SD, 4.4% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status was 0% ≤ -3SD, 4.4% ≤ -2SD. Female wasting status is containing 1.9% ≤ -3SD, 15.4% ≤ - 2SD, Stunting status is 0% ≤ -3SD, 1.9% ≤ -2SD and Underweight status is 0% ≤ -3SD, 11.5% ≤ -2SD. (author)

  3. The recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) for normal and underweight women to reduce the risk of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yieh-Loong; Chen, Li-Ching; Seow, Kok-Min; Chong, Kian-Mei

    2015-02-01

    The recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) were revised recently in order to enhance maternal and neonatal health. The aim of our study was to investigate the risk of low birth weight (LBW) among women who follow the IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain (GWG) and rate of weight gain (RWG) across the different periods of pregnancy among women who delivered LBW fetuses were analyzed retrospectively. The logistic regression was used to analyze the risk of LBW and to identify recommendations. From January 2008 to December 2009, 117 out of 4924 (2.4%) women delivered term LBW fetuses. After exclusions, 88 LBW and 91 control subjects were enrolled into the study. There was increased risk of cesarean delivery [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.53 (1.33-4.83)] and neonatal asphyxia within 7 days of birth [OR 95% CI: 5.71 (1.21-26.83)] for the LBW group compared with the control group. Normal weight women [body mass index (BMI): 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)] who followed the GWG and RWG recommendations of the IOM had no increased risk of LBW. However, there was a two-to three-fold increased LBW risk among normal weight women who followed the IOM guidelines when, during the 2(nd) trimester, their GWG was ≤7 kg [OR 95% CI: 2.21 (1.28-6.49)] or their RWG was ≤0.45 kg/week [OR 95% CI: 3.14 (1.32-7.47)]. Among underweight women (BMI IOM there was a five-fold increased risk of LBW if the GWG was ≤13 kg [OR 95% CI: 5.29 (1.61-25.51)]; or the RWG was ≤0.45 kg/week [OR 95% CI: 5.35 (1.61-24.66)]. For underweight women, it is suggested that they follow the upper range of the IOM recommendation in order to avoid LBW. For normal weight women, although the IOM guidelines provide a good basis, it is suggested that they carefully follow the recommended GWG and the RWG values during the 2(nd) trimester, which is a very important period for fetal growth. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN FORMULA SIRUP ZINK DARI EKSTRAK IKAN BILIH (Mystacoleucus- padangensis SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF SUPLEMENTASI ZINK ORGANIK PADA ANAK PENDEK (STUNTED USIA 12-36 BULAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yuniritha

    2015-03-01

      The extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis zinc syrup is made from basic ingredient of bilih fish which contains 27,8 mg zinc/100 gram syrup. It is much higher than other food zinc source. The use of the extract of bilih fish as an alternative of organic zinc supplementation can be used for those who have zinc deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to be studied as an alternative intervention program for stunting in children aged 12-36 months. This objective of this study is to develop zinc formula syrup from the extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis as an organic zinc supplementation for stunted children. This laboratory experimental research is begun by extracting the fish bilih using a standard method. The extract of bilih fish is formulated in the form of suspension syrup, at the laboratory of Biology and Liquid Preparation in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta. The extract of bilih fish is very high in zinc content (161, 97 mg/100 gram, with main preparation of Zinc Citrate, Vitamin A and protein, added with simplex syrup (64%, CMC-Na, Citric Acid, fruit flavor and food color subtances. This supplement syrup formula is based on International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG, with 3 best formulas based on organoleptic test, formula F 4.1, F 2.2 and F 2.3. The zinc syrup formula from extract of bilih fish could be an alternative of organic zinc supplementation to address zinc deficiency in stunted children. Keywords: extract bilih, zinc supplementation, stunting

  5. A Systematic Analysis on mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Runting and Stunting Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ma, Jinge; Li, Bixiao; Lin, Shudai; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2015-01-01

    Runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), which is characterized by lower body weight, widely occurs in broilers. Some RSS chickens simply exhibit slow growth without pathological changes. An increasing number of studies indicate that broiler strains differ in susceptibility to infectious diseases, most likely due to their genetic differences. The objective of this study was to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in RSS and normal chickens. By integrating miRNA with mRNA expression profiling, potential molecular mechanisms involved in RSS could be further explored. Twenty-two known miRNAs and 1,159 genes were differentially expressed in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens (P chicken liver albeit with reduced abundance. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that gga-miR-30b/c directly target CARS through binding to its 3′UTR. The miR-30b/c: CARS regulation mainly occurred in liver. In thigh muscle and the hypothalamus, miR-30b/c are expressed at higher levels in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens from 2 to 6 w of age, and notably significant differences are observed at 4 w of age. PMID:26010155

  6. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a versatile platform for polyvalent display of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shantanu; Ochoa, Wendy; Singh, Pratik; Hsu, Catherine; Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne; Olson, Mark; Reddy, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NΔ52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.

  7. The effect of adding zinc to vitamin A on IGF-1, bone age and linear growth in stunted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Merryana; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was conducted with children in Mojo village, Surabaya City. Children aged 48 to 60 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A plus zinc sulfate (n=12) or a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A (n=12) plus placebo six days a week for six months. Children were evaluated weekly for nutrient intake and for IGF-1, C-reactive protein levels, gamma globulin levels, serum zinc, serum retinol, bone age and the index height for age at six months. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the serum retinol level (pbone age (p<0.01), and gamma globulin level (p<0.04) and a significant decrease in the amount of infection/inflammation measured by CRP level (p<0.001). There was also a significant correlation between CRP level and height for age (p<0.01), and between gamma level and height for age (p<0.01). These results suggest that combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation reduces the risk of infection and increases linear growth among children, and thus may play a key role in controlling infection and stunted growth for children under five years old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Yeast as a model host to study replication and recombination of defective interfering RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panavas, Tadas; Nagy, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Defective interfering (DI) RNA associated with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which is a plus-strand RNA virus, requires p33 and p92 proteins of TBSV or the related Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), for replication in plants. To test if DI RNA can replicate in a model host, we coexpressed TBSV DI RNA and p33/p92 of CNV in yeast. We show evidence for replication of DI RNA in yeast, including (i) dependence on p33 and p92 for DI replication; (ii) presence of active CNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in isolated membrane-containing preparations; (iii) increasing amount of DI RNA(+) over time; (iv) accumulation of (-)stranded DI RNA; (v) presence of correct 5' and 3' ends in DI RNA; (vi) inhibition of replication by mutations in the replication enhancer; and (vii) evolution of DI RNA over time, as shown by sequence heterogeneity. We also produced evidence supporting the occurrence of DI RNA recombinants in yeast. In summary, development of yeast as a host for replication of TBSV DI RNA will facilitate studies on the roles of viral and host proteins in replication/recombination

  9. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assessthe amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women.

  10. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assess the amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women

  11. Characterization of a Syrian Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus strain and production of polyclonal antibodies for its detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen ALNAASAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with two primer sets of luteoviruses was used to characterize an isolate of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSv, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae (SC402-08 collected from Lattakia, Syria, during the 2007‒2008 chickpea growing season. Sequence analysis revealed that the coat protein gene of the isolate shared nucleotide sequence identities ranging from 97 to 98% with the CpCSv isolates from Egypt, morocco and Syria. The capsid protein was separated as a protein of approximately 20 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was visually detected by its reaction with CpCSV monoclonal antibody in Western blot. SC402-08 isolate of CpCSV was purified from faba bean-infected plants, and yielded 112–182 μg of purified virions kg-1 of infected tissue. The purified preparation was injected into a white rabbit, and an antiserum was obtained and used to detect CpCSv in infected tissues by tissue-blot immunoassay. The antiserum obtained was able to detect CpCSv by the immunoassay up to a dilution of 1:1,024,000.

  12. Cultivated grapevines represent a symptomless reservoir for the transmission of hop stunt viroid to hop crops: 15 years of evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kawaguchi-Ito

    Full Text Available Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus, which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics.

  13. Earlier introduction of aguitas is associated with higher risk of stunting in infants and toddlers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; van der Starre, Robine E; van Beusekom, Ilse; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2013-03-01

    In many cultures, simple herbal infusions, thin gruels, or sweetened water (agüitas in Guatemalan parlance) are given to infants and toddlers. Formative research has shown that the use of agüitas in early child feeding is deeply embedded in Guatemalan culture. We examined the prevalence and timing of the introduction of agüitas during early life in a low-income population of metropolitan Quetzaltenango in relation to stunting in children. Responses from 456 mothers of children aged 5-23 mo were analyzed by using logistic regression to explore relations between linear growth (stunting), diarrhea, and age at the first introduction of agüitas. A total of 358 of 456 infants (79%) were agüita users independent of sex or ethnicity. Of infants given agüitas, one-fourth of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 2.9 wk of age, and one-half of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 9 wk of age. Subjects introduced to agüitas before 2.9 wk of age were 1.8 times more likely to be stunted (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8; P = 0.03) irrespective of ethnicity. Children who had ever been given agüitas were twice as likely to have also had diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.3) and more likely to have needed medical attention for diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.2), but diarrheal experience was independent of stunting. Because of the early introduction of agüitas and the high prevalence of stunting in Guatemala, longitudinal studies are urgently needed to clarify the causal relations. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial register as NTR3273 for 5-mo-olds and Nederlands Trial register as NTR3292 for infants ≥6 mo.

  14. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  15. Herança da resistência ao enfezamento em milho Inheritance of the resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trevizoli Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a herança da resistência ao complexo de enfezamento em milho e determinar as melhores fontes de resistência entre as linhagens estudadas. Foram realizadas as análises dialélica e médias de gerações em linhagens de milho. Para a análise dialélica, foram cruzadas 12 linhagens de milho, em dialélico parcial. Para análises de médias de gerações, foram cruzadas três linhagens resistentes e quatro suscetíveis, para a obtenção das gerações F1, F2, RCP R e RCP S. Os trabalhos foram conduzidos em Jaboticabal, SP. A incidência de enfezamento foi avaliada no estádio fenológico R3. Efeitos significativos quanto à capacidade geral de combinação e capacidade específica de combinação foram obtidos, o que indicou que, no controle do caráter enfezamentos, estão envolvidos tanto os efeitos aditivos quanto os de dominância. Análises de médias de gerações mostraram a presença de poucos genes envolvidos com o controle da resistência, com predominância de efeitos aditivos, o que permite a seleção de genótipos resistentes. As linhagens L02, L03 e L05 poderão ser utilizadas como fontes de resistência, em futuras combinações híbridas.The objectives of this work were to determine the inheritance of resistance to corn stunt and determine the best resistance sources among the studied inbred lines. Diallel analysis and generation means were made for corn inbred lines. For the diallel analysis, twelve corn-inbred lines were crossed, in a partial diallel scheme. For the analyses of generation means, three resistant inbred lines and four susceptible ones were crossed, to obtain the F1, F2, RCP R and RCP S generations. The experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Corn sfunt incidence was evaluated at the phenological phase R3. Significant effects for CGC and CEC were obtained, which indicated that both additive and dominance effects were involved in corn expression of

  16. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  17. Stunting coexisting with overweight in 2·0-4·9-year-old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height. A secondary data analysis of children aged 2·0-4·9 years in four cross-sectional studies of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Children's height and BMI Z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Child Growth Standards (2006). We defined 'concurrent stunting and overweight' as height-for-age Z-score +1. Multivariate generalised linear latent and mixed models were used to determine associated risk factors. Thirteen out of twenty-seven provinces in Indonesia. Children (n 4101) from four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993-2007). There were inconsistent trends in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight from waves 1 to 4. Children were more likely to be stunted and overweight when they were in the youngest age group (2·0-2·9 years), were weaned after the age of 6 months, had short-statured mothers or lived in rural areas. Stunted children were significantly more likely to be overweight than healthy-height children (OR>1) but did not differ significantly different across each wave (OR=1·34-2·01). Concurrent stunting and overweight occurs in Indonesian children aged 2·0-4·9 years. Current policies and programmes need to be tailored for the management of this phenomenon.

  18. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Baitun; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Hamadani, Jena D; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Persson, Lars-Ake

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Parenting programmes are effective in enhancing parenting practices and child development. This study evaluated the effects of a intervention with psychosocial stimulation (PS) on the quality of the home environment and mothers’ child-rearing practices in a community-based trial with severely malnourished Bangladeshi children. Method Severely underweight children (n = 507), 6–24 months of age, were randomly assigned to five groups: PS; food supplementation (FS); PS + FS; c...

  19. Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Beaulière, Jean Max; Mamady, Daffe; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Rohner, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.

  20. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  2. Stunted by climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    With expertise in geography and human health, Marta Jankowska and David López-Carr worked with a team of specialists in climate science, statistics, demography and policy to study climate change impacts on child malnutrition in Mali.

  3. Body mass index, initial neurological severity and long-term mortality in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Beom Joon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is believed to increase the risks of ischemic stroke or coronary heart disease; however, regarding outcome after established vascular diseases, recent unexpected evidence has suggested that an increased body mass index (BMI) might have beneficial effects (obesity paradox). The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke. A total of 1,592 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively included through our stroke cohort. In this study, the levels of BMI were classified based on guidelines for the Asian-Pacific population. Initial neurological severity was estimated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Information on mortality was collected until the end of 2009, and the median follow-up period was 4 years. To examine the association between BMI and long-term mortality, we used Cox's proportional regression analysis. During follow-up, 23% of patients died. Linear regression analysis showed that the level of BMI was inversely related to initial neurological severity (p = 0.002). In the model of adjustment of age and gender using Cox's proportional regression analysis, this inverse trend was also significant (reference, normal weight; hazard ratio of underweight, 2.45; overweight, 0.77; obesity, 0.60). However, after adjustment of all covariates, including initial neurological severity, only the harmful effect of underweight remained significant (2.79; 95% CI, 1.92-4.05); however, beneficial effects of overweight and obesity did not. Our study showed that an independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke was found only in underweight patients. The obesity paradox phenomenon seems to be limited, and might not be interpreted as a direct causal relationship due to a strong association with initial neurological severity. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Higher household expenditure on animal-source and nongrain foods lowers the risk of stunting among children 0-59 months old in Indonesia: implications of rising food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mayang; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W; Sun, Kai; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Akhter, Nasima; Kraemer, Klaus; Semba, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Because the global financial crisis and high food prices affect food consumption, we characterized the relationship between stunting and nongrain food expenditure at the household level among children 0-59 mo old in Indonesia's rural and urban poor population. Expenditure and height-for-age data were obtained from a population-based sample of 446,473 children in rural and 143,807 in urban poor areas in Indonesia. Expenditure on food was grouped into categories: animal, plant, total nongrain, and grain. The prevalence of stunting in rural and urban poor areas was 33.8 and 31.2%, respectively. In rural areas, the odds ratios (OR) (5th vs. first quintile) for stunting were similar for proportion of household expenditure on animal (0.87; 95% CI = 0.85-0.90; P global crises.

  5. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  6. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  9. A comparative study on the nutritional status of children (6-59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with birth order. Overall, there was no significant difference in prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight between the world vision project area and nonproject area. However, the prevalence of stunting and underweight was higher than the national levels. It is, therefore, concluded that chronic malnutrition ...

  10. Prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi children: A community-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mouzan, Mohammed; Foster, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    There is no published information on the prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence data.The prevalence of nutritional indicators in the form of underweight, stunting, and wasting in a national sample of children younger than 5 years of age was calculated using the new WHO standards as reference. Calculations were performed using the corresponding WHO software. The prevalence of moderate and severe underweight, wasting and stunting, was defined as the proportion of children whose weight for age, weight for height, and height for age were below -2 and -3 standard deviation scores, respectively.The number of children younger than 5 years of age was 15 516 and 50.5% were boys. The prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was 6.9% and 1.3%, respectively. The prevalence of moderate and severe wasting was 9.8% and 2.9%, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of moderate and severe stunting was 10.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The prevalence was lower in girls for all indicators. Comparison of the prevalence of nutritional indicators in selected countries demonstrates large disparity with an intermediate position for Saudi Arabia.This report establishes the national prevalence of malnutrition among Saudi children. Compared to data from other countries, these prevalence rates are still higher than other countries with less economic resources, indicating that more efforts are needed to improve the nutritional status of children (Author).

  11. Differences in Body Build in Children of Different Ethnic Groups and their Impact on the Prevalence of Stunting, Thinness, Overweight, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Norimah, A Karim; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity among children differs by ethnicity. It is not known whether differences in body build across the ethnic groups influence the interpretation of nutritional parameters. To explore the differences in body build across the 5 main ethnic groups in Malaysia and to determine whether differences in body build have an impact on the interpretation of nutrition indicators. A total of 3227 children aged 2.0 to 12.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia were included in this analysis. Body weight, height, sitting height, wrist and knee breadths, and biceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured, and relative leg length, slenderness index, and sum of skinfolds were calculated. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards. Differences in relative leg length and slenderness across the ethnic groups were correlated with HAZ and BAZ. Correction for differences in body build did, in some ethnic groups, have significant impact on the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity, and the pattern of prevalence across ethnic groups changed. At the population level, corrections for body build had only minor and mostly nonsignificant effects on prevalence, but at an individual level, corrections for body build placed a substantial number of children in different height or weight categories. Whether these misclassifications warrant additional assessment of body build in clinical practice will need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Impact of Childhood Nutritional Status on Pathogen Prevalence and Severity of Acute Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickell, Kirkby D; Pavlinac, Patricia B; John-Stewart, Grace C; Denno, Donna M; Richardson, Barbra A; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; Kirera, Ronald K; Swierczewski, Brett E; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L

    2017-11-01

    Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection. Clinical and microbiological features were compared using log binomial regression among children with and without wasting (mid-upper arm circumference ≤ 125 mm) or stunting (height-for-age z score ≤ -2). Among 1,363 children, 7.0% were wasted and 16.9% were stunted. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with wasting were more likely than nonwasted children to present with at least one Integrated Management of Childhood Illness danger sign (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 1.5, P = 0.05), severe dehydration (aPR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8, P malnutrition which may be explained by a delay in care-seeking or diminished immune response to infection. Combating social determinants and host risk factors associated with severe disease, rather than specific pathogens, may reduce the disparities in poor diarrhea-associated outcomes experienced by malnourished children.

  13. Undernutrition among Honduran children 12-71 months old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel Penelope

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Ministry of Health of Honduras conducted a national micronutrient survey that included anthropometric measurements to determine the nutrition status of children 12-71 months old. Among the 1 744 children who participated, 38% of them were stunted, including 14% who were severely stunted; 24% were underweight, of which 4% were severely underweight; and 1% were wasted, of which 0.1% were severely wasted. The country can be divided into three groupings based on the level of stunting and underweight: 1 lowest prevalence: Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, and medium cities; 2 medium prevalence: other urban areas, the rural north, and the rural south; and 3 highest prevalence: the rural west. Using logistic regression analysis, the important determinants of stunting were found to be: mother/caretaker's and father's schooling, source of water, the dominion (geographic location and strata in which the child lived, and the "possession score" for ownership of such items as a radio, television, refrigerator, stereo system, and electric iron. The predictors for underweight were micronutrient status, diarrhea, maternal/caretaker's schooling, type of toilet, and possession score. Historical data indicate that the national prevalence of chronic undernutrition has changed little over the last 10 years despite the number of national food and nutrition plans implemented and the significant improvements in health services. It is possible that these positive interventions have been offset by the slow progress in economic development. Future nutrition interventions should take into account household-level perceived needs and priorities in order to set realistic nutrition targets.

  14. Gendered effects of siblings on child malnutrition in South Asia: cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health surveys from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus P; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of number and sex of siblings on malnutrition of boys and girls under-5 in South Asia. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys data on children under-5 in Bangladesh (N = 7,861), India (N = 46,655) and Nepal (N = 2,475). Data were pooled across countries, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between number and sex of siblings and malnutrition outcomes (wasting, stunting, underweight; based on anthropometric data), adjusting for country and key social and maternal-child health indicators in sex stratified analyses. Number of brothers increased the odds for severe wasting [1 vs. 0 brothers adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.11, 1.55; 2 vs. 0 brothers AOR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.73] for girls but not boys. Having more male siblings and more female siblings increased the odds of stunting for boys and girls, but effect of 3+ sisters on severe stunting was significantly stronger for girls than boys (girls- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.88, 2.70; boys- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.13, 1.67). For underweight, three or more sisters increased the odds for severe underweight for girls (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI = 1.04, 1.57) but not boys. Having brothers heightens girl risk for acute malnutrition (wasting), where having multiple sisters increases girl risk for chronic malnutrition (stunting/underweight). Boy malnutrition is less affected by siblings. Findings suggest that issues of son preference/daughter aversion may affect child malnutrition in South Asia.

  15. Malnutrition Status Among Under-5 Children in a Hill Community of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, K; Poudel, I S; Bhattarai, S; Pradhan, P M S; Pokharel, P K

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition, especially under nutrition puts children at increased risk of morbidity and mortality and remains a serious barrier in child growth, development and survival. This is a major public health problem among under- 5 children in Nepal particularly in rural areas. To assess the burden and contributing factors for malnutrition in hill community of Ilam district in eastern Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted in rural hill communities of Ilam district, Nepal with a sample of 240 under- 5 children. Anthropometric measurements were used as per WHO guidelines to asses three nutritional status: Underweight, Stunting, and Wasting using descriptive statistics and chi square test was applied using SPSS 12.0 to assess social and predisposing factors. Seventeen percent of under- 5 children were moderately and 10.4 % were severely underweight. Similarly, 22.9%, and 17.5% were found to be moderately and severely stunted respectively. Less than 10% were found to be moderately and severely wasted. Older age group of children, education level of mother, not exclusive breast feeding practice had significant (p children were affected with stunting, underweight and wasting at the same time. Significant proportion of under - 5 children were malnourished in the communities of the hilly areas. The study unveiled the importance of literacy and exclusive breast feeding for the prevention of malnutrition in under- 5 children.

  16. A 2-Year Integrated Agriculture and Nutrition Program Targeted to Mothers of Young Children in Burkina Faso Reduces Underweight among Mothers and Increases Their Empowerment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Bliznashka, Lilia; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Dillon, Andrew; Ruel, Marie T; Heckert, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates the benefits of integrated agriculture and nutrition programs for children's health and nutrition outcomes. These programs may also improve mothers' nutrition and empowerment outcomes. However, evidence from rigorous evaluations is scarce. We examined impacts of Helen Keller International's 2-y enhanced-homestead food production (E-HFP) program in Burkina Faso on the secondary impact measures of mothers' nutrition and empowerment. We used a cluster-randomized controlled trial whereby 55 villages with 1767 mothers of young children were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1) control, 2) E-HFP with the behavior change communication (BCC) strategy implemented by older women leaders, or 3) E-HFP with BCC implemented by health committee members. Data for the treatment groups were pooled for this analysis because no differences were found between the 2 groups in key mothers' outcomes. We used difference-in-differences (DID) estimates to assess impacts on mothers' dietary intake, diversity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), prevalence of underweight (BMI empowerment. The E-HFP program significantly increased mothers' intake of fruit (DID = 15.8 percentage points; P = 0.02) and marginally increased their intake of meat/poultry (DID = 7.5 percentage points; P = 0.08) and dietary diversity (DID = 0.3 points; P = 0.08). The prevalence of underweight was significantly reduced among mothers in treatment compared with control villages by 8.7 percentage points (P empowerment score (DID = 3.13 points out of 37 possible points; P empowerment: meeting with women (DID = 1.21 points out of 5 possible points; P empowerment outcomes. These positive impacts benefit the mothers themselves and may also improve their ability to care for their children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01825226. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Hobdell, Martin; Mulder, Jan; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2011-07-13

    Dental decay is the most common childhood disease worldwide and most of the decay remains untreated. In the Philippines caries levels are among the highest in the South East Asian region. Elementary school children suffer from high prevalence of stunting and underweight.The present study aimed to investigate the association between untreated dental decay and Body Mass Index (BMI) among 12-year-old Filipino children. Data collection was part of the National Oral Health Survey, a representative cross-sectional study of 1951 11-13-year-old school children using a modified, stratified cluster sampling design based on population classifications of the Philippine National Statistics Office. Caries was scored according to WHO criteria (1997) and odontogenic infections using the PUFA index. Anthropometric measures were performed by trained nurses. Some socio-economic determinants were included as potential confounding factors. The overall prevalence of caries (DMFT + dmft > 0) was 82.3% (95%CI; 80.6%-84.0%). The overall prevalence of odontogenic infections due to caries (PUFA + pufa > 0) was 55.7% (95% CI; 53.5%-57.9%) The BMI of 27.1% (95%CI; 25.1%-29.1%) of children was below normal, 1% (95%CI; 0.5%-1.4%) had a BMI above normal. The regression coefficient between BMI and caries was highly significant (p Children with odontogenic infections (PUFA + pufa > 0) as compared to those without odontogenic infections had an increased risk of a below normal BMI (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.19-1.80). This is the first-ever representative survey showing a significant association between caries and BMI and particularly between odontogenic infections and below normal BMI. An expanded model of hypothesised associations is presented that includes progressed forms of dental decay as a significant, yet largely neglected determinant of poor child development.

  18. Nutritional status of under-fives in rural area of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathad, Vijayashree; Metgud, Chandra; Mallapur, M D

    2011-04-01

    Malnutrition is widely recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. It is wide spread in rural, tribal and urban slum areas. Growing children are most vulnerable to its consequences. Anthropometry is a simple field technique for evaluating physical growth and nutritional status of the children. To assess the nutritional status of under-fives'. This cross sectional study was conducted in Kakati-A sub-centre, under Primary Health Centre Vantamuri of Belgaum district. The sample size was 290. Data collection was done using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Distribution of variables was assessed and comparison was done using chi square test and P value. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 26.55%, 31.38% and 7.59%, while severe degree of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed in 5.86%, 27.24% and 6.51% respectively according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 classification. According to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) classification the prevalence of Grade I malnutrition was 121 (47.10%), Grade II was 29 (10.00%) and Grade III and IV were 4 (1.40%). Majority of the children's diet was not adequate for calories and proteins as per Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) guidelines. Less than half of children were underweight, nearly one third were stunted and one fifth of children were wasted. No child was found to be overweight or obese.

  19. Risk Factors for Child Malnutrition in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationwide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Khan, Mohammad Mubarak Hossain; Mondal, Mohammad Nazrul Islam; Rahman, Mohammad Mosiur; Billah, Baki

    2016-05-01

    To identify the prevalence and risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh. Data was extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (2011). The outcome measures were stunting, wasting, and underweight. χ(2) analysis was performed to find the association of outcome variables with selected factors. Multilevel logistic regression models with a random intercept at each of the household and community levels were used to identify the risk factors of stunting, wasting, and underweight. From the 2011 survey, 7568 children less than 5 years of age were included in the current analysis. The overall prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 41.3% (95% CI 39.0-42.9). The χ(2) test and multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that the variables age, sex, mother's body mass index, mother's educational status, father's educational status, place of residence, socioeconomic status, community status, religion, region of residence, and food security are significant factors of child malnutrition. Children with poor socioeconomic and community status were at higher risk of malnutrition. Children from food insecure families were more likely to be malnourished. Significant community- and household-level variations were found. The prevalence of child malnutrition is still high in Bangladesh, and the risk was assessed at several multilevel factors. Therefore, prevention of malnutrition should be given top priority as a major public health intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Etiology of severe pneumonia in Ecuadorian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivani Jonnalagadda

    Full Text Available In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador.This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for specific respiratory pathogens were also evaluated.Among 406 children tested, 159 (39.2% had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 71 (17.5% had human metapneumovirus (hMPV, and 62 (15.3% had adenovirus. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 37 (9.2% samples and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in three (0.74% samples. The yearly circulation pattern of RSV (P = 0.0003 overlapped with S. pneumoniae, (P = 0.03 with most cases occurring in the rainy season. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV included younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, P = 0.01 and being underweight (aOR = 1.8, P = 0.04. Maternal education (aOR = 0.82, P = 0.003, pulse oximetry (aOR = 0.93, P = 0.005, and rales (aOR = 0.25, P = 0.007 were associated with influenza A. Younger age (aOR = 3.5, P = 0.007 and elevated baseline respiratory rate were associated with HPIV-3 infection (aOR = 0.94, P = 0.03.These results indicate the importance of RSV and influenza, and potentially modifiable risk factors including undernutrition and future use of a RSV vaccine, when an effective vaccine becomes available.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00513929.

  1. Influence of obesity on mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dietrich; Gemme, Seth; Jehle, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and mortality of drivers in severe motor vehicle crashes involving at least one fatality. Fatalities were selected from 155,584 drivers included in the 2000-2005 Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Drivers were stratified by body mass index, confounders were adjusted for, and multiple logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of death in each body mass index class compared with normal weight. The adjusted risk of death from lowest to highest, reported as the OR of death compared with normal weight with 95% confidence intervals, was as follows: (1) overweight (OR, 0.952; 0.911-0.995; P = .0293), (2) slightly obese (OR, 0.996; 0.966-1.026; P = .7758), (3) normal weight, (4) underweight (OR, 1.115; 1.035-1.201; P = .0043), (5) moderately obese (OR, 1.212; 1.128-1.302; P obese (OR, 1.559; 1.402-1.734; P obese, morbidly obese, and underweight drivers and a decreased risk in overweight drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  3. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  4. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on `Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition` held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers Refs, figs, tabs, graphs

  5. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Li, J.C. [Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Li, Y. [Department of Respirology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m{sup 2}), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m{sup 2}), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m{sup 2}), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m{sup 2}. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ{sup 2}=35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  6. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Li, T.; Li, J.C.; Li, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males) diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 ), normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m 2 ), and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m 2 ). Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m 2 . The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ 2 =35.16, P<0.001). The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

  7. Association of body mass index with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Qi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this observational, multicenter study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI with disease severity and prognosis in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A total of 339 patients (197 females, 142 males diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography were classified into four groups: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m2, overweight (25.0≤BMI<30.0 kg/m2, and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2. Clinical variables expressing disease severity were recorded, and acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and survival rates were estimated during the follow-up period. The mean BMI was 21.90 kg/m2. The underweight group comprised 28.61% of all patients. BMI was negatively correlated with acute exacerbations, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiographic extent of bronchiectasis, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and positively correlated with pulmonary function indices. BMI was a significant predictor of hospitalization risk independent of relevant covariates. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year cumulative survival rates were 94%, 86%, 81%, and 73%, respectively. Survival rates decreased with decreasing BMI (χ2=35.16, P<0.001. The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, inspiratory capacity, age, BMI, and predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s independently predicted survival in the Cox proportional hazard model. In conclusion, an underweight status was highly prevalent among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Patients with a lower BMI were prone to developing more acute exacerbations, worse pulmonary function, amplified systemic inflammation, and chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa. BMI was a major determinant of hospitalization and death risks. BMI should be considered in the routine assessment of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  8. Does pre-school improve cognitive abilities among children with early-life stunting? A longitudinal study for Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Miranda, Alejandra; Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin T; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in developing countries have found that children who experience growth faltering in the first years of life show lower cognitive abilities than their peers. In this study, we use the Young Lives longitudinal dataset in Peru to analyze if attending pre-school affects cognitive abilities at age five years, and if there is an interaction with HAZ at age one year. Using instrumental variables we found, for receptive vocabulary, a positive effect of attending Jardines (formal) pre-schools; the effect of attending PRONOEI (community-based) pre-schools was not significant. More years attending Jardines was more beneficial for children who were better nourished. We suggest working to improve the quality of PRONOEI s, and with teachers on targeting children of lower nutritional status.

  9. Microscopia electrônica de microrganismos do tipo micoplasma nos tecidos de milho afetado pelo enfezamento e nos órgãos da cigarrinha vectora portadora Electron microscopy of mycoplasma-like organisms in corn stunt - Infected plant tissues and in the organs of the leafhopper vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Kitajima

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Exames electrono-microscópicos de tecido foliar ou radicular de milho (Zea maysL. afetado pelo enfezamento do milho, tanto a forma vermelha como a pálida, e de órgãos da cigarrinha vectora, Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W., portadora, demonstraram a ocorrência de corpúsculos pleomórficos, do tipo micoplasma, consistentemente associados a essa anomalia. Não se notou diferença na morfologia entre os microrganismos do tipo micoplasma associados às duas formas do enfezamento da planta nem tampouco entre estes e os presentes no inseto vector. Verificou-se também que na planta esses corpúsculos do tipo micoplasma ocorriam somente nos vasos crivados, e que no inseto eles se achavam presentes em diversos tipos de tecidos de diferentes órgãos - tubo digestivo, músculo, túbulos de Malphigi, epiderme, gânglio nervoso, glândula salivar, tecido adiposo. Nas células do inseto, os corpúsculos ocorriam dispersos no citoplasma ou em cavidades limitadas por membrana.Corn stunt in São Paulo State is usually of minor importance during normal summer crops but might induce significant losses if corn is planted late in the season. It is transmitted by leaf - hopper Dalbulus maidisDe L. & W. and two different forms of this disease have been recognized the chlorotic, similar to the Rio Grande type of the U.S., and the red, resembling the Mesa Central type of Mexico. Electron microscopic examination of tissues from both affected plants or leafhopper reared on diseased plants, demonstrated the presence of pleomorphic, mycoplasma-like bodies, consistently associated with the corn stunt, which probably represent the causal agent the latter. No significant difference could be observed in the morphology of these mycoplasma-like bodies associated with the two disease types or with the insect vector. In the affected plants, these corpuscles were only found in the sieve tubes; in the insect body they were detected in several types of tissues of different organs

  10. Tubaramure, a Food-Assisted Integrated Health and Nutrition Program, Reduces Child Stunting in Burundi: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Olney, Deanna; Ruel, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC). A second objective was to assess the differential effect when varying the timing and duration of receiving food rations. We used a 4-arm, cluster-randomized controlled study to assess program impact with the use of cluster fixed-effects double-difference models with repeated cross-sectional data (baseline and follow-up 4 y later with ∼3550 children in each round). Treatment arms received food rations (corn-soy blend and micronutrient-fortified vegetable oil) for the first 1000 d (T24), from pregnancy through the child reaching 18 mo (T18), or from birth through the child reaching 24 mo ["no food during pregnancy" (TNFP)]. All treatment arms received BCC for the first 1000 d. The control arm received no food rations or BCC. Stunting (height-for-age z score effect in the T24 [7.4 percentage points (pp); P effect across arms were not significant (P > 0.01). Secondary analyses showed that the effect was limited to children whose mother and head of household had some primary education and who lived in households with above-median assets. FA-MCHN programs are an effective development tool to improve child linear growth and can protect children from political and economic shocks in vulnerable countries such as Burundi. A better understanding of how to improve the nutritional status of children in the worst-off households is needed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01072279.

  11. The nutritional status of children in Bhutan: results from the 2008 National nutrition survey and trends over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangmo Ugyen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports on the nutritional status of Bhutanese children. The objective of this paper is to summarize results from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey and to describe progress achieved during the last two decades. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2376 children aged 6 to 59 months was conducted during November-December 2008 to provide national and regional estimates. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was applied and 40 gewogs/thromdes were selected from each region (Western, Central, Eastern. Guidelines on how to measure length/height and weight followed WHO standardized procedures. Data were analysed for consistency and validation using the software WHO Anthro and the WHO SPSS macro. Underweight, stunting, overweight, wasting and thinness were defined based on the WHO Child Growth Standards. Data from 1986-88 and 1999 national surveys were reanalysed using the WHO standards to describe trends in nutritional status. Results Nationally, 34.9% Bhutanese preschool children are stunted and 10.4% are underweight. Wasting is 4.7%, with severe wasting close to 2% in rural areas, while overweight affects 4.4% of preschool children. While underweight rates are similar across regions, wasting is substantially more prevalent in the Western region and stunting in the Eastern region. Stunting shows a steep rise during the first two years of life, as high as 40%, and levels off thereafter, while wasting is greatest among children aged 6-24 months and subsequently decreases. The prevalence of stunting fell from 60.9% in 1986-88 to 34.9% in 2008, and underweight declined from 34.0% to 10.4% during same period. The percentage of wasted children dropped from 5.2% in 1986-88 to 2.5% in 1999 but then increased to 4.7% in 2008. Conclusions There have been major improvements in the nutritional status of Bhutanese children over the past two decades, however, linear growth retardation remains a significant concern. Early

  12. A cross sectional study of nutritional status among a group of school children in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine nutritional status among a school children of Barru Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from Barru Regency were included in this study as a sample of simple random sampling. Nutritional status of children (BMI index, degree of gingival inflammation (using chi-square test statistic, and missing teeth (DMF-T index were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about dental health, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. The data were processed using the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. A group of who severe underweight (102 children, had higher odds for mild gingivitis (GI 79.4% than others group of who has an ideal weight (16 children, had mild gingivitis (GI 62.5%. Children, who severe underweight, had higher odds for moderate caries (38.2% than others group of who has an ideal weight, had moderate caries (18.8%. Based on chi-square test, there are correlation of nutritional status and dental caries severity (p=0.000severity among a school children.

  13. A mixed methods study to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in Districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumra Kureishy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and child malnutrition is widely prevalent in low and middle income countries. In Pakistan, widespread food insecurity and malnutrition are the main contributors to poor health, low survival rates and the loss of human capital development. The nutritional status trends among children exhibit a continuous deteriorating with rates of malnutrition exceeding the WHO critical threshold. With the high prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition, it is important to identify effective preventative approaches, especially for reducing stunting in children under-five years of age. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting in children under-five years. Methods A mixed methods study design will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan. The study will include cross sectional surveys, a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation. The study participants will be pregnant women, lactating mothers and children under-five years. The cross-sectional surveys will be conducted with 7360 study participants at baseline and endline. For the randomized control trial, 5000 participants will be recruited and followed monthly for compliance of food-based supplements, dietary diversity, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels will be measured at baseline, quarterly and at endline. The interventions will consist of locally produced lipid-based nutrient supplement (Wawamum for children 6–23 months, micronutrient powders for children 24–59 months, and wheat soya blends for pregnant and lactating mothers. Government lady health workers will deliver interventions to participants. The effectiveness of the project will be measured in

  14. Severe Aplastic Anemia (SAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Print this page My Cart Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a disease ... leukemia (ALL) Other diseases What is severe aplastic anemia (SAA)? SAA is a bone marrow disease. The ...

  15. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  16. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Rydberg

    Full Text Available Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity.We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001.Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  17. Controle químico da cigarrinha-do-milho e incidência dos enfezamentos causados por molicutes Chemical control of corn leafhopper and incidence of corn stunting diseases caused by mollicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Martins de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência do tratamento inseticida de sementes de milho no controle de Dalbulus maidis e na redução da incidência de enfezamentos em viveiro telado e em campo. Foram realizados dois experimentos; no experimento 1, em viveiro telado, sementes de milho foram tratadas com imidacloprid e thiamethoxan e, nessas plantas, cigarrinhas sadias, cigarrinhas infectantes com fitoplasma ou com espiroplasma foram confinadas. Avaliaram-se eficiência de controle, incidência de plantas com enfezamentos, altura das plantas e produção de grãos. No experimento 2, em campo, imidacloprid e thiamethoxan foram utilizados em tratamento de sementes e pulverizações aos 10 e 20 dias após a semeadura. A incidência de enfezamentos e a produção de grãos foram avaliadas. Em viveiro telado, os produtos imidacloprid e thiamethoxan proporcionaram controle de adultos de D. maidis acima de 50%, até o trigésimo dia, e reduziram a incidência de doenças e danos no crescimento e produção das plantas infectadas expostas às cigarrinhas infectantes aos dois dias após a emergência. Em campo, não foi constatada redução na incidência de enfezamentos ou ganho em produção, possivelmente devido ao fluxo migratório de cigarrinhas infectantes.The objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of maize seed treatment on Dalbulus maidis control, and its effect on corn stunting diseases incidence, at screenhouse and at field. Two experiments were carried out. In the experiment 1 ( screenhouse, maize seeds were treated with imidacloprid or with thiamethoxan. Healthy leafhoppers, phytoplasma infective leafhoppers, and spiroplasma infective leafhoppers were confined in plants. Efficiency of control, incidence of plants with corn stunting diseases, plant height, and grain production were evaluated. In the experiment 2 (field imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were used for seed treatment and sprayed at 10 and 20 days after sowing

  18. A Combined Intervention of Zinc, Multiple Micronutrients, and Albendazole Does Not Ameliorate Environmental Enteric Dysfunction or Stunting in Rural Malawian Children in a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alfred Z; Shulman, Robert J; Crocker, Audrey H; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth M; Devaraj, Sridevi; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and linear growth stunting affect many rural agrarian children in the developing world and contribute to the persistently high rates of stunting that are observed worldwide. Effective interventions to consistently ameliorate EED are lacking. We tested whether a bundle of safe and affordable interventions would decrease EED and stunting over 12-24 wk in a cohort of rural Malawian children 12-35 mo old. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which the intervention group received a single dose of albendazole and 14 d of zinc at enrollment and after 20 wk. The intervention group also received a daily multiple micronutrient powder throughout the 24 wk of study. The primary outcomes were improvements in EED, as measured by the urinary lactulose-to-mannitol ratio (L:M ratio) from dual-sugar absorption testing, and linear growth. Urinary L:M ratios and anthropometric measurements were evaluated after 12 and 24 wk of intervention and compared with a placebo group that did not receive any of these interventions. A total of 254 children were enrolled at a mean age of 24 mo; 55% were female. Their mean weight-for-age z score was -1.5, and their mean length-for-age z score was -0.9. After 12 and 24 wk of study, increases in the L:M ratio did not differ between the intervention group (0.071 and 0.088 units, respectively) and the placebo group (0.073 and 0.080 units, respectively) (P = 0.87 and 0.19, respectively). Relative changes in length and weight also did not differ significantly between groups at any time point. The combined usage of albendazole, zinc, and a daily multiple micronutrient powder did not decrease EED or stunting in this population of agrarian children 12-35 mo old in rural Malawi. Alternative interventions to improve these diseases should be investigated. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02253095. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Effect of temperature on the pathogenesis, accumulation of viral and satellite RNAs and on plant proteome in peanut stunt virus and satellite RNA-infected plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eObrępalska-Stęplowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is an important environmental factor influencing plant development in natural and diseased conditions. The growth rate of plants grown at 27°C is more rapid than for plants grown at 21°C. Thus, temperature affects the rate of pathogenesis progression in individual plants. We have analyzed the effect of temperature conditions (either 21°C or 27°C during the day on the accumulation rate of the virus and satellite RNA (satRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected by peanut stunt virus (PSV with and without its satRNA, at four time points. In addition, we extracted proteins from PSV and PSV+satRNA-infected plants harvested at 21 dpi, when disease symptoms began to appear on plants grown at 21°C and were well developed on those grown at 27°C, to assess the proteome profile in infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants grown at these two temperatures, using 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry approaches. The accumulation rate of the viral RNAs and satRNA was more rapid at 27°C at the beginning of the infection and then rapidly decreased in PSV-infected plants. At 21 dpi, PSV and satRNA accumulation was higher at 21°C and had a tendency to increase further. In all studied plants grown at 27°C, we observed a significant drop in the identified proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism at the proteome level, in comparison to plants maintained at 21°C. On the other hand, the proteins involved in protein metabolic processes were all more abundant in plants grown at 27°C. This was especially evident when PSV-infected plants were analyzed, where increase in abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and folding was revealed. In mock-inoculated and PSV-infected plants we found an increase in abundance of the majority of stress-related differently-regulated proteins and those associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, in PSV+satRNA-infected plants the shift in the

  20. Severe zinc responsive dermatosis in a litter of Pharaoh Hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gregory A; Crow, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    A litter of 3-month-old Pharaoh Hound puppies presented to the referring veterinarian with severe generalized erythematous-crusted papules with pruritus, accompanied by exfoliation and erythema of footpads, inappetence, lethargy, and retarded growth. Three of 5 puppies (2 male and 1 female) were affected. Representative areas were biopsied from 1 affected male puppy and were routinely processed. Histologically, there was marked epidermal hyperplasia with a disorganized appearance of the epidermis and massive parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, compatible with zinc-responsive dermatosis. Low serum zinc concentrations were documented, and the affected animals partially responded to intravenous zinc supplementation but did not respond to oral supplementation. One male puppy died as a result of unrelated causes and was necropsied. The remaining 4 puppies were followed over 2 years. Growth was stunted, and enamel hypoplasia of permanent dentition developed compared with unaffected littermates. Intravenous zinc supplementation at 3-4 week intervals was required to prevent further skin lesion development. One dog died at 3 years of age of renal failure.

  1. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, W.; Ayub, A.; Hussain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  2. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Obesity, overweight, and underweight among urban Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disease burden from communicable and noncommunicable diseases is a significant health challenge facing many developing nations. Among the noncommunicable diseases, is obesity, which has become a global epidemic associated with urbanization. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of ...

  4. South Africa's nutritional transition: Overweight, obesity, underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during both early development and adulthood. ... rural lifestyle to the adoption of an urban way of life.[8,9] This is .... isolated rural settlements or in 1 of 6 urban areas.[14] The .... and Mexico, the co-existence of under- and overnutrition may be.

  5. Nutritional Status and Its Related Factors among 6-24 Month-Old Children Referring to Health Care Centers in Arsanjan City, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Faghih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that children are major part of most populations and also considering the fact that childhood nutrition affects the health status in adulthood, we aimed to assess the nutritional status and its related factors among 6-24-month-old children referring to health care centers in Arsanjan city, southern Iran, in 2011. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 310 children aged 6-24 months. Weight and height were measured and data regarding demographic status, type of feeding, and birth order, were gathered by face to face interview with mothers of the children. Exact age of the children was recorded according to their birth certificate. Z-scores of weight and height were calculated using Epi-info software. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis. Results: 27.2% of the studied children were mildly underweight, 2-6% were moderately underweight, and 0.3% were severely underweight. Also 15.6%, 1.6%, and 0.3% had mild, moderate, and severe stunting, respectively. According to weight for age index 7.4% were mildly overweight and 1.6% were moderately overweight. The prevalence of underweight was significantly more among 6-month-old children compared with the older children (P=0.019. There were no correlations between underweight and stunting and parents’ education or breast feeding. Conclusion: Our results indicated that although the prevalence of malnutrition is less than previous decade, it is still substantial. On the other hand it seems that the prevalence of overweight among children younger than 2 years is increasing. As childhood obesity is a risk factor for adulthood obesity and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, prevention of obesity among children is of importance.

  6. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  7. South African Medical Journal - Vol 103, No 10 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's nutritional transition: Overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in ... Emergency centre investigation of first-onset seizures in adults in the Western ... central nervous system penetration effectiveness, and cognitive outcomes ...

  8. Would an increase in vegetable and fruit intake help to reduce the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-10

    Feb 10, 2013 ... in South African children include stunting, underweight, vitamin A deficiency, the .... All the titles and abstracts of articles identified by searches were screened ... However, increased fruit juice intake was associated with excess.

  9. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  10. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  11. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  12. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  13. Currency flaw severity. [Banknotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Burnett, M.; Goodman, C.; Sherrod, R.; Schmoyer, R.; Harrison, C.; Uppuluri, R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of currency flaw severity was carried out using 300 banknotes and 37 judges. Each judge assigned each note to one of five flaw severity categories. These categories correspond to severity grades of 1 to 5 with 1 equivalent to ''always accepted'' and 5 ''never accepted.'' An average flaw severity grade for each note was obtained by taking the mean of the severity grades assigned to that note by the 37 judges. Thus, each note has a single numerical real-number flaw grade between 1 and 5. Mathematical modeling of the currency flaw survey results is continuing with some very promising initial results. Our present model handles common excess ink and missing ink flaw types quite well. We plan to extend the model to ink level, mash, setoff and blanket impression flaw types.

  14. Quantifying and exploiting the age dependence in the effect of supplementary food for child undernutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinda Lakkam

    Full Text Available Motivated by the lack of randomized controlled trials with an intervention-free control arm in the area of child undernutrition, we fit a trivariate model of weight-for-age z score (WAZ, height-for-age z score (HAZ and diarrhea status to data from an observational study of supplementary feeding (100 kCal/day for children with WAZ [Formula: see text] in 17 Guatemalan communities. Incorporating time lags, intention to treat (i.e., to give supplementary food, seasonality and age interactions, we estimate how the effect of supplementary food on WAZ, HAZ and diarrhea status varies with a child's age. We find that the effect of supplementary food on all 3 metrics decreases linearly with age from 6 to 20 mo and has little effect after 20 mo. We derive 2 food allocation policies that myopically (i.e., looking ahead 2 mo minimize either the underweight or stunting severity - i.e., the sum of squared WAZ or HAZ scores for all children with WAZ or HAZ [Formula: see text]. A simulation study based on the statistical model predicts that the 2 derived policies reduce the underweight severity (averaged over all ages by 13.6-14.1% and reduce the stunting severity at age 60 mo by 7.1-8.0% relative to the policy currently in use, where all policies have a budget that feeds [Formula: see text]% of children. While these findings need to be confirmed on additional data sets, it appears that in a low-dose (100 kCal/day supplementary feeding setting in Guatemala, allocating food primarily to 6-12 mo infants can reduce the severity of underweight and stunting.

  15. Velvet bean severe mosaic virus: a distinct begomovirus species causing severe mosaic in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammad; Kumar, Yogesh; Hallan, Vipin; Zaidi, A A

    2011-08-01

    Velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC] is one of the most important medicinal plants. It is used to treat many ailments, but is widely used for the treatment especially for Parkinson's disease because of the presence of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in it. It was noticed in last 5 years that the plants in the field showed severe mosaic, downward curling of the leaves, stunting, etc. This is consistently observed over the years in India. The disease was transmitted by whiteflies and by grafting and the causal agent was found to be a bipartite begomovirus. The whole genome was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using ϕ-29 DNA polymerase and characterized. DNA-A and DNA-B shared a 124-nucleotide (nt) long highly conserved (98%) common region (CR). Comparisons with other begomovirus showed that DNA-A sequence has highest identity (76%) with an isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV; AY937195) reported from India. This data suggested that the present isolate is a new species of genus Begomovirus for which the name "Velvet bean severe mosaic virus" (VbSMV) is proposed. DNA-B has a maximum sequence identity of 49% with an isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV; AM932426) reported from India. Infectious clones consisting of a 1.7 mer partial tandem repeat of DNA-A and a dimer of DNB-B were constructed and agro-inoculated to Macuna pruriens (L.) DC plants, which showed field observed symptoms 24 days post-infiltration (dpi). In phylogenetic analysis, DNA-A and DNA-B of the present isolate grouped with DNA-A of different begomoviruses reported from fabaceous crops. The study presents first ever molecular evidence of any disease in velvet bean and whole genome analysis of the causative virus which is a distinct bipartite species of Begomovirus.

  16. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use...... the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  17. Alguns fatores associados a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e déficit de peso em menores de 5 anos Some risk factors associated with overweight, stunting and wasting among children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia R. Vitolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar fatores socioeconômicos e outras condições de vida familiar associadas a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e baixo peso para a estatura em menores de 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliou 3.957 crianças entre 1 mês e 5 anos de idade durante campanha nacional de imunização no município de São Leopoldo (RS em 2002. As condições socioeconômicas e de saneamento das áreas de abrangência das unidades de saúde foram agrupadas por análise de cluster dos setores do censo populacional de 2001. RESULTADOS: Déficit de peso para estatura ocorreu em 2,6% das crianças, baixa estatura em 9,1% e excesso de peso em 9,8%. A regressão logística multivariada sugere que os fatores associados à chance de excesso de peso foram: área de condições socioeconômicas alta (RC = 1,47; IC95% 1,09-1,96, filhos únicos (RC = 1,44; IC95% 1,00-2,07 e peso ao nascer ≥ 2.500 g (RC = 2,21; IC95%1,27-3,83. A chance de déficit de peso associou-se ao baixo peso ao nascer (RC = 3,46; IC95% 2,06-5,80 e idade da mãe OBJECTIVE: To explore whether socioeconomic and sanitary conditions, maternal and child factors are associated with overweight, stunting, and wasting in children under five year old in the city of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,957 children aged 1 month to 5 years conducted in all primary care services of the city during the National Children's Vaccination Day in 2002. Maternal and child factors were assessed by a questionnaire. Children's height and weight were measured. Cluster analysis was used to group the areas served by the primary care services according to socioeconomic and sanitary conditions of the census tracts assessed by the 2001 National Census. RESULTS: Wasting was observed in 2.6% of children, stunting in 9.1% and overweight in 9.8%. The multivariable logistic regression model suggests that overweight was associated with higher socioeconomic status and better sanitation of

  18. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  19. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  20. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  1. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  3. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  4. Urban-Rural and Provincial Disparities in Child Malnutrition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yichao; Qi, Di

    2016-10-01

    This article investigates how the nutritional deprivation and inequality among children in China by provinces and urban/rural areas has changed over time from 1991 to 2009 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data. The children who were undernourished in stunting and underweight have declined over years, but provincial disparities were significant and urban children performed better than the rural peers. The nutritional deprivation of children has been alleviated in China over time, but more efforts should be made by the government to improve the nutritional condition in less developed provinces and for those children who are severely undernourished.

  5. Severe congenital neutropenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tidwell et al1 demonstrate that mutations in the start codon (protein synthesis is initiated at the codon ATG) of neutrophil elastase (ELANE) result in the production of N-terminally truncated elastase, which mislocates to the nucleus and results in severe congenital neutr...... neutropenia (SCN)....

  6. Severe asthma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciznar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma are clinically, physiologically and biologically a heterogeneous group. About half of children referred for medical examination for severe asthma have true severe, therapy resistant asthma. The rest of referred patients have difficult to treat asthma. Symptoms persist mostly due to drug non-compliance, inappropriate inhalation technique, persistent environmental exposures or co-morbid conditions. Compared with adults have children more frequently atopic form of severe asthma. This is associated with eosinophilia in peripheral blood and sensitization to inhaled allergens. The IgE levels are high. Therapy of co-morbidities and improvement of treatment compliance lead in most cases to full asthma control. Proportion of children will benefit from biologics like anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, administered by subcutaneous injections in 2 to 4 week intervals. By this therapy it is not only possible to suppress symptoms, but also decrease the total steroid dose and the risk of adverse effects associated with its long-term administration. By achieving a full asthma control we lower future risk of exacerbations and probably improve long-term prognosis of disease, frequently persisting for the rest of life. (author)

  7. The Association Between Body Mass Index and the Prevalence, Severity, and Frequency of Low Back Pain: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Charles A; Kusin, David J; Li, Samuel Q; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2018-02-16

    Cross-sectional study. To determine whether there is an association between body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain and identify other potential patient risk factors for the development of low back pain. Many studies have implicated that a high BMI is a risk factor for low back pain. However, few studies have examined the association between increased BMI and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a multicenter, prospective study of knee osteoarthritis, were used to conduct this study, which included 4796 patients. BMI was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification and the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain were assessed. Logistic regression was performed to identify additional patient risk factors associated with low back pain. The prevalence of low back pain was found to be significantly higher in patients with an elevated BMI compared to those with normal or underweight BMI and demonstrated a stepwise increase with each BMI category. Approximately 47.4% of patients with normal or underweight BMI complained of low back pain compared with 72.8% of morbidly obese patients (P frequency or severity of low back pain episodes. Osteoarthritis of the back and depression were patient variables found to be associated with all three measures (prevalence, severity, and frequency) of low back pain. Elevated BMI is strongly associated with an increased prevalence of low back pain. Depression and osteoarthritis of the back are associated with the prevalence, severity, and frequency of low back pain. 3.

  8. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. Copyright 2009 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  10. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  11. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  13. Severe fuel damage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1987-10-01

    After the descriptions of the generation of a Severe Fuel Damage Accident in a LWR the hypothetical course of such an accident is explained. Then the most significant projects are described. At each project the experimental facility, the most important results and the concluding models and codes are discussed. The selection of the projects is concentrated on the German Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS), tests performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and smaller projects in France and Great Britain. 25 refs., 26 figs. (Author)

  14. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  15. Several crimes solved

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2007-01-01

    A member of a contractor's personnel suspected of having committed several thefts in and around Building 180 has recently been questioned by the French police. He was immediately tried by the court in Bourg-en-Bresse and sentenced to six months in prison, with a requirement to serve at least three months. His arrest was facilitated, among other things, by a video recording, fast and detailed statements to the CERN Fire Brigade and close collaboration between the members of the personnel concerned, the Reception and Access Control Service and the police. Several laptops and other items of electronic equipment were seized during a search of the culprit's home. A stolen digital camera has yet to be returned to its owner as he has not reported the theft to the CERN Fire Brigade and the police. The person concerned is therefore requested to go to the Gendarmerie in Saint-Genis-Pouilly with the necessary proof of ownership. In addition, the French authorities have informed CERN that the presumed authors of the a...

  16. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  17. The effectiveness of nutrition education for overweight/obese mothers with stunted children (NEO-MOM) in reducing the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Nindya, Triska Susila; Andrias, Dini Ririn; Megatsari, Hario; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2016-06-08

    Nutrition transition in developing countries were induced by rapid changes in food patterns and nutrient intake when populations adopt modern lifestyles during economic and social development, urbanization and acculturation. Consequently, these countries suffer from the double burden of malnutrition, consisting of unresolved undernutrition and the rise of overweight/obesity. The prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition tends to be highest for moderate levels (third quintile) of socioeconomic status. Evidence suggests that modifiable factors such as intra-household food distribution and dietary diversity are associated with the double burden of malnutrition, given household food security. This article describes the study protocol of a behaviorally based nutrition education intervention for overweight/obese mothers with stunted children (NEO-MOM) in reducing the double burden of malnutrition. NEO-MOM is a randomized controlled trial with a three-month behavioral intervention for households involving pairs of 72 stunted children aged 2-5 years old and overweight/obese mothers (SCOWT) in urban Indonesia. The SCOWT pairs were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or to a comparison group that received usual care plus printed educational materials. The intervention consisted of six classroom sessions on nutrition education and home visits performed by trained community health workers using a motivational interviewing approach. The primary outcomes of this study are the prevalence of double burden of malnutrition as measured in SCOWT, child's height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and maternal body mass index (BMI). Because previous studies are mainly observational in nature, this study advances understanding of the double burden of malnutrition through a fully powered randomized controlled trial. The intervention assists participants in self-administered goal setting to improve diet and child feeding behaviors by improving self-efficacy. Maternal self

  18. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  19. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Longitudinal Study of Slum-Dwelling Bangladeshi Children: Association with Severe Malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonum S Korpe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of infectious diarrhea in young children worldwide, and is a significant contributor to under-five mortality. Current treatment options are limited in young children. In this study, we describe the natural history of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a birth cohort of children in Bangladesh and evaluate for association with malnutrition.This is a longitudinal birth cohort study of 392 slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children followed over the first two years of life from 2008 to 2014. Children were monitored for diarrheal disease, and stool was tested for intestinal protozoa. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 3-month intervals. A subset of Cryptosporidium positive stools were genotyped for species and revealed that C. hominis was isolated from over 90% of samples. In the first two years of life, 77% of children experienced at least one infection with Cryptosporidium spp. Non-diarrheal infection (67% was more common than diarrheal infection (6.3% although 27% of children had both types of infection. Extreme poverty was associated with higher rates of infection (chi-square, 49.7% vs 33.3%, p = 0.006. Malnutrition was common in this cohort, 56% of children had stunted growth by age two. Children with Cryptosporidium spp. infection had a greater than 2-fold increased risk of severe stunting at age two compared to uninfected children (odds ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.17, 6.15, p = 0.019 independent of sex, income, maternal body-mass index, maternal education and weight for age adjusted z (WAZ score at birth.Cryptosporidium infection is common (77% in this cohort of slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children, and both non-diarrheal and diarrheal infections are significantly associated with a child's growth at 2 years of age.

  20. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Longitudinal Study of Slum-Dwelling Bangladeshi Children: Association with Severe Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpe, Poonum S; Haque, Rashidul; Gilchrist, Carol; Valencia, Cristian; Niu, Feiyang; Lu, Miao; Ma, Jennie Z; Petri, Sarah E; Reichman, Daniel; Kabir, Mamun; Duggal, Priya; Petri, William A

    2016-05-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of infectious diarrhea in young children worldwide, and is a significant contributor to under-five mortality. Current treatment options are limited in young children. In this study, we describe the natural history of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a birth cohort of children in Bangladesh and evaluate for association with malnutrition. This is a longitudinal birth cohort study of 392 slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children followed over the first two years of life from 2008 to 2014. Children were monitored for diarrheal disease, and stool was tested for intestinal protozoa. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 3-month intervals. A subset of Cryptosporidium positive stools were genotyped for species and revealed that C. hominis was isolated from over 90% of samples. In the first two years of life, 77% of children experienced at least one infection with Cryptosporidium spp. Non-diarrheal infection (67%) was more common than diarrheal infection (6.3%) although 27% of children had both types of infection. Extreme poverty was associated with higher rates of infection (chi-square, 49.7% vs 33.3%, p = 0.006). Malnutrition was common in this cohort, 56% of children had stunted growth by age two. Children with Cryptosporidium spp. infection had a greater than 2-fold increased risk of severe stunting at age two compared to uninfected children (odds ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.17, 6.15, p = 0.019) independent of sex, income, maternal body-mass index, maternal education and weight for age adjusted z (WAZ) score at birth. Cryptosporidium infection is common (77%) in this cohort of slum-dwelling Bangladeshi children, and both non-diarrheal and diarrheal infections are significantly associated with a child's growth at 2 years of age.

  1. CANDU severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Romania is a EU member since January first 2007. This country faces now new challenges which imply also the nuclear power reactors now in operation. Romania operates since 1996 a CANDU nuclear power reactor and soon will start up a second unit. In EU PWR reactors are mostly operated, so that the Romania's reactors have to meet EU standards. Safety analysis guidelines require to model severe accidents for reactors of this type. Starting from previous studies a thermal-hydraulic model for a degraded CANDU core was developed. The initiating event is assumed to be a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator and coolant and the failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 1000 deg. C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the decay heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) uncover, then disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. All the quantity of calandria moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield water tank surrounding the calandria vessel. The thermal hydraulics phenomena described above are modeled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. (authors)

  2. An Adolescent Case of Citrin Deficiency With Severe Anorexia Mimicking Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satsuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamada, Shinji; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Inui, Akio; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2015-08-01

    We report a 12-year-old female citrin-deficient patient presenting with severe anorexia and body weight loss, mimicking the restricting type of anorexia nervosa (AN). She showed normal development until age 10 years when she started to play volleyball at school. She then became gradually anorexic, and her growth was stunted. At age 12, she was admitted to hospital because of severe anorexia and thinness. She was first thought to have AN, and drip infusion of glucose solution and high-calorie drinks were given, but her condition deteriorated further. She had a history of neonatal hepatitis and was therefore suspected to have citrin deficiency (CD). Genetic analysis of SLC25A13 revealed that she was compound heterozygous for 851del4 and IVS16ins3kb, and a diagnosis of CD was made. A low-carbohydrate diet with oral intake of arginine and ursodeoxycholic acid was started, and her condition gradually improved. The clinical features in our patient were similar to those of AN, and therefore AN may also be an important clinical sign in adolescent patients with CD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Treatment of severe tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurikainen, E; Johansson, R; Akaan-Penttilä, E; Haapaniemi, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1995-96 we selected a group of 26 patients who were suffering from severe invalidating idiopathic tinnitus (IT) in order to evaluate the efficacy of rehabilitation and some alternative therapies. All patients were assessed thoroughly by means of audiology and radiology regarding any objective cause for the symptom. In order to help patients control their symptom by increasing knowledge and adding supportive elements, they were given basic education (presentations of the anatomy and physiology of the ear and hearing system, psychological and social aspects of IT, guided and non-guided group discussions, relaxation therapy, physiotherapy, music therapy) for 4 months, comprising one 2-h session bi-weekly. This type of group therapy was found to be extremely helpful, although no objective evaluation revealed effects on IT sensation (VAS) or psychometric measures (SLC-90). In a second limb of the study, the same patients attended a 6-day intensive course in a spa. The purpose w