Sample records for underwater explosion shock

  1. Measurement of Naval Ship Responses to Underwater Explosion Shock Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park


    Full Text Available The shock-resistance capability of battle ships against a non-contact underwater explosion (UNDEX is a very critical factor of survivability. In July 1987 and April 2000, we successfully conducted UNDEX shock tests for a coastal mine hunter (MHC and a mine sweeper/hunter (MSH of Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN, at the Chinhae bay, Korea. Test planning for conducting these shock tests included responsibilities, methods, and procedures. Test instruments were developed and tested on a drop shock machine to confirm availability in the actual shock tests with emphasis on shock resistance, remote control and reliability. All vital systems of the ships were confirmed to be capable of normal operational condition without significant damages during the explosion shot. By analyzing the test results, the tactical operational safety zone of the ships in underwater explosion environments was estimated. In this paper, we described the results of measurement of naval ship responses to underwater explosion shock loadings including test planning, sensor locations, data reduction, explosive devices, instrumentation and damage assessments of MSH.

  2. Assessment on shock pressure acquisition from underwater explosion using uncertainty of measurement

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    Seok-Jun Moon


    Full Text Available This study aims to verify experimentally the specifications of the data acquisition system required for the precise measurement of signals in an underwater explosion (UNDEX experiment. The three data acquisition systems with different specifications are applied to compare their precision relatively on maximum shock pressures from UNDEX. In addition, a method of assessing the acquired signals is suggested by introducing the concept of measurement uncertainty. The underwater explosion experiments are repeated five times under same conditions, and assessment is conducted on maximum quantities acquired from underwater pressure sensors. It is confirmed that the concept of measurement uncertainty is very useful method in accrediting the measurement results of UNDEX experiments. Keywords: Naval ship, Underwater explosion (UNDEX experiment, Shock pressure, Data acquisition system, Uncertainty of measurement

  3. A velocity probe-based method for continuous detonation and shock measurement in near-field underwater explosion (United States)

    Li, Kebin; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Miao, Yusong


    A new velocity probe which permits recording the time history of detonation and shock waves has been developed by improving the commercial on principle and structure. A method based on the probe is then designed to measure the detonation velocity and near-field shock parameters in a single underwater explosion, by which the oblique shock wave front of cylindrical charges and the peak pressure attenuation curve of spherical explosive are obtained. A further derivation of detonation pressure, adiabatic exponent, and other shock parameters is conducted. The present method offers a novel and reliable parameter determination for near-field underwater explosion.

  4. Transient Interaction of a Spherical Shell with an Underwater Explosion Shock Wave and Subsequent Pulsating Bubble

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    H. Huang


    Full Text Available The nonlinear interaction problem is analyzed by simultaneously solving the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations together .with appropriate material constitutive equations governing the fluid dynamics of the explosion gaseous product and the water and the structural dynamics of the compliant shell. A finite difference technique in a coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian scheme is used. The computer program PISCES 2DELK is employed to carry out the numerical computations. The results demonstrate that to rigorously analyze the response of a submerged structure to a nearby explosion, the interactions among the explosion shock wave, the structure, its surrounding media, and the explosion bubble need to be considered.

  5. Influence of water conductivity on shock waves generated by underwater electrical wire explosion (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Wang, Deguo; Guo, Yanbao


    The new application of electrical explosion of wire (EEW) used in petroleum industry is to enhance oil recovery (EOR). Because of the complex environment underground, the effect of underground water conductivity on EEW should be considered. This work describes the effect of water conductivities on discharge current, voltage and shock waves. It was found that the effect of water conductivity contains two parts. One is the shunt effect of saline water, which can be considered as a parallel load with the copper wire between the electrodes connected to the discharge circuit. The peak pressure of shock waves are gradually decrease with the increase of water conductivity. The other is the current loss through saline water directly to the ground ends without flowing through the electrodes. The shunt effect is the main factor affecting the wire discharge process. As the charging voltage increased, the energy loss caused by these two parts are all reduced. These indicate that increasing the charging voltage to a certain value will increase the energy efficiency to generate a more powerful shock waves in conductive water.

  6. Underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosive (United States)

    Kubota, Shiro; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito


    The underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosives was taken by high-speed photography. The diameter and the thickness of the pellet were 20 and 10 mm, respectively. The experimental system consists of the precise electric detonator, two grams of composition C4 booster and three pellets, and these were set in water tank. High-speed video camera, HPV-X made by Shimadzu was used with 10 Mfs. The underwater explosions of the precise electric detonator, the C4 booster and a pellet were also taken by high-speed photography to estimate the propagation processes of the underwater shock waves. Numerical simulation of the underwater sympathetic detonation of the pellet explosives was also carried out and compared with experiment.

  7. Signal Analysis and Waveform Reconstruction of Shock Waves Generated by Underwater Electrical Wire Explosions with Piezoelectric Pressure Probes

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    Haibin Zhou


    Full Text Available Underwater shock waves (SWs generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWEs have been widely studied and applied. Precise measurement of this kind of SWs is important, but very difficult to accomplish due to their high peak pressure, steep rising edge and very short pulse width (on the order of tens of μs. This paper aims to analyze the signals obtained by two kinds of commercial piezoelectric pressure probes, and reconstruct the correct pressure waveform from the distorted one measured by the pressure probes. It is found that both PCB138 and Müller-plate probes can be used to measure the relative SW pressure value because of their good uniformities and linearities, but none of them can obtain precise SW waveforms. In order to approach to the real SW signal better, we propose a new multi-exponential pressure waveform model, which has considered the faster pressure decay at the early stage and the slower pressure decay in longer times. Based on this model and the energy conservation law, the pressure waveform obtained by the PCB138 probe has been reconstructed, and the reconstruction accuracy has been verified by the signals obtained by the Müller-plate probe. Reconstruction results show that the measured SW peak pressures are smaller than the real signal. The waveform reconstruction method is both reasonable and reliable.

  8. The Influence of Shock-Induced Air Bubble Collapse Resulting from Underwater Explosive Events (United States)


    this process occurs, the sphere migrates towards the water surface due to Archimedes ’ principle . 7 Figure 2 provides a good visualization of the... application , this bubble layer would be made up of countless individual bubbles delivered by a hull-mounted pressurized air system. The computer...4]) 6 1. Explosive Materials Common explosive materials used in naval applications include Trinitrotoluene (TNT), Torpedo Explosive (TORPEX

  9. Relationship between energy deposition and shock wave phenomenon in an underwater electrical wire explosion (United States)

    Han, Ruoyu; Zhou, Haibin; Wu, Jiawei; Qiu, Aici; Ding, Weidong; Zhang, Yongmin


    An experimental study of pressure waves generated by an exploding copper wire in a water medium is performed. We examined the effects of energy deposited at different stages on the characteristics of the resulting shock waves. In the experiments, a microsecond time-scale pulsed current source was used to explode a 300-μm-diameter, 4-cm-long copper wire with initial stored energies ranging from 500 to 2700 J. Our experimental results indicated that the peak pressure (4.5-8.1 MPa) and energy (49-287 J) of the shock waves did not follow a simple relationship with any electrical parameters, such as peak voltage or deposited energy. Conversely, the impulse had a quasi-linear relationship with the parameter Π. We also found that the peak pressure was mainly influenced by the energy deposited before separation of the shock wave front and the discharge plasma channel (DPC). The decay time constant of the pressure waveform was affected by the energy injection after the separation. These phenomena clearly demonstrated that the deposited energy influenced the expansion of the DPC and affected the shock wave characteristics.

  10. Boundary curvature effects on gas bubble oscillations in underwater explosion


    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro


    The oscillation of a gas bubble produced as a result of underwater explosion could cause the severe whipping damage on nearby marine vehicle. The effects of rigid boundary curvatures to explosive gas bubble oscillation behavior in underwater were investigated. The analyses were conducted using a multimaterial Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element code, MSC/DYTRAN. The incident shock wave pressure, bubble pulse pressure, gas bubble radius and period were calculated for the case of detonation of a...

  11. The Effect of Nano-Aluminumpowder on the Characteristic of RDX based Aluminized Explosives Underwater Close-Filed Explosion


    Junting Yin; Baohui Yuan; Tao Zhou; Gang Li; Xinlian Ren


    In order to investigate the effect of nano-aluminum powder on the characteristic of RDX based aluminized explosives underwater closed-filed explosions, the scanning photographs along the radial of the charges were gained by a high speed scanning camera. The photographs of two different aluminized explosives underwater explosion have been analyzed, the shock wave curves and expand curves of detonation products were obtained, furthermore the change rules of shock waves propagation velocity, sho...

  12. The Effect of Nano-Aluminumpowder on the Characteristic of RDX based Aluminized Explosives Underwater Close-Filed Explosion

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    Junting Yin


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nano-aluminum powder on the characteristic of RDX based aluminized explosives underwater closed-filed explosions, the scanning photographs along the radial of the charges were gained by a high speed scanning camera. The photographs of two different aluminized explosives underwater explosion have been analyzed, the shock wave curves and expand curves of detonation products were obtained, furthermore the change rules of shock waves propagation velocity, shock front pressure and expansion of detonation products of two aluminized explosives were investigated, and also the parameters of two aluminized explosives were contrasted. The results show that the aluminized explosive which with nano-aluminum whose initial shock waves pressure propagation velocity, shock front pressure are smaller than the aluminized explosive without nano-aluminum and has lower decrease rate attenuation of energy.

  13. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL


    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  14. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le


    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  15. Numerical Simulation and Response of Stiffened Plates Subjected to Noncontact Underwater Explosion

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    Elsayed Fathallah


    Full Text Available A numerical simulation has been carried out to examine the response of steel plates with different arrangement of stiffeners and subjected to noncontact underwater explosion (UNDEX with different shock loads. Numerical analysis of the underwater explosion phenomena is implemented in the nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. The aim of this work is to enhance the dynamic response to resist UNDEX. Special emphasis is focused on the evolution of mid-point displacements. Further investigations have been performed to study the effects of including material damping and the rate-dependant material properties at different shock loads. The results indicate that stiffeners configurations and shock loads affect greatly the overall performance of steel plates and sensitive to the materials data. Also, the numerical results can be used to obtain design guidelines of floating structures to enhance resistance of underwater shock damage, since explosive tests are costly and dangerous.

  16. Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi


    The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.

  17. Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock

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    Y.W. Kwon


    Full Text Available The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger deformation and higher internal energy in the metallic material. Rubber coatings appeared to inhibit energy dissipation from the metallic material to the surrounding water medium. A parametric study of various coatings was performed on both aluminum and steel cylinders. The adverse effect of the coating decreased when the stiffness of the rubber layer increased, indicating the existence of a threshold value. The results of this study indicate that the stiffness of the coating is a critical factor to the shock hardening of the coated cylinder.

  18. Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates

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    R. Rajendran


    Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.

  19. Time-Dependent Modeling of Underwater Explosions by Convolving Similitude Source with Bandlimited Impulse from the CASS/GRAB Model (United States)


    pressure Green’s function) is determined from the CASS/GRAB model. The similitude source is based on the work of Hopkinson,9 Arons ,10 Cole,11 and...Swisdak.12 Arons , Cole, and Swisdak summarized most underwater explosive results after World War II. Most work on similitude is based on experimental...Academic Press, 2000. 10. A. B. Arons , “Underwater Explosions Shock Wave Parameters at Large Distances from the Charge,” The Journal of

  20. Using Underwater Explosion and Cylinder Expansion Tests to Calibrate Afterburn Models for Aluminized Explosives (United States)

    Wedberg, Rasmus


    The study explores the combined use of underwater performance tests and cylinder expansion tests in order to parameterize detonation models for aluminized explosives which exhibit afterburning. The approach is suggested to be used in conjunction with thermochemical computation. A formulation containing RDX and aluminum powder is considered and several charges with varying masses are submerged and detonated. Pressure gauges are employed at horizontal distances scaling with the charge diameter, and the specific shock wave energy is shown to increase with charge mass. This is attributed to the combustion of aluminum particles after the Chapman-Jouguet plane. Cylinder expansion tests are carried out using Photon Doppler Velocimetry to register the wall expansion velocity. The tests are modeled using a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with the Guirguis-Miller model describing detonation with afterburning. The equation of state and afterburn rate law parameters are adjusted such that the model reproduces the results from the cylinder expansion and underwater tests. The approach seems promising, and might be valuable for aluminized explosive formulations intended to be used in a variety of confinement conditions. Swedish Armed Forces.

  1. Numerical Simulation and Experiment for Underwater Shock Wave in Newly Designed Pressure Vessel

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    M Shibuta


    Full Text Available Modern eating habits depend in large part on the development of food processing technology. Thermal treatments are often performed in the conventional food processing, but it can cause discoloration and loss of nutrients of the food by thermal processing or treatment. On the other hand, food processing using an underwater shock wave has little influence of heat and its processing time is very short, preventing the loss of nutrients. In this research optical observation experiment and the numerical simulation were performed, in order to understand and control the behavior of the underwater shock wave in the development of the processing container using an underwater shock wave for the factory and home. In this experiment a rectangular container was used to observe the behavior of the underwater shock wave. In the experiment, the shock wave was generated by using explosive on the shock wave generation side. The shock wave, which passed through the phosphor bronze and propagated from the aluminum sidewall, was observed on the processing container side. Numerical simulation of an analogous experimental model was investigated, where LS-DYNA software was used for the numerical simulation. The comparative study of the experiment and the numerical simulation was investigated. The behavior of a precursor shock wave from the device wall was able to be clarified. This result is used for development of the device in numerical simulation.

  2. Damage Analysis of Aluminium Foam Panel Subjected to Underwater Shock Loading

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    Xuan He


    Full Text Available Underwater shock loading experiment device is the equipment which simulates underwater explosive shock wave through experiment. Underwater shock loading experiment device was used to conduct high-speed underwater impact on aluminium foam panel and its damage modes were studied in this paper. 3D dynamic DIC test system was used to collect and analyze real-time deformation of target board. After the experiment was completed, a numerical simulation of the series of experiment was conducted through ABAQUS finite element simulation and then a comparative analysis of the experiment was implemented. To comprehensively study damage modes of aluminium foam panel subjected to underwater shock loading, damage modes of aluminium foam panel at different shock speeds were studied. Results indicated that when a certain impact speed which could damage aluminium foam panel was reached, if the impact speed was low, aluminium foam panel would generate shear fracture at constrained boundary of flange; if the impact speed was high, aluminium foam panel would firstly generate fracture at the center and then generate shear fracture at constrained boundary of flange, and central fracture would generate three cracks.

  3. High-speed photography of underwater sympathetic detonation of high explosives (United States)

    Kubota, Shiro; Shimada, Hideki; Matsui, Kikuo; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru


    The donor and the acceptor charges are arranged into the water with the interval. The donor charge has a cylindrical geometry with 30 mm diameter and 50 mm long. The acceptor has a disk form with 100 mm diameter and 10 or 5 mm thickness. Composition B is used for both of the donor and acceptor charges. The propagation processes of underwater shock waves from the top end of acceptor charge along the axis of charges are taken by the image converter camera under the intervals of 10, 15, 20 and 25 mm. In the case of 10 mm thick acceptor charge, the velocities of the underwater shock wave are the almost the same up to the interval of 20 mm. However, in the case of 25 mm the underwater shock wave has remarkable low velocity compared to the other cases. In the case of 20 mm interval, the velocity of the underwater shock wave in the case of the 5 mm thick acceptor is slower than that of 10 mm. Furthermore, the numerical simulations are conducted. The reaction rate law of the high explosive is a phenomenological model that is proposed by Lee and Tarver. The results of the optical measurement and numerical simulation demonstrate a good agreement.

  4. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

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    Ahmed Hawass


    The strain gauge data and displacement sensors results showed that the multi-layer plates have higher level of underwater shock wave mitigation than the triple aluminum plates with strain and deflection of nearly 50%.

  5. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives

  6. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives.

  7. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

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    Andrew B. Wardlaw


    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  8. Underwater Shock Response Analysis of a Floating Vessel

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    J.E. van Aanhold


    Full Text Available The response of a surface vessel to underwater shock has been calculated using an explicit finite element analysis. The analysis model is two-dimensional and contains the floating steel structure, a large surrounding water volume and the free surface. The underwater shock is applied in the form of a plane shock wave and cavitation is considered in the analysis. Advanced computer graphics, in particular video animations, provide a powerful and indispensable means for the presentation and evaluation of the analysis results.

  9. A hydrocode study of explosive shock ignition (United States)

    Butler, George; Horie, Yasuyuki


    This paper discusses the results of hydrocode simulations of shock-induced ignition of PBXN-109, Octol, and PETN, using the History Variable Reactive Burn model in the CTH hydrocode. The simulations began with small-scale sympathetic detonation experiments, from which normalized values of pressure and time were derived and used to define an upper bound for ignition. This upper bound corresponds to the well established Pop-plot data for supported detonation, i . e . detonations in which a constant shock pressure is applied to an explosive until full detonation is achieved. Subsequently, one-dimensional flyer-plate simulations were conducted where the response of constant-amplitude, limited-duration shock pulses into semi-infinite explosive samples was examined. These simulations confirmed not only the existence of an upper bound for ignition as expected, but also showed ignition by ``lower level'' shocks, in which full detonation is reached at a time longer than the input shock duration. These lower-level shocks can be used to define a distinct minimal ignition threshold, below which shock pulses do not result in detonation. Numerical experiments using these bounds offer a new framework for interpreting explosive initiation data.

  10. Interaction tools for underwater shock analysis in naval platform design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E.; Tuitman, J.T.; Trouwborst, W.; Vaders, J.A.A.


    In order to satisfy the need for good quality UNDerwater EXplosion (UNDEX) response estimates of naval platforms, TNO developed two 3D simulation tools: the Simplified Interaction Tool (SIT) and the hydro/structural code 3DCAV. Both tools are an add-on to LS-DYNA. SIT is a module of user routines

  11. Photoluminescent Detection of Dissolved Underwater Trace Explosives

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    Tye Langston


    Full Text Available A portable, rapid, and economical method for in situ trace explosive detection in aqueous solutions was demonstrated using photoluminescence. Using europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the reagent, dissolved nitroglycerin was fluorescently tagged and detected in seawater solutions without sample preparation, drying, or preconcentration. The chemical method was developed in a laboratory setting and demonstrated in a flow-through configuration using lightweight, inexpensive, commercial components by directly injecting the reagents into a continually flowing seawater stream using a small amount of organic solvent (approximately 8% of the total solution. Europium's vulnerability to vibrational fluorescence quenching by water provided the mode of detection. Without nitroglycerin in the seawater solution, the reagent's fluorescence was quenched, but when dissolved nitroglycerin was present, it displaced the water molecules from the europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone compound and restored fluorescence. This effort focused on developing a seawater sensor, but performance comparisons were made to freshwater. The method was found to perform better in freshwater and it was shown that certain seawater constituents (such as calcium have an adverse impact. However, the concentrations of these constituents are not expected to vary significantly from the natural seawater used herein.

  12. Hydroelastic behaviour of a structure exposed to an underwater explosion (United States)

    Colicchio, G.; Greco, M.; Brocchini, M.; Faltinsen, O. M.


    The hydroelastic interaction between an underwater explosion and an elastic plate is investigated num- erically through a domain-decomposition strategy. The three-dimensional features of the problem require a large computational effort, which is reduced through a weak coupling between a one-dimensional radial blast solver, which resolves the blast evolution far from the boundaries, and a three-dimensional compressible flow solver used where the interactions between the compression wave and the boundaries take place and the flow becomes three-dimensional. The three-dimensional flow solver at the boundaries is directly coupled with a modal structural solver that models the response of the solid boundaries like elastic plates. This enables one to simulate the fluid–structure interaction as a strong coupling, in order to capture hydroelastic effects. The method has been applied to the experimental case of Hung et al. (2005 Int. J. Impact Eng. 31, 151–168 (doi:10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2003.10.039)) with explosion and structure sufficiently far from other boundaries and successfully validated in terms of the evolution of the acceleration induced on the plate. It was also used to investigate the interaction of an underwater explosion with the bottom of a close-by ship modelled as an orthotropic plate. In the application, the acoustic phase of the fluid–structure interaction is examined, highlighting the need of the fluid–structure coupling to capture correctly the possible inception of cavitation. PMID:25512585

  13. Numerical computation of underwater explosions due to fuel-coolant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.S.; Frost, D.L.; Knystautas, R.; Teodorczyk, A.; Ciccarelli, G.; Thibault, P.; Penrose, J.


    If coarse molten material is released into a coolant the possibility exists for a violent steam explosion. A detailed quantitative description of the processes involved in steam explosions is currently beyond the capabilities of the scientific community. However, a conservative estimate of the pressure transients resulting from a steam explosion can be obtained by studying the dynamics of the shock associated with the expansion of a high-pressure vapour bubble. In this study, the hydrodynamic equations governing the shock propagation of an expanding bubble were integrated numerically using the Flux Corrected Transport code. Simpler acoustic models based on experience with underwater explosions were also developed and used to estimate pressure transients and to calculate the peak pressures for benchmark cases. The results were found to be an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding pressures obtained using a complex model developed by Henry. A simplified version of the Henry model was developed by neglecting the complex description of the two-phase flow inside the ruptured tube and the arbitrarily assumed heat transfer and condensation rates. Results from the simplified model were found to be generally similar to, but had higher peak pressures than those obtained using the Henry model. It is concluded that the results produced by simple acoustic models, or by a simplified Henry model, are more conservative than the corresponding results obtained with the original Henry model

  14. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.


    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  15. An integrated wave-effects model for an underwater explosion bubble. (United States)

    Geers, Thomas L; Hunter, Kendall S


    A model for a moderately deep underwater explosion bubble is developed that integrates the shock wave and oscillation phases of the motion. A hyperacoustic relationship is formulated that relates bubble volume acceleration to far-field pressure profile during the shock-wave phase, thereby providing initial conditions for the subsequent oscillation phase. For the latter, equations for bubble-surface response are derived that include wave effects in both the external liquid and the internal gas. The equations are then specialized to the case of a spherical bubble, and bubble-surface displacement histories are calculated for dilational and translational motion. Agreement between these histories and experimental data is found to be substantially better than that produced by previous models.

  16. Spectral analysis of underwater explosions in the Dead Sea (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Ginzburg, A.


    The present study utilizes the Israel Seismic Network (ISN) as a spatially distributed multichannel system for the discrimination of low-magnitude events (ML UWEs) and 16 earthquakes in the magnitude range ML = 1.6-2.8, within distances of 10-150 km, recorded by the ISN, were selected for the analysis. The analysis is based on a smoothed (0.5 Hz window) Fourier spectrum of the whole signal (defined by the signal-to-noise criterion), without picking separate wave phases. It was found that the classical discriminant of the seismic energy ratio between the relatively low-frequency (1-6 Hz) and high-frequency (6-11 Hz) bands, averaged over an ISN subnetwork, showed an overlap between UWEs and earthquakes and cannot itself provide reliable identification. We developed and tested a new multistation discriminant based on the low- frequency spectral modulation (LFSM) method. In our case the LFSM is associated with the bubbling effect in underwater explosions. The method demonstrates a distinct azimuth-invariant coherency of spectral shapes in the low-frequency range (1-12 Hz) of short-period seismometer systems. The coherency of the modulated spectra for different ISN stations was measured by semblance statistics commonly used in seismic prospecting for phase correlation in the time domain. The modified statistics provided an almost complete separation between earthquakes and underwater explosions.

  17. A modified finite element procedure for underwater shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.K.


    Using the regular finite element method for analyzing wave propagation problems presents difficulties: (a) The finite element mesh gives spurious reflection of the traveling wave and (b) Since a finite element model has to have a finite boundary, the wave is reflected by the outside boundary. However, for underwater shock problems, only the response of the structure is of major interest, not the behavior of the wave itself, and the shock wave can be assumed to be spherical. By taking advantage of the limited scope of the underwater shock problem, a finite element procedure can be developed that eliminates the above difficulties. This procedure not only can give very accurate solutions but it may also include structural nonlinearities and effect of cavitation

  18. On the feasibility of using smoothed particle hydrodynamics for underwater explosion calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.W.; Attaway, S.W.


    SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) is a gridless Lagrangian technique which is appealing as a possible alternative to numerical techniques currently used to analyze high deformation impulsive loading events. In the present study, the SPH algorithm has been subjected to detailed testing and analysis to determine the feasibility of using PRONTO/SPH for the analysis of various types of underwater explosion problems involving fluid-structure and shock-structure interactions. Of particular interest are effects of bubble formation and collapse and the permanent deformation of thin walled structures due to these loadings. These are exceptionally difficult problems to model. Past attempts with various types of codes have not been satisfactory. Coupling SPH into the finite element code PRONTO represents a new approach to the problem. Results show that the method is well-suited for transmission of loads from underwater explosions to nearby structures, but the calculation of late time effects due to acceleration of gravity and bubble buoyancy will require additional development, and possibly coupling with implicit or incompressible methods.

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0938-1287 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Underwater shock wave focusing * multichannel * electrohydraulic discharge * conical shock wave reflection * medical application Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016

  20. One dimensional shock ring up of a TATB based explosive (United States)

    Burns, Malcolm


    Complex shock initiation of explosives is a gas gun technique that has been used for many years to explore shock sensitivity under various loading regimes. This body of work studies the shock initiation of a TATB-based explosive using a gas gun driven multiple shock technique somewhat between a double shock and ramp loading. In these experiments a shock wave rings up in a low impedance disc sandwiched between a high impedance flyer and anvil. The explosive sample under study has been placed in contact with the anvil and therefore each ring up is transmitted through the anvil into the explosive. This has created a stepped multiple shock input into the explosive, which can be tailored by varying both the dimensions within the ring up stage, and the flyer velocity. Typically the explosive sample will experience four to five stepped pulses before shock convergence. Two distinct shock initiation regimes have been studied; in the first the reactive growth in the explosive commences after shock coalescence and in the second the reactive growth commences within the first shocked state. In both cases the run distance to detonation, and growth of reaction has been measured using embedded particle velocity gauges.

  1. The fracture of concrete under explosive shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.J.; Sanderson, A.J.


    Concrete fracture close to the point of application of high explosive shock pressures has been studied experimentally by placing an explosive charge on the edge of a concrete slab. The extent of the crushing and cracking produced by a semi cylindrical diverging plane compressive stress pulse has been measured and complementary experiments gave the pressure transmitted at an explosive to concrete interface and the stress-strain relation for concrete at explosive strain rates. (orig.) [de

  2. Numerical modelling of underwater detonation of non-ideal condensed-phase explosives (United States)

    Schoch, Stefan; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos


    The interest in underwater detonation tests originated from the military, since the expansion and subsequent collapse of the explosive bubble can cause considerable damage to surrounding structures or vessels. In military applications, the explosive is typically represented as a pre-burned material under high pressure, a reasonable assumption due to the short reaction zone lengths, and complete detonation of the unreacted explosive. Hence, numerical simulations of underwater detonation tests have been primarily concerned with the prediction of target loading and the damage incurred rather than the accurate modelling of the underwater detonation process. The mining industry in contrast has adopted the underwater detonation test as a means to experimentally characterise the energy output of their highly non-ideal explosives depending on explosive type and charge configuration. This characterisation requires a good understanding of how the charge shape, pond topography, charge depth, and additional charge confinement affect the energy release, some of which can be successfully quantified with the support of accurate numerical simulations. In this work, we propose a numerical framework which is able to capture the non-ideal explosive behaviour and in addition is capable of capturing both length scales: the reaction zone and the pond domain. The length scale problem is overcome with adaptive mesh refinement, which, along with the explosive model, is validated against experimental data of various TNT underwater detonations. The variety of detonation and bubble behaviour observed in non-ideal detonations is demonstrated in a parameter study over the reactivity of TNT. A representative underwater mining test containing an ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil ratestick charge is carried out to demonstrate that the presented method can be readily applied alongside experimental underwater detonation tests.

  3. Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, M.R.; Kahn, J.E.; Belk, J.P.


    An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion

  4. Double Shock Experiments on PBX Explosive JOB-9003 (United States)

    Zhang, Xu


    One-dimensional plate impact experiments have been performed to study the double shock to detonation transition and Hugoniot state in the HMX-based explosive JOB-9003. The flyer was a combination with sapphire and Kel-F which could pass two different pressure waves into PBX Explosive JOB-9003 sample after impact. The particle velocities at interface and different depths in the PBX JOB-9003 sample were measured with Al-based electromagnetic particle velocity gauge technique, thus obtaining particle velocity - time diagram. According to the diagram, the corresponding Hugoniot state can be determined based on the particle velocity and shock wave velocity in the sample. Comparing with the single shock experiments, PBX Explosive JOB-9003 shows desensitization features due to the pre-pressed shock wave, the shock to detonation transition distance is longer than those single shock experiments.

  5. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  6. A Computer Program for a Canonical Problem in Underwater Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Geers


    Full Text Available Finite-element/boundary-element codes are widely used to analyze the response of marine structures to underwater explosions. An important step in verifying the correctness and accuracy of such codes is the comparison of code-generated results for canonical problems with corresponding analytical or semianalytical results. At the present time, such comparisons rely on hardcopy results presented in technical journals and reports. This article describes a computer program available from SAVIAC that produces user-selected numerical results for a step-wave-excited spherical shell submerged in and (optionally filled with an acoustic fluid. The method of solution employed in the program is based on classical expansion of the field quantities in generalized Fourier series in the meridional coordinate. Convergence of the series is enhanced by judicious application of modified Cesàro summation and partial closed-form solution.

  7. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan


    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  8. Effects of improving current characteristics of spark discharge on underwater shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Higa


    Full Text Available We have been developing a food-processing device that uses underwater shock waves generated by spark discharges at an underwater spark gap. Underwater shock waves can be used in food processing for softening, fracturing and sterilization. These technologies are attracting attention because the food is not heated during processing, so it does not change flavour. In this study, we develop a rice-powder manufacturing system using the fracturing effect provided by underwater shock waves. Because rice grains are very hard, the process must be applied repeatedly using a momentary high pressure to fracture the grains. The fast repeated generation of shock waves should provide high pressures from low energies. Therefore, we aim to achieve higher pressures from low energies expended by the underwater gap discharge. We increase the pulse compression rate by decreasing the circuit impedance of the device and increasing the charging voltage. Using optical observations and a pressure sensor, we measure the high pressure developed by the underwater shock wave and the rise time of the discharge current. We find that we can decrease the rise time of the discharge current by 17% while maintaining the peak current, and simultaneously increase the high pressure of the underwater shock wave by 135%.

  9. A study on the behavior of underwater shock waves generated in a water container and its application to magnetic refrigeration material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kook Kim


    Full Text Available Most of composite materials are made by sintering method. In this research, in order to make composite material for magnetic refrigeration, we carried out several experiments for the powder consolidation using the shock compaction method and numerical analysis for the behavior of underwater shock wave. The shock compaction method is to consolidate metal powder using underwater shock wave including an ultra-high pressure and high velocity generated by detonation of explosive. Generally, the magnitude of peak pressure and the pressure distribution of underwater shock wave depend on the inner shape of water container which is one of the parts of high pressure generating device. In this study, we have investigated several water containers using numerical analysis and observation experiments. Therefore, underwater shock wave is affected by the reflected wave generated from the wall of water container and the magnitude of reflected wave depends on the inner angle θ of water container. The pressure and velocity of reflected wave is gradually increased with increasing inner angle θ of water container.

  10. Development of a flyer design to perform plate impact shock-release-shock experiments on explosives (United States)

    Finnegan, Simon; Ferguson, James; Millett, Jeremy; Goff, Michael


    A flyer design to generate a shock-release-shock loading history within a gas gun target was developed before being used to study the response of an HMX based explosive. The flyer consisted of two flyer plates separated by a vacuum gap. This created a rear free surface that, with correct material choice, allowed the target to release to close to ambient pressure between the initial shock and subsequent re-shock. The design was validated by impacting piezoelectric pin arrays to record the front flyer deformation. Shots were performed on PCTFE targets to record the shock states generated in an inert material prior to subjecting an HMX based explosive to the same loading. The response of the explosive to this loading history was recorded using magnetic particle velocity (PV) gauges embedded within the targets. The behavior during the run to detonation is compared with the response to sustained shocks at similar input pressures.

  11. Efficient transformation of Mycosphaerella fijiensis by underwater shock waves. (United States)

    Escobar-Tovar, Lina; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Fernández, Francisco; Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio; Sandoval-Fernández, Jorge A; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A


    Black leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, causes dramatic losses in production of banana and plantains fruits. The disease is caused by the pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorph Pseudocercospora fijiensis; Mycosphaerellaceae). Genetic transformation of M. fijiensis would allow a better understanding of molecular basis of pathogenicity and design novel approaches to control the infection caused by this pathogen. However, transformation of this fungus has not been easy. We report here a protocol for genetic transformation of M. fijiensis employing underwater shock waves and intact conidia. The recombinant strains recovered showed genetic stability over >10 generations. The frequency of transformation obtained was between 75 and 150 times higher than the efficiency reported in the only article published on transformation of M. fijiensis using spheroplasts. This improvement allowed the use of a thousand times less cells than the amount employed before, avoiding the need for cumbersome successive batch cultures. Our protocol is simple, highly efficient, fast and reproducible and together with the available genomes of M. fijiensis and Musa acuminata, it offers new possibilities to study the diverse mechanisms of pathogenesis of the fungus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Considerations for Explosively Driven Conical Shock Tube Design: Computations and Experiments (United States)


    interest have been listed elsewhere (e.g., Courtney et al. 2012), but a limited list of advantages and disadvantages for explosively driven shock...ARL-TR-7953 ● FEB 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Considerations for Explosively Driven Conical Shock Tube Design: Computations ...Considerations for Explosively Driven Conical Shock Tube Designs: Computations and Experiments by Joel B Stewart Weapons and Materials Research Directorate

  13. Review of potential impacts to sea turtles from underwater explosive removal of offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viada, Stephen T.; Hammer, Richard M.; Racca, Roberto; Hannay, David; Thompson, M. John; Balcom, Brian J.; Phillips, Neal W.


    The purpose of this study was to collect and synthesize existing information relevant to the explosive removal of offshore structures (EROS) in aquatic environments. Data sources were organized and summarized by topic - explosive removal methods, physics of underwater explosions, sea turtle resources, documented impacts to sea turtles, and mitigation of effects. Information was gathered via electronic database searches and literature source review. Bulk explosive charges are the most commonly used technique in EROS. While the physical principles of underwater detonations and the propagation of pressure and acoustic waves are well understood, there are significant gaps in the application of this knowledge. Impacts to sea turtles from explosive removal operations may range from non-injurious effects (e.g. acoustic annoyance; mild tactile detection or physical discomfort) to varying levels of injury (i.e. non-lethal and lethal injuries). Very little information exists regarding the impacts of underwater explosions on sea turtles. Effects of explosions on turtles often must be inferred from documented effects to other vertebrates with lungs or other gas-containing organs, such as mammals and most fishes. However, a cautious approach should be used when determining impacts to sea turtles based on extrapolations from other vertebrates. The discovery of beached sea turtles and bottlenose dolphins following an explosive platform removal event in 1986 prompted the initiation of formal consultation between the U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), authorized through the Endangered Species Act Section 7, to determine a mechanism to minimize potential impacts to listed species. The initial consultation resulted in a requirement for oil and gas companies to obtain a permit (through separate consultations on a case-by-case basis) prior to using explosives in Federal waters. Because many offshore

  14. Compaction shock dissipation in low density granular explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A., E-mail:; Chakravarthy, Sunada [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)


    The microstructure of granular explosives can affect dissipative heating within compaction shocks that can trigger combustion and initiate detonation. Because initiation occurs over distances that are much larger than the mean particle size, homogenized (macroscale) theories are often used to describe local thermodynamic states within and behind shocks that are regarded as the average manifestation of thermodynamic fields at the particle scale. In this paper, mesoscale modeling and simulation are used to examine how the initial packing density of granular HMX (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}) C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8} having a narrow particle size distribution influences dissipation within resolved, planar compaction shocks. The model tracks the evolution of thermomechanical fields within large ensembles of particles due to pore collapse. Effective shock profiles, obtained by averaging mesoscale fields over space and time, are compared with those given by an independent macroscale compaction theory that predicts the variation in effective thermomechanical fields within shocks due to an imbalance between the solid pressure and a configurational stress. Reducing packing density is shown to reduce the dissipation rate within shocks but increase the integrated dissipated work over shock rise times, which is indicative of enhanced sensitivity. In all cases, dissipated work is related to shock pressure by a density-dependent power law, and shock rise time is related to pressure by a power law having an exponent of negative one.

  15. Compaction shock dissipation in low density granular explosive (United States)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.; Chakravarthy, Sunada


    The microstructure of granular explosives can affect dissipative heating within compaction shocks that can trigger combustion and initiate detonation. Because initiation occurs over distances that are much larger than the mean particle size, homogenized (macroscale) theories are often used to describe local thermodynamic states within and behind shocks that are regarded as the average manifestation of thermodynamic fields at the particle scale. In this paper, mesoscale modeling and simulation are used to examine how the initial packing density of granular HMX (C4H8N8O8) C4H8N8O8 having a narrow particle size distribution influences dissipation within resolved, planar compaction shocks. The model tracks the evolution of thermomechanical fields within large ensembles of particles due to pore collapse. Effective shock profiles, obtained by averaging mesoscale fields over space and time, are compared with those given by an independent macroscale compaction theory that predicts the variation in effective thermomechanical fields within shocks due to an imbalance between the solid pressure and a configurational stress. Reducing packing density is shown to reduce the dissipation rate within shocks but increase the integrated dissipated work over shock rise times, which is indicative of enhanced sensitivity. In all cases, dissipated work is related to shock pressure by a density-dependent power law, and shock rise time is related to pressure by a power law having an exponent of negative one.

  16. Evaluation of XHVRB for Capturing Explosive Shock Desensitization (United States)

    Tuttle, Leah; Schmitt, Robert; Kittell, Dave; Harstad, Eric


    Explosive shock desensitization phenomena have been recognized for some time. It has been demonstrated that pressure-based reactive flow models do not adequately capture the basic nature of the explosive behavior. Historically, replacing the local pressure with a shock captured pressure has dramatically improved the numerical modeling approaches. Models based upon shock pressure or functions of entropy have recently been developed. A pseudo-entropy based formulation using the History Variable Reactive Burn model, as proposed by Starkenberg, was implemented into the Eulerian shock physics code CTH. Improvements in the shock capturing algorithm were made. The model is demonstrated to reproduce single shock behavior consistent with published pop plot data. It is also demonstrated to capture a desensitization effect based on available literature data, and to qualitatively capture dead zones from desensitization in 2D corner turning experiments. This models shows promise for use in modeling and simulation problems that are relevant to the desensitization phenomena. Issues are identified with the current implementation and future work is proposed for improving and expanding model capabilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Limiting Performance Analysis of Underwater Shock Isolation of a System with Biodynamic Response Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zong


    Full Text Available Biodynamic response of shipboard crew to underwater shock is of a major concern to navies. An underwater shock can produce very high accelerations, resulting in severe human injuries aboard a battleship. Protection of human bodies from underwater shock is implemented by installing onboard isolators. In this paper, the optimal underwater shock isolation to protect human bodies is studied. A simple shock-structure-isolator-human interaction model is first constructed. The model incorporates the effect of fluid-structure interaction, biodynamic response of human body, isolator influence. Based on this model, the optimum shock isolation is then formulated. The performance index and restriction are defined. Thirdly, GA (genetic algorithm is employed to solve the formulated optimization problem. GA is a powerful evolutionary optimization scheme suitable for large-scale and multi-variable optimization problems that are otherwise hard to be solved by conventional methods. A brief introduction to GA is given in the paper. Finally, the method is applied to an example problem and the limiting performance characteristic is obtained.

  18. A two-temperature model for shocked porous explosive (United States)

    Lambourn, Brian; Handley, Caroline


    Mesoscale calculations of hotpots created by a shock wave in a porous explosive show that the hotspots do not cool in times of order at least a microsecond. This suggests that simple models of porosity like the Snowplough model, which assume that a shocked porous explosive jumps to a point on the Hugoniot that is instantaneously in thermodynamic equilibrium, are not correct. A two-temperature model of shocked porous explosive has been developed in which a small fraction of the material, representing the hotspots, has a high temperature, but the bulk of the material is cooler than the temperature calculated by the Snowplough model. In terms of the mean state of the material, it is shown that the two-temperature model only minimally affects the pressure vs. volume and shock velocity vs. particle velocity plot of the Hugoniot, but that the mean state lies slightly off the equation of state surface. The results of the model are compared with two dimensional mesoscale calculations.

  19. Analytical Solutions for Predicting Underwater Explosion Gas Bubble Behaviour (United States)


    décrit différents modèles analytiques élaborés antérieurement pour prévoir la croissance et l’implosion radiales en champ libre des bulles gazeuses...rapport compare divers modèles analytiques servant à prévoir la croissance et l’implosion d’une bulle gazeuse créée par une explosion sous-marine. Ces...élaborés antérieurement pour prévoir la croissance et l’implosion radiales en champ libre des bulles gazeuses créées par une explosion sous-marine

  20. Resistance of GPS samples to non-contact underwater explosion (United States)

    Dulnev, A. I.; Nekliudova, E. A.


    Test data obtained from experiments on GRP test samples in the explosion chamber of Krylov State Research Centre are given. Characteristic features of material damage accumulation and failure processes are discussed based on the experimental data. The sample material damage is assessed versus three indicative effects (criteria): binder failure, fiber rupture, through-thickness penetration (hole). Finite element modelling of the experiments is used for a more detailed analysis of stress-strain state of material samples.

  1. Shock-induced explosive chemistry in a deterministic sample configuration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cesarano, Joseph, III (,; ); Trott, Wayne Merle; Baer, Melvin R.; Tappan, Alexander Smith


    Explosive initiation and energy release have been studied in two sample geometries designed to minimize stochastic behavior in shock-loading experiments. These sample concepts include a design with explosive material occupying the hole locations of a close-packed bed of inert spheres and a design that utilizes infiltration of a liquid explosive into a well-defined inert matrix. Wave profiles transmitted by these samples in gas-gun impact experiments have been characterized by both velocity interferometry diagnostics and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Highly organized wave structures associated with the characteristic length scales of the deterministic samples have been observed. Initiation and reaction growth in an inert matrix filled with sensitized nitromethane (a homogeneous explosive material) result in wave profiles similar to those observed with heterogeneous explosives. Comparison of experimental and numerical results indicates that energetic material studies in deterministic sample geometries can provide an important new tool for validation of models of energy release in numerical simulations of explosive initiation and performance.

  2. An Improved Shock Model for Bare and Covered Explosives (United States)

    Scholtes, Gert; Bouma, Richard


    TNO developed a toolbox to estimate the probability of a violent event on a ship or other platform, when the munition bunker is hit by e.g. a bullet or fragment from a missile attack. To obtain the proper statistical output, several millions of calculations are needed to obtain a reliable estimate. Because millions of different scenarios have to be calculated, hydrocode calculations cannot be used for this type of application, but a fast and good engineering solutions is needed. At this moment the Haskins and Cook-model is used for this purpose. To obtain a better estimate for covered explosives and munitions, TNO has developed a new model which is a combination of the shock wave model at high pressure, as described by Haskins and Cook, in combination with the expanding shock wave model of Green. This combined model gives a better fit with the experimental values for explosives response calculations, using the same critical energy fluence values for covered as well as for bare explosives. In this paper the theory is explained and results of the calculations for several bare and covered explosives will be presented. To show this, the results will be compared with the experimental values from literature for composition B, Composition B-3 and PBX-9404.

  3. Shock initiated reactions of reactive multi-phase blast explosives (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis; Granier, John; Johnson, Richard; Littrell, Donald


    This paper describes a new class of non-ideal explosive compositions made of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), nanoaluminum, and a micron-size, high mass density, reactive metal. Unlike high explosives, these compositions release energy via a fast self-oxidized combustion wave rather than a true self-sustaining detonation. Their reaction rates are shock dependent and they can be overdriven to change their energy release rate. These compositions are fuel rich and have an extended aerobic energy release phase. The term "reactive multiphase blast" refers to the post-dispersion blast behavior: multiphase in that there are a gas phase that imparts pressure and a solid (particulate) phase that imparts energy and momentum [1]; and reactive in that the hot metal particles react with atmospheric oxygen and the explosive gas products to give an extended pressure pulse. Tantalum-based RMBX formulations were tested in two spherical core-shell configurations - an RMBX shell exploded by a high explosive core, and an RMBX core imploded by a high explosive shell. The fireball and blast characteristics were compared to a C-4 baseline charge.

  4. Explosives malfunction from sympathetic detonation to shock desensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsabanis, P.D.; Yeung, C.; Fitz, G.; Heater, R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    Explosives malfunction due to shock waves is a serious concern for successful blasting results. Malfunction can range from sympathetic detonation to desensitization and modification of firing times of conventional pyrotechnic detonators. Decked charges consisting of commercial emulsion explosives having a detonator and a primer were placed in 10cm diameter blastholes and their performance was recorded. Due to the limited length of the holes the events were mainly sympathetic detonations although desensitization was also recorded. Pressure measurements along the stemming column showed that shock waves produced by an explosive have a significant amplitude even at relatively large distances away from the detonating explosive. It was found that 2m away from a detonating charge the pressures in the stemming material were above 0.1 GPa indicating that there is potential for primers and detonators to malfunction. Parallel charges consisting of a commercial emulsion explosive with a diameter of 32mm were confined in 2mm thick steel tubes and initiation was attempted using detonators having a delay interval of 25ms. The charges were placed in sand and the velocity of detonation of the acceptor charge was recorded using a continuous resistance probe system. Carbon resistors were also placed in the same position as the acceptor charge to examine the dynamic pressures that were applied to the charge. Sympathetic detonation, complete desensitization, partial desensitization and properly sequenced detonations were observed as the distance between charges was increased from 76 mm to 305 mm. Delay detonators were also tested in a similar to the last configuration. Modification of firing times was observed at distances between 150 and 360 mm.

  5. Behavioural effects of exposure to underwater explosions in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, S.; Lien, J.; Marques, F. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada); Stevick, P. [College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME (United States); Ketten, D. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Medical School


    Findings of a study of high rate of entrapment in nets of humpback whales off the coast of northeastern Newfoundland in 1991-92 were reported. The entrapments took place in the southern portion of Trinity Bay, a site associated with construction operations, including explosions and drilling, that was assumed to have modified the underwater acoustic environment. Results indicated few behavioural reactions to detonations by the whales when measured in terms of decreased residency, overall movements, or general behaviour. However, there is tentative evidence that the increased entrapment rate may have been influenced by the long-term effects of exposure to abnormally high sound levels. 46 refs.

  6. Evaluation of Accelerometer Mechanical Filters on Submerged Cylinders Near an Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yiannakopoulos


    Full Text Available An accelerometer, mounted to a structure near an explosion to measure elasto-plastic deformation, can be excited at its resonant frequency by impulsive stresses transmitted within the structure. This results in spurious high peak acceleration levels that can be much higher than acceleration levels from the explosion itself. The spurious signals also have higher frequencies than the underlying signal from the explosion and can be removed by a low pass filter. This report assesses the performance of four accelerometer and filter assemblies. The assessment involves measurements of the response of a mild steel cylinder to an underwater explosion, in which each assembly is mounted onto the interior surface of the cylinder. Three assemblies utilise a piezoresistive accelerometer in which isolation is provided mechanically. In the fourth assembly, a piezoelectric accelerometer, with a built-in filter, incorporates both mechanical and electronic filtering. This assembly is found to be more suitable because of its secure mounting arrangement, ease of use, robustness and noise free results.

  7. Deformation and shock consolidation of various sands under explosive loading (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.


    Transmission of a shock wave through various geological materials is important in military applications, for assessing the effects from a buried explosive device to an above-ground target. The composition of a real soil is complex and involves multiple constituents that undergo a number of physical and mechanical transformations during the shock loading. The present study analyzes several model soils represented by limestone sand, silica sand, and a small aggregate soil. The soils are compressed using two different steel encapsulation assemblies subject to explosive compression. These set-ups attempt to vary the level of applied load to the encapsulated soil and the length of the high-temperature effects. The assemblies are instrumented with embedded manganin gauges within the encapsulation casing for comparative analysis of the waves propagating through the soil and steel encapsulation. A comparative analysis of the recovered soil samples, including a microstructural analysis focusing on the grain breakage, soil compaction and consolidation, is correlated with a CTH numerical analysis employing a multi-phase rate sensitive material model.

  8. Development of fiber optic sensors at TNO for explosion and shock wave measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Smorenburg, C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Bouma, R.H.B.; Meer, B.J. van der; Prinse, W.C.; Scholtes, J.H.G.


    Fiber Optic sensors are found to be very suitable for explosion and shock wave measurements because they are immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). In the past few years, TNO has developed a number of sensor systems for explosion and shock wave measurements in which the optical fiber is a

  9. Shock Initiation of Wedge-shaped Explosive Measured with Smear Camera and Photon Doppler Velocimetry (United States)

    Gu, Yan


    Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) is an important insensitive high explosive in conventional weapons due to its safety and high energy. In order to have an insight into the shock initiation performance of a TATB-based insensitive high explosive (IHE), experimental measurements of the particle velocity histories of the TATB-based Explosive using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and shock wave profile of the TATB-based explosive using High Speed Rotating Mirror Smear Camera had been performed. In this paper, we would describe the shock initiation performance of the TATB-based explosive by run-to-detonation distance and the particle velocity history at an initialization shock of about 7.9 GPa. The parameters of hugoniot of unreacted the TATB-based explosive and Pop relationship could be derived with the particle velocity history obtained in this paper.

  10. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  11. Molecular shock response of explosives: electronic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgrne, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eakins, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Electronic absorption spectroscopy in the range 400-800 nm was coupled to ultrafast laser generated shocks to begin addressing the question of the extent to which electronic excitations are involved in shock induced reactions. Data are presented on shocked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films and single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Shocked PMMA exhibited thin film interference effects from the shock front. Shocked PETN exhibited interference from the shock front as well as broadband increased absorption. Relation to shock initiation hypotheses and the need for time dependent absorption data (future experiments) is briefly discussed.

  12. Shock Initiation of Explosives - High Temperature Hot Spots Explained (United States)

    Bassett, Will


    The pore-collapse mechanism for hot spot creation is currently one of the most intensely studied subjects in the initiation of energetic materials. In the present study, we use 1.5 - 3.5 km s-1 laser-driven flyer plates to impact microgram charges of both polymer-bound and pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) while recording the temperature and spatially-averaged emissivity with a high-speed optical pyrometer. The 32-color pyrometer has nanosecond time resolution and a high dynamic range with sensitivity to temperatures from 7000 to 2000 K. Hot spot temperatures of 4000 K at impact are observed in the polymer-bound explosive charges where an elastomeric binder is used to fill void spaces. In pure PETN and more heterogeneous polymer-bound charges, in which significant void space is present, hot spot temperatures of 6000 K are observed, similar to previous reports with significant porosity. We attribute these high temperatures to gas-phase products formed in-situ being compressed under the driving shock. Experiments performed under various gas environments (air, butane, etc.) showed a strong influence on observed temperature upon impact. Control experiments where the PETN in the polymer-bound charges were replaced with sucrose and silica reinforce the result that hot spots are a result of in-situ gas formation from decomposition of organic molecules. US Air Force Office of Scientific Research awards FA9550-14-1-0142 and FA9550-16-1-0042; US Army Research Office award W911NF-13-1-0217; Defense Threat Reduction Agency award HDTRA1-12-1-0011. In collaboration with: Belinda Pacheco and Dana Dlott, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.

  13. Comparison Between Surf and Multi-Shock Forest Fire High Explosive Burn Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Nicholas Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    PAGOSA1 has several different burn models used to model high explosive detonation. Two of these, Multi-Shock Forest Fire and Surf, are capable of modeling shock initiation. Accurately calculating shock initiation of a high explosive is important because it is a mechanism for detonation in many accident scenarios (i.e. fragment impact). Comparing the models to pop-plot data give confidence that the models are accurately calculating detonation or lack thereof. To compare the performance of these models, pop-plots2 were created from simulations where one two cm block of PBX 9502 collides with another block of PBX 9502.

  14. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2 (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu


    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Computational Treatments of Cavitation Effects in Near-Free-Surface Underwater Shock Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sprague


    Full Text Available Fluid cavitation constitutes an expensive computational nuisance in underwater-shock response calculations for structures at or just below the free surface. In order to avoid the use of a large array of cavitating acoustic finite elements (CAFE, various wet-surface approximations have been proposed. This paper examines the performance of two such approximations by comparing results produced by them for 1-D canonical problems with corresponding results produced by more rigorous CAFE computations. It is found that the fundamental limitation of wet-surface approximations is their inability to capture fluid-accretion effects. As an alternative, truncated CAFE fluid meshes with plane-wave radiation boundaries are shown to give good results. In fact, a single layer of CAFE is found to be comparable in accuracy to the better of the wet-surface approximations. The paper concludes with an examination of variations in CAFE modeling.

  16. Shock initiation of the TATB-based explosive PBX 9502 heated to 130 degrees C (United States)

    Gustavsen, R. L.; Bartram, B. D.; Gibson, L. L.; Pacheco, A. H.; Jones, J. D.; Goodbody, A. B.


    We present gas-gun driven plate-impact shock initiation experiments on the explosive PBX 9502 (95 weight % triaminotrinitrobenzene, 5 weight % Kel-F 800 binder) heated to 130 + / - 2 degrees C. PBX 9502 samples were heated using resistive elements, temperatures were monitored using embedded and surface mounted type-E thermocouples, and the shock to detonation transition was measured using embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. Results indicate that shock sensitivity increases regularly as the temperature increases. For a fixed initial pressure, the time and distance to onset of detonation are shorter for the heated explosive than for the explosive initially at 23 degrees C. For PBX 9502 heated to 130 degrees C, the ``Pop-plot'' or distance to detonation, xD, vs. impact pressure, P, is log10(xD) = 2.82 - 2.19log10(P) .

  17. Pressure transducer used for measuring close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Zhou, Z.


    This paper introduces a variable reluctance pressure transducer. It has been successfully used for the measurement of close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. This transducer's highest pressure range is 100kg/cm 2 and its response rise time for all ranges is lms. It uses a specially made oil-filled pressure which allows the transducer to be able to realize underground installation. In this way, it can endure the intense nuclear radiation of nuclear explosions without losing its fast speed response characteristics. This transducer has undergone a series of environmental tests and dynamic standardizations. Therefore, it was used to measure the complete waveform of shock wave overpressure in areas near the fire ball of nuclear explosions. This paper lists the test data of a group of nuclear explosion tests

  18. Explosively Generated Plasmas: Measurement and Models of Shock Generation and Material Interactions (United States)

    Emery, Samuel; Elert, Mark; Giannuzzi, Paul; Le, Ryan; McCarthy, Daniel; Schweigert, Igor


    Explosively generated plasmas (EGPs) are created by the focusing of a shock produced from an explosive driver via a conical waveguide. In the waveguide, the gases from the explosive along with the trapped air are accelerated and compressed (via Mach stemming) to such extent that plasma is produced. These EGPs have been measured in controlled experiments to achieve temperatures on the order of 1 eV and velocities as high as 25 km/s. We have conducted a combined modeling and measurement effort to increase the understanding for design purposes of the shock generation of EGPs and the interaction of EGP with explosive materials. Such efforts have led to improved measures of pressure and temperature, spatial structure of the plasma, and the decomposition/deflagration behavior of RDX upon exposure to an EGP. Funding provided by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Munitions Response program area.

  19. An approach to incorporate the detonation shock dynamics into the calculation of explosive acceleration of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingzhong; Sun Chengwei; Zhao Feng; Gao Wen; Wen Shanggang; Liu Wenhan


    The generalized geometrical optics model for the detonation shock dynamics (DSD) has been incorporated into the two dimensional hydro-code WSU to form a combination code ADW for numerical simulation of explosive acceleration of metals. An analytical treatment of the coupling conditions at the nodes just behind the detonation front is proposed. The experiments on two kinds of explosive-flyer assemblies with different length/diameter ratio were carried out to verify the ADW calculations, where the tested explosive was HMX or TATB based. It is found that the combination of DSD and hydro-code can improve the calculation precision, and has advantages in larger meshes and less CPU time

  20. A mesoscopic reaction rate model for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives. (United States)

    Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L


    The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction rate model that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, based on the DZK hot-spot model for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction rate is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction rate of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, based on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction rate model. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction rate model is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Observations of shock-induced partial reactions in high explosive (United States)

    Kubota, Shiro; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito


    The high speed photography, pressure measurements and numerical simulation of gap test of the high explosive have been carried out. The height of donor is 50 mm and acceptor is 40 mm with 26 mm inner diameter. When the gap length is 23 mm or large, the sympathetic detonation was not confirmed. Although the detonation does not occur, the gas expansion from the acceptor appears as the results of remarkable decomposition if the gap length approaches 23 mm. Those phenomena are very important on the point of view of the safety engineering. Finally, the parameters of initiation model which could reproduce the behaviors of high explosive around the critical condition were constructed.

  2. Nanotwin Formation in High-Manganese Austenitic Steels Under Explosive Shock Loading (United States)

    Canadinc, D.; Uzer, B.; Elmadagli, M.; Guner, F.


    The micro-deformation mechanisms active in a high-manganese austenitic steel were investigated upon explosive shock loading. Single system of nanotwins forming within primary twins were shown to govern the deformation despite the elevated temperatures attained during testing. The benefits of nanotwin formation for potential armor materials were demonstrated.

  3. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System


    N Matsuo; M Otuka; H Hamasima; K Hokamoto; S Itoh


    Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated ...

  4. Observations of Shock-Induced Partiall Reactions in High Explosive (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Ogata, Y.; Wada, Y.; Saburi, T.; Nagayama, K.


    The high speed photography, pressure measurements and numerical simulation of gap test of the high explosive have been carried out. The height of donor is 50 mm with 26 mm inner diameter, and that for acceptor charges is varied. When the gap length is 22.8 mm or large, the sympathetic detonation was not confirmed. Although the detonation does not occur, the gas expansion from the acceptor appears as the results of remarkable decomposition if the gap length approaches 23 mm. Those phenomena are very important on the point of view of the safety engineering. Finally, the parameters of initiation model which could reproduce the behaviors of high explosive around the critical condition were constructed.

  5. Secondary shock features for large surface explosions: results from the Sayarim Military Range, Israel and other experiments (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.


    A series of surface explosions was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at the Sayarim Military Range in the Negev desert, including two large-scale explosions: approx. 82 tons of high explosives in 2009, and approx. 100 tons of low-grade ANFO explosives in 2011. The main goal of the explosions was to provide large controlled sources for calibration of global infrasound stations designated for monitoring nuclear tests; however, the geophysical experiment also provided valuable observations for shock wave research. High-pressure gauges were deployed at distances between 100 and 600 m to record air blast properties and to provide reliable estimation of the true charge yield compared to the design value. Secondary shock phenomena were clearly observed at all near-source gauges as characteristic shock wave shapes. Secondary shocks were also observed at numerous seismic and acoustic sensors deployed in the range 0.3-20 km as acoustic phases. Empirical relationships for standard air blast parameters (peak pressure and impulse) and for a new parameter called secondary shock time delay, as a function of distance, were established and analyzed. The standard parameters, scaled by the cubic root of the estimated TNT yield, were found to be consistent for all analyzed explosions. However, the scaled secondary shock delays were clearly separated for the 2009 and 2011 explosions, thus demonstrating dependence on the explosive type. Additionally, air blast records from other experiments were used to extend the charge and distance ranges for the secondary shock observation, and showed consistency with the Sayarim data. Analysis and interpretation of observed features of the secondary shock phenomenon are proposed and a new empirical relationship of scaled secondary shock delay versus scaled distance is established. The results suggest that the secondary shock delay can be used as a new additional waveform feature for simple and cost-effective explosive

  6. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K


    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  7. Study of damage to a high concrete dam subjected to underwater shock waves (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing


    To study the effect of a strong underwater shock wave on a concrete dam, this research aims to improve hammer impact methods in model tests. Six 1:200 scale models were designed and tested under distributed impact loads. A device was deployed for a direct measurement of the impact force at the upstream face of the dams. The model dam bases were anchored to prevent displacement. The experimental results indicate that the top part of the concrete dam is a weak zone, and the impact failure initiates with a fracture on the top of the dam. The peak value of impact stress increases when the second crack appears in the concrete dam from the upstream face to the downstream face. And, the level of the second crack in the dam body is lower as the peak value of impact stress increases. In this study, dynamic analysis was conducted by calculating the results to verify the effectiveness of a device to directly measure the impact force. This method may be used to approximately forecast the damage of concrete dam and may also be useful in other engineering applications.

  8. Spallation reactions in shock waves at supernova explosions and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinova, G. K., E-mail: [RAS, V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (Russian Federation)


    The isotopic anomalies of some extinct radionuclides testify to the outburst of a nearby supernova just before the collapse of the protosolar nebula, and to the fact that the supernova was Sn Ia, i.e. the carbon-detonation supernova. A key role of spallation reactions in the formation of isotopic anomalies in the primordial matter of the Solar System is revealed. It is conditioned by the diffusive acceleration of particles in the explosive shock waves, which leads to the amplification of rigidity of the energy spectrum of particles and its enrichment with heavier ions. The quantitative calculations of such isotopic anomalies of many elements are presented. It is well-grounded that the anomalous Xe-HL in meteoritic nanodiamonds was formed simultaneously with nanodiamonds themselves during the shock wave propagation at the Sn Ia explosion. The possible effects of shock wave fractionation of noble gases in the atmosphere of planets are considered. The origin of light elements Li, Be and B in spallation reactions, predicted by Fowler in the middle of the last century, is argued. All the investigated isotopic anomalies give the evidence for the extremely high magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) conditions at the initial stage of free expansion of the explosive shock wave from Sn Ia, which can be essential in solution of the problem of origin of cosmic rays. The specific iron-enriched matter of Sn Ia and its MHD-separation in turbulent processes must be taking into account in the models of origin of the Solar System.

  9. Simple Explosive Plane Wave Booster Designs for 1-D Shock Experiments (United States)

    Svingala, Forrest; Giannuzzi, Paul; Sandusky, Harold


    The gold standard 1-dimensional shock wave source is a flyer plate driven by a gas or powder gun. However, not all experimenters have access to such a gun, and some experiments that require large input areas (>80 cm2) and high input pressures (>15 GPa) are out of reach for most of those that do. An attractive alternative to gun-driven flyers in these cases is an explosive plane wave booster (PWB). The PWB uses an explosive train to produce a 1-D wave that can throw a flyer plate or be used directly. Shock pressure levels can be adjusted as needed through the use of attenuator plates or an explosive booster pad on the output of the PWB. Unfortunately, traditional ``dual velocity'' PWBs using two explosives require precision machining of the energetics, and as such can be difficult to produce and prohibitively expensive to purchase. This work explores several PWB designs that use cast explosives to keep costs down, and are easily scalable to the size of the required experiment. Their relative simultaneity and peak pressures are quantified using streak photography and photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV), and compared with typical values for the dual velocity lens and gun driven flyers.

  10. Shock induced shear strength in an HMX based plastic bonded explosive (United States)

    Millett, J. C. F.; Taylor, P.; Appleby-Thomas, G.


    The shock induced mechanical response of an HMX based plastic bonded explosive (PBX) has been investigated in terms of the shear strength. Results show that shear strength increases with impact stress. However comparison with the calculated elastic response of both the PBX and pure HMX suggests that the overall mechanical response is controlled by the HMX crystals, with the near liquid like nature of the binder phase having a minimal contribution.

  11. Study on possible explosive reactions of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures initiated by a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Vasseur, C.


    Potential hazards of the mixture sodium nitrate-bitumen obtained by embedding in bitumen liquid radioactive effluents concentrated by evaporation are studied in case of accidental shock wave. A theoretical evaluation based on thermodynamical data show a low probability, nevertheless different from zero. No explosion occurred in tests realized in severe conditions. In conclusion there is no risk of detonation of large quantity of bitumen-nitrates stored in 200-liter drum in radioactive waste storage [fr

  12. The Numerical Simulation of the Shock Wave of Coal Gas Explosions in Gas Pipe* (United States)

    Chen, Zhenxing; Hou, Kepeng; Chen, Longwei


    For the problem of large deformation and vortex, the method of Euler and Lagrange has both advantage and disadvantage. In this paper we adopt special fuzzy interface method(volume of fluid). Gas satisfies the conditions of conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. Based on explosion and three-dimension fluid dynamics theory, using unsteady, compressible, inviscid hydrodynamic equations and state equations, this paper considers pressure gradient’s effects to velocity, mass and energy in Lagrange steps by the finite difference method. To minimize transport errors of material, energy and volume in Finite Difference mesh, it also considers material transport in Euler steps. Programmed with Fortran PowerStation 4.0 and visualized with the software designed independently, we design the numerical simulation of gas explosion with specific pipeline structure, check the key points of the pressure change in the flow field, reproduce the gas explosion in pipeline of shock wave propagation, from the initial development, flame and accelerate the process of shock wave. This offers beneficial reference and experience to coal gas explosion accidents or safety precautions.

  13. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. Klingsporn


    This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

  14. A prediction model for two-dimensional pressure distribution from underwater shock wave focusing by an ellipsoidal reflector. (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Guo, Rui; Chen, Liang; Cao, Yu; Yang, Yongliang; Zhao, Bobo


    Underwater shock wave focusing by ellipsoidal reflector is an important method for medical treatment, detection, and acoustic warfare. However, its pressure field is difficult to predict due to complicated physics. In this study, the pressure by focusing is modeled based on theories of shock wave propagation, nonlinear reflection, and nonlinear focusing, and the calculation domain is determined by approximate equations of wave fronts and lines. The pressure field during the whole process is described by combining direct and focusing pressures in the time and space domains. On this basis, the focusing behavior is simulated, and obtained pressure profiles are compared with experimental results, and the influence of reflector length on focusing performance is also discussed. The results indicate that although there are some rough assumptions, this model can simulate the underwater focusing in some detail and does a good job of predicting the pressure distribution, especially for the positive peak pressure, with an error below 10%; as the reflector length increases, the dynamic focus tends to move linearly forward to the other geometric focus, and the pressure gain increases continuously but the growth rate decreases.

  15. Impact of surface energy on the shock properties of granular explosives (United States)

    Bidault, X.; Pineau, N.


    This paper presents the first part of a two-fold molecular dynamics study of the impact of the granularity on the shock properties of high explosives. Recent experimental studies show that the granularity can have a substantial impact on the properties of detonation products {i.e., variations in the size distributions of detonation nanodiamonds [V. Pichot et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2159 (2013)]}. These variations can have two origins: the surface energy, which is a priori enhanced from micro- to nano-scale, and the porosity induced by the granular structure. In this first report, we study the impact of the surface-energy contribution on the inert shock compression of TATB, TNT, α-RDX, and β-HMX nano-grains (triaminotrinitrobenzene, trinitrotoluene, hexogen and octogen, respectively). We compute the radius-dependent surface energy and combine it with an ab initio-based equation of state in order to obtain the resulting shock properties through the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. We find that the enhancement of the surface energy results in a moderate overheating under shock compression. This contribution is minor with respect to porosity, when compared to a simple macroscopic model. This result motivates further atomistic studies on the impact of nanoporosity networks on the shock properties.

  16. Shock Initiation Experiments with Ignition and Growth Modeling on the HMX-Based Explosive LX-14 (United States)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Dehaven, Martin R.; Strickland, Shawn L.; Tarver, Craig M.; Springer, H. Keo; Cowan, Matt R.


    Shock initiation experiments on the HMX-based explosive LX-14 were performed to obtain in-situ pressure gauge data, characterize the run-distance-to-detonation behavior, and provide a basis for Ignition and Growth reactive flow modeling. A 101 mm diameter gas gun was utilized to initiate the explosive charges with manganin piezoresistive pressure gauge packages placed between sample disks pressed to different densities ( 1.57 or 1.83 g/cm3 that corresponds to 85 or 99% of theoretical maximum density (TMD), respectively). The shock sensitivity was found to increase with decreasing density as expected. Ignition and Growth model parameters were derived that yielded reasonable agreement with the experimental data at both initial densities. The shock sensitivity at the tested densities will be compared to prior work published on other HMX-based formulations. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was funded in part by the Joint DoD-DOE Munitions Program.

  17. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling (United States)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc


    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  18. Explosive-induced shock damage in copper and recompression of the damaged region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turley, W. D.; Stevens, G. D.; La Lone, B. M.; Hixson, R. S.; Cerreta, E. K.; Daykin, E. P.; Perez, C.; Graeve, O. A.; Novitskaya, E.; Rigg, P. A.; Veeser, L. R.


    We have studied the dynamic spall process for copper samples in contact with detonating low-performance explosives. When a triangular shaped shock wave from detonation moves through a sample and reflects from the free surface, tension develops immediately, one or more damaged layers can form, and a spall scab can separate from the sample and move ahead of the remaining target material. For dynamic experiments, we used time-resolved velocimetry and x-ray radiography. Soft-recovered samples were analyzed using optical imaging and microscopy. Computer simulations were used to guide experiment design. We observe that for some target thicknesses the spall scab continues to run ahead of the rest of the sample, but for thinner samples, the detonation product gases accelerate the sample enough for it to impact the spall scab several microseconds or more after the initial damage formation. Our data also show signatures in the form of a late-time reshock in the time-resolved data, which support this computational prediction. A primary goal of this research was to study the wave interactions and damage processes for explosives-loaded copper and to look for evidence of this postulated recompression event. We found both experimentally and computationally that we could tailor the magnitude of the initial and recompression shocks by varying the explosive drive and the copper sample thickness; thin samples had a large recompression after spall, whereas thick samples did not recompress at all. Samples that did not recompress had spall scabs that completely separated from the sample, whereas samples with recompression remained intact. This suggests that the hypothesized recompression process closes voids in the damage layer or otherwise halts the spall formation process. This is a somewhat surprising and, in some ways controversial, result, and the one that warrants further research in the shock compression community.

  19. An Approximate Analytical Model of Shock Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosions (United States)


    of the official yields. 14, SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES iilr’sh41old JI Vs B/lIT1 rt t , lirodvinam it methiods, ’-hock waves, 74 1111(1 rl ~I...shock wave methods, to appear in Explosion Source Pheno neiolgy, S. R. Taylor, P. G. Richards, and H. J. Patton , eds., American Geophysical Union...Fig. A6 62 DISTR I TON ,1 1ST Proo. ’i ifl as Ahrcns Dr. T.J. BennettSe-inotogical Lab, 252-21 S-CUBF.D Division of Geological & Planetary Sciences A

  20. Nonlinear structures: Explosive, soliton, and shock in a quantum electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma (United States)

    Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Haas, F.; Ali, S.; Shukla, P. K.


    Theoretical and numerical studies are performed for the nonlinear structures (explosive, solitons, and shock) in quantum electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation method is employed to the quantum hydrodynamical equations and the Poisson equation, obtaining extended quantum Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. The latter has been solved using the generalized expansion method to obtain a set of analytical solutions, which reflects the possibility of the propagation of various nonlinear structures. The relevance of the present investigation to the white dwarfs is highlighted.

  1. Investigation of shock waves in explosive blasts using fibre optic pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); MacPherson, W N [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Barton, J S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Jones, J D C [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Tyas, A [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Pichugin, A V [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hindle, A [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Parkes, W [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Dunare, C [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Stevenson, T [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom)


    We describe miniature all-optical pressure sensors, fabricated by wafer etching techniques, less than 1mm{sup 2} in overall cross-section with rise times in the {mu}s regime and pressure ranges typically 600 kPa. Their performance is suitable for experimental studies of the pressure-time history for test models exposed to shocks initiated by an explosive charge. The small size and fast response of the sensors promises higher quality data than has been previously available from conventional electrical sensors, with potential improvements to numerical models of blast effects. Provisional results from blast tests will be presented in which up to 6 sensors were multiplexed, embedded within test models in a range of orientations relative to the shock front.

  2. Investigation of shock waves in explosive blasts using fibre optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S; MacPherson, W N; Barton, J S; Jones, J D C; Tyas, A; Pichugin, A V; Hindle, A; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Stevenson, T


    We describe miniature all-optical pressure sensors, fabricated by wafer etching techniques, less than 1mm 2 in overall cross-section with rise times in the μs regime and pressure ranges typically 600 kPa. Their performance is suitable for experimental studies of the pressure-time history for test models exposed to shocks initiated by an explosive charge. The small size and fast response of the sensors promises higher quality data than has been previously available from conventional electrical sensors, with potential improvements to numerical models of blast effects. Provisional results from blast tests will be presented in which up to 6 sensors were multiplexed, embedded within test models in a range of orientations relative to the shock front

  3. Multiphysics Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive (United States)

    Najjar, Fady; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.


    Solid plastic-bonded high-explosive materials consist of crystals with micron-sized pores embedded. Under mechanical or thermal insults, these voids increase the ease of shock initiation by generating high-temperature regions during their collapse that might lead to ignition. Understanding the mechanisms of hot-spot initiation has significant research interest due to safety, reliability and development of new insensitive munitions. Multi-dimensional high-resolution meso-scale simulations are performed using the multiphysics software, ALE3D, to understand the hot-spot initiation. The Cheetah code is coupled to ALE3D, creating multi-dimensional sparse tables for the HE properties. The reaction rates were obtained from MD Quantum computations. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a "secondary" jet. We will discuss the results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth for various pore sizes and different shock pressures.

  4. Experimental studies on the tripping behavior of narrow T-stiffened flat plates subjected to hydrostatic pressure and underwater shock (United States)

    Budweg, H. L.; Shin, Y. S.


    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the static and dynamic responses of a specific stiffened flat plate design. The air-backed rectangular flat plates of 6061-T6 aluminum with an externally machined longitudinal narrow-flanged T-stiffener and clamped boundary conditions were subjected to static loading by water hydropump pressure and shock loading from an eight pound TNT charge detonated underwater. The dynamic test plate was instrumented to measure transient strains and free field pressure. The static test plate was instrumented to measure transient strains, plate deflection, and pressure. Emphasis was placed upon forcing static and dynamic stiffener tripping, obtaining relevant strain and pressure data, and studying the associated plate-stiffener behavior.

  5. One-Dimensional Analyses: Shock Wave Propagation from Underwater Cratering Detonations (United States)


    In competent rock. Samples and engineering properties data available. No compressibility or strength tests. 3. Granite: Orinoco River high...strength granite, Orinoco River , Venezuela; site of proposed underwater excavation project. The medium Is a very dense, low porosity high-strength granite...a transition from brittle failure to ductile Uehavior at 0.2 kbar is assumed. Engineering data for Kaalualu basalt and Orinoco River granite are

  6. 75 FR 3160 - Commerce in Explosives-Storage of Shock Tube With Detonators (2005R-3P) (United States)


    ... No. ATF 15F; AG Order No. 3133-2010] RIN 1140-AA30 Commerce in Explosives--Storage of Shock Tube With... provisions of chapter 40 are contained in title 27, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 555 (``Commerce..., for the reasons discussed in the preamble, 27 CFR Part 555 is amended as follows: PART 555--COMMERCE...

  7. History of Shock Waves, Explosions and Impact A Chronological and Biographical Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Krehl, Peter O. K


    This unique and encyclopedic reference work charts the evolution of the physics of shock waves and detonations from the earliest investigations into percussion and impact phenomena right up to the most recent groundbreaking research in the field. The history of this long and complex process is first reviewed in a general survey that encompasses everything from the earliest observations and interpretations of puzzling high-rate dynamic phenomena associated with natural and man-made explosions to a discussion of the merits of modern numerical computer simulations. The subject is then treated in more detail and in chronological order in the central section of the book, while also being richly illustrated in form of a picture gallery. The bibliographic index provides 122 short biographies of eminent researchers who have contributed to the field. Further references for biographical sources are given, and both name and subject indices (with over 4500 and 2700 entries, respectively) are provided. "This book is of tr...

  8. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin


    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  9. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Matsuo


    Full Text Available Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated from the metal foil explosion. Secondly, in high energy explosive processing, there are several applications, such as shock compaction, explosive welding, food processing and explosive forming. In these explosive applications, a high sensitive explosive has been mainly used. The high sensitive explosive is so dangerous, since it can lead to explosion suddenly. So, for developing explosives, the safety is the most important thing as well as low manufacturing cost and explosive characteristics. In this work, we have focused on the initiation sensitivity of a solid explosive and performed numerical analysis of sympathetic detonation. The numerical analysis is calculated by LS-DYNA 3D (commercial code. To understand the initiation reaction of an explosive, Lee-Tarver equation was used and impact detonation process was analyzed by ALE code. Configuration of simulation model is a quarter of circular cylinder. The donor type of explosive (SEP was used as initiation explosive. When the donor explosive is exploded, a shock wave is generated and it propagates into PMMA, air and metallic layers in order. During passing through the layers, the shock wave is attenuated and finally, it has influence on the acceptor explosive, Comp. B. Here, we evaluate the initiation of acceptor explosive and discuss about detonation pressure, reactive rate of acceptor explosive and attenuation of impact pressure.

  10. [Underwater dive in fresh water complicated by a cardiorespiratory arrest on obstructive shock]. (United States)

    Bourmanne, E; Jacobs, D; Caldow, M; El Kaissi, M


    We present the case of a french patient who dived in fresh water in Lac de l'Eau d'Heure on 8 December 2014. The 35 meters deep diving was complicated by an obstructive shock resulting from lung overpressure and decompression illness.

  11. Shock-to-detonation transition in solid heterogeneous explosives; La transition choc-detonation dans les explosifs solides heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmas, R.


    This paper is an overview of the studies performed during the last decades on the shock-to-detonation transition process in heterogeneous explosives. We present the experimental and theoretical approaches mentioned in the literature and/or developed at CEA/DAM. The aim is to identify which main mechanisms govern this transition process and to evaluate the relevance of the available modeling tools. (author)

  12. Studying multiply shocked states in HMX and TATB based explosives with a gas gun ring up geometry (United States)

    Ferguson, James; Finnegan, Simon; Millett, Jeremy; Goff, Michael


    A series of ring up shots investigating partially reacted and multiply shocked states in both HMX and TATB based explosives are reported on. Results of experiments using PCTFE and LiF in place of the explosives are also described. The experiments were performed using 50 mm diameter bore and 70 mm diameter bore single stage gas guns. By locating the target between a high impedance copper flyer and sapphire window, shocks of increasing magnitude are reflected into the target at each interface. The particle velocity at the target-window interface was measured using multiple points of HetV reflected from an 800 nm layer of gold sputtered onto the sapphire. The stress state at the target-flyer interface were observed using manganin gauges. A range of different input pressures were investigated, these were picked to either allow a comparison to double shock and particle velocity work, or to provide the maximum number of rings within the one dimensional time. For the inert shots input pressures matched the explosive shots.

  13. Fluid-Structure Interaction Mechanisms for Close-In Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw Jr.


    Full Text Available This paper examines fluid-structure interaction for close-in internal and external underwater explosions. The resulting flow field is impacted by the interaction between the reflected explosion shock and the explosion bubble. This shock reflects off the bubble as an expansion that reduces the pressure level between the bubble and the target, inducing cavitation and its subsequent collapse that reloads the target. Computational examples of several close-in interaction cases are presented to document the occurrence of these mechanisms. By comparing deformable and rigid body simulations, it is shown that cavitation collapse can occur solely from the shock-bubble interaction without the benefit of target deformation. Addition of a deforming target lowers the flow field pressure, facilitates cavitation and cavitation collapse, as well as reducing the impulse of the initial shock loading.

  14. Algorithm describing pressure distribution of non-contact TNT explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kiciński


    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The aim of this study is to develop a computational algorithm, describing the shock wave pressure distribution in the space induced by non-contact TNT explosion. The procedure describes pressure distribution on a damp surface of the hull. Simulations have been carried out using Abaqus/CAE. The study also shows the pressure waveform descriptions provided by various authors and presents them in charts. The formulated conclusions convince efficiency of the algorithm application.[b]Keywords:[/b] Underwater explosion, shock wave, CAE, TNT, Kobben class submarine

  15. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.


    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  16. Experimental response of an optical sensor used to determine the moment of blast by sensing the flash of the explosion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, A


    Full Text Available of an optical sensor constructed to measure the light flash of an underwater blast to determine the moment of explosion. By measurement of the time taken between this moment and the time when the shock wave reaches the pressure sensors, accurate measurements...

  17. Effect of shock pressure on the structure and superconducting properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O in explosively fabricated bulk metal-matrix composites (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Niou, C. S.; Pradhan-Advani, M.


    While it is now well established that copper-oxide-based power, or virtually any other ceramic superconductor powder, can be consolidated and encapsulated within a metal matrix by explosive consolidation, the erratic superconductivity following fabrication has posed a major problem for bulk applications. The nature of this behavior was found to arise from microstructural damage created in the shock wave front, and the residual degradation in superconductivity was demonstrated to be directly related to the peak shock pressure. The explosively fabricated or shock loaded YBa2Cu3Ox examples exhibit drastically altered rho (or R) - T curves. The deterioration in superconductivity is even more noticeable in the measurement of ac magnetic susceptibility and flux exclusion or shielding fraction which is also reduced in proportion to increasing peak shock pressure. The high frequency surface resistance (in the GHz range) is also correspondingly compromised in explosively fabricated, bulk metal-matrix composites based on YBa2Cu3O7. Transmission electron microscopy (including lattice imaging techniques) is being applied in an effort to elucidate the fundamental (microstructural) nature of the shock-induced degradation of superconductivity and normal state conductivity. One focus of TEM observations has assumed that oxygen displaced from b-chains rather than oxygen-vacancy disorder in the basal plane of oxygen deficient YBa2Cu3Ox may be a prime mechanism. Shock-wave displaced oxygen may also be locked into new positions or interstitial clusters or chemically bound to displaced metal (possibly copper) atoms to form precipitates, or such displacements may cause the equivalent of local lattice cell changes as a result of stoichiometric changes. While the shock-induced suppression of T(sub c) is not desirable in the explosive fabrication of bulk metal-matrix superconductors, it may be turned into an advantage if the atomic-scale distortion can be understood and controlled as local

  18. Single shot ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) of laser-driven shocks in single crystal explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eakins, Dan E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We report on the first experiments to measure states in shocked energetic single crystals with dynamic ellipsometry. We demonstrate that these ellipsometric techniques can produce reasonable Hugoniot values using small amounts of crystalline RDX and PETN. Pressures, particle velocities and shock velocities obtained using shocked ellipsometry are comparable to those found using gas-gun flyer plates and molecular dynamics calculations. The adaptation of the technique from uniform thin films of polymers to thick non-perfect crystalline materials was a significant achievement. Correct sample preparation proved to be a crucial component. Through trial and error, we were able to resolve polishing issues, sample quality problems, birefringence effects and mounting difficulties that were not encountered using thin polymer films.

  19. Experimental Study on Peak Pressure of Shock Waves in Quasi-Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiong Wang


    Full Text Available Based on the similarity laws of the explosion, this research develops similarity requirements of the small-scale experiments of underwater explosions and establishes a regression model for peak pressure of underwater shock waves under experimental condition. Small-scale experiments are carried out with two types of media at the bottom of the water and for different water depths. The peak pressure of underwater shock waves at different measuring points is acquired. A formula consistent with the similarity law of explosions is obtained and an analysis of the regression precision of the formula confirms its accuracy. Significance experiment indicates that the influence of distance between measuring points and charge on peak pressure of underwater shock wave is the greatest and that of water depth is the least within the range of geometric parameters. An analysis of data from experiments with different media at the bottom of the water reveals an influence on the peak pressure, as the peak pressure of a shock wave in a body of water with a bottom soft mud and rocks is about 1.33 times that of the case where the bottom material is only soft mud.

  20. Underwater manipulator (United States)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.


    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  1. Underwater manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.


    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer ±45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer ±10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion

  2. The effects of gas explosion shock wave load on the containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.


    The analysis for shock wave for the containment building with height of 69 meters and with diameter of 48 meters surrounded by a cylinder of 77 meters diameter and 33 meters height was carried out. The nature of the shock wave load was quite complicated and the determining the arrival times and pulse forms for different parts of the containment was laborious. The 3-D shell element model for half containment building with 4300 degrees of freedom was used in the analyses and the analysis was carried out with STARDYNE program. The displacement and stress states were determined in four time points during the transient, whose length was taken to be four times the impulse-effective part of the load history of 0.8 sec. The maximum displacement was reached in the apex of the containment cupola and was about 1.0 centimeter. (orig./HP)

  3. Explosion of red-supergiant stars: Influence of the atmospheric structure on shock breakout and early-time supernova radiation (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; John Hillier, D.; Audit, Edouard


    Early-time observations of Type II supernovae (SNe) 2013cu and 2013fs have revealed an interaction of ejecta with material near the star surface. Unlike Type IIn SN 2010jl, which interacts with a dense wind for 1 yr, the interaction ebbs after 2-3 d, suggesting a dense and compact circumstellar envelope. Here, we use multi-group radiation hydrodynamics and non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium radiative transfer to explore the properties of red-supergiant (RSG) star explosions embedded in a variety of dense envelopes. We consider the cases of an extended static atmosphere or a steady-state wind, adopting a range of mass loss rates. The shock breakout signal, luminosity and color evolution up to 10 d, and ejecta dynamics are strongly influenced by the properties of this nearby environment. This compromises the use of early-time observations to constrain R⋆. For dense circumstellar envelopes, the time-integrated luminosity over the first 10-15 d can be boosted by a factor of a few. The presence of narrow lines for 2-3 d in 2013fs and 2013cu require a cocoon of material of 0.01 M⊙ out to 5-10 R⋆. Spectral lines evolve from electron scattering to Doppler broadened with a growing blueshift of their emission peaks. Recent studies propose a super-wind phase with a mass loss rate from 0.001 up to 1 M⊙ yr-1 in the last months or years of the life of a RSG, although there is no observational constraint that this external material is a steady-state outflow. Alternatively, observations may be explained by the explosion of a RSG star inside its complex atmosphere. Indeed, spatially resolved observations reveal that RSG stars have extended atmospheres, with the presence of downflows and upflows out to several R⋆, even in a standard RSG such as Betelgeuse. Mass loading in the region intermediate between star and wind can accommodate the 0.01 M⊙ needed to explain the observations of 2013fs. Signatures of interaction in early-time spectra of RSG star explosions may

  4. Prediction of shock initiation thresholds and ignition probability of polymer-bonded explosives using mesoscale simulations (United States)

    Kim, Seokpum; Wei, Yaochi; Horie, Yasuyuki; Zhou, Min


    The design of new materials requires establishment of macroscopic measures of material performance as functions of microstructure. Traditionally, this process has been an empirical endeavor. An approach to computationally predict the probabilistic ignition thresholds of polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) using mesoscale simulations is developed. The simulations explicitly account for microstructure, constituent properties, and interfacial responses and capture processes responsible for the development of hotspots and damage. The specific mechanisms tracked include viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact, frictional heating, and heat conduction. The probabilistic analysis uses sets of statistically similar microstructure samples to directly mimic relevant experiments for quantification of statistical variations of material behavior due to inherent material heterogeneities. The particular thresholds and ignition probabilities predicted are expressed in James type and Walker-Wasley type relations, leading to the establishment of explicit analytical expressions for the ignition probability as function of loading. Specifically, the ignition thresholds corresponding to any given level of ignition probability and ignition probability maps are predicted for PBX 9404 for the loading regime of Up = 200-1200 m/s where Up is the particle speed. The predicted results are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. A parametric study also shows that binder properties can significantly affect the macroscopic ignition behavior of PBXs. The capability to computationally predict the macroscopic engineering material response relations out of material microstructures and basic constituent and interfacial properties lends itself to the design of new materials as well as the analysis of existing materials.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Connections and Mechanical Properties of Cu/Al Explosion Shock Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yan


    Full Text Available Based on the molecular dynamics (MD method, transient explosive welding process of Cu/Al junction point was revealed from the microscopic aspect, and mechanical properties and machinability of the Cu/Al nano-weldment were studied. The results show that kinetic energy is converted into internal energy in the system after the collision. The heterogeneous atoms penetrate into each other and the diffusion effect of copper atoms is better than aluminium atoms. The elastic modulus of the nano-weldment is 64.56 GPa, which is between copper's and aluminium's; however, its yield strength is less than those of the two monocrystals. Interactions between dislocations and disordered lattices cause the stress strengthening in the plastic deformation stage, which causes that the stress values of the weldment is larger than those of the two monocrystals. This strengthening mechanism is also reflected in the cutting process, and the weldment has the highest average cutting force 117.80 nN. A mass of dislocations nucleate in the disordered lattice areas of the weldment, and they spread at 45¯ to the cutting direction. However, dislocations pile up when their propagation is hindered by the disordered lattices and interface, which leads to the work hardening effect.

  6. Computational Prediction of Shock Ignition Thresholds and Ignition Probability of Polymer-Bonded Explosives (United States)

    Wei, Yaochi; Kim, Seokpum; Horie, Yasuyuki; Zhou, Min


    A computational approach is developed to predict the probabilistic ignition thresholds of polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs). The simulations explicitly account for microstructure, constituent properties, and interfacial responses and capture processes responsible for the development of hotspots and damage. The specific damage mechanisms considered include viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact, frictional heating, and heat conduction. The probabilistic analysis uses sets of statistically similar microstructure samples to mimic relevant experiments for statistical variations of material behavior due to inherent material heterogeneities. The ignition thresholds and corresponding ignition probability maps are predicted for PBX 9404 and PBX 9501 for the impact loading regime of Up = 200 --1200 m/s. James and Walker-Wasley relations are utilized to establish explicit analytical expressions for the ignition probability as a function of load intensities. The predicted results are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. The capability to computationally predict the macroscopic response out of material microstructures and basic constituent properties lends itself to the design of new materials and the analysis of existing materials. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  7. Fundamental studies of shock-wave-induced degradation of superconductivity in explosively fabricated, bulk, metal-matrix, copper oxide, high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niou, Chornyg-Shyr.


    Explosive fabrication involves the simultaneous consolidation and encapsulation of superconducting powders within a metal-matrix monolith. However, the residual superconducting properties are found to be degraded as a result of the shock-wave pressure effect. In this study shock pressure varying from 4 GPa to 19 GPa revealed that the degradation of superconductivity increased with increasing peak pressures, and exhibited a steep increase in normal-state resistance (resistance-temperature or R-T curve) and broad superconducting resistance transitions, with decreasing critical temperature. Complete recovery of superconductivity could be achieved for all shock-loaded or explosively fabricated Y-Ba-Cu-O materials above 930 degree C, and above 860 degree C for Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. Detailed kinetic studies on Y-Ba-Cu-O revealed a two-stage recovery process having different activation energies which were also sensitive to the peak pressure, and therefore to the densities of defects. In the context of the experimental results, a materials engineering strategy was investigated for optimizing the explosive fabrication of superconducting monoliths

  8. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic biomarker for septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients from the Formosa Fun Coast dust explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xin Wu


    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Infection is the most common cause of death following burn injury. The study was conducted to compare the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT with the other current benchmarks as early predictors of septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients. Methods: We included 24 patients admitted to the Burn Unit of a medical center from June 2015 to December 2015 from the Formosa Fun Coast dust explosion. We categorized all patients at initial admission into either sepsis or septic shock groups. Laboratory tests including the worst PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, platelet (PLT, and white blood cell (WBC count were performed at <48 h after admission. Patients were also classified in two groups with subsequent bacteremia and non-bacteremia groups during hospitalization. Results: Significantly higher PCT levels were observed among participants with septic shock compared to those with sepsis (47.19 vs. 1.18 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001. Patients with bacteremia had significantly elevated PCT levels compared to patients without bacteremia (29.54 versus 1.81 ng/mL, respectively, p < 0.05. No significant differences were found in CRP levels, PLT, and WBC count between the two groups. PCT levels showed reasonable discriminative power (cut-off: 5.12 ng/mL; p = 0.01 in predicting of bloodstream infection in burn patients and the area under receiver operating curves was 0.92. Conclusions: PCT levels can be helpful in determining the septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients but CRP levels, PLT, and WBC count were of little diagnostic value. Keywords: Procalcitonin, Septic shock, Bloodstream infection, Burn patient, Formosa fun coast dust explosion

  9. Coupling crystal plasticity and phase-field damage to simulate β-HMX-based polymer-bonded explosive under shock load (United States)

    Grilli, Nicolo; Dandekar, Akshay; Koslowski, Marisol


    The development of high explosive materials requires constitutive models that are able to predict the influence of microstructure and loading conditions on shock sensitivity. In this work a model at the continuum-scale for the polymer-bonded explosive constituted of β-HMX particles embedded in a Sylgard matrix is developed. It includes a Murnaghan equation of state, a crystal plasticity model, based on power-law slip rate and hardening, and a phase field damage model based on crack regularization. The temperature increase due to chemical reactions is introduced by a heat source term, which is validated using results from reactive molecular dynamics simulations. An initial damage field representing pre-existing voids and cracks is used in the simulations to understand the effect of these inhomogeneities on the damage propagation and shock sensitivity. We show the predictions of the crystal plasticity model and the effect of the HMX crystal orientation on the shock initiation and on the dissipated plastic work and damage propagation. The simulation results are validated with ultra-fast dynamic transmission electron microscopy experiments and x-ray experiments carried out at Purdue University. Membership Pending.

  10. Underwater robots

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, Gianluca


    This book, now at the third edition, addresses the main control aspects in underwater manipulation tasks. The mathematical model with significant impact on the control strategy is discussed. The problem of controlling a 6-degrees-of-freedoms autonomous underwater vehicle is deeply investigated and a survey of fault detection/tolerant strategies for unmanned underwater vehicles is provided. Inverse kinematics, dynamic and interaction control for underwater vehicle-manipulator systems are then discussed. The code used to generate most of the numerical simulations is made available and briefly discussed.       

  11. Predictive Model for the Analysis of the Effects of Underwater Impulsive Sources on Marine Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazauski, Colin J


    A method is provided to predict the biological consequences to marine animals from exposure to multiple underwater impulsive sources by simulating underwater explosions over a defined period of time...

  12. Google™ underwater (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    The first underwater panoramic images were added to Google Maps™, the company announced on 25 September. This first “underwater Street View collection,” launched in partnership with the Caitlin Seaview Survey, provides people with the opportunity to “become the next virtual Jacques Cousteau.” For more information, see:

  13. Motion of the Debris from a High-Altitude Nuclear Explosion: Simulations Including Collisionless Shock and Charge Exchange (United States)


    the EM 2.5 Quasi-neutral Hybrid Code ZEMER,” p3 66 Petr Hellinger , “Structure and Stationarity of Quasi-perpendicular Shocks: Numerical simulations...1966) 4121–4131. Hellinger , Petr. “Structure and Stationarity of Quasi-perpendicular Shocks: Numerical simulations.” Planetary and Space

  14. SN 2016X: a type II-P supernova with a signature of shock breakout from explosion of a massive red supergiant (United States)

    Huang, F.; Wang, X.-F.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Brown, P. J.; Mo, J.; Zhang, J.-J.; Zhang, K.-C.; Zhang, T.-M.; Howell, D.-A.; Arcavi, I.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.; Rui, L.-M.; Song, H.; Xiang, D.-F.; Li, W.-X.; Lin, H.; Wang, L.-F.


    We present extensive ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometry, as well as dense optical spectroscopy, for type II Plateau (IIP) supernova SN 2016X that exploded in the nearby (˜15 Mpc) spiral galaxy UGC 08041. The observations span the period from 2 to 180 d after the explosion; in particular, the Swift UV data probably captured the signature of shock breakout associated with the explosion of SN 2016X. It shows very strong UV emission during the first week after explosion, with a contribution of ˜20-30 per cent to the bolometric luminosity (versus ≲15 per cent for normal SNe IIP). Moreover, we found that this supernova has an unusually long rise time of about 12.6 ± 0.5 d in the R band (versus ˜7.0 d for typical SNe IIP). The optical light curves and spectral evolution are quite similar to the fast-declining type IIP object SN 2013ej, except that SN 2016X has a relatively brighter tail. Based on the evolution of photospheric temperature as inferred from the Swift data in the early phase, we derive that the progenitor of SN 2016X has a radius of about 930 ± 70 R⊙. This large-size star is expected to be a red supergiant star with an initial mass of ≳19-20 M⊙ based on the mass-radius relation of the Galactic red supergiants, and it represents one of the most largest and massive progenitors found for SNe IIP.

  15. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.


    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released

  16. Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, James L


    There is thus provided an underwater vehicle having facility for maneuvering alongside a retrieving vehicle, as by manipulation of bow and stern planes, for engaging a hull surface of the retrieving...

  17. Minimisation of the explosion shock wave load onto the occupants inside the vehicle during trinitrotoluene charge blast. (United States)

    Krzystała, Edyta; Mężyk, Arkadiusz; Kciuk, Sławomir


    The aim of this study was to elaborate identification method of crew overload as a result of trinitrotoluene charge explosion under the military wheeled vehicle. During the study, an experimental military ground research was carried out. The aim of this research was to verify the mine blast resistance of the prototype wheeled vehicle according to STANG 4569 as well as the anti-explosive seat. Within the work, the original methodology was elaborated along with a prototype research statement. This article presents some results of the experimental research, thanks to which there is a possibility to estimate the crew's lives being endangered in an explosion through the measurement of acceleration as well as the pressure on the chest, head and internal organs. On the basis of our acceleration results, both effectiveness and infallibility of crew protective elements along with a blast mitigation seat were verified.

  18. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee


    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  19. A Critical Assessment of Burn Models Available for Implementation into a Computer Code to Model Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives (United States)


    includes a dependence on the shock strength has been described by Damamme and Missonier [391 and is known as the Krakatoa model. It has the form a function which depends on the shock strength, and Am and ’a are constants. K(P) = pn (27) and H(A) = (Q - A) [2n (1 - 2/3 (28) 17 The Krakatoa ...with the model. Both the DAGMAR and Krakatoa models are also inappropriate, as neither addresses the problem of particle size effects. The multiphase

  20. 76 FR 31233 - Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... maritime public and safety of navigation from recently discovered underwater explosive hazards in Gravesend... published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay...

  1. Measurement and reactive burn modeling of the shock to detonation transition for the HMX based explosive LX-14 (United States)

    Jones, J. D.; Ma, Xia; Clements, B. E.; Gibson, L. L.; Gustavsen, R. L.


    Gas-gun driven plate-impact techniques were used to study the shock to detonation transition in LX-14 (95.5 weight % HMX, 4.5 weight % estane binder). The transition was recorded using embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. Initial shock pressures, P, ranged from 2.5 to 8 GPa and the resulting distances to detonation, xD, were in the range 1.9 to 14 mm. Numerical simulations using the SURF reactive burn scheme coupled with a linear US -up / Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for the reactant and a JWL equation of state for the products, match the experimental data well. Comparison of simulation with experiment as well as the ``best fit'' parameter set for the simulations is presented.

  2. Free radical explosive composition (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.


    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  3. Applied pressure-dependent anisotropic grain connectivity in shock consolidated MgB{sub 2} samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Wataru [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Takenaka, Kenta [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Tadashi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Tamaki, Hideyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Matsuzawa, Hidenori [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kai, Shoichiro [Advanced Materials and Process Development Group, Explosive Division, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Oita 870-0392 (Japan); Kakimoto, Etsuji [Advanced Materials and Process Development Group, Explosive Division, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Oita 870-0392 (Japan); Takano, Yoshihiko [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Minehara, Eisuke [FEL Laboratory, Tokai Site, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Shirakata-shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    Three different cylindrical MgB{sub 2} bulk samples were prepared by the underwater shock consolidation method in which shock waves of several GPa, generated by detonation of explosives, were applied to a metallic cylinder containing commercially available MgB{sub 2} powders with no additives. Resistivity anisotropy of the samples increased with shock pressure. The highest- and medium-pressure applied samples had finite resistivities in the radial direction for the whole temperature range down to 12 K, whereas their axial and azimuthal resistivities dropped to zero at 32-35 K. By contrast, the lowest-pressure applied sample was approximately isotropic with a normal-state resistivity of {approx}40 {mu}{omega} cm, an onset temperature of {approx}38.5 K, and a transition width of {approx}4.5 K. These extremely anisotropic properties would have resulted from the distortion of grain boundaries and grain cores, caused by the shock pressures and their repeated bouncing.

  4. Comparative study of the expansion dynamics of laser-driven plasma and shock wave in in-air and underwater ablation regimes (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T. P.; Tanabe, Rie; Ito, Yoshiro


    We compared the expansion characteristics of the plasma plumes and shock waves generated in laser-induced shock process between the two ablation regimes: in air and under water. The observation was made from the initial moment when the laser pulse hit the target until 1.5 μs. The shock processes were driven by focusing a single laser pulse (1064 nm, FWHM = 13 ns) onto the surface of epoxy-resin blocks using a 40-mm focal length lens. The estimated laser intensity at the target plane is approximate to 9 ×109Wcm-2 . We used the fast-imaging technique to observe the expansion of the plasma plume and a custom-designed time-resolved photoelasticity imaging technique to observe the propagation of shock waves with the time resolution of nanoseconds. We found that at the same intensity of the laser beam, the plasma expansion during the laser pulse follows different mechanisms: the plasma plume that grows in air follows a radiation-wave model while a detonation-wave model can explain the expansion of the plasma plume induced in water. The ideal blast wave theory can be used to predict the decay of the shock wave in air but is not appropriate to describe the decay of the shock wave induced under water.

  5. Basic study on promotion of thawing frozen soil by shock loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki WATANABE


    Full Text Available The aim of study is to confirm a new technique that can crush the frozen soil and/or ice block using underwater shock wave generated by the underwater explosion of explosive. This technique can lead to the earlier sowing, which can have the larger harvest because the duration of sunshine increases. Especially, in Hokkaido prefecture, Japan, if the sowing is carried out in April, we can expect to have 150% of harvest in the ordinary season. In the case of small processing area such as road repairing, frozen soil is thawed by using the heat of gas burner and/or the electric heater. It is not a suitable plan to apply these heating methods to agriculture, from the point of view enormous amount of processing area. Thawing technique for frozen soil is effective against the cold regions, for example, Russia, Norway, and Sweden, etc. At first, we carried out experiments using a detonating fuse and ice block. The propagation process of shock wave into the ice block was observed by means of a high-speed camera. In order to check about that influence we tried to give an actual frozen soil a shock wave. We could get a result that existence of water layer serves an important role in promotion of thawing by the shock loading to the frozen soil.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of shock wave propagation in water generated by pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharges (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Maurel, Olivier; La Borderie, Christian; Reess, Thierry; De Ferron, Antoine; Matallah, Mohammed; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles; Jacques, Antoine; Rey-Bethbeder, Frank


    The objective of this study is to simulate the propagation of the shock wave in water due to an explosion. The study is part of a global research program on the development of an alternative stimulation technique to conventional hydraulic fracturing in tight gas reservoirs aimed at inducing a distributed state of microcracking of rocks instead of localized fracture. We consider the possibility of increasing the permeability of rocks with dynamic blasts. The blast is a shock wave generated in water by pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharges. The amplitude of these shock waves is prescribed by the electrohydraulic discharges which generate high pressures of several kilobars within microseconds. A simplified method has been used to simulate the injected electrical energy as augmentation of enthalpy in water locally. The finite element code EUROPLEXUS is used to perform fluid fast dynamic computation. The predicted pressure is consistent with the experimental results. In addition, shock wave propagation characteristics predicted with simulation can be valuable reference for design of underwater structural elements and engineering of underwater explosion.

  7. Contribution to the study of detonation initiation by shock in solid explosives (1961); Contribution a l'etude de l'initiation de la detonation par choc dans les explosifs solides (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauquignon, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    When a shock wave is induced in an explosive, it can initiate chemical reactions which lead more or less rapidly to a stable detonation state. In this study more particular attention was paid to the transition phase, in which has been evaluated the increases in the wave velocity, the pressure, and the electrical conductivity. The influence of the nature of the medium in front of the wave and in contact with the explosive has also been the subject of an experimental study designed to determine the extent to which its nature can be ignored and, subsequently, to characterise the initiation conditions using only the shock intensity induced in the explosive. Finally, the results were generalized for various explosive compositions and led to the development of a possible mechanism for shock initiation. (author) [French] Lorsqu'une onde de choc est induite dans un explosif, elle peut y amorcer des reactions chimiques qui conduisent plus ou moins rapidement a un regime de detonation stable. Dans cette etude, on s'est interesse plus particulierement a la phase transitoire dans laquelle on a evalue l'accroissement de la vitesse d'onde, de la pression et de la conductibilite electrique. L'influence du milieu amont, au contact de l'explosif, a egalement fait l'objet de recherches experimentales de facon a determiner dans quelle mesure on pouvait s'affranchir de sa nature et, par suite, caracteriser les conditions d'initiation par la seule intensite du choc induit dans l'explosif. Enfin, les resultats ont ete generalises a diverses compositions explosives et ont conduit a l'elaboration d'un schema possible du mecanisme de l'initiation par choc. (auteur)

  8. Polarimetry and Schlieren diagnostics of underwater exploding wires (United States)

    Fedotov-Gefen, A. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.


    Nondisturbing laser-probing polarimetry (based on the Faraday and Kerr effects) and Schlieren diagnostics were used in the investigation of underwater electrical wire explosion. Measuring the polarization plane rotation angle of a probing laser beam due to the Faraday effect allows one to determine an axially resolved current flowing through the exploding wire, unlike commonly used current probes. This optical method of measuring current yields results that match those obtained using a current viewing resistor within an accuracy of 10%. The same optical setup allows simultaneous space-resolved measurement of the electric field using the Kerr effect. It was shown that the maximal amplitude of the electric field in the vicinity of the high-voltage electrode is ˜80 kV/cm and that the radial electric field is <1 MV/cm during the wire explosion. Finally, it was shown that the use of Schlieren diagnostics allows one to obtain qualitatively the density distribution behind the shock wave front, which is important for the determination of the energy transfer from the discharge channel to the generated water flow.

  9. Polarimetry and Schlieren diagnostics of underwater exploding wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov-Gefen, A. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.


    Nondisturbing laser-probing polarimetry (based on the Faraday and Kerr effects) and Schlieren diagnostics were used in the investigation of underwater electrical wire explosion. Measuring the polarization plane rotation angle of a probing laser beam due to the Faraday effect allows one to determine an axially resolved current flowing through the exploding wire, unlike commonly used current probes. This optical method of measuring current yields results that match those obtained using a current viewing resistor within an accuracy of 10%. The same optical setup allows simultaneous space-resolved measurement of the electric field using the Kerr effect. It was shown that the maximal amplitude of the electric field in the vicinity of the high-voltage electrode is ∼80 kV/cm and that the radial electric field is <1 MV/cm during the wire explosion. Finally, it was shown that the use of Schlieren diagnostics allows one to obtain qualitatively the density distribution behind the shock wave front, which is important for the determination of the energy transfer from the discharge channel to the generated water flow.

  10. The Numerical Analysis and Experiment of Shock Processing for Bouef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yamashita


    Full Text Available When the shock wave processing is applied to food, it is understood to obtain the change in various physical properties. For instance, when hard beef is processed by the underwater shock wave, the tenderization of meat can be expected. In the future, it is a goal that the shock wave processor is spread in general as a home electrical appliance. In the design for the suitable pressure vessels for food processing, the phenomenon in pressure vessel are very complex in multi-physics manners. Therefore, in numerical calculation, a lot of parameter for the numerical analysis is need for pressure vessel material and various foods. In this study, we chose a beef as a sample of the food processing. First, we obtained an unknown parameter of the beef by measuring the front and the shock wave speed of the sample. Then, we will show some numerical results for shock loading of beef by using LS-DYNA3D. The experiments were carried out using the high-speed image converter camera, high-speed video camera and the explosive experimental facilities.

  11. Underwater Sound Reference Division (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  12. Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Rohrer, John S.; Caviggia, Kurt A.


    The purpose of this study was to design and build two versions of an underwater sound recording device. The device designed is referred to as the Underwater Sound Recorder (USR), which can be connected to one or two hydrophones or other underwater sound sensors. The URS contains a 26 dB preamplifier and a user selectable gain that permits additional amplification of input to the system from 26 dB to 46 dB. Signals within the frequency range up to 15 kHz may be recorded using the USR. Examples of USR applications are monitoring underwater processes that have the potential to create large pressure waves that could potentially harm fish or other aquatic life, such as underwater explosions or pile driving. Additional applications are recording sound generated by vessels or the vocalizations of some marine mammals, such as the calls from many species of whales.

  13. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.


    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  14. Control of adverse effects of explosive blasting in mines by using shock tube (non-electric) initiation systems and its future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.D. [Maharashtra Explosives Ltd., Nagpur (India)


    Every kind of blasting in mines produces some adverse effects on environment, such as ground vibration, noise, fly rock etc. Presently, for restricting these adverse effects, use of shock tube (non-electric) initiation systems are gaining momentum. There are some inherent shortcomings of this initiation system regarding chances of misfires. This paper discusses the various adverse effects of blasting, advantages of shock tube initiation system and the shortcomings of shock tube initiation system regarding chances of misfire and how misfire arises out of failure of shock tube initiation system is different and more dangerous than the misfire occurring due to failure of conventional system (with detonating fuse and cord relays). 1 tab.

  15. Underwater Geotechnical Foundations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Landris


    This report provides an overview and description of the design and construction of underwater geotechnical foundations and offers preliminary guidance based on past and current technology applications...

  16. The gas dynamics of explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee,\tJohn H S


    Explosions, and the non-steady shock propagation associated with them, continue to interest researchers working in different fields of physics and engineering (such as astrophysics and fusion). Based on the author's course in shock dynamics, this book describes the various analytical methods developed to determine non-steady shock propagation. These methods offer a simple alternative to the direct numerical integration of the Euler equations and offer a better insight into the physics of the problem. Professor Lee presents the subject systematically and in a style that is accessible to graduate students and researchers working in shock dynamics, combustion, high-speed aerodynamics, propulsion and related topics.

  17. Underwater Scene Composition (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung


    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  18. Scaling for Shock Response of Equipment in Different Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. O’Hara


    Full Text Available This article presents scaling rules developed to predict the response of submarine equipment subjected to underwater chemical explosions. The computer was used as a surrogate for shock tests. A simplified model of a hull section was used to contain frame-mounted single degree of freedom equipment. A general scaling rule has been developed to handle the spread in the shock response attributable to the charge weight, equipment weight, and equipment frequency, where the shock response is the absolute maximum acceleration of the equipment mass as a function of the shock factor for a given charge weight. The article also examines those cases where a new hull is derived from an original hull by the linear scaling law. The solution of the shock response is well known when the internal equipment has also been linearly scaled. A new general scaling rule is developed for those cases when the equipment is not linearly scaled, that is, the equipment and charge weight used with the original hull remains unchanged when installed in the linearly scaled hull or a completely different equipment and charge weight are used with the new hull. It is emphasized that the test sections were short and devoid of typical equipment present in a real compartment. The results, nevertheless, provide trends and ratios in shock design values, not necessarily absolute design numbers. The approach taken in developing these scaling rules could be useful for enhancing field data that may exist for a given class of boat to allow greater usage of these data for different equipment subject to a variety of charge weights, attack geometries, and other boats.

  19. Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies


    Ahmed, M.; Malik, A. Q.; Rofi, S. A.; Huang, Z. X.


    The process of formation, flying, penetration of explosively-formed projectiles (EFP) and the effect of water on performance of the charge for underwater applications is simulated by Ansysis Autodyn 2D-Hydro code. The main objective of an explosively formed projectile designed for underwater applications is to disintegrate the target at longer standoff distances. In this paper we have simulated the explosively formed projectile from OFHC-Copper liner for 1200 conical angle. The Affect of wate...

  20. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rae, Philip John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baca, Eva V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gunderson, Jake Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without a barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX 9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  1. Premixing and steam explosion phenomena in the tests with stratified melt-coolant configuration and binary oxidic melt simulant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail:; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail:; Konovalenko, Alexander, E-mail:; Karbojian, Aram, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration is studied experimentally. • Different binary oxidic melt simulant materials were used. • Five spontaneous steam explosions were observed. • Instability of melt-coolant interface and formation of premixing layer was observed. • Explosion strength is influenced by melt superheat and water subcooling. - Abstract: Steam explosion phenomena in stratified melt-coolant configuration are considered in this paper. Liquid corium layer covered by water on top can be formed in severe accident scenarios with (i) vessel failure and release of corium melt into a relatively shallow water pool; (ii) with top flooding of corium melt layer. In previous assessments of potential energetics in stratified melt-coolant configuration, it was assumed that melt and coolant are separated by a stable vapor film and there is no premixing prior to the shock wave propagation. This assumption was instrumental for concluding that the amount of energy that can be released in such configuration is not of safety importance. However, several recent experiments carried out in Pouring and Under-water Liquid Melt Spreading (PULiMS) facility with up to 78 kg of binary oxidic corium simulants mixtures have resulted in spontaneous explosions with relatively high conversion ratios (order of one percent). The instability of the melt-coolant interface, melt splashes and formation of premixing layer were observed in the tests. In this work, we present results of experiments carried out more recently in steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration (SES) facility in order to shed some light on the premixing phenomena and assess the influence of the test conditions on the steam explosion energetics.

  2. Numerical modeling of shock-sensitivity experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, A.L.; Forest, C.A.; Kershner, J.D.; Mader, C.L.; Pimbley, G.H.


    The Forest Fire rate model of shock initiation of heterogeneous explosives has been used to study several experiments commonly performed to measure the sensitivity of explosives to shock and to study initiation by explosive-formed jets. The minimum priming charge test, the gap test, the shotgun test, sympathetic detonation, and jet initiation have been modeled numerically using the Forest Fire rate in the reactive hydrodynamic codes SIN and 2DE.

  3. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi


    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  4. Explosions on a gas-vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.; Klein, L.; Ratcliffe, A.E.


    A finite-difference computer code is used to calculate the time development of an explosion on a gas-vacuum interface. An analytic theory of the shape of the shock wave produced in the explosion is compared with the results of the computer simulation. The assumptions used in obtaining this analytic solution are verified, and the degree to which the variables describing the explosion are self-similar is examined. Finally, certain consistency relations among the similarity exponents are tested

  5. Underwater Glider System Study


    Jenkins, Scott A; Humphreys, Douglas E; Sherman, Jeff; Osse, Jim; Jones, Clayton; Leonard, Naomi; Graver, Joshua; Bachmayer, Ralf; Clem, Ted; Carroll, Paul; Davis, Philip; Berry, Jon; Worley, Paul; Wasyl, Joseph


    The goals of this study are to determine how to advance from present capabilities of underwater glider (and hybrid motorglider) technology to what could be possible within the next few years; and to identify critical research issues that must be resolved to make such advancements possible. These goals were pursued by merging archival flight data with numerical model results and system spreadsheet analysis to extrapolate from the present state-of-the–art in underwater (UW) gliders to potential...

  6. Underground Explosions (United States)


    Chile (1960, mb = 9.4), and Anchorage (1964, mb = 9.1). In the 21st century Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (mb = 9.3) occurred on December 26, 2004 caused a...explosion source mechanism is less complex than the earthquake source mechanism. Therefore, the waves produced by explosions have more impulsive first...Seismic waves generated by nuclear and chemical explosions are comparable with natural earthquakes in their intensity and (for industrial chemical

  7. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping


    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  8. Three Dimensional Analysis of Induced Detonation of Cased Explosive (United States)


    armour (RHA) steel were investigated through the LS-DYNA. The investigation focused on shock to detonation simulations of Composition B, with the...casing of the explosive leading to the so-called sympathetic detonation . At high impact velocity, initiation of the explosive was caused by the...analytical equations for a sphere and an indefinitely long cylinder. In general, the impact shock induced detonation behavior of an explosive is

  9. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS


    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  10. Safety engineering experiments of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Noboru


    The outline of large scale experiments carried out every year since 1969 to obtain fundamental data and then establish the safety engineering standards concerning the manufacturing, storage and transportation, etc. of all explosives was described. Because it becomes recently difficult to ensure the safety distance in powder magazines and powder plants, the sandwich structure with sand is thought to be suitable as the neighboring barrier walls. The special vertical structure for embankments to provide against a emergency explosion is effective to absorb the blast. Explosion behaviors such as initiating sensitivity, detonation, sympathetic detonation, and shock occurence of the ANFO explosives in place of dynamite and the slurry explosives were studied. The safety engineering standards for the manufacturing and application of explosives were studied to establish because accidents by tabacco fire are not still distinguished. Much data concerning early stage fire fighting, a large quantity of flooding and shock occurence from a assumption of ignition during machining in the propellants manufacturing plant, could be obtained. Basic studies were made to prevent pollution in blasting sites. Collected data are utilized for the safety administration after sufficient discussion. (4 figs, 2 tabs, 3 photos, 17 refs)

  11. Background Oriented Schlieren Method as an Optical Method to Study Shock Waves (United States)

    Gerasimov, S. I.; Trepalov, N. A.


    Background oriented schlieren method is applied in diagnostics of shock waves in air. The method can be used for visualization of shock waves that are generated after explosion or due to motion at ultrasonic speeds. Experimental data make it possible to observe propagation of a shock wave in space, estimate the asymmetry of energy liberation in explosion, and determine parameters of shock wave.

  12. "Boxnep" advanced modular underwater robot


    Buluev, Ilia


    The article discusses the relevance of the underwater vehicles' ability to solve a wide range of problems. The idea put in the basis of this research is designing a modular underwater robot. It allows to mount various equipment and test it in underwater environment. The paper deals with the concept of the robot and its characteristics.

  13. Resources for Underwater Robotics Education (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.


    4-H clubs can build and program underwater robots from raw materials. An annotated resource list for engaging youth in building underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is provided. This article is a companion piece to the Research in Brief article "Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics" in this issue of the "Journal of…

  14. Gasdynamics of explosions today. (United States)

    Brode, H. L.; Glass, I. I.; Oppenheim, A. K.


    A brief review is given of blast and detonation wave phenomena and some of their uses in war and peace. It is concluded that great strides have been made over the last three decades toward the physical understanding, the analytical-numerical solution, and the measurement of dynamic and thermodynamic quantities, also taking into consideration severe environments and extremely short durations. Questions of internal ballistics are discussed together with hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes, collapsing cylindrical drivers, spherical implosions, explosive weapons, dynamic response, and equation of state data.

  15. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.


    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  16. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)


    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  17. Attenuation of Shock Waves using Perforated Plates (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, CH V. L. C. S.; Hitesh Reddy, C.; Rahul Sai, L.; Dharani Kumar, K. S. S.; Nagaraja, S. R.


    The shock/blast waves generated due to explosions cause wide spread damage to the objects in its path. Different techniques have been used to attenuate shock wave over pressure, to reduce the catastrophic effects. Perforated plates can be used effectively to attenuate the shock wave pressure. In this paper shock wave interaction with perforated plates is simulated using COMSOL multiphysics software. The pressure drop varied from 43.75% to 26% for porosity varying from 10% to 40.

  18. Laser machining of explosives (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.


    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  19. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  20. Underwater Detonations at the Silver Strand Training Complex: Effects on Marine Mammals (United States)


    Effects (REFMS) hydroacoustic model. The explosive footprints were then combined with animal density and movement data to determine time-step...beluga whale but not in the bottlenose dolphin. At maximum levels created by laboratory apparatus (32 psi), TTS was not measured in the bottlenose dolphin...1974), "Swimmer Safe Standoffs from Underwater Explosions," Report NOLX-89, Naval Ordnance Laboratory , NSAP Project PHP-11-73. Clark, S. L., and J

  1. Dynamic testing of adhesive joints using a shock testing machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Weersink, A.F.J.; Ludolphy, J.W.L.


    A light-weight shock testing machine, designed for type approval testing of naval equipment up to 300 kg mass, has been modified into a dynamic tensile test rig. This enables to test structural details for high rate dynamic tensile loadings such as occur during underwater shock. The maximum capacity

  2. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.


    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  3. Underwater laser detection system (United States)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.


    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  4. Underwater Gliders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Muhammad Yasar


    Full Text Available Underwater gliders are a type of underwater vehicle that transverse the oceans by shifting its buoyancy, during which its wings develop a component of the downward motion in the horizontal plane, thus producing a forward force. They are primarily used in oceanography sensing and data collection and play an important role in ocean research and development. Although there have been considerable developments in these gliders since the development of the first glider concept in 1989, to date, no review of these gliders have been done. This paper reviews existing underwater gliders, with emphasis on their respective working principles, range and payload capacity. All information on gliders available in the public domain or published in literature from the year 2000-2013 was reviewed. The majority of these gliders have an operational depth of 1000 m and a payload of less than 25 kg. The exception is a blend-body shape glider, which has a payload of approximately 800 kg and an operational depth around about 300 m. However, the commercialization of these gliders has been limited with only three know examples that have been successfully commercialized.

  5. Hybrid Underwater Vehicle: ARV Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang DENG


    Full Text Available The development of SMU-I, a new autonomous & remotely-operated vehicle (ARV is described. Since it has both the characteristics of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV and remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV, it is able to achieve precision fix station operation and manual timely intervention. In the paper the initial design of basic components, such as vehicle, propulsion, batteries etc. and the control design of motion are introduced and analyzed. ROV’s conventional cable is replaced by a fiber optic cable, which makes it available for high-bandwidth real-time video, data telemetry and high-quality teleoperation. Furthermore, with the aid of the manual real-time remote operation and ranging sonar, it also resolves the AUV’s conflicting issue, which can absolutely adapt the actual complex sea environment and satisfy the unknown mission need. The whole battery system is designed as two-battery banks, whose voltages and temperatures are monitored through CAN (controller area network bus to avoid battery fire and explosion. A fuzzy-PID controller is designed for its motion control, including depth control and direction control. The controller synthesizes the advantage of fuzzy control and PID control, utilizes the fuzzy rules to on-line tune the parameters of PID controller, and achieves a better control effect. Experiment results demonstrate to show the effectiveness of the test-bed.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Thermophone (United States)


    Attorney Docket No. 300009 1 of 8 A CARBON NANOTUBE UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC THERMOPHONE STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The...the Invention [0003] The present invention is an acoustically transparent carbon nanotube thermophone. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...amplitude of the resulting sound waves. [0006] Recently, there has been development of underwater acoustic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn sheets capable

  7. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas


    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  8. Underwater gas tornado (United States)

    Byalko, Alexey V.


    We present the first experimental observation of a new hydrodynamic phenomenon, the underwater tornado. Simple measurements show that the tornado forms a vortex of the Rankine type, i.e. the rising gas rotates as a solid body and the liquid rotates with a velocity decreasing hyperbolically with the radius. We obtain the dependence of the tornado radius a on the gas stream value j theoretically: a ∼ j2/5. Processing of a set of experiments yielded the value 0.36 for the exponent in this expression. We also report the initial stages of the theoretical study of this phenomenon.

  9. Impact of Underwater Explosions on Concrete Bridge Foundations (United States)


    until its energy is drained. Due to Archimedes principle , the bubble will rise to the surface of the water as it shrinks. Figure 2 shows a cross...mining applications , but also in IEDs. Additionally, this material is used to measure energy release, called TNT equivalent. As a result, the...studies will focus on the applicability of building a high fidelity model. If, for example, the foundation’s damage shows little response to changes

  10. Human Male and Female Biodynamic Response to Underwater Explosion Events. (United States)


    mobility the sacrum consists of five fused, modified vertebrae, and articulates with the two ilium bones to com- plete the pelvic ring the... coccyx or tail- bone is a vestigial structure consisting of three or four fused vertebral remnants cervical thoracic lumb; ar sacrum coccyx

  11. Underwater Hearing in Turtles. (United States)

    Willis, Katie L


    The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.

  12. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma


    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  13. The double explosive layer cylindrical compaction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Verbeek, H.J.; Carton, E.P.


    The standard cylindrical configuration for shock compaction is useful for the compaction of composite materials which have some plastic behavior. It can also be used to densify hard ceramics up to about 85% of the theoretical density (TMD), when low detonation velocity explosives (2-4 km s-1) are

  14. OFDM for underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shengli


    A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver des

  15. Protection of divers against electrical shock - physiological criteria of safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The diver has to work in an electrically-hazardous environment, and faces a potential risk of electric shock whenever he uses electrical appliances himself or enters the field of underwater electrical equipment either used by others or incorporated in an underwater installation such as a wellhead or a cathodic protection system. The normal safety practices established for overland use are not adequate for the protection of divers, because the practices rely heavily on: (i) high contact resistance in a dry environment; (ii) free movement in a highly-insulating medium; (iii) the possibility of release from the source of shock; and (iv) rescue by artificial respiration. In the underwater environment these factors are virtually non-existent, so that the chance of surviving a serious electric shock is much less. Moreover, there is always the risk of a serious consequential accident due to reflex action upon receipt of a shock. Protective measures against electric shock are based on two separate fields of knowledge, namely: (1) physiological properties of the human body, that determine tolerable shock severity; (2) engineering practices capable of keeping the actual shock severity within the tolerable limits under all practical conditions. In this report we are concerned only with the physiological criteria of tolerable shock. The criteria presented are derived entirely from published papers and recommendations. Since there is a very large body of publications on the subject, it has been necessary to make a critical selection in order to arrive at practical conclusions. (author)

  16. Initiation of detonation by impact on granular explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, H.


    A good number of experiments have shown up the particular behaviour of granular explosives when they are detonated by barrier transmitted shocks. Similar results can be obtained when the shock is induced by impact. In this case the pressure signal shape applied at the explosive is better known and both its intensity and duration can be varied. By using a mathematical model in which the law of chemical kinetics is a linear function of pressure, and different temperatures are used for solids and gases, it is possible to describe most of the behaviour of detonation initiation in solid granular explosives. (author) [fr

  17. Navy's "Full Ship Shock Trials" as Opportunities for USGS/CTBTO Seismic System Evaluation and Calibration (United States)

    Jih, R. S.


    The U.S. Navy conducts "full ship shock trials" (FSST) on new construction ships to validate the ability the ship to carry out assigned missions in the combat shock environment. The shock trial attempts to simulate the effects of a near-miss underwater explosion by detonating 10,000 pound high explosive charges near the ship. On June 10, June 23, and July 16, 2016, respectively, the Navy carried out three FSSTs on the Littoral Combat Ship USS Jackson (LCS-6) off Florida coast. The three events were well recorded in eastern United States, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reported the events as "experimental explosions", with magnitudes in 3.7-3.8; and 78, 82, and 114 associated/picked phases, respectively. The CTBTO's seismic bulletin has the first and third FSSTs reported, but not the second. CTBTO's International Monitoring Systems (IMS) stations in the United States (Tuckaleechee of TN, Lajitas of TX, Mina of NV, Eilson of AK), Canada (Lac du Bonnet), Turkey (Belbashi), Finland (Lahti), and Australia (Warramunga, Alice Springs) saw some of these events. In addition, five hydrophone channels at Ascension Island hydroacoustic array detected two events. IDC did not "screen out" the detected FSSTs as earthquakes. Both USGS and IDC locations are fairly reasonable. In the case of USGS, the events are off shore, while most of the reporting seismic stations are on land, on one side. The test area selected by the Navy for FSSTs is a narrow hexagon, bounded by two arcs: the 600-ft depth bathymetry on the west, and an arc of radius 120 nautical miles centered at Mayport Naval Station (Florida). The seismic solutions determined by USGS and IDC lie inside the hexagon, using the standard single-event location algorithm. In the seismic monitoring mission area, it has been well known that the best calibration data points are those well-recorded, controlled active-source experiments for which the Ground Truth (of the event size, origin time, and coordinates) are known - such

  18. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.


    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  19. Safety aspects for underwater vehicles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.

    . This stresses for implementation of multiple safety measures of a high degree so that the platform operates continuously in a fail-safe mode. This paper discusses issues on safety measures implemented on the autonomous underwater platforms namely MAYA AUV...

  20. Underwater optical wireless communication network (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi


    The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  1. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  2. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David


    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  3. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.


    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  4. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.


    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  5. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob


    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  6. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome


    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  7. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  8. Underwater measurements of muon intensity (United States)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.


    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  9. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems


    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  10. Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion This artist's animation shows the explosion of a massive star, the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that the star exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart. Cassiopeia A is what is known as a supernova remnant. The original star, about 15 to 20 times more massive than our sun, died in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The movie begins by showing the star before it died, when its layers of elements (shown in different colors) were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. The star is then shown blasting to smithereens. Spitzer found evidence that the star's original layers were preserved, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. In other words, some chunks of the star sped outward faster than others, as illustrated by the animation. The movie ends with an actual picture of Cassiopeia A taken by Spitzer. The colored layers containing different elements are seen next to each other because they traveled at different speeds. The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds. Chunks of the star that were thrown out

  11. An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric. (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot


    Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.

  12. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.


    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  13. Calibration of Underwater Sound Transducers


    H.R.S. Sastry


    The techniques of calibration of underwater sound transducers for farfield, near-field and closed environment conditions are reviewed in this paper .The design of acoustic calibration tank is mentioned. The facilities available at Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, Cochin for calibration of transducers are also listed.

  14. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.


    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  15. Underwater Robots Surface in Utah (United States)

    Hurd, Randy C.; Hacking, Kip S.; Damarjian, Jennifer L.; Wright, Geoffrey A.; Truscott, Tadd


    Underwater robots (or ROVs: Remotely Operated Vehicles as they are typically called in industry) have recently become a very popular instructional STEM activity. Nationally, ROVs have been used in science and technology classrooms for several years in cities such as Seattle, San Diego, Virginia Beach, and other coastal areas. In the past two…

  16. Underwater Shock-Induced Responses of Submerged Cylindrical Structures. (United States)


    VIRTUAL WORK 81 E. THE INCREMENTAL CONTINUU.1 MECHANICS EQUATIONS 82 F. FINITE ELEMENT DISCRETIZATION 84 G. INCLUSION OF or star denotes a differentiation with respect to tine. 14 ^ Tha first tera of equation (2.1) represents the virtual work of...internal forces , the second rapresents tha virtual work of external forces (i.e. pressure, point loading, etc), and the third one represents the

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohl, Ian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knepper, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farrow, Darcie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In this work, shock-induced reactions in high explosives and their chemical mechanisms were investigated using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Experimentally, ultrafast shock interrogation (USI, an ultrafast interferometry technique) and ultrafast absorption spectroscopy were used to interrogate shock compression and initiation of reaction on the picosecond timescale. The experiments yielded important new data that appear to indicate reaction of high explosives on the timescale of tens of picoseconds in response to shock compression, potentially setting new upper limits on the timescale of reaction. Theoretically, chemical mechanisms of shock-induced reactions were investigated using density functional theory. The calculations generated important insights regarding the ability of several hypothesized mechanisms to account for shock-induced reactions in explosive materials. The results of this work constitute significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms that control explosive sensitivity and initiation of detonation.

  18. Magnetorotational Explosions of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan


    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by formation of neutron stars. The gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed as SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. We present results of 2-D MHD simulations, where the source of energy is rotation, and magnetic eld serves as a "transition belt" for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of the explosion. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy initially grows linearly with time due to dierential rotation. When the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal eld, magneto-rotational instability develops, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. Finally, a fast MHD shock is formed, producing a supernova explosion. Mildly collimated jet is produced for dipole-like type of the initial field. At very high initial magnetic field no MRI development was found.

  19. Explosion triggering by an accelerating flame. (United States)

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, V'yacheslav


    The analytical theory of explosion triggering by an accelerating flame is developed. The theory describes the structure of a one-dimensional isentropic compression wave pushed by the flame front. The condition of explosion in the gas mixture ahead of the flame front is derived; the instant of the explosion is determined provided that a mechanism of chemical kinetics is known. As an example, it is demonstrated how the problem is solved in the case of a single reaction of Arrhenius type, controlling combustion both inside the flame front and ahead of the flame. The model of an Arrhenius reaction with a cutoff temperature is also considered. The limitations of the theory due to the shock formation in the compression wave are found. Comparison of the theoretical results to the previous numerical simulations shows good agreement.

  20. Non-classical detonation regimes of liquid high explosives (United States)

    Utkin, A. V.; Mochalova, V. M.


    This paper presents experimental data of studies of the liquid explosives characteristics, in the reaction zone of which the distribution of parameters does not correspond to the classical detonation theory. An increase of the pressure and particle velocity behind a shock jump in liquid explosives and the possibility of the existence of a steady-state detonation wave without a von Neumann spike are interpreted within the framework of models that take into account the possibility of chemical reactions directly in the shock wave front.

  1. Investigation of pressure transients in nuclear filtration systems: construction details of a large shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.


    This report documents the construction of a 0.914-m (36-in.)-dia. shock tube on the New Mexico State University caompus. Highly variable low-grade explosions can be simulated with the shock tube. We plan to investigate the response of nuclear facility ventilation system components to low-grade explosions. Components of particular interest are high-capacity, high efficiency paticulate air (HEPA) filters. Shock tube construction details, operating principles, firing sequence, and preliminary results are reported

  2. Shock-compression measurements at pressures greater than 1 TPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.


    Precise Hugoniot data were obtained for samples of aluminum, quartz, iron, molybdenum, and low-density molybdenum (rho 0 = 8.29 g-cm -3 ) using the impedance-matching technique. An underground nuclear explosion drove a nearly planar, 5-TPa shock into a molybdenum standard. Shock velocities were measured with 1.5% to 2.5% accuracies

  3. Pyroshock Prediction of Ridge-Cut Explosive Bolts Using Hydrocodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Lee


    Full Text Available Pyrotechnic release devices such as explosive bolts are prevalent for many applications due to their merits: high reliability, high power-to-weight ratio, reasonable cost, and more. However, pyroshock generated by an explosive event can cause failures in electric components. Although pyroshock propagations are relatively well understood through many numerical and experimental studies, the prediction of pyroshock generation is still a very difficult problem. This study proposes a numerical method for predicting the pyroshock of a ridge-cut explosive bolt using a commercial hydrocode (ANSYS AUTODYN. A numerical model is established by integrating fluid-structure interaction and complex material models for high explosives and metals, including high explosive detonation, shock wave transmission and propagation, and stress wave propagation. To verify the proposed numerical scheme, pyroshock measurement experiments of the ridge-cut explosive bolts with two types of surrounding structures are performed using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs. The numerical analysis results provide accurate prediction in both the time (acceleration and frequency domains (maximax shock response spectra. In maximax shock response spectra, the peaks due to vibration modes of the structures are observed in both the experimental and numerical results. The numerical analysis also helps to identify the pyroshock generation source and the propagation routes.

  4. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.


    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  5. Detonation Shock Dynamics of Composite Energetic Materials. (United States)

    Lee, Jaimin


    A reaction-rate equation for a composite energetic material was calibrated from two-dimensional steady-state experiment data by using the detonation shock dynamics theory. From experimental detonation velocities and shock -front shapes at different diameters for an ammonium nitrate -based emulsion explosive at 1.248 g/cm^3, the relationship between the detonation velocity normal to the shock-front and the shock-front curvature was obtained. By using this relationship and solving the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations of motion in a problem -conforming intrinsic-coordinate frame obtained from the detonation shock dynamics theory, the reaction rate was determined as a function of pressure and density: {dlambdaover dt} = 20.0 times 10^6 {rm exp}({-}14390/ sqrt{P/rho^{0.8418}})(1 - lambda)^{1.889}where lambda is the reaction extent, t is the time in s, P is the pressure in Pa, and rho is the density in kg/m^3 . The reaction-rate equation obtained for this emulsion explosive shows that the rate is very slow and weakly state dependent. These characteristics of the rate indicated that the nonideal behavior of most industrial-type explosives can be attributed to their slow and state-insensitive rates. By using the above rate equation, one-dimensional initiation experiments (wedge tests) were numerically modeled with a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code. The calculated shock trajectories agreed very well with experimental wedge test data. This agreement also suggested that the small shock-curvature asymptotics may be valid even for a relatively large value of the curvature. The calibration method developed in this study is independent of the form of the rate. Realistic rate equations for explosives can be obtained in a very systematic way from two-dimensional steady-state experiments.

  6. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demystifying the shock of shocking. Beyra Rossouw, MB ChB, MMed. (Paed), DTM, MSc (Sports Medicine),. Certificate Critical Care (Paed). Senior Registrar Paediatric Cardiology, Western. Cape Paediatric Cardiac Services, Red Cross. War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of. Cape Town, and Tygerberg Children's ...

  7. In-Situ Silver Acetylide Silver Nitrate Explosive Deposition Measurements Using X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covert, Timothy Todd


    The Light Initiated High Explosive facility utilized a spray deposited coating of silver acetylide - silver nitrate explosive to impart a mechanical shock into targets of interest. A diagnostic was required to measure the explosive deposition in - situ. An X - ray fluorescence spectrometer was deployed at the facility. A measurement methodology was developed to measure the explosive quantity with sufficient accuracy. Through the use of a tin reference material under the silver based explosive, a field calibration relationship has been developed with a standard deviation of 3.2 % . The effect of the inserted tin material into the experiment configuration has been explored.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Levin Vladimir


    Full Text Available This problem is related to the safety problem in the area of forest fires. It is well known that is possible to extinguish a fire, for example, by means of a powerful air stream. Such flow arises from the explosive shock wave. To enhance the im- pact of the blast wave can be used an explosive charge of annular shape. The shock wave, produced by the explosion, in- creased during moves to the center and can serve as a means of transportation dust in the seat of the fire. In addition, emerging after the collapse of a converging shock wave strong updraft can raise dust on a greater height and facilitate fire extinguishing, precipitating dust over a large area. This updraft can be dangerous for aircraft that are in the sky above the fire. To determine the width and height of the danger zone performed the numerical simulation of the ring of the explosion and the subsequent movement of dust and gas mixtures. The gas is considered ideal and perfect. The explosion is modeled as an instantaneous increase in the specific internal energy in an annular zone on the value of the specific heat of explosives. The flow is consid- ered as two-dimensional, and axisymmetric. The axis of symmetry perpendicular to the Earth surface. This surface is considered to be absolutely rigid and is considered as the boundary of the computational domain. On this surface is exhibited the condition of no motion. For the numerical method S. K. Godunov is used a movable grid. One system of lines of this grid is moved in accordance with movement of the shock wave. Others lines of this grid are stationary. The calculations were per- formed for different values of the radii of the annular field and for different sizes of rectangular cross-sectional of the annular field. Numerical results show that a very strong flow is occurring near the axis of symmetry and the particles rise high above the surface. These calculations allow us to estimate the sizes of the zone of danger in specific

  9. The CREST reactive-burn model for explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswaran M-A.


    Full Text Available CREST is an innovative reactive-burn model that has been developed at AWE for simulating shock initiation and detonation propagation behaviour in explosives. The model has a different basis from other reactive-burn models in that its reaction rate is independent of local flow variables behind the shock wave e.g. pressure and temperature. The foundation for CREST, based on a detailed analysis of data from particle-velocity gauge experiments, is that the reaction rate depends only on the local shock strength and the time since the shock passed. Since a measure of shock strength is the entropy of the non-reacted explosive, which remains constant behind a shock, CREST uses an entropy-dependent reaction rate. This paper will provide an overview of the CREST model and its predictive capability. In particular, it will be shown that the model can predict a wide range of experimental phenomena for both shock initiation (e.g. the effects of porosity and initial temperature on sustained-shock and thin-flyer initiation and detonation propagation (e.g. the diameter effect curve and detonation failure cones using a single set of coefficients.

  10. Induced shock propagation on the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKown, T.O.


    The Explosive Effects Physics Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory planned and conducted experiments on the NPE (Non-Proliferation Experiment) as part of its effort to define source functions for seismic waves. Beyond the explosive chamber, the detonation induced shock propagated through the saturated tuff of the N-tunnel complex. The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vsw Time EXperiment) system was used to investigate the shock propagation in two drill holes and the access drift. The CORRTEX experiments fielded will be described. The data obtained are reviewed and an apparent asymmetry in the radiating shock is discussed

  11. Numerical modelling of two HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives at the mesoscale


    Handley, Caroline A.


    Mesoscale models are needed to predict the effect of changes to the microstructure of plastic-bonded explosives on their shock initiation and detonation behaviour. This thesis describes the considerable progress that has been made towards a mesoscale model for two HMX-based explosives PBX9501 and EDC37. In common with previous work in the literature, the model is implemented in hydrocodes that have been designed for shock physics and detonation modelling. Two relevant physics effects, heat co...

  12. Steam explosion simulation code JASMINE v.3 user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Maruyama, Yu; Nakamura, Hideo


    A steam explosion occurs when hot liquid contacts with cold volatile liquid. In this phenomenon, fine fragmentation of the hot liquid causes extremely rapid heat transfer from the hot liquid to the cold volatile liquid, and explosive vaporization, bringing shock waves and destructive forces. The steam explosion due to the contact of the molten core material and coolant water during severe accidents of light water reactors has been regarded as a potential threat to the integrity of the containment vessel. We developed a mechanistic steam explosion simulation code, JASMINE, that is applicable to plant scale assessment of the steam explosion loads. This document, as a manual for users of JASMINE code, describes the models, numerical solution methods, and also some verification and example calculations, as well as practical instructions for input preparation and usage of the code. (author)

  13. Network Computing for Distributed Underwater Acoustic Sensors (United States)


    Physical layer in UASNs Our main investigations are about underwater communications using acoustic waves. Elec- tromagnetic and optical waves do not...Shengli, Z., and Jun-Hong, C. (2008), Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks, Wirel. Commun . Mob. Comput., 8(8... Wireless Communications , 9(9), 2934–2944. [21] Pompili, D. and Akyildiz, I. (2010), A multimedia cross-layer protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks

  14. Cooperative OFDM underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xilin; Cheng, Xiang


    Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical enginee...

  15. International Conference on Underwater Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Jaulin, Luc; Creuze, Vincent; Debese, Nathalie; Quidu, Isabelle; Clement, Benoît; Billon-Coat, Annick


    This volume constitutes the results of the International Conference on Underwater Environment, MOQESM’14, held at “Le Quartz” Conference Center in Brest, France, on October 14-15, 2014, within the framework of the 9th Sea Tech Week, International Marine Science and Technology Event. The objective of MOQESM'14 was to bring together researchers from both academia and industry, interested in marine robotics and hydrography with application to the coastal environment mapping and underwater infrastructures surveys. The common thread of the conference is the combination of technical control, perception, and localization, typically used in robotics, with the methods of mapping and bathymetry. The papers presented in this book focus on two main topics. Firstly, coastal and infrastructure mapping is addressed, focusing not only on hydrographic systems, but also on positioning systems, bathymetry, and remote sensing. The proposed methods rely on acoustic sensors such as side scan sonars, multibeam echo sounders, ...

  16. The concept of explosives malfunctioning in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Val d`Or, Quebec (Canada)


    The problem of cross-hole explosive malfunctioning in rock blasting (including sympathetic detonation, desensitization and cut-offs) is a function of delay and spacing in a blast which should be designed to avoid such occurrences. On a delay-spacing chart, the phenomenon of explosive malfunctioning is explained by dividing the chart into different regions, while the shape and size of each region could vary from one explosive to the other. Over seventy blasts have been carried out at the CANMET Experimental Mine to identify the malfunctioning characteristics of specific emulsion, water-gel and dynamite explosives. In each experiment, two parallel blastholes, 32 mm in diameter and 1.7 m deep, were drilled downwards in an underground drift. Full coupling was achieved by tamping the explosives in the wet holes. The receptor hole is initiated with a delay following the donor hole in order to observe the timing effect on the explosives being shocked. High frequency vibration monitoring was used to identify the detonation or failure of the receptor hole. The VOD measurement was used for donor holes but not for the receptor holes because of the cut-off at the collar as a result of donor hole cratering, which was further confirmed with high speed video recording. The spacing is varied to modify the shock pressure the receptor charges are subjected to. Results are presented for the three explosives tested.

  17. Experimental investigation of the reaction-build-up for plastic bonded explosive JOB-9003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang


    Full Text Available In order to measure the shock initiation behavior of JOB-9003 explosives, Al-based embedded multiple electromagnetic particle velocity gauge technique has been developed. In addition, a gauge element called the shock tracker has been used to monitor the progress of the shock front as a function of time, thus providing a position–time trajectory of the wave front as it moves through the explosive sample. The data is used to determine the position and time for shock to detonation transition. All the experimental results show that the rising-up time of Al-based electromagnetic particle velocity gauge is very short (<20 ns; the reaction-build-up velocity profiles and the position–time for shock to detonation transition of HMX-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX JOB-9003 with 1–8 mm depth from the origin of the impact plane under different initiation pressures were obtained with high accuracy.

  18. Effect of Pressure Gradients on the Initiation of PBX-9502 via Irregular (Mach) Reflection of Low Pressure Curved Shock Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Phillip Isaac [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moro, Erik Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In the instance of multiple fragment impact on cased explosive, isolated curved shocks are generated in the explosive. These curved shocks propagate and may interact and form irregular or Mach reflections along the interaction loci, thereby producing a single shock that may be sufficient to initiate PBX-9501. However, the incident shocks are divergent and their intensity generally decreases as they expand, and the regions behind the Mach stem interaction loci are generally unsupported and allow release waves to rapidly affect the flow. The effects of release waves and divergent shocks may be considered theoretically through a “Shock Change Equation”.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader


    Full Text Available Krakatoa exploded August 27, 1883 obliterating 5 square miles of land and leaving a crater 3.5 miles across and 200-300 meters deep. Thirty three feet high tsunami waves hit Anjer and Merak demolishing the towns and killing over 10,000 people. In Merak the wave rose to 135 feet above sea level and moved 100 ton coral blocks up on the shore.Tsunami waves swept over 300 coastal towns and villages killing 40,000 people. The sea withdrew at Bombay, India and killed one person in Sri Lanka.The tsunami was produced by a hydrovolcanic explosion and the associated shock wave and pyroclastic flows.A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becoming water gas at constant volume generates a pressure of 30,000 atmospheres.The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMREulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE which includes the high pressure physics of explosions.The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by the magma to 1100 degree Kelvin or 19 kcal/mole. The high temperature water is an explosive with the hot liquid water going to a water gas. The BKW steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 89 kilobars, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/second and the water is compressed to 1.33 grams/cc.The observed Krakatoa tsunami had a period of less than 5 minutes and wavelength of less than 7 kilometers and thus rapidly decayed. The far field tsunami wave was negligible. The air shock generated by the hydrovolcanic explosion propagated around the world and coupled to the ocean resulting in the explosion being recorded on tide gauges around the world.

  20. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.


    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  1. Surface energy of explosive nanoparticles (United States)

    Pineau, Nicolas; Bidault, Xavier; Soulard, Laurent


    Recent experimental studies show that nanostructuration has a substantial impact on the detonation of high explosives: a nanostructured one leads to smaller nanodiamonds than a microstructured one. Whether it comes from a higher surface energy or from porosity, the origin of these different behaviors must be investigated. The surface energy of TATB nanoparticles with a radius from 2 nm upto 60 nm has been determined by means of ReaxFF-based simulations. Then, using the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and the equation of states of the bulk material, the contribution of this excess energy to the heating of a shock-compressed nanostructured (and porous) material is evaluated and compared to the thermal effect due to its porosity collapse. A maximum temperature increase of 50 K is found for 4-nm nanoparticles, which remains negligible when compared to the few hundred degrees induced by the compaction work.

  2. Cardiogenic shock (United States)

    ... occur during or after a heart attack (myocardial infarction). These complications include: A large section of heart ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol and triglycerides, or tobacco use Alternative Names Shock - cardiogenic Images Heart, section ...

  3. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid


    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  4. Underwater Noise Pollution at the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gazioğlu


    Full Text Available Underwater noise pollution (UNP has become a major concern in marine habitats, which is intense anthropogenic noise in the marine (aquatic environment. It is caused by ship traffic, oceanographic experiments, and use of explosives in geophysical research, underwater construction, active sonars and seismic survey techniques. Oceans are much nosier than 1960s. Narrow and shallow channel noisy aquatic environments where noise levels reach the highest value is not surprising. The Strait of Istanbul (SoI; Bosphorus is one of the most important maritime passages (app. 50 000 vessel/year or 140 vessel/day which is situated between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea are also biologically extremely important gateway not only it provides access to a channel. Many of the varieties of fish migration hunting value are realized through the TSS. Local maritime traffic is another important acoustic sources which are more than 3 000 elements (Kesgin and Vardar, 2001 of everyday local traffic in SoI, which are causing noise in the 2 and 10 kHz range. Large vessels create signals both in bands below 1 kHz (main engine, electrical instruments cavitation noise creates higher frequency bands. Almost all elements of marine traffic in SoI located therefore encountered UND in all bands.

  5. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.


    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  6. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell


    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  7. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server


    This book is the second of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation and high-velocity impact and penetration events. Of the four extensive chapters in this volume, the first two describe the reactive behavior of condensed phase explosives, - Condensed-Phase Explosives: Shock Initiation and Detonation Phenomena (SA Sheffield and R Engelke) - First Principles Molecular Simulations of Energetic Materials at High-Pressures (F Zhang, S Alavi, and TK Woo), and the remaining two discuss the inert, mechanical response of solid materials. - Combined Compression and Shear Plane Waves (ZP Tang and JB Aidun), and - Dynamic Fragmentation of Solids (D Grady). All chapters are each self-contained, and can be read independently of each other. They offer a timely reference, for beginners as well as professional scientists and engineers, on the foundations of detonation phenomen...

  8. Asymmetric explosion of core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeroni, Remi


    A core-collapse supernova represents the ultimate stage of the evolution of massive stars.The iron core contraction may be followed by a gigantic explosion which gives birth to a neutron star.The multidimensional dynamics of the innermost region, during the first hundreds milliseconds, plays a decisive role on the explosion success because hydrodynamical instabilities are able to break the spherical symmetry of the collapse. Large scale transverse motions generated by two instabilities, the neutrino-driven convection and the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI),increase the heating efficiency up to the point of launching an asymmetric explosion and influencing the birth properties of the neutron star. In this thesis, hydrodynamical instabilities are studied using numerical simulations of simplified models. These models enable a wide exploration of the parameter space and a better physical understanding of the instabilities, generally inaccessible to realistic models.The non-linear regime of SASI is analysed to characterize the conditions under which a spiral mode prevails and to assess its ability to redistribute angular momentum radially.The influence of rotation on the shock dynamics is also addressed. For fast enough rotation rates, a corotation instability overlaps with SASI and greatly impacts the dynamics. The simulations enable to better constrain the effect of non-axisymmetric modes on the angular momentum budget of the iron core collapsing into a neutron star. SASI may under specific conditions spin up or down the pulsar born during the explosion. Finally, an idealised model of the heating region is studied to characterize the non-linear onset of convection by perturbations such as those produced by SASI or pre-collapse combustion inhomogeneities. The dimensionality issue is examined to stress the beneficial consequences of the three-dimensional dynamics on the onset of the explosion. (author) [fr

  9. Explosives tester with heater (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA


    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  10. Intermittent Explosive Disorder


    Lut Tamam; Meliha Zengin Eroglu; Ozlem Paltaci


    Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etio...

  11. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.


    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  12. Studies on Shock Attenuation in Plastic Materials and Applications in Detonation Wave Shaping (United States)

    Khurana, Ritu; Gautam, P. C.; Rai, Rajwant; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, A. C.; Singh, Manjit, Dr


    Pressure in plastic materials attenuates due to change of impedance, phase change in the medium and plastic deformation. A lot of theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to the attenuation of shock wave produced by the impact of explosive driven flyer plate. However comparatively less work has been done on the attenuation of shock waves due to contact explosive detonation. Present studies deal with the attenuation of explosive driven shock waves in various plastic materials and its applications in design of Hybrid Detonation Wave Generator In present work shock attenuating properties of different polymers such as Perspex, Teflon, nylon, polypropylene and viton has been studied experimentally using rotating mirror streak camera and electrical position pins. High explosive RDX/TNT and OCTOL of diameter 75-100mm and thickness 20 to 50mm were detonated to induce shock wave in the test specimens. From experimental determined shock velocity at different locations the attenuation in shock pressure was calculated. The attenuation of shock velocity with thickness in the material indicates exponential decay according to relation US = UOexp(-ax). In few of the experiments manganin gauge of resistance 50 ohms was used to record stress time profile across shock wave. The shock attenuation data of Viton has successfully been used in the design of hybrid detonation wave generator using Octol as high explosive. While selecting a material it was ensured that the attenuated shock remains strong enough to initiate an acceptor explosive. Theoretical calculation were supported by Autodyne 2D hydro-code simulation which were validated with the experiments conducted using high speed streak photography and electrical shock arrival pins. Shock attenuation data of Perspex was used to establishing card gap test and wedge test in which test items is subjected to known pressure pulse by selecting the thickness of the plastic material.

  13. Uniformity of cylindrical imploding underwater shockwaves at very small radii (United States)

    Yanuka, D.; Rososhek, A.; Bland, S. N.; Krasik, Ya. E.


    We compare the convergent shockwaves generated from underwater, cylindrical arrays of copper wire exploded by multiple kilo-ampere current pulses on nanosecond and microsecond scales. In both cases, the pulsed power devices used for the experiments had the same stored energy (˜500 J) and the wire mass was adjusted to optimize energy transfer to the shockwave. Laser backlit framing images of the shock front were achieved down to the radius of 30 μm. It was found that even in the case of initial azimuthal non-symmetry, the shock wave self-repairs in the final stages of its motion, leading to a highly uniform implosion. In both these and previous experiments, interference fringes have been observed in streak and framing images as the shockwave approached the axis. We have been able to accurately model the origin of the fringes, which is due to the propagation of the laser beam diffracting off the uniform converging shock front. The dynamics of the shockwave and its uniformity at small radii indicate that even with only 500 J stored energies, this technique should produce pressures above 1010 Pa on the axis, with temperatures and densities ideal for warm dense matter research.

  14. Explosive Technology Group (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  15. Application of an Underwater Robot in Reactor Coolant System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min; Lee, Sung-Uk; Cho, Jai-Wan


    Nuclear energy is a major source of electric energy consumed in Korea. It has the advantage of other energy sources, nuclear energy is cost effective and little pollution. But the fearfulness of an accident and/or failure has scared us the utilization of nuclear energy extensively. So, the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants become more important. Inspection and maintenance of component should be achieved continuously. The RCS(reactor coolant system) of PWR(pressurized water reactor) has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. Cooling water is injected through the SI(safety injection) nozzle into the cold leg of the primary loop. Thermal sleeves are attached inside the cylindrical SI nozzle to reduce the thermal shock of the cooling water to the weld zone of the safety injection nozzle. The human workers are susceptible to radiation exposure and manual handling machine is hard to access because of the complexity of the path. So, we developed and applied free running, tele-operated underwater vehicle to inspect SI nozzle close to the place. Tele-operated robot is useful to inspect and maintain the component of nuclear power plants to reduce the radiation exposure of human operators and improve the reliability of the operation in nuclear power plants. Underwater robot is comprised of two parts; one is robot vehicle and the other is remote control module. Underwater robot vehicle has 4 DOF(degree of freedom) of mobility and 1 DOF of camera observation. The task to inspect the internal of RCS in nuclear power plant is achieved successfully. And the reliability for the maintenance is increased by the aid of tele-operated robot

  16. Application of an Underwater Robot in Reactor Coolant System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min; Lee, Sung-Uk; Cho, Jai-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Nuclear energy is a major source of electric energy consumed in Korea. It has the advantage of other energy sources, nuclear energy is cost effective and little pollution. But the fearfulness of an accident and/or failure has scared us the utilization of nuclear energy extensively. So, the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants become more important. Inspection and maintenance of component should be achieved continuously. The RCS(reactor coolant system) of PWR(pressurized water reactor) has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. Cooling water is injected through the SI(safety injection) nozzle into the cold leg of the primary loop. Thermal sleeves are attached inside the cylindrical SI nozzle to reduce the thermal shock of the cooling water to the weld zone of the safety injection nozzle. The human workers are susceptible to radiation exposure and manual handling machine is hard to access because of the complexity of the path. So, we developed and applied free running, tele-operated underwater vehicle to inspect SI nozzle close to the place. Tele-operated robot is useful to inspect and maintain the component of nuclear power plants to reduce the radiation exposure of human operators and improve the reliability of the operation in nuclear power plants. Underwater robot is comprised of two parts; one is robot vehicle and the other is remote control module. Underwater robot vehicle has 4 DOF(degree of freedom) of mobility and 1 DOF of camera observation. The task to inspect the internal of RCS in nuclear power plant is achieved successfully. And the reliability for the maintenance is increased by the aid of tele-operated robot.

  17. Armoured vehicles subject to mine explosions an analysis method for operationability and survivability (United States)

    Langrand, B.; Deletombe, E.; Charles, J.-L.; Sobry, J.-F.; Martin, S.; Chazal, H.


    The paper deals with numerical methodologies to improve the operationability and survivability of armoured vehicle subject to mine explosions. Methods are proposed to model and extract the time history of the impulsive load from a mine explosion, and to restore equivalent loading conditions to a structural analysis calculation. The problem of computing the shock transmitted to the floor through the undercarriage in the case of the explosion of a mine under a wheel is finally investigated. That kind of model enables to discriminate whether the highly dynamic shock is transmitted through the wheel/undercarriage, or directly through the floor.



    team University of Hawai’i at Manoa undergraduates was trained by graduate student researchers in MMRP experienced with acoustic data analysis. A... Behavioural effects of exposure to underwater explosions in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74(9), 1661-1672...However, most of the samples recording the presence of more distant humpback whales are like this, the low frequencies travelling longer distances

  19. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.


    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  20. Jetting formation of the explosively loaded powders (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Yu, Qiqi


    The formation of jet-like structures is widely reported in the explosive dispersal of powders surrounding high explosive charges. The jetting of powder beds initiates upon the shock wave reaches the outer edge of the charge. Opposed to the interface instability theory, a hollow sphere based bulk fragmentation model is established to account for the jetting of powders. A two-phase process, namely the nucleation and free expansion of hollow spheres, corresponds to the unloading process of the powder compact caused by the rarefaction waves which governs the fragmentation of the powders. The separation between adjacent hollow spheres dictates the size of the particle clusters, which would evolve into particle jets in later times. The predicted breakup time and the size of particle jets agree well with the experimental results. The increased moisture content in powders results in an increased number of particle jets. This moisture effect can be understood in light of the varied energy distribution due to the incompressibility of the interstitial liquids trapped inside the inter-grain pores. The portion of shock energy which is not consumed in the shock compaction of the wet powders would be dissipated through the viscous shear flows during the unloading of the wet powder compact. The excessive viscous energy requires to activate more localized shear flows, accordingly leading to an increased number of particle jets.

  1. High Explosive Detonation–Confiner Interactions (United States)

    Short, Mark; Quirk, James J.


    The primary purpose of a detonation in a high explosive (HE) is to provide the energy to drive a surrounding confiner, typically for mining or munitions applications. The details of the interaction between an HE detonation and its confinement are essential to achieving the objectives of the explosive device. For the high pressures induced by detonation loading, both the solid HE and confiner materials will flow. The structure and speed of a propagating detonation, and ultimately the pressures generated in the reaction zone to drive the confiner, depend on the induced flow both within the confiner and along the HE–confiner material interface. The detonation–confiner interactions are heavily influenced by the material properties and, in some cases, the thickness of the confiner. This review discusses the use of oblique shock polar analysis as a means of characterizing the possible range of detonation–confiner interactions. Computations that reveal the fluid mechanics of HE detonation–confiner interactions for finite reaction-zone length detonations are discussed and compared with the polar analysis. This includes cases of supersonic confiner flow; subsonic, shock-driven confiner flow; subsonic, but shockless confiner flow; and sonic flow at the intersection of the detonation shock and confiner material interface. We also summarize recent developments, including the effects of geometry and porous material confinement, on detonation–confiner interactions.

  2. Cell phone explosion. (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj


    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong


    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  4. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.


    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  5. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M


    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  6. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives (United States)


    .... OSHA-2007-0032 (formerly Docket Nos. OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; termination. SUMMARY: In this notice, OSHA is terminating the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents...

  7. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.


    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  8. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło


    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  9. Toxic shock syndrome (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  10. Initiation and Propagation in Primary Explosives (United States)

    Dickson, P. M.; Field, J. E.


    The initiation and propagation of deflagration and detonation in mercury fulminate, lead azide, mercuric-5-nitrotetrazole and silver-5-nitrotetrazole have been studied using various techniques. Streak and framing high-speed photography were used to observe these events directly. The main aim has been to investigate the factors which affect deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) and the related phenomenon of dead-pressing, which may be regarded as a failure of the DDT process at high pressed densities. These factors include the variable properties of pressed density, void structure, confinement and charge dimension and geometry, and also fixed properties (for a given explosive) such as shock and thermal sensitivities, heat of explosion and the quantity and state of the reaction products. The nature and strength of the initiating stimulus also have a major effect on the subsequent reaction.

  11. Model based image restoration for underwater images (United States)

    Stephan, Thomas; Frühberger, Peter; Werling, Stefan; Heizmann, Michael


    The inspection of offshore parks, dam walls and other infrastructure under water is expensive and time consuming, because such constructions must be inspected manually by divers. Underwater buildings have to be examined visually to find small cracks, spallings or other deficiencies. Automation of underwater inspection depends on established water-proved imaging systems. Most underwater imaging systems are based on acoustic sensors (sonar). The disadvantage of such an acoustic system is the loss of the complete visual impression. All information embedded in texture and surface reflectance gets lost. Therefore acoustic sensors are mostly insufficient for these kind of visual inspection tasks. Imaging systems based on optical sensors feature an enormous potential for underwater applications. The bandwidth from visual imaging systems reach from inspection of underwater buildings via marine biological applications through to exploration of the seafloor. The reason for the lack of established optical systems for underwater inspection tasks lies in technical difficulties of underwater image acquisition and processing. Lightening, highly degraded images make a computational postprocessing absolutely essential.

  12. Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed


    Full Text Available The process of formation, flying, penetration of explosively-formed projectiles (EFP and the effect of water on performance of the charge for underwater applications is simulated by Ansysis Autodyn 2D-Hydro code. The main objective of an explosively formed projectile designed for underwater applications is to disintegrate the target at longer standoff distances. In this paper we have simulated the explosively formed projectile from OFHC-Copper liner for 1200 conical angle. The Affect of water on the penetration of EFP is determined by simulations from Ansysis Autodyn 2-D Hydrocode and by varying depth of water from 1CD-5CD. The depth of penetration against steel target is measured experimentally. Flash X-Ray Radiography (FXR is used to capture EFP jet formation and its penetration against target is measured by depth of penetration experiments. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The difference in simulated and experimental results for depth of penetration is about 7 mm, which lies within favorable range of error. The jet formation captured from FXR is quite clear and jet velocity determined from Flash X-ray radiography is the same as the ones obtained by using other high explosives. Therefore, it is indicated that Insensitive Munition (8701 can be utilized instead of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX for air and underwater environments with great reliability and without any hazard.

  13. Uncertainty in Explosive Yields of Core-Collapse Supernovae (United States)

    Andrews, Sydney; Fryer, Chris; Even, Wesley P.; Jones, Samuel; Pignatari, Marco; NuGrid Collaboration


    The chemical composition of the ejecta from the violent explosions of massive stars has been vital for probing the nature of the explosions and their effect on galactic chemical evolution and universal chemical composition. The sensitivity of numerical explosive nucleosynthetic yields in core-collapse supernovae to several key parameters is examined in one dimension. This uncertainty study is applied to 15, 20, and 25 solar mass stars with different energy prescriptions for shock revival. The effects of the resolution of the temperature and density profiles run through the NuGrid nuclear network are explored, as well as the differences between large and small isotope networks for the initial conditions of the explosion calculations.

  14. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server


    This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with detonation waves or compression shock waves in reactive heterogeneous media, including mixtures of solid, liquid and gas phases. The topics involve a variety of energy release and control processes in such media - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The six extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Spray Detonation (SB Murray and PA Thibault) - Detonation of Gas-Particle Flow (F Zhang) - Slurry Detonation (DL Frost and F Zhang) - Detonation of Metalized Composite Explosives (MF Gogulya and MA Brazhnikov) - Shock-Induced Solid-Solid Reactions and Detonations (YA Gordopolov, SS Batsanov, and VS Trofimov) - Shock Ignition of Particles (SM Frolov and AV Fedorov) Each chapter is self-contained and can be read independently of the others, though, they are thematically interrelated. They offer a t...

  15. Characterising shock propagation through inert beds (United States)

    Edgeley, James; Braithwaite, Christopher


    Optical velocimetry methods have been used extensively to measure the detonation wave velocity in explosives. The reaction zone length can subsequently be inferred using one of several methods, most involving transmitting the shock into an acceptor component made of another material and observing the wave's attenuation. The ultimate aim of this investigation is to develop a method optimised for characterising the reaction zone in low density PETN. The initial procedure involves a shock imparted by a gas gun into an inert bed in otherwise similar conditions. The design of the acceptor component is varied, and in each case an appropriate calculation is done to determine the size and profile of the shock. Laser interferometry is used to take velocity measurements where necessary. The results are compared against the input shock from the gun to assess the suitability of the apparatus.

  16. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang


    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  17. A new technique for robot vision in autonomous underwater vehicles using the color shift in underwater imaging (United States)


    FOR ROBOT VISION IN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING by Jake A. Jones June 2017 Thesis Advisor... VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jake A. Jones 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...underwater vehicles (AUVs), robot vision, autonomy, visual odometry, underwater color shift, optical properties of water 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 75 16

  18. Explosions of infalling comets in Jupiter's atmosphere (United States)

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Sarazin, Craig L.


    /sec for approximately 0.6 sec for a bolide 1 km in radius. At rho(sub a) approximately 10(exp -4) gr/cm(exp 3), the bolide has passed below the ultraviolet photosphere. The shock front emits considerable ionizing radiation, but it is absorbed in a narrow preshock region. The bolometric correction for the optical luminosity is large and we expect a 3000 to 8000 A luminosity of approximately 3 x 10(exp 23) ergs/sec for approximately 1 sec. The optical emission is strongly peaked in the vicinity of the bolide. The bolide does have a somewhat less luminous, optically thick trail extending greater than or equal to 10 km, but the radiation is characterized by a temperature of 4000 to 5000 K. From the fragmentation model of Chyba, Thomas, & Zahnle (1993), the bolide deposits most of its kinetic energy at rho(sub a) approximately 10(exp -3) gr/cm(exp 3) and this is the effective explosion site. The shock wave from such an explosion can move up about one density scale height. We examine the breakout of the shock front from the Jovian atmosphere and find that the shock acceleration in the decreasing density region is slow, so that the energy flux in the shock front is small. Higher velocities might be generated by shock acceleration along the channel left by the bolide if the shock motion can occur before the channel closes off as a result of radiative cooling. Hot gas created by the explosion ultimately rises due to buoyancy on a timescale of a minute. The luminosity is highest when the bubble first rises into the optically thin part of the atmosphere and may be approximately 1 x 10(exp 25) ergs/sec in the near-infrared. Roughly 1% of the initial bolide energy may be radiated in this way; the rest of the energy is lost to sound waves from the initial explosion and to work done by the bubble on the surrounding atmosphere.

  19. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at depolarising a myocardium that is not generating a co-ordinated, perfusing rhythm. Organised QRS complexes cannot be identified and the electrical current is delivered without synchronising with the patient's native rhythm. DC shock should not be delayed once a shockable rhythm is recognised. The longer the ...

  20. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials (United States)


    ... the law if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841. Explosives materials are... inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and nitro... nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash...

  1. Focused tandem shock waves in water and their potential application in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Šunka, Pavel; Hoffer, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Poučková, P.; Zadinová, M.; Zeman, J.; Dibdiak, L.; Kolářová, H.; Tománková, K.; Binder, S.; Beneš, J.


    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2014), s. 51-57 ISSN 0938-1287. [International Symposium on Shock Waves/28./. Manchester, 17.07.2011-22.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1151 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : focused shock waves * underwater discharge * cancer treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.885, year: 2014

  2. First all-union symposium on shock pressures, October 24-26, 1973, Moscow. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsanov, S.S.

    Twenty-two papers on the chemistry of impulsive pressures are contained in this volume. The papers deal primarily with shock wave propagation in various materials (particularly oxides) and explosive forming and sintering

  3. Investigations of the Dynamic Properties of Matter Using Axis-Symmetrical Shock Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dudin, S


    .... In experiments, the shock loading of AD998 tubes was realized in two ways: by cylindrical detonation initiated by electrical explosion of wire and by impact of the stainless steel tube liner launched by the cylindrical detonation wave...

  4. Hydrodynamic modeling and explosive compaction of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, C.; Holt, A.; Finger, M.; Kuhl, W.


    High-density ceramics with high-strength microstructure were achieved by explosive compaction. Well-characterized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, and boron powders were explosively compacted in both cylindrical and flat plate geometries. In cylindrical geometries compacted densities between 91 and 98 percent of theoretical were achieved. Microhardness measurements indicated that the strength and integrity of the microstructure were comparable to conventionally fabricated ceramics, even though all samples with densities greater than 90 percent theoretical contained macrocracks. Fractured surfaces evaluated by SEM showed evidence of boundary melting. Equation of state data for porous Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were used to calculate the irreversible work done on the sample as a function of pressure. This was expressed as a percentage of the total sample which could be melted. Calculations show that very little melting can be expected in samples shocked to less than 3 GPa. Significant melting and grain boundary fusion can be expected in samples shocked to pressures greater than 8 GPa. Hydrodynamic modeling of right cylinder compaction with detonation at one end was attempted by using a two-dimensional computer code. The complications of this analysis led to experiments using plane shock waves. Flat-plate compaction assemblies were designed and analyzed by 2-D hydrodynamic codes. The use of porous shock attenuators was evaluated. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide powders in plane wave geometry. Microstructure evaluations were made as a function of location in the flat plate samples. 11 figures, 1 table.

  5. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank


    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  6. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z


    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  7. Cardiogenic Shock. (United States)

    Moskovitz, Joshua B; Levy, Zachary D; Slesinger, Todd L


    Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome. Although early reperfusion strategies are essential to the management of these critically ill patients, additional treatment plans are often needed to stabilize and treat the patient before reperfusion may be possible. This article discusses pharmacologic and surgical interventions, their indications and contraindications, management strategies, and treatment algorithms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E


    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  9. Shock-to-Detonation Transition simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) experiments with embedded velocity gauges provide data that can be used for both calibration and validation of high explosive (HE) burn models. Typically, a series of experiments is performed for each HE in which the initial shock pressure is varied. Here we describe a methodology for automating a series of SDT simulations and comparing numerical tracer particle velocities with the experimental gauge data. Illustrative examples are shown for PBX 9502 using the HE models implemented in the xRage ASC code at LANL.

  10. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian


    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  11. Materials and structures under shock and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Patrice


    In risk studies, engineers often have to consider the consequences of an accident leading to a shock on a construction. This can concern the impact of a ground vehicle or aircraft, or the effects of an explosion on an industrial site.This book presents a didactic approach starting with the theoretical elements of the mechanics of materials and structures, in order to develop their applications in the cases of shocks and impacts. The latter are studied on a local scale at first. They lead to stresses and strains in the form of waves propagating through the material, this movement then extending

  12. Underwater Grass Comeback Helps Chesapeake Bay (United States)

    The fortified Susquehanna Flats, the largest bed of underwater grasses in the Chesapeake Bay, seems able to withstand a major weather punch. Its resilience is contributing to an overall increase in the Bay’s submerged aquatic vegetation.

  13. Underwater Object Segmentation Based on Optical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen


    Full Text Available Underwater optical environments are seriously affected by various optical inputs, such as artificial light, sky light, and ambient scattered light. The latter two can block underwater object segmentation tasks, since they inhibit the emergence of objects of interest and distort image information, while artificial light can contribute to segmentation. Artificial light often focuses on the object of interest, and, therefore, we can initially identify the region of target objects if the collimation of artificial light is recognized. Based on this concept, we propose an optical feature extraction, calculation, and decision method to identify the collimated region of artificial light as a candidate object region. Then, the second phase employs a level set method to segment the objects of interest within the candidate region. This two-phase structure largely removes background noise and highlights the outline of underwater objects. We test the performance of the method with diverse underwater datasets, demonstrating that it outperforms previous methods.

  14. Sensor network architectures for monitoring underwater pipelines. (United States)

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren


    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (radio frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  15. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (United States)

    ... explosive disorder have an increased risk of: Impaired interpersonal relationships. They're often perceived by others as ... of control: Stick with your treatment. Attend your therapy sessions, practice your coping skills, and if your ...

  16. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (United States)

    ... Headache Intermittent explosive disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  17. Assessment of explosion barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JL


    Full Text Available This report summarises the test work which has been completed on the comparison of different types of stoop flame propagation of coal dust explosions in a 200 m gallery. The research was conducted at kloppersbos research facility...

  18. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka


    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  19. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam


    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  20. Explosive Components Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  1. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R


    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  2. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.


    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  3. Thermodynamics of explosions


    Neergaard, Gregers; Bondorf, Jakob P.; Mishustin, Igor N.


    We present our first attempts to formulate a thermodynamics-like description of explosions. The motivation is partly a fundamental interest in non-equilibrium statistical physics, partly the resemblance of an explosion to the late stages of a heavy-ion collision. We perform numerical simulations on a microscopic model of interacting billiard-ball like particles, and we analyse the results of such simulations trying to identify collective variables describing the degree of equilibrium during t...

  4. Overview of Explosive Initiators (United States)


    crystals) spherical morphology. The SLA has higher explosive performance than dextrinated lead azide (DLA) or RD1333/special purpose lead azide (SPLA...electric bridgewires for commercial electric detonators. It is known to be extremely sensitive to ESD.  Dextrinated lead azide (DLA) (refs. 4 through...incorporation of dextrin (a short-chained, starch-based polysaccharide), which helps to desensitize the explosive by preventing the formation of large

  5. Underwater photogrammetry successful in Spain and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Underwater photogrammetry has been used to measure distortions in fuel assembly alignment pins in the upper internals of the Almarez and Dampierre PWRs. Photogrammetry is a three-dimensional precision measurement method using photographic techniques for the on-site measurement phase. On the strength of the operations at the two PWRs, underwater photogrammetry is now considered as a practical and effective technique for dimensional inspection at nuclear plants. (U.K.)

  6. Underwater noise levels in UK waters


    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.


    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). ...

  7. Underwater gait analysis in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Volpe, Daniele; Pavan, Davide; Morris, Meg; Guiotto, Annamaria; Iansek, Robert; Fortuna, Sofia; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi


    Although hydrotherapy is one of the physical therapies adopted to optimize gait rehabilitation in people with Parkinson disease, the quantitative measurement of gait-related outcomes has not been provided yet. This work aims to document the gait improvements in a group of parkinsonians after a hydrotherapy program through 2D and 3D underwater and on land gait analysis. Thirty-four parkinsonians and twenty-two controls were enrolled, divided into two different cohorts. In the first one, 2 groups of patients underwent underwater or land based walking training; controls underwent underwater walking training. Hence pre-treatment 2D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed, together with post-treatment on land gait analysis. Considering that current literature documented a reduced movement amplitude in parkinsonians across all lower limb joints in all movement planes, 3D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed on a second cohort of subjects (10 parkinsonians and 10 controls) who underwent underwater gait training. Baseline land 2D and 3D gait analysis in parkinsonians showed shorter stride length and slower speed than controls, in agreement with previous findings. Comparison between underwater and on land gait analysis showed reduction in stride length, cadence and speed on both parkinsonians and controls. Although patients who underwent underwater treatment exhibited significant changes on spatiotemporal parameters and sagittal plane lower limb kinematics, 3D gait analysis documented a significant (p<0.05) improvement in all movement planes. These data deserve attention for research directions promoting the optimal recovery and maintenance of walking ability. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A laboratory study of explosives malfunction in blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsabanis, P.D.; Ghorbani, A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)


    Explosives malfunction due to shock waves is a serious concern for successful blasting results. Malfunction includes sympathetic detonation and desensitization of explosive charges as well as the modification of firing times of conventional pyrotechnic detonators. Small diameter emulsions and detonators were tested in a laboratory environment to identify the parameters affecting malfunction. The experiments had a donor-acceptor configuration and the charges were detonated in the same sequence. Continuous velocity of detonation monitoring was used as an indicator of explosives performance and for studying the timing of the initiation of the acceptor charge and/or detonator, while distance and delay interval between the donor and acceptor were modified. Fumes from the detonating charges were analyzed in a number of experiments while a few experiments were conducted in rock confinement. It was found that both distance and delay interval are important as far as desensitization is concerned. At certain separation distances temporary desensitization, followed by temporary recovery was observed. Toxicity of the product gases was affected by desensitization although this effect ranged from negligible to pronounced and was not consistent. In many cases desensitized explosives reacted completely as evidenced by the concentration of the fumes in the blasting chamber. Conventional pyrotechnic delay detonators malfunctioned due to a shock produced by a 40mm diameter emulsion explosive at similar distances as the explosives (below 203 mm). Furthermore the experiments in granite showed that 40 mm diameter charges can malfunction at separation distances below 330 mm. This malfunction ranged from sympathetic detonation to shock desensitization; in most cases it was associated with severe loss of performance.

  9. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs (United States)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi


    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  10. An underwater optical wireless communication network (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi


    The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. We present models of three kinds of optical wireless communication links a) a line-of-sight link, b) a modulating retro-reflector link and c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered lighted it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. We conclude from the analysis that a high data rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV to UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  11. Constitutive Theories for Woven Composite Structures Subjected to Shock Loading; Experimental Validation Using a Conical Shock Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hufner


    Full Text Available Woven polymer-based composites are currently used in a wide range of marine applications. These materials often exhibit highly nonlinear, rate dependent, anisotropic behavior under shock loadings. Correlation to transient response data, beyond an initial peak, is often difficult. The state of damage evolves throughout the time history and the unloading response varies based on the amount, and nature of, the accumulated damage. Constitutive theories that address the loading and unloading responses have been developed and integrated with each other. A complete theory, applicable to transient dynamic analysis, is presented. The model is implemented within the commercial finite element code, Abaqus, in the form of a user material subroutine. In this study, the conical shock tube is used to experimentally reproduce the high strain rates and fluid structure interactions typical of underwater shock loadings. The conical shock tube data is used to validate analytical model predictions. Simulation results are in good agreement with test data.

  12. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media (United States)

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.


    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  13. Nuclear explosive development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groseclose, B. Clark


    The nuclear explosive itself is the point about which the Plowshare program revolves. The energy potential of a thermal neutron fissionable material such as Pu 239 or U 235 of ∼17 kt/kg or of Li 6 D of ∼60 kt/kg is indeed impressive. Such large energy densities allow many applications for nuclear explosives that are unthinkable for conventional high explosives. This country has been involved in the design of nuclear explosives for almost thirty years. A question often asked is, 'Why do we still need design effort on nuclear explosives? Hasn't all the possible design work been done?' In a partial reply, let me give an analogy. Why work on nuclear reactors? They were successful even before the first explosive worked. Why should new accelerators be designed? They have worked for many decades. The obvious answer to these questions is that new data, new theories, new insights into the problems and thus new possibilities are found and new requirements are continually being formulated. The development of larger and faster computers has allowed an enormous increase in the design calculations for nuclear explosives. Approximations in the physics involved in the calculations must be made in order to obtain solutions in a finite time, but these approximations can be 'made more accurately as the computing capability increases. Additional calculational capability also allows the designer to examine his design under a variety of possible conditions and configurations. The net effect is a much more sophisticated design. New developments in the area of materials and material, properties open doors that have hitherto been closed. We have seen an increasing emphasis on the interaction of the explosive with its environment. Very specific applications require tailored features such as low fission yield, low fusion yield, low residual radioactivity in particular species, small diameter, low weight, low cost, etc. The Plowshare program in particular imposes stringent requirements on

  14. Modeling Explosion Induced Aftershocks (United States)

    Kroll, K.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.; Walter, W. R.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.


    Many traditional earthquake-explosion discrimination tools are based on properties of the seismic waveform or their spectral components. Common discrimination methods include estimates of body wave amplitude ratios, surface wave magnitude scaling, moment tensor characteristics, and depth. Such methods are limited by station coverage and noise. Ford and Walter (2010) proposed an alternate discrimination method based on using properties of aftershock sequences as a means of earthquakeexplosion differentiation. Previous studies have shown that explosion sources produce fewer aftershocks that are generally smaller in magnitude compared to aftershocks of similarly sized earthquake sources (Jarpe et al., 1994, Ford and Walter, 2010). It has also been suggested that the explosion-induced aftershocks have smaller Gutenberg- Richter b-values (Ryall and Savage, 1969) and that their rates decay faster than a typical Omori-like sequence (Gross, 1996). To discern whether these observations are generally true of explosions or are related to specific site conditions (e.g. explosion proximity to active faults, tectonic setting, crustal stress magnitudes) would require a thorough global analysis. Such a study, however, is hindered both by lack of evenly distributed explosion-sources and the availability of global seismicity data. Here, we employ two methods to test the efficacy of explosions at triggering aftershocks under a variety of physical conditions. First, we use the earthquake rate equations from Dieterich (1994) to compute the rate of aftershocks related to an explosion source assuming a simple spring-slider model. We compare seismicity rates computed with these analytical solutions to those produced by the 3D, multi-cycle earthquake simulator, RSQSim. We explore the relationship between geological conditions and the characteristics of the resulting explosion-induced aftershock sequence. We also test hypothesis that aftershock generation is dependent upon the frequency

  15. Multi-shock experiments on a TATB-based composition (United States)

    Sorin, Remy


    Temperature based models for condensed explosive need an unreacted equation of state (EOS) that allows a realistic estimation of the temperature for a shock compression driven at detonation velocity. To feed the detonation models, we aim at exploring the high pressure shock Hugoniot of unreacted TATB composition up to 30 GPa with both hydrodynamic and temperature measurements. We performed on the gas gun facility ARES, multi-shock experiments where the first shock is designed to desensitize the explosive and inhibit the reactivity of the composition. The hydrodynamic behavior was measured via the velocity of a TATB/LiF interface with PDV probes. We attempted to measure the temperature of the shocked material via surface emissivity with a pyrometer calibrated to the expected low temperature range. Based on single shock experiments and on ab-initio calculation, we built a complete EOS for the unreacted phase of the TATB explosive. The hydrodynamic data are in good agreement with our unreacted EOS. Despite the record of multi-stage emissivity signals, the temperature measurements were difficult to interpret dur to high-luminisity phenomena pertubation. In collaboration with: Nicolas Desbiens, Vincent Dubois and Fabrice Gillot, CEA DAM DIF.

  16. Accumulation of explosives in hair. (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Shinde, Kajal P; Marimganti, Suvarna


    The sorption of explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, EGDN) to hair during exposure to their vapors is examined. Three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Following exposure of hair, the sorbed explosive was removed by extraction with acetonitrile and quantified. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: EGDN > TATP >TNT > PETN > RDX. In some cases, the explosive-containing hair was subject to repeated washings with sodium dodecylsulfate or simply left out in an open area to determine the persistence of the explosive contamination. While explosive is removed from hair with time or washing, some persists. These results indicate that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling.

  17. Shock Prevention (United States)


    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  18. Vapor Explosions with Subcooled Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.; McUmber, L.M.


    Explosive vapor formation accompanied by destructive shock waves, can be produced when two liquids, at much different temperatures, are brought into intimate contact. A proposed analytical model states that the interface temperature upon contact between the two liquid systems, gust be greater than or equal to the spontaneous nucleation temperature of that liquid-liquid system and that the thermal boundary layer must be sufficiently developed to support a critical size cavity. For time scales greater than 10-12 sec, the interface temperature upon contact of two semi-infinite masses, with constant thermal properties, can be related to the initial liquid temperatures. The spontaneous nucleation behavior at the interface can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature. In either case, the critical size cavities, which initiate the vaporization process, are produced by local density fluctuations within the cold liquid. For homogeneous conditions, the two liquids present a well-wetted system and the vapor embryos are produced entirely within the cold liquid. For heterogeneous conditions, which result from poor, or imperfect wetting, at the liquid-liquid interface, the critical sized cavities are created at the interface at somewhat lower temperatures. A sequence of experiments, using Freon-22 and water, Freon-22 and mineral oil, and Freon-12 and mineral oil have been performed to test this spontaneous nucleation premise. For Freon-22 at its normal boiling point, the interface temperature of the water must be at least 77 deg. C before the interface temperature equals or exceeds the minimum homogeneous nucleation value of 54 deg. C and 84 deg. C before the interface temperature equals 60 deg. C where the homogeneous nucleation rate becomes truly explosive. The Freon-water test demonstrated explosive interactions for water temperatures considerably lower than this value and this was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation characteristics of that particular system

  19. Underwater Noise Modeling in Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Bagočius


    Full Text Available Along with rising awareness of public and scientific societies about environmental and ecological impacts of underwater noise, the need for underwater noise modelling in the shallow Lithuanian area of Baltic Sea emerged. Marine Strategy Framework Directive issues regarding underwater noise indicators refers to possibility of evaluation of Good Environmental State using underwater noise measurements as well as possibility to model underwater noise. Main anthropogenic underwater noise contributor in the Seas is the shipping lanes as known due to date, with no exclusion of Lithuanian Baltic Sea area. In this manuscript, it is presented the methods of development of simplistic underwater ambient noise model purposed for computation of underwater soundscape in shallow area of the Lithuanian Baltic Sea.

  20. Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Climent, Salvador; Capella, Juan Vincente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan José


    The specific characteristics of underwater environments introduce new challenges for networking protocols. In this paper, a specialized architecture for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed and evaluated. Experiments are conducted in order to analyze the suitability of this protocol for

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic underwater vehicular propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallom, D.W.; Sadovnik, I.; Gibbs, J.S.; Gurol, H.; Nguyen, L.


    The development of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion systems for underwater vehicles is discussed. According to the authors, it is a high risk endeavor that offers the possibility of a number of significant advantages over conventional propeller propulsion systems. These advantages may include the potential for greater stealth characteristics, increased maneuverability, enhanced survivability, elimination of cavitation limits, and addition of a significant emergency propulsion system. The possibility of increased stealth is by far the most important advantage. A conceptual design study has been completed with numerical results that shows that these advantages may be obtained with a magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system in an annular configuration externally surrounding a generic study submarine that is neutrally buoyant and can operate with the existing submarine propulsion system power plant. The classical submarine mission requirements make the use of these characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system particularly appropriate for submarine missions. The magnetohydrodynamic annular propulsion system for a generic attack class submarine has been designed to take advantage of the magnetohydrodynamic thruster characteristics

  2. Routing strategies for underwater gliders (United States)

    Davis, Russ E.; Leonard, Naomi E.; Fratantoni, David M.


    Gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that achieve long operating range by moving at speeds comparable to those of, or slower than, typical ocean currents. This paper addresses routing gliders to rapidly reach a specified waypoint or to maximize the ability to map a measured field, both in the presence of significant currents. For rapid transit in a frozen velocity field, direct minimization of travel time provides a trajectory "ray" equation. A simpler routing algorithm that requires less information is also discussed. Two approaches are developed to maximize the mapping ability, as measured by objective mapping error, of arrays of vehicles. In order to produce data sets that are readily interpretable, both approaches focus sampling near predetermined "ideal tracks" by measuring mapping skill only on those tracks, which are laid out with overall mapping skill in mind. One approach directly selects each vehicle's headings to maximize instantaneous mapping skill integrated over the entire array. Because mapping skill decreases when measurements are clustered, this method automatically coordinates glider arrays to maintain spacing. A simpler method that relies on manual control for array coordination employs a first-order control loop to balance staying close to the ideal track and maintaining vehicle speed to maximize mapping skill. While the various techniques discussed help in dealing with the slow speed of gliders, nothing can keep performance from being degraded when current speeds are comparable to vehicle speed. This suggests that glider utility could be greatly enhanced by the ability to operate high speeds for short periods when currents are strong.

  3. Novel high explosive compositions (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.


    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  4. A Self-similar Flow Behind a Shock Wave in a Gravitating or Non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    corona or the condensed explosives or the diaphragm containing a very high pressure driver gas, at t = 0. By sudden expansion of the stellar corona or the detonation products or the driver gas into the ambient gas, a shock wave is produced in the ambient gas, in an infinitesimal time interval t0 (say). The shocked gas is ...

  5. Fibre-optical techniques for measuring various properties of shock waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinse, W.C.; Esveld, R.J. van; Oostdam, R. van; Rooijen, M. van; Bouma, R.H.B.


    For the past years we have developed several optical techniques to measure properties of shock waves. The fibre optic probe (FOP) is developed to measure the shock-wave velocity and/or the detonation velocity inside an explosive. The space resolution can be as small as 0.5 mm. Single fibres are used

  6. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment. (United States)

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong


    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental study on the influence of chemical sensitizer on pressure resistance in deep water of emulsion explosives (United States)

    Liu, Lei; zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Ya; Qin, hao


    The study on the pressure resistance performance of emulsion explosives in deep water can provide theoretical basis for underwater blasting, deep-hole blasting and emulsion explosives development. The sensitizer is an important component of emulsion explosives. By using reusable experimental devices to simulate the charge environment in deep water, the influence of the content of chemical sensitizer on the deep-water pressure resistance performance of emulsion explosives was studied. The experimental results show that with the increasing of the content of chemical sensitizer, the deep-water pressure resistance performance of emulsion explosives gradually improves, and when the pressure is fairly large, the effect is particularly pronounced; in a certain range, with the increase of the content of chemical sensitizer, that emulsion explosives’ explosion performance also gradually improve, but when the content reaches a certain value, the explosion properties declined instead; under the same emulsion matrix condition, when the content of NANO2 is 0.2%, that the emulsion explosives has good resistance to water pressure and good explosion properties. The correctness of the results above was testified in model blasting.

  8. [Explosion in rectum]. (United States)

    Hofstad, Bjørn


    The article describes a case of gas explosion during diathermy snare resection of a polyp in the rectum, after cleansing with a sorbitol enema. Proximity to anus prevented perforation or other complications. The patient was shown to be a methane producer by a hydrogen-methane breath test. Gas explosion is a rare complication during use of diathermy in lower endoscopy, and usually occurs in patients with sub-optimal bowel cleansing. CO2 insufflation will prevent this and should be the method of choice; first of all because it reduces patient discomfort in the period after colonoscopy.

  9. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials (United States)


    electrostatic discharge, heat, and shock . Primaries are known to reach detonation very quickly after such an initiation event. The large amount of...bullet/fragment impact are critical. Minimizing sympathetic detonation —the unintended detonation of a nearby explosive charge which has been caused by...deflagration rather than a detonation when subjected to fast cook-off, slow cook-off, fragment impact, bullet impact, and sympathetic detonation . TNT failed

  10. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  11. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong


    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  12. Recent developments in underwater repair welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offer, H.P.; Chapman, T.L.; Willis, E.R.; Maslakowski, J.; Van Diemen, P.; Smith, B.W.


    As nuclear plants age and reactor internal components begin to show increased evidence of age-related phenomena such as corrosion and fatigue, interest in the development of cost-effective mitigation and repair remedies grows. One technology currently receiving greater development and application program focus is underwater welding. Underwater welding, as used herein, is the application of weld metal to a substrate surface that is wet, but locally dry in the immediate area surrounding the welding torch. The locally dry environment is achieved by the use of a mechanical device that is specifically designed for water exclusion from the welding torch, surface to be welded, and the welding groove. This paper will explore recent developments in the use of underwater welding as a mitigation and repair technique. (author)

  13. Energetic materials: crystallization, characterization and insensitive plastic bonded explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijden, Antoine E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Yves L.M.; Marino, Emanuela; Bouma, Richard H.B.; Scholtes, Gert J.H.G.; Duvalois, Willem [TNO Defence, Security and Safety, P. O. Box 45, 2280 AA Rijswijk (Netherlands); Roelands, Marc C.P.M. [TNO Science and Industry, P. O. Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn (Netherlands)


    The product quality of energetic materials is predominantly determined by the crystallization process applied to produce these materials. It has been demonstrated in the past that the higher the product quality of the solid energetic ingredients, the less sensitive a plastic bonded explosive containing these energetic materials becomes. The application of submicron or nanometric energetic materials is generally considered to further decrease the sensitiveness of explosives. In order to assess the product quality of energetic materials, a range of analytical techniques is available. Recent attempts within the Reduced-sensitivity RDX Round Robin (R4) have provided the EM community a better insight into these analytical techniques and in some cases a correlation between product quality and shock initiation of plastic bonded explosives containing (RS-)RDX was identified, which would provide a possibility to discriminate between conventional and reduced sensitivity grades. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Detonation initiation in atomistic and mesoscopic simulation of porous explosives (United States)

    Murzov, Semen; Zhakhovsky, Vasily


    Atomistic simulation of chemical reactions activated by shock compression is feasible at sub-nanosecond timescale, and molecular dynamics simulation indicates that the most energetic reactions accomplish within several tens of picosecond. This is too short time in comparison with microseconds required for experimental shock-to-detonation transition in real solid explosives with pores. Different types of hotspots were found in MD simulation of porous explosive described by AB model. Those types are categorized according to ratios between a characteristic time of reactions, a material motion time and a time of hotspot formation. The characteristic time of reaction is determined in MD simulation of isochoric thermal decomposition at different densities. To transfer such information into macroscopic spatial-time scale a simple model of material decomposition using a local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium was developed. Consistent MD simulation and hydrodynamics modeling of AB samples by our smoothed particle hydrodynamic code are agreed well. The developed model was utilized in mesoscale modeling of shock-to-detonation transition in real porous explosives.

  15. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.


    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  16. An integral view of fast shocks around supernova 1006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolic, S.; Heng, K.; Kupko, D.; Husemann, B.; Raymond, J.C.; Hughes, J.P.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Ven, G. van de


    Supernova remnants are among the most spectacular examples of astrophysical pistons in our cosmic neighborhood. The gas expelled by the supernova explosion is launched with velocities ~1000 kilometers per second into the ambient, tenuous interstellar medium, producing shocks that excite hydrogen

  17. Rigid polyurethane foam as an efficient material for shock wave attenuation (United States)

    Komissarov, P. V.; Borisov, A. A.; Sokolov, G. N.; Lavrov, V. V.


    A new method for reducing parameters of blast waves generated by explosions of HE charges on ground is presented. Most of the traditional techniques reduce the wave parameters at a certain distance from the charge, i.e. as a matter of fact the damping device interacts with a completely formed shock wave. The proposed approach is to use rigid polyurethane foam coating immediately the explosive charge. A distributed structure of such a foam block that provides most efficient shock wave attenuation is suggested. Results of experimental shock wave investigations recorded in tests in which HE charges have been exploded with damping devices and without it are compared.

  18. Remanent magnetization and structural effects due to shock in natural and man-made iron-nickel alloys (United States)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Doan, A. S., Jr.


    Explosive shock or meteorite impact are significant remagnetization processes. The mechanisms of remagnetization associated with the dynamic processes depend on the peak shock pressure, the nature of the shocked materials, and the behavior of the shock in the material. Magnetic measurements can be used to classify products formed during a shock process, and magnetic measurements can be used to investigate the process itself because of the special characteristics of the remanent magnetization vectors. The magnetic coercive force increases more rapidly in quenched and annealed iron-nickel alloys as nickel is added than it does in the alloys which have been shocked.

  19. Mesoscale modelling of shock initiation in HMX-based explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D. C. (Damian C.); Mulford, R. N. R. (Robert N. R.); Winter, R. E. (Ron E.); Taylor, P. (Peter); Salisbury, D. A. (Darren A.); Harris, E. J. (Ernie J.)


    Motivation: predictive capability Want to predict initiation, detonics and performance given: {sm_bullet} Variations in composition {sm_bullet} Variations in morphology {sm_bullet}Different loading conditions Previous work on PBX and ANFO: need physically-based model rather than just mechanical calibrations

  20. Summary of Shock Initiation Data for TATB-based Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S


    This short summary of previously published data was compiled to provide the actual in-situ gauge data to allow modeling of these experiments. Although the purpose here is to fulfill a deliverable for a JOWOG 9 Focused Exchange (09-006), it is just as applicable to other exchanges as well. The TATB materials described here are Ultra Fine (UF) TATB and LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), with the details of the experiments provided in the prior publications. The data is provided in the appendices of the document, but will be provided electronically as text files due to being amenable to importing into the code in that manner for comparison.

  1. Detonation initiation of heterogeneous melt-cast high explosives (United States)

    Chuzeville, V.; Baudin, G.; Lefrançois, A.; Genetier, M.; Barbarin, Y.; Jacquet, L.; Lhopitault, J.-L.; Peix, J.; Boulanger, R.; Catoire, L.


    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is widely used in conventional and insensitive munitions as a fusible binder, commonly melt-cast with other explosives such as 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) or 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-one (NTO). In this paper, we study the shock-to-detonation transition phenomenon in two melt-cast high explosives (HE). We have performed plate impact tests on wedge samples to measure run-distance and time-to-detonation in order to establish the Pop-plot relation for several melt-cast HE. Highlighting the existence of the single curve buildup, we propose a two phase model based on a Zeldovich, Von-Neumann, Döring (ZND) approach where the deflagration fronts grow from the explosive grain boundaries. Knowing the grain size distribution, we calculate the deflagration velocities of the explosive charges as a function of shock pressure and explore the possible grain fragmentation.

  2. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid


    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF......). This paper presents an application of the Udwadia-Kalaba Equation for modelling the Reconfigurable Underwater Robots. The constraints developed to enforce the rigid connection between robots in the system is derived through restrictions on relative distances and orientations. To avoid singularities...... in the orientation and, thereby, allow the robots to undertake any relative configuration the attitude is represented in Euler parameters....

  3. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.


    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Underwater noise from offshore oil production vessels. (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; McPherson, Craig; Gavrilov, Alexander


    Underwater acoustic recordings of six Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels moored off Western Australia are presented. Monopole source spectra were computed for use in environmental impact assessments of underwater noise. Given that operations on the FPSOs varied over the period of recording, and were sometimes unknown, the authors present a statistical approach to noise level estimation. No significant or consistent aspect dependence was found for the six FPSOs. Noise levels did not scale with FPSO size or power. The 5th, 50th (median), and 95th percentile source levels (broadband, 20 to 2500 Hz) were 188, 181, and 173 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m, respectively.

  5. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla


    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  6. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites. Viscous doughlike substance underwater cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingstedt, G.; Leisio, C. [ed.


    A viscous sealant is revolutionizing repair of the stone and concrete masonry of underwater dams, bridges and canals. There is now no need for expensive and time-consuming cofferdams, since a diver can extrude quick-setting mortar into underwater structures needing repair. This technique has worked well in recent years in various parts of Finland even in strongly flowing water. IVO experts are now starting to look more beyond the borders of Finland

  7. Research destruction ice under dynamic loading. Part 1. Modeling explosive ice cover into account the temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolov Gennady N.


    Full Text Available In the research, the behavior of ice under shock and explosive loads is analyzed. Full-scale experiments were carried out. It is established that the results of 2013 practically coincide with the results of 2017, which is explained by the temperature of the formation of river ice. Two research objects are considered, including freshwater ice and river ice cover. The Taylor test was simulated numerically. The results of the Taylor test are presented. Ice is described by an elastoplastic model of continuum mechanics. The process of explosive loading of ice by emulsion explosives is numerically simulated. The destruction of the ice cover under detonation products is analyzed in detail.

  8. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.


    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  9. Underwater Advanced Time-Domain Electromagnetic System (United States)


    sufficiently waterproofed ...................................................................... 20 Objective: Calibration method can be used both topside... additional background variability is observed at early times, as illustrated in Figure 15. The layout of this figure is the same as Figure 14. Now the...are discussed in the following sections and summarized in Table 5. Objective: System is sufficiently waterproofed The array remained underwater up to

  10. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors (United States)


    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  11. Detection of Underwater UXOs in Mud (United States)


    2nd International Conference on Underwater Acoustic Measurements, Crete, Greece, 2007. 16 [10] P.T. Gough and D.W. Hawkins “Imaging algorithms...course. Runs 275 and 325 folla.v the same trad < and run 322 foUows a track on the opposite side of the swath. The LF SAS image of run 325 is shown

  12. Adaptive turbo equalization for underwater acoustic communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannelli, L; Leus, G.; Dol, H.S.; Walree, P.A. van


    In this paper a multiband transceiver designed for underwater channels is presented. Multi-branch filtering at the receiver is used to leverage the diversity offered by a multi-scale multi-lag scenario. The multi-branch bank of filters is constructed by estimating scale and delay coefficients

  13. Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.


    Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly

  14. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar. (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier


    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula


    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  16. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane


    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  17. Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives (United States)

    Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

    Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

  18. Nucleosynthesis in Type II Supernova Explosions (United States)

    Elliott, Carrie; Hix, W. Raphael; Harris, A.; Manneschmidt, A.


    Type II are the most common class of the ``core collapse'' supernova, involving the destruction of a high mass star (> 8M⊙). Their death is a result of a self-gravitational force becoming unbalanced as fusion ceases in the stellar core, leading to the collapse of the core to form a neutron star. The propagation of the shock ignites fusion into heavier elements as it progress through the star. This process is the origin of most elements present in the universe. In recent years, the complex nature of the explosion (its hydrodynamics, transport of energy, and the created isotopes) have been studied with increasing physical fidelity. Detailed nucleosynthesis from models of these core collapse supernovae is calculated in a post-processing step, using thermodynamic trajectories. My work on the project has been to develop the tools to visualize the results of post-processing calculations in the 2D grid. National Science Foundation (NSF).

  19. Shock tubes and waves; Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Symposium, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, July 26-31, 1987 (United States)

    Groenig, Hans

    Topics discussed in this volume include shock wave structure, propagation, and interaction; shocks in condensed matter, dusty gases, and multiphase media; chemical processes and related combustion and detonation phenomena; shock wave reflection, diffraction, and focusing; computational fluid dynamic code development and shock wave application; blast and detonation waves; advanced shock tube technology and measuring technique; and shock wave applications. Papers are presented on dust explosions, the dynamics of shock waves in certain dense gases, studies of condensation kinetics behind incident shock waves, the autoignition mechanism of n-butane behind a reflected shock wave, and a numerical simulation of the focusing process of reflected shock waves. Attention is also given to the equilibrium shock tube flow of real gases, blast waves generated by planar detonations, modern diagnostic methods for high-speed flows, and interaction between induced waves and electric discharge in a very high repetition rate excimer laser.

  20. Modeling Propagation of Shock Waves in Metals (United States)

    Howard, W. M.; Molitoris, J. D.


    We present modeling results for the propagation of strong shock waves in metals. In particular, we use an arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE3D) code to model the propagation of strong pressure waves (P ˜ 300 to 400 kbars) generated with high explosives in contact with aluminum cylinders. The aluminum cylinders are assumed to be both flat-topped and have large-amplitude curved surfaces. We use 3D Lagrange mechanics. For the aluminum we use a rate-independent Steinberg-Guinan model, where the yield strength and shear modulus depend on pressure, density and temperature. The calculation of the melt temperature is based on the Lindermann law. At melt the yield strength and shear modulus is set to zero. The pressure is represented as a seven-term polynomial as a function of density. For the HMX-based high explosive, we use a JWL, with a program burn model that give the correct detonation velocity and C-J pressure (P ˜ 390 kbars). For the case of the large-amplitude curved surface, we discuss the evolving shock structure in terms of the early shock propagation experiments by Sakharov.

  1. Stability analysis of hybrid-driven underwater glider (United States)

    Niu, Wen-dong; Wang, Shu-xin; Wang, Yan-hui; Song, Yang; Zhu, Ya-qiang


    Hybrid-driven underwater glider is a new type of unmanned underwater vehicle, which combines the advantages of autonomous underwater vehicles and traditional underwater gliders. The autonomous underwater vehicles have good maneuverability and can travel with a high speed, while the traditional underwater gliders are highlighted by low power consumption, long voyage, long endurance and good stealth characteristics. The hybrid-driven underwater gliders can realize variable motion profiles by their own buoyancy-driven and propeller propulsion systems. Stability of the mechanical system determines the performance of the system. In this paper, the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider developed by Tianjin University is selected as the research object and the stability of hybrid-driven underwater glider unitedly controlled by buoyancy and propeller has been targeted and evidenced. The dimensionless equations of the hybrid-driven underwater glider are obtained when the propeller is working. Then, the steady speed and steady glide path angle under steady-state motion have also been achieved. The steady-state operating conditions can be calculated when the hybrid-driven underwater glider reaches the desired steady-state motion. And the steadystate operating conditions are relatively conservative at the lower bound of the velocity range compared with the range of the velocity derived from the method of the composite Lyapunov function. By calculating the hydrodynamic coefficients of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider, the simulation analysis has been conducted. In addition, the results of the field trials conducted in the South China Sea and the Danjiangkou Reservoir of China have been presented to illustrate the validity of the analysis and simulation, and to show the feasibility of the method of the composite Lyapunov function which verifies the stability of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider.

  2. Hydrogen-poor superluminous stellar explosions. (United States)

    Quimby, R M; Kulkarni, S R; Kasliwal, M M; Gal-Yam, A; Arcavi, I; Sullivan, M; Nugent, P; Thomas, R; Howell, D A; Nakar, E; Bildsten, L; Theissen, C; Law, N M; Dekany, R; Rahmer, G; Hale, D; Smith, R; Ofek, E O; Zolkower, J; Velur, V; Walters, R; Henning, J; Bui, K; McKenna, D; Poznanski, D; Cenko, S B; Levitan, D


    Supernovae are stellar explosions driven by gravitational or thermonuclear energy that is observed as electromagnetic radiation emitted over weeks or more. In all known supernovae, this radiation comes from internal energy deposited in the outflowing ejecta by one or more of the following processes: radioactive decay of freshly synthesized elements (typically (56)Ni), the explosion shock in the envelope of a supergiant star, and interaction between the debris and slowly moving, hydrogen-rich circumstellar material. Here we report observations of a class of luminous supernovae whose properties cannot be explained by any of these processes. The class includes four new supernovae that we have discovered and two previously unexplained events (SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6) that we can now identify as members of the same class. These supernovae are all about ten times brighter than most type Ia supernova, do not show any trace of hydrogen, emit significant ultraviolet flux for extended periods of time and have late-time decay rates that are inconsistent with radioactivity. Our data require that the observed radiation be emitted by hydrogen-free material distributed over a large radius (∼10(15) centimetres) and expanding at high speeds (>10(4) kilometres per second). These long-lived, ultraviolet-luminous events can be observed out to redshifts z > 4.

  3. Numerical model for electrical explosion of copper wires in water (United States)

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Kern; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Deok-Kyu


    This paper presents a simple but quite accurate numerical model for analyzing electrical explosion of copper wires in water. The numerical model solves a circuit equation coupled with one-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the help of appropriate wide-range equation of state (EOS) and electrical conductivity for copper. The MHD equations are formulated in a Lagrangian form to identify the interface between the wire and surrounding water clearly. A quotidian EOS (QEOS) that is known as the simplest form of EOS is utilized to build wide-range EOS for copper. In the QEOS, we consider the liquid-vapor phase transition, which is critical in analyzing the wire explosion system. For the electrical conductivity of copper, a semi-empirical set of equations covering from solid state to partially ionized plasma state are employed. Experimental validation has been performed with copper wires of various diameters, which are exploded by a microsecond timescale pulsed capacitive discharge. The simulation results show excellent agreements with the experimental results in terms of temporal motions of a plasma channel boundary and a shock front as well as current and voltage waveforms. It is found that the wire explodes (vaporizes) along the liquid branch of a binodal curve irrespective of wire dimension and operating voltage. After the explosion, the wire becomes a plasma state right away or after the current pause (dwell), depending on the operating conditions. It is worth noting that such a peculiar characteristic of wire explosion, i.e., current pause and restrike, is well simulated with the present numerical model. In particular, it is shown that the wire cools down along the vapor branch of the binodal curve during the current dwell, due to a significant difference of thermodynamic characteristics across the binodal curve. The influence of radiation for studying nonideal plasmas with a wire explosion technique and a physical process for shock wave formation

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae: from shock revival to shock breakout (United States)

    Wongwathanarat, A.; Müller, E.; Janka, H.-Th.


    We present three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SN) from blast-wave initiation by the neutrino-driven mechanism to shock breakout from the stellar surface, using an axis-free Yin-Yang grid and considering two 15 M⊙ red supergiants (RSG) and two blue supergiants (BSG) of 15 M⊙ and 20 M⊙. We demonstrate that the metal-rich ejecta in homologous expansion still carry fingerprints of asymmetries at the beginning of the explosion, but the final metal distribution is massively affected by the detailed progenitor structure. The most extended and fastest metal fingers and clumps are correlated with the biggest and fastest-rising plumes of neutrino-heated matter, because these plumes most effectively seed the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the C+O/He and He/H composition-shell interfaces after the passage of the SN shock. The extent of radial mixing, global asymmetry of the metal-rich ejecta, RT-induced fragmentation of initial plumes to smaller-scale fingers, and maximum Ni and minimum H velocities depend not only on the initial asphericity and explosion energy (which determine the shock and initial Ni velocities), but also on the density profiles and widths of C+O core and He shell and on the density gradient at the He/H transition, which leads to unsteady shock propagation and the formation of reverse shocks. Both RSG explosions retain a large global metal asymmetry with pronounced clumpiness and substructure, deep penetration of Ni fingers into the H-envelope (with maximum velocities of 4000-5000 km s-1 for an explosion energy around 1.5 bethe) and efficient inward H-mixing. While the 15 M⊙ BSG shares these properties (maximum Ni speeds up to ~3500 km s-1), the 20 M⊙ BSG develops a much more roundish geometry without pronounced metal fingers (maximum Ni velocities only ~2200 km s-1) because of reverse-shock deceleration and insufficient time for strong RT growth and fragmentation at the He

  5. Constraining the Energetics of Explosive Lava-Water Interactions (United States)

    Fitch, E. P.; Fagents, S. A.


    During volcanic eruptions, water, such as groundwater or melted ice or snow, may interact with magma within the conduit during eruption, generating explosions when the heat of the magma causes the water to rapidly turn to steam and expand, resulting in what we call a "phreatomagmatic" eruption. In 2010, the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland produced a plume of fine ash, through the interaction between magma and glacial melt water, which resulted in the closure of substantial airspace, ultimately costing a total of almost 5 billion dollars. Although an important area of study, it is difficult to quantify the effect of eternal water on eruption intensity when the gas inside of magma is also expanding and fragmenting the magma. In an attempt to understand the energetics of magma-water interactions, small-scale laboratory experiments have been performed. Explosion energy is found to depend mostly on kinetic energy, which is proportional to dispersal distance, and fragmentation energy, which is proportional to the mean grain size of the ejecta, and the mass percent of ash-sized grains. It is thought that in order to generate heat transfer rates sufficiently rapid to cause explosive detonation, the source melt must be finely fragmented, producing ash-sized grains. Those grains undergo brittle fragmentation due to rapid cooling and weak shock waves generated by the vaporization of superheated water. We take the novel approach of studying explosive interactions between lava and water to obtain additional explosion energy constraints. We identified and analyzed numerous beds of lava-water explosion ejecta of varying explosion energy, and we analyzed the ash-sized grains of these beds in detail. We verified that the mass of ash-sized grains increases with increasing explosion energy, and can form at the interface between lava and water. We found that brittle fragmentation occurs to a greater degree as grain size decreases and that the ash of highly

  6. Examination of shaped charge liner shock loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.J.; Moore, T.W.; Lee, C.G.; Breithaupt, R.; Avara, G.R.


    A series of experiments was conducted for the purpose of achieving a more fundamental understanding of the shaped charge liner shock loading environment. The test configuration, representing the middle portion of a shaped charge, consists of a 50 mm deep, 100 mm tall, and 2 mm thick copper plate driven by 50 mm deep, 100 mm tall, tapered thickness wedge of LX-14. An electrically driven 50 mm square flyer is used to surface initiate the base of the LX-14 causing a plane detonation wave to propagate into the explosive wedge along the liner surface. Fabry-Perot laser velocimetry measures the particle velocity time history of the plate. The CTH and DYNA2D hydrocodes are used to simulate the experiments. Calculations of the velocity profiles are compared to the experimental results. The effects of mesh density, copper material failure and strength models, and explosive detonation models are discussed.

  7. Underwater videography and photography in Gulf of Kachchh. Sponsored by Gujarat Ecological Society, Vadodara, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Marine Archaeology Centre (MAC) has been carrying out underwater explorations and excavations of ancient ports and sunken shipwrecks to preserve underwater cultural heritage. MAC has the infrastructure facility to carry out underwater investigations...

  8. Simulation of gas explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn H. Hjertager


    Full Text Available Gas explosion hazard assessments in flammable gas handling operations both offshore and onshore are crucial in order to obtain an acceptable level of safety. In order to perform such assessments good predictive tools are needed, which take account of the relevant parameters, such as geometrical design variables and gas cloud type and distribution. A theoretical simulation model must therefore be tested against sufficient experimental evidence prior to becoming a useful tool. The experimental data should include both variations in geometry and gas cloud composition and the model should give reasonable predictions without use of geometry or case dependent constants.

  9. Hydrodynamic Coefficients Identification and Experimental Investigation for an Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong XIE


    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic coefficients are the foundation of unmanned underwater vehicles modeling and controller design. In order to reduce identification complexity and acquire necessary hydrodynamic coefficients for controllers design, the motion of the unmanned underwater vehicle was separated into vertical motion and horizontal motion models. Hydrodynamic coefficients were regarded as mapping parameters from input forces and moments to output velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle. The motion models of the unmanned underwater vehicle were nonlinear and Genetic Algorithm was adopted to identify those hydrodynamic coefficients. To verify the identification quality, velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle was measured using inertial sensor under the same conditions as Genetic Algorithm identification. Curves similarity between measured velocities and acceleration and those identified by Genetic Algorithm were used as optimizing standard. It is found that the curves similarity were high and identified hydrodynamic coefficients of the unmanned underwater vehicle satisfied the measured motion states well.

  10. Delay Tolerance in Underwater Wireless Communications: A Routing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Hussain Bouk


    Full Text Available Similar to terrestrial networks, underwater wireless networks (UWNs also aid several critical tasks including coastal surveillance, underwater pollution detection, and other maritime applications. Currently, once underwater sensor nodes are deployed at different levels of the sea, it is nearly impossible or very expensive to reconfigure the hardware, for example, battery. Taking this issue into account, considerable amount of research has been carried out to ensure minimum energy costs and reliable communication between underwater nodes and base stations. As a result, several different network protocols were proposed for UWN, including MAC, PHY, transport, and routing. Recently, a new paradigm was introduced claiming that the intermittent nature of acoustic channel and signal resulted in designing delay tolerant routing schemes for the UWN, known as an underwater delay tolerant network. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of underwater routing protocols with emphasis on the limitations, challenges, and future open issues in the context of delay tolerant network routing.

  11. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.


    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  12. Toxic Shock Syndrome (United States)

    ... may also be caused by toxins produced by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated ... syndrome. The syndrome can also be caused by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria. Risk factors Toxic shock syndrome can ...

  13. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T) (United States)


    ... if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841. Explosive materials are listed... liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive... mixtures containing tetranitromethane (nitroform). Explosive nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons...

  14. Biomass shock pretreatment (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.


    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  15. An Evaluation of Potential Operating Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (United States)


    remote control of such vehicles requires the use of a tether , limiting the vehicle’s range; however operating underwater vehicles autonomously requires...URBI Universal Robot Body Interface UUV Unmanned Underwater Vehicle UNCLASSIFIED xi DSTO–TN–1194 UNCLASSIFIED THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK xii... underwater environment, where many platforms are still reliant upon an umbilical tether for power and high bandwidth communications. This tether

  16. On the Performance of the Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (United States)


    waves for Underwater Wireless Communication (UWC); radio waves, optical waves, and acoustic waves are few to name. Radio waves are good for extra low...2211 underwater communication , wireless sensors, mutual information REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR...Cotae, “On the Performance of the Underwater Wireless Communication Sensor Networks: Work in Progress” ASEE Mid-Atlantic Fall 2014 Conference

  17. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki


    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  18. Cymbal and BB underwater transducers and arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnham, R.E.; Zhang, J.; Alkoy, S.; Meyer, R.; Hughes, W.J.; Hladky-Hennion, A.C.; Cochran, J.; Markley, D. [Materials Research Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    The cymbal is a miniaturized class V flextensional transducer that was developed for use as a shallow water sound projector and receiver. Single elements are characterized by high Q, low efficiency, and medium power output capability. Its low cost and thin profile allow the transducer to be assembled into large flexible arrays. Efforts were made to model both single elements and arrays using the ATILA code and the integral equation formulation (EQI).Millimeter size microprobe hydrophones (BBs) have been designed and fabricated from miniature piezoelectric hollow ceramic spheres for underwater applications such as mapping acoustic fields of projectors, and flow noise sensors for complex underwater structures. Green spheres are prepared from soft lead zirconate titanate powders using a coaxial nozzle slurry process. A compact hydrophone with a radially-poled sphere is investigated using inside and outside electrodes. Characterization of these hydrophones is done through measurement of hydrostatic piezoelectric charge coefficients, free field voltage sensitivities and directivity beam patterns. (orig.)

  19. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)


    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  20. Ocean Research Enabled by Underwater Gliders (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.


    Underwater gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that profile vertically by changing their buoyancy and use wings to move horizontally. Gliders are useful for sustained observation at relatively fine horizontal scales, especially to connect the coastal and open ocean. In this review, research topics are grouped by time and length scales. Large-scale topics addressed include the eastern and western boundary currents and the regional effects of climate variability. The accessibility of horizontal length scales of order 1 km allows investigation of mesoscale and submesoscale features such as fronts and eddies. Because the submesoscales dominate vertical fluxes in the ocean, gliders have found application in studies of biogeochemical processes. At the finest scales, gliders have been used to measure internal waves and turbulent dissipation. The review summarizes gliders' achievements to date and assesses their future in ocean observation.

  1. Study of nano-nitramine explosives: preparation, sensitivity and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu


    Full Text Available Nano-nitramine explosives (RDX, HMX, CL-20 are produced on a bi-directional grinding mill. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observations show that the prepared particles are semi-spherical, and the narrow size distributions are characterized using the laser particle size analyzer. Compared with the micron-sized samples, the nano-products show obvious decrease in friction and impact sensitivities. In the case of shock sensitivities, nano-products have lower values by 59.9% (RDX, 56.4% (HMX, and 58.1% (CL-20, respectively. When nano-RDX and nano-HMX are used in plastic bonded explosives (PBX as alternative materials of micron-sized particles, their shock sensitivities are significantly decreased by 24.5% (RDX and 22.9% (HMX, and their detonation velocities are increased by about 1.7%. Therefore, it is expected to promote the application of nano-nitramine explosives in PBXs and composite modified double-based propellants (CMDBs so that some of their properties would be improved.

  2. Cutting of CO2 primary circuit pipes of G 2/G 3 using explosive charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbard, G.; Le Goaller, C.; Ravera, J.P.; Bonnier, Y.; Guilbert, J.P.; Puntous, R.


    The objective of this work is to cut large diameter contaminated pipes from the CO 2 cooling system of the gas-cooled reactors by means of explosive charges and to use the resulting shock wave to remove part of the contamination fixed inside the pipe. Two types of tests have been conducted using different explosives in different forms (the decontamination and the cutting tests) and are described. After testing the cutting modules and decontamination fuses, the effects of the detonations on the environment have been measured and were greater than expected. A metal containment device was therefore designed to absorb part of the energy dissipated by the shock wave and retain the debris from the explosions. A description of the tests conducted for this purpose is given. (O.L.). 7 figs., 3 tabs

  3. A MAC protocol for underwater sensors networks


    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio; Meseguer Pallarès, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel


    “The final publication is available at Springer via" Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of its everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geo-localization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. It is well-known the challenge that represents to perfo...

  4. Passive Mode Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Transducer (United States)


    irreversible Joule heat) by an electric light bulb . The reciprocal (or reverse) of this process by supplying heat and shining light to the same electric bulb ...limit the invention to the precise form disclosed; and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching...300151 1 of 14 PASSIVE MODE CARBON NANOTUBE UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC TRANSDUCER STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described

  5. Underwater suction device for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Peloquin, A.V.


    An underwater suction device for collecting irradiated materials in a pool of water includes injection and suction tubes and a removable, disposable filter for capturing irradiated materials. Pressurized water is injected into the suction tube through a jet pump nozzle to establish a suction flow through the tube. The suction device is manoeuverable by a pole, which is pivotally connected to the suction device by a latching mechanism. (author)

  6. Tethered Antennas for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (United States)


    Concepts The first design (Figure 1) was based on the concept of an airfoil kite. The shape of the tow body was built around a NACA5515 hydrofoil to...Underwater Vehicles Brooke Ocean Technology (USA) Inc. 6 Figure 1: Hydrofoil Design The second design was based on that of a boat hull...communications. A sharp bow was utilized to cut through the water to reduce drag when on the surface. Like the hydrofoil design the top profile was

  7. MEDITERRANEAN: Underwater neutrinos get off the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Now funded is the initial stage of NESTOR, an imaginative new programme for a dedicated underwater neutrino astroparticle physics laboratory. Located in the international waters off the southernmost corner of continental Europe near the town of Pylos in S.W. Greece, NESTOR (NEutrinos from Supernovae and TeV sources Ocean Range) recalls the wise king of Pylos who counselled the Greeks during the Trojan war, an excellent tradition for new scientific goals of detecting neutrinos

  8. Role of Confined Water in Underwater Adhesion (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    Surface bound water is a strong deterrent for forming strong bonds between two surfaces underwater and expelling that bound water is important for strong adhesion. I will discuss examples of different strategies used by geckos, spiders, and mussels to handle this last layer of bound water. Recent results using infrared-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy to probe the structure of this bound water will be discussed. National Science Foundation.

  9. Obstacle avoidance in underwater glider path planning


    Isern González, Josep; Hernández Sosa, Daniel; Fernández Perdomo, Enrique; Cabrera Gámez, Jorge; Domínguez Brito, Antonio Carlos; Prieto Marañón, Víctor


    Underwater gliders have revealed as a valuable scientific platform, with a growing number of successful environmental sampling applications. They are specially suited for long range missions due to their unmatched autonomy level, although their low surge speed make them strongly affected by ocean currents. Path planning constitute a real concern for this type of vehicle, as it may reduce the time taken to reach a given waypoint or save power. In such a dynamic environment it is not easy to fi...

  10. A Recovery System for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (United States)


    300170 1 of 10 A RECOVERY SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED UNDERWATER VEHICLES STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may...6 of 10 forces cannot be easily predicted and can be strong enough to require a significantly larger handling system and significantly more...the sea state, the ship handling system , the capture mechanism and the design of the capture mechanism 400. [0024] The water jets 100 will increase

  11. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M


    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  12. Underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus


    The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016). Prelim......The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016...

  13. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems. (United States)

    Shortis, Mark


    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  14. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shortis


    Full Text Available Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  15. Automatic stabilization of underwater robots in the time manipulation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filaretov, V.F.; Koval, E.V.


    When carrying out underwater technical works by means of an underwater vehicles having a manipulator it is desirable to perform manipulation operations in the regime of the underwater vehicle hovering above the object without durable and complicated operations up its rigid fixation. Underwater vehicle stabilization is achieved by compensation all the effects on the vehicle caused by the operating manipulator in water medium. This automatic stabilization is formed due to input of the required control signals into corresponding vehicle propellers proportional to calculated components of the generalized forces and moments. The propellers should form stops reacting against effects

  16. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R


    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  17. Autopilot Using Differential Thrust for ARIES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarton, Christopher


    .... Unfortunately, communication antennas must point to specific satellites in this system and thus underwater vehicles must steer a specific course on the surface during the communication process...

  18. Elaboration of the Charge Constructions of Explosives for the Structure of Facing Stone (United States)

    Khomeriki, Sergo; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Losaberidze, Marine; Khomeriki, Davit; Shatberashvili, Grigol


    Increased demand for high-strength facing material caused the enhancement of the volume of explosives use in modern technologies of blocks production. The volume of broken rocks and crushing quality depends on the rock characteristics and on the properties of the explosive, in particular on its brisance and serviceability. Therefore, the correct selection of the explosive for the specific massif is of a considerable practical importance. For efficient mining of facing materials by explosion method the solving of such problems as determination of the method of blasthole drilling as well as of the regime and charge values, selection of the explosive, blastholes distribution in the face and their order is necessary. This paper focuses on technical solutions for conservation of rock natural structure in the blocks of facing material, mined by the use of the explosives. It has been established that the efficient solving of mentioned problem is attained by reducing of shock pulse duration. In such conditions the rigidity of crystalline lattice increases in high pressure area. As a result, the hazard if crack formation in structural unites and the increases of natural cracks are excluded. Short-time action of explosion pulse is possible only by linear charges of the explosives, characterized by high detonation velocity which detonate by the velocity of 7-7.5 km/sec and are characterized by very small critical diameter.

  19. Underwater Acoustic Target Tracking: A Review. (United States)

    Luo, Junhai; Han, Ying; Fan, Liying


    Advances in acoustic technology and instrumentation now make it possible to explore marine resources. As a significant component of ocean exploration, underwater acoustic target tracking has aroused wide attention both in military and civil fields. Due to the complexity of the marine environment, numerous techniques have been proposed to obtain better tracking performance. In this paper, we survey over 100 papers ranging from innovative papers to the state-of-the-art in this field to present underwater tracking technologies. Not only the related knowledge of acoustic tracking instrument and tracking progress is clarified in detail, but also a novel taxonomy method is proposed. In this paper, algorithms for underwater acoustic target tracking are classified based on the methods used as: (1) instrument-assisted methods; (2) mode-based methods; (3) tracking optimization methods. These algorithms are compared and analyzed in the aspect of dimensions, numbers, and maneuvering of the tracking target, which is different from other survey papers. Meanwhile, challenges, countermeasures, and lessons learned are illustrated in this paper.

  20. Underwater detection by using ultrasonic sensor (United States)

    Bakar, S. A. A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.


    This paper described the low cost implementation of hardware and software in developing the system of ultrasonic which can visualize the feedback of sound in the form of measured distance through mobile phone and monitoring the frequency of detection by using real time graph of Java application. A single waterproof transducer of JSN-SR04T had been used to determine the distance of an object based on operation of the classic pulse echo detection method underwater. In this experiment, the system was tested by placing the housing which consisted of Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module of HC-06, ultrasonic sensor and LEDs at the top of the box and the transducer was immersed in the water. The system which had been tested for detection in vertical form was found to be capable of reporting through the use of colored LEDs as indicator to the relative proximity of object distance underwater form the sensor. As a conclusion, the system can detect the presence of an object underwater within the range of ultrasonic sensor and display the measured distance onto the mobile phone and the real time graph had been successfully generated.

  1. Modeling and Control of Underwater Robotic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjoelberg, I:


    This doctoral thesis describes modeling and control of underwater vehicle-manipulator systems. The thesis also presents a model and a control scheme for a system consisting of a surface vessel connected to an underwater robotic system by means of a slender marine structure. The equations of motion of the underwater vehicle and manipulator are described and the system kinematics and properties presented. Feedback linearization technique is applied to the system and evaluated through a simulation study. Passivity-based controllers for vehicle and manipulator control are presented. Stability of the closed loop system is proved and simulation results are given. The equation of motion for lateral motion of a cable/riser system connected to a surface vessel at the top end and to a thruster at the bottom end is described and stability analysis and simulations are presented. The equations of motion in 3 degrees of freedom of the cable/riser, surface vessel and robotic system are given. Stability analysis of the total system with PD-controllers is presented. 47 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Future large-scale implementation of wave energy converts (WECs) will introduce an anthropogenic activity in the ocean which may contribute to underwater noise. The Ocean houses several marine species with acoustic sensibility; consequently the potential impact of the underwater noise needs to be addressed. At present, there are no acoustic impact studies based on acquired data. The WEAM project (Wave Energy Acoustic Monitoring) aims at developing an underwater noise monitoring plan for WECs. The development of an acoustic monitoring plan must consider the sound propagation in the ocean, identify noise sources, understand the operational characteristics and select adequate instrumentation. Any monitoring strategy must involve in-situ measurements. However, the vast distances which sound travels within the ocean, can make in-situ measurements covering the entire area of interest, impracticable. This difficulty can be partially overcome through acoustic numerical modelling. This paper presents a synthetic study, on the application of acoustic forward modelling and the evaluation of the impact of noise produced by wave energy devices on marine mammals using criteria based on audiograms of dolphins, or other species. The idea is to illustrate the application of that methodology, and to show to what extent it allows for estimating distances of impacts due to acoustic noise.

  3. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela


    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  4. Supernova shock breakout from a red supergiant. (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Justham, Stephen; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C; Bell, Tony; Röser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma S; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, D Andrew; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Yi, Sukyoung K


    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic "core-collapse" supernova. Such events are usually only detected at least a few days after the star has exploded. Observations of the supernova SNLS-04D2dc with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope reveal a radiative precursor from the supernova shock before the shock reached the surface of the star and show the initial expansion of the star at the beginning of the explosion. Theoretical models of the ultraviolet light curve confirm that the progenitor was a red supergiant, as expected for this type of supernova. These observations provide a way to probe the physics of core-collapse supernovae and the internal structures of their progenitor stars.

  5. Cardiogenic shock following blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-González Fayna


    Full Text Available Cardiac contusion, usually caused by blunt chest trauma, has been recognized with increased frequency over the past decades. Traffic accidents are the most frequent cause of cardiac contusions resulting from a direct blow to the chest. Other causes of blunt cardiac injury are numerous and include violent fall impacts, interpersonal aggression, explosions, and various types of high-risk sports. Myocardial contusion is difficult to diagnose; clinical presentation varies greatly, ranging from lack of symptoms to cardiogenic shock and arrhythmia. Although death is rare, cardiac contusion can be fatal. We present a case of cardiac contusion due to blunt chest trauma secondary to a fall impact, which manifested as cardiogenic shock.

  6. Planar compaction of ceramic powders with mining explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.; Verbeek, H.J.; Carton, E.P.


    Shock compaction experiments of B 4 C powders have been performed using a planar configuration. The powders were contained between metal plates. On top of the upper plate, having a thickness of about 10 mm, was a layer of mining explosives. For this configuration, computer simulations have been performed with use of the hydrocode Autodyn. In comparison with the cylindrical compaction process the planar compaction process appears to be quite different. The reason is the very low detonation velocity of the used mining explosives (2-4 km/s), which is much lower than the sound and shock speeds of the steel plate, in combination with the relatively large thickness of the metal layer. As a result, the nature of the compaction process of the powder initially more resembles a quasi-static compaction process than a shock compaction process. Due to the quasi-static nature of the compaction, the pressure release in the powder after compression is very gradual. Therefore, no strong rarefaction waves leading to high tensile stresses in the compact arise. Flat plates (10x10 cm, 0.6-0.8 cm thick) of Al (20-30 vol %) infiltrated B 4 C have been fabricated using this configuration

  7. Shock Wave-Induced Damage and Poration in Eukaryotic Cell Membranes. (United States)

    López-Marín, Luz M; Millán-Chiu, Blanca E; Castaño-González, Karen; Aceves, Carmen; Fernández, Francisco; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo; Loske, Achim M


    Shock waves are known to permeabilize eukaryotic cell membranes, which may be a powerful tool for a variety of drug delivery applications. However, the mechanisms involved in shock wave-mediated membrane permeabilization are still poorly understood. In this study, the effects on both the permeability and the ultrastructural features of two human cell lineages were investigated after the application of underwater shock waves in vitro. Scanning Electron Microscopy of cells derived from a human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 and Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF)-7 cells, an immortalized culture derived from human breast adenocarcinoma, showed a small amount of microvilli (as compared to control cells), the presence of hole-like structures, and a decrease in cell size after shock wave exposure. Interestingly, these effects were accompanied by the permeabilization of acid and macromolecular dyes and gene transfection. Trypan blue exclusion assays indicated that cell membranes were porated during shock wave treatment but resealed after a few seconds. Deformations of the cell membrane lasted for at least 5 min, allowing their observation in fixed cells. For each cell line, different shock wave parameters were needed to achieve cell membrane poration. This difference was correlated to successful gene transfection by shock waves. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that shock waves induce transient micro- and submicrosized deformations at the cell membrane, leading to cell transfection and cell survival. They also indicate that ultrastructural analyses of cell surfaces may constitute a useful way to match the use of shock waves to different cells and settings.

  8. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions. (United States)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael


    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  9. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  10. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes (United States)

    Davis, Lloyd L.; Brower, Kay R.


    We present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis. GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentadiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion indicates that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.

  11. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brower, K.R. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    The authors present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis.GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentandiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion shows that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.

  12. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.L. [DX-1, Mail Stop P-952, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Brower, K.R. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States)


    We present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis. GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and {ital o}-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, {ital o}-toluidine and {ital o}-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentadiene. In isotopic labeling experiments {ital o}-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of {ital o}-toluidine from {ital o}-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion indicates that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Harbour porpoise movement strategy affects cumulative number of animals acoustically exposed to underwater explosions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts,G.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Lucke, K.; Özkan Sertlek, H.; Bemmelen, R. van; Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Brasseur, S.; Scheidat, M.; Lam, F.P.A.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Kirkwood, R.


    Anthropogenic sound in the marine environment can have negative consequences for marine fauna. Since most sound sources are intermittent or continuous, estimating how many individuals are exposed over time remains challenging, as this depends on the animals’ mobility. Here we explored how animal

  14. Harbour porpoise movement strategy affects cumulative number of animals acoustically exposed to underwater explosions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Geert; Benda-Beckmann, Von Alexander M.; Lucke, K.; Özkan Sertlek, H.; Bemmelen, Van Rob; Geelhoed, Steve C.V.; Brasseur, Sophie; Scheidat, Meike; Lam, Frans Peter A.; Slabbekoorn, Hans; Kirkwood, Roger


    Anthropogenic sound in the marine environment can have negative consequences for marine fauna. Since most sound sources are intermittent or continuous, estimating how many individuals are exposed over time remains challenging, as this depends on the animals' mobility. Here we explored how animal

  15. Fluid-Interaction and Cavitation Effects on a Surface Ship Model Due to an Underwater Explosion. (United States)


    itself is conducting the solution process which would normally be a SOL 109 transient analysis process in MSC/ NASTRAN . Appendix B provides the DMAP ... NASTRAN [Ref. 6], the engineer has a greater ability to improve ship modeling and predict the vibrational response of ship hulls and internal equipment...specifically associated by the MAT field in the NASTRAN ASCII input file. Because of the numerical processing in the USA code, node numbering needs to be

  16. Dynamic Response of a Catamaran-Hull Ship Subjected to Underwater Explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ucar, Hakan


    .... While these trials are necessary in order to evaluate the vulnerability and survivability of the ship, they are very expensive, require extensive time for planning and coordination, and pose serious...

  17. Integrated Experiment and Modeling of Insensitive High Explosives (United States)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Lambert, David E.; Yoo, Sunhee; Lieber, Mark; Holman, Steven


    New design paradigms for insensitive high explosives are being sought for use in munitions applications that require enhanced safety, reliability and performance. We describe recent work of our group that uses an integrated approach to develop predictive models, guided by experiments. Insensitive explosive can have relatively longer detonation reaction zones and slower reaction rates than their sensitive counterparts. We employ reactive flow models that are constrained by detonation shock dynamics (DSD) to pose candidate predictive models. We discuss the variation of the pressure dependent reaction rate exponent and reaction order on the length of the supporting reaction zone, the detonation velocity curvature relation, the computed critical energy required for initiation, the relation between the diameter effect curve and the corresponding normal detonation velocity curvature relation.

  18. Behavior of Metallic Foam under Shock Wave Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ren


    Full Text Available In this manuscript, the behavior of metallic foam under impact loading and shock wave propagation has been observed. The goal of this research was to investigate the material and structural properties of submerged open-cell aluminum foam under impact loading conditions with particular interest in shock wave propagation and its effects on cellular material deformation. For this purpose experimental tests and dynamic computational simulations of aluminum foam specimens inside a water tank subjected to explosive charge have been performed. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental and simulation results.

  19. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott


    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  20. Analysis of xRAGE and flag high explosive burn models with PBX 9404 cylinder tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersen, Kyle Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    High explosives are energetic materials that release their chemical energy in a short interval of time. They are able to generate extreme heat and pressure by a shock driven chemical decomposition reaction, which makes them valuable tools that must be understood. This study investigated the accuracy and performance of two Los Alamos National Laboratory hydrodynamic codes, which are used to determine the behavior of explosives within a variety of systems: xRAGE which utilizes an Eulerian mesh, and FLAG with utilizes a Lagrangian mesh. Various programmed and reactive burn models within both codes were tested using a copper cylinder expansion test. The test was based on a recent experimental setup which contained the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9404. Detonation velocity versus time curves for this explosive were obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). The modeled results from each of the burn models tested were then compared to one another and to the experimental results. This study validate

  1. Theory and simulation of astrophysical explosions and turbulence (United States)

    Miles, Aaron


    Supernova explosions are among the most dramatic in the universe. Type II supernovae follow the core collapse of a massive star, while Type Ia supernovae are typically believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs that have accreted enough material to initiate carbon burning. In both cases, the explosion dynamics are complicated by hydrodynamic instabilities that make spherical symmetry impossible. Much of the work that is done on hydrodynamic mixing in SNe draws, on the one hand, on the fundamental instability problems of classical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and steady-shock Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and, on the other hand, on complex (often multiphysics) computational and experimental systems. These include numerical simulations of supernovae and laser-driven laboratory experiments that invoke Euler scaling to make connections to their much larger astrophysical counterparts. In this talk, we consider what additional insight is to be gained from considering a third fundamental instability problem that is more relevant than either RT or RM in isolation and somewhat less complex than the full system. Namely, we consider an idealized blast-wave-driven problem in which a localized source drives a divergent Taylor-Sedov blast wave that in turn drives a perturbed interface between heavier and lighter gamma-law fluids. Within this context, we use numerical simulations and simplified analytic models to consider the effect of the initial perturbation spectrum in determining the late-time asymptotic state of the mixing zone, the interaction of multiple unstable interfaces relevant to core-collapse supernovae, and the proximity of the forward shock to the developing instability. Finally, we discuss how laser-driven laboratory experiments might be used to help resolve some as yet unanswered questions in supernova explosion hydrodynamics.

  2. Methane Explosion Mitigation in Coal Mines by Water Mist (United States)

    Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Mikheil; Krauthammer, Ted; Mansurov, Zulkhair; Alyiev, Erhan


    Statistics shows that the majority of accidents with fatal outcome are caused by methane and/or coal dust explosion. This leads to assume that contemporary counter-explosion systems of various designs cannot be considered effective. Considering the growing threat of methane explosion in the coming years along with the development of deeper levels, the improvement of a system for protecting people in underground opening appears urgent. This paper focuses on technical solutions to be used in designing a protective system for minimizing the consequences of methane explosions in coalmines. The new protective system consists of three main modules: i) a high-speed shock wave suppression section; ii) a suppression section with a long-term action and iii) a system activating device. The shock wave suppressor contains a 200 litre volume water tank with a built-in gas generator and nozzles. It is activated after 12ms from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 40 s. The suppression section with a long-term action contains a 2000 litre volume water tank, a high-pressure pump, a hydraulic accumulator, solenoid valves, and a system of pipes with built-in nozzles. It is activated after 4 s from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 8 min. The activation device includes a detection block containing sensors, an emergency signal generation module, a signal transmission module, a signal receiving module and a power supply module. The system operates in a waiting mode and activates immediately upon the receipt of the start signal generated by the detector. The paper also addresses the preliminary results of the system prototype testing in the tunnel.

  3. Model of non-ideal detonation of condensed high explosives (United States)

    Smirnov, E. B.; Kostitsin, O. V.; Koval, A. V.; Akhlyustin, I. A.


    The Zeldovich-Neumann-Doering theory of ideal detonation allows one to describe adequately the detonation of charges with near-critical diameter. For smaller diameters, detonation velocity can differ significantly from an ideal value expected based on equilibrium chemical thermodynamics. This difference is quite evident when using non-ideal explosives; in certain cases, this value can be up to one third of ideal detonation velocity. Numerical simulation of these systems is a very labor-consuming process because one needs to compute the states inside the chemical reaction zone, as well as to obtain data on the equation of state of high-explosive detonation products mixture and on the velocity of chemical reaction; however, these characteristics are poorly studied today. For practical purposes, one can use the detonation shock dynamics model based on interrelation between local velocity of the front and its local curvature. This interrelation depends on both the equation of state of explosion products, and the reaction velocity; but the explicit definition of these characteristics is not needed. In this paper, experimental results are analyzed. They demonstrate interrelation between the local curvature of detonation front and the detonation velocity. Equation of detonation front shape is found. This equation allows us to predict detonation velocity and shape of detonation wave front in arbitrary geometry by integrating ordinary differential equation for the front shape with a boundary condition at the charge edge. The results confirm that the model of detonation shock dynamics can be used to describe detonation processes in non-ideal explosives.

  4. Time-resolved processes in a pulsed electrical discharge in water generated with shock wave assistance in a plate-to-plate configuration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy


    Roč. 47, č. 49 (2014), s. 495204-495204 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : underwater discharge * streamers * spark * cavitation bubble * shock wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014

  5. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed underwater cutting technique for 4.2 mm thick zircaloy pressure tubes and up to 6 mm thick steel using fibre-coupled 250 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This underwater cutting technique will be highly useful in various nuclear applications as well as in dismantling/repair of ship and pipe lines ...

  6. Visual-adaptation-mechanism based underwater object extraction (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Huibin; Xu, Lizhong; Shen, Jie


    Due to the major obstacles originating from the strong light absorption and scattering in a dynamic underwater environment, underwater optical information acquisition and processing suffer from effects such as limited range, non-uniform lighting, low contrast, and diminished colors, causing it to become the bottleneck for marine scientific research and projects. After studying and generalizing the underwater biological visual mechanism, we explore its advantages in light adaption which helps animals to precisely sense the underwater scene and recognize their prey or enemies. Then, aiming to transform the significant advantage of the visual adaptation mechanism into underwater computer vision tasks, a novel knowledge-based information weighting fusion model is established for underwater object extraction. With this bionic model, the dynamical adaptability is given to the underwater object extraction task, making them more robust to the variability of the optical properties in different environments. The capability of the proposed method to adapt to the underwater optical environments is shown, and its outperformance for the object extraction is demonstrated by comparison experiments.

  7. Self-localization for underwater inspection robot in reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Futoshi; Kojima, Fumio


    An underwater inspection robot has been needed for preventive maintenance in a nuclear power plant. This paper deals with a self-localization method for the underwater inspection robot. In this method, the position and the orientation of the robot are estimated by using the particle filter. For showing the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment with real robot is demonstrated. (author)

  8. WODA technical guidance on underwater sound from dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C. de; Wit, P. de; Goethals, F.; Holtkamp, M.; Martin, E.S.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Victor, G.Y.V.; Jensen, A.


    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic

  9. Characterization of ships as sources of underwater noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de


    There is a growing interest in the possible impact of anthropogenic underwater noise on marine life [1]. One of the concerns is the increasing contribution of shipping noise, with the growing number and size of commercial ships. Traditionally, underwater radiated noise control was only of interest

  10. The WODA guidance paper on underwater sound from dredging (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Witt, P. de; Holtkamp, M.; Goethals, F.; San Martin, E.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Jensen, A.


    The World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) was established to provide a guidance paper on dredging sound, impact on aquatic biota and advice on

  11. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser cutting; underwater laser cutting; fibre optic beam delivery; Nd:YAG laser; material processing; heat affected zone; microstructure. PACS Nos 42.62.Cf; 42.62.-b; 42.55.Rz; 42.81.Ai; 42.81.-i. 1. Introduction. Underwater laser cutting and welding has many applications in nuclear facilities and shiping industry and is a ...

  12. The evolution and explosion of massive Stars II: Explosive hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weaver, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The nucleosynthetic yield of isotopes lighter than A = 66 (zinc) is determined for a grid of stellar masses and metallicities including stars of 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, and 40 M{sub {circle_dot}} and metallicities Z = 0, 10{sup {minus}4}, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 times solar (a slightly reduced mass grid is employed for non-solar metallicities). Altogether 78 different model supernova explosions are calculated. In each case nucleosynthesis has already been determined for 200 isotopes in each of 600 to 1200 zones of the presupernova star, including the effects of time dependent convection. Here each star is exploded using a piston to give a specified final kinetic energy at infinity (typically 1.2 {times} 10{sup 51} erg), and the explosive modifications to the nucleosynthesis, including the effects of neutrino irradiation, determined. A single value of the critical {sup 12}C({sub {alpha},{gamma}}){sup 16}O reaction rate corresponding to S(300 keV) = 170 keV barns is used in all calculations. The synthesis of each isotope is discussed along with its sensitivity to model parameters. In each case, the final mass of the collapsed remnant is also determined and often found not to correspond to the location of the piston (typically the edge of the iron core), but to a ``mass cut`` farther out. This mass cut is sensitive not only to the explosion energy, but also to the presupernova structure, stellar mass, and the metallicity. Unless the explosion mechanism, for unknown reasons, provides a much larger characteristic energy in more massive stars, it appears likely that stars larger than about 30 M{sub {center_dot}} will experience considerable reimplosion of heavy elements following the initial launch of a successful shock. While such explosions will produce a viable, bright Type II supernova light curve, lacking the radioactive tail, they will have dramatically reduced yields of heavy elements and may leave black hole remnants of up to 10 and more solar masses.

  13. Study of nano-nitramine explosives: preparation, sensitivity and application


    Jie Liu; Wei Jiang; Qing Yang; Jian Song; Ga-zi Hao; Feng-sheng Li


    Nano-nitramine explosives (RDX, HMX, CL-20) are produced on a bi-directional grinding mill. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show that the prepared particles are semi-spherical, and the narrow size distributions are characterized using the laser particle size analyzer. Compared with the micron-sized samples, the nano-products show obvious decrease in friction and impact sensitivities. In the case of shock sensitivities, nano-products have lower values by 59.9% (RDX), 56.4% ...

  14. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs for Underwater Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Song


    Full Text Available A capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer structure for use in underwater imaging is designed, fabricated and tested in this paper. In this structure, a silicon dioxide insulation layer is inserted between the top electrodes and the vibration membrane to prevent ohmic contact. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristic curve shows that the transducer offers suitable levels of hysteresis and repeatability performance. The −6 dB center frequency is 540 kHz and the transducer has a bandwidth of 840 kHz for a relative bandwidth of 155%. Underwater pressure of 143.43 Pa is achieved 1 m away from the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer under 20  excitation. Two-dimensional underwater ultrasonic imaging, which is able to prove that a rectangular object is present underwater, is achieved. The results presented here indicate that our work will be highly beneficial for the establishment of an underwater ultrasonic imaging system.

  15. Underwater Sensor Network Redeployment Algorithm Based on Wolf Search. (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Feng, Yang; Wu, Feng


    This study addresses the optimization of node redeployment coverage in underwater wireless sensor networks. Given that nodes could easily become invalid under a poor environment and the large scale of underwater wireless sensor networks, an underwater sensor network redeployment algorithm was developed based on wolf search. This study is to apply the wolf search algorithm combined with crowded degree control in the deployment of underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm uses nodes to ensure coverage of the events, and it avoids the prematurity of the nodes. The algorithm has good coverage effects. In addition, considering that obstacles exist in the underwater environment, nodes are prevented from being invalid by imitating the mechanism of avoiding predators. Thus, the energy consumption of the network is reduced. Comparative analysis shows that the algorithm is simple and effective in wireless sensor network deployment. Compared with the optimized artificial fish swarm algorithm, the proposed algorithm exhibits advantages in network coverage, energy conservation, and obstacle avoidance.

  16. A man-made object detection for underwater TV (United States)

    Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Wenwu; Chen, Yao


    It is a great challenging task to complete an automatic search of objects underwater. Usually the forward looking sonar is used to find the target, and then the initial identification of the target is completed by the side-scan sonar, and finally the confirmation of the target is accomplished by underwater TV. This paper presents an efficient method for automatic extraction of man-made sensitive targets in underwater TV. Firstly, the image of underwater TV is simplified with taking full advantage of the prior knowledge of the target and the background; then template matching technology is used for target detection; finally the target is confirmed by extracting parallel lines on the target contour. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited-memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects in underwater TV.

  17. Shape of shock wave produced by a concentrated impact on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.; Klein, L.


    An approximate similarity solution, derived by Raizer, of a concentrated impact (or intense explosion) at the boundary of a semi-infinite volume of a perfect gas is used to determine the propagation velocity of the shock front as a function of its position. This velocity function is then used to obtain the shape of the propagating shock wave. It is shown that dish-shaped shock fronts are formed when the movement of the gas at the surface is into the gas region and that cup-shaped shock fronts are formed when the movement is out of the gas region. Comparison of these results with the shapes of explosions and meteorite craters are discussed

  18. Strength and sintering effects at ejection of explosively driven sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnyansky, A D; Weckert, S A


    A description of the response of sand to extreme loads is very important for the evaluation of the sand ejecta impact effects on various targets. Sand is a complex material to simulate because of its porosity where the inter-phase equilibrium is hard to achieve under transient shock wave loading. A previously developed two-phase model with strength has been implemented in CTH and applied to sand. The shock response of the sand, including the Hugoniot abnormality known from the literature for highly porous silica, is adequately described with the material model. The sand unloading effects appearing as the ejecta are observed in the present work using dynamic flash X-ray of an aluminium target plate loaded by limestone sand ejecta from the detonation of a buried high explosive charge. The CTH modelling results compared with the flash X-ray images have demonstrated good agreement, particularly, in the description of momentum transfer to the target.

  19. Single drop steam explosions of binary oxides in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberta, C. Hansson; Hyun Sun Park; Bal Raj Sehgal


    the melt fragmentation for the first time showing a thin melt filament fingering during a vapor explosion. Nevertheless, it is strongly desired in MFCI community to obtain continuous transient fine fragmentation data of molten material during the vapor explosion. We have developed an experimental system called MISTEE (Micro-Interactions Steam Explosion Experiments) to simulate the vapor explosion phenomena by generating a high temperature melt drop and exploding the drop by the shock wave generated with an external trigger. The real time high-speed X-ray radiography system (maximum 100,000 fps, 320 keV) is an essential feature that allows visualizing the fine fragmentation process during the explosion phase of the MFCIs. This X-ray radiography system has successfully demonstrated its ability to visualize the jet break-up phenomenon and recently, fine fragmentation of about 0.5 g of a single molten metallic drop. In this paper, the fine fragmentation process of a single binary oxide melt drop during steam explosions observed by the continuous high-speed X-ray radiography and photography will be discussed. Next, experiments on steam explosions of CaO-B 2 O 3 , MnO 2 -TiO 2 , WO 3 -CaO, etc. will be observed. The results with binary oxidic melts will be compared with the previous metallic melt and the single oxide melt tests to identify the 'limiting mechanism' that related to the thermo-physical properties of the melt in steam explosions. (authors)

  20. Warfare Ecology on an Underwater Demolition Range: Acoustic Observations of Marine Life and Shallow Water Detonations in Hawai`i (United States)

    Shannon, Lee H.

    Most studies investigating the effects of military-associated anthropogenic noise concentrate on deep sea or open ocean propagation of sonar and its effect on marine mammals. In littoral waters, U.S. military special operations units regularly conduct shallow water explosives training, yet relatively little attention has been given to the potential impact on nearshore marine ecosystems from these underwater detonations. This dissertation research focused on the Pu'uloa Underwater Detonation Range off the coast of O`ahu, and examined multiple aspects of the surrounding marine ecosystem and the effects of detonations using acoustic monitoring techniques. The soundscape of a nearshore reef ecosystem adjacent to the UNDET range was characterized through analysis of passive acoustic recordings collected over the span of 6 years. Snapping shrimp were the predominant source of noise, and a diel pattern was present, with increased sound energy during the night hours. Results revealed a difference of up to 7dB between two Ecological Acoustic Recorder locations 2.5km apart along the 60ft isobath. Passive acoustic recording files were searched visually and aurally for odontocete whistles. Whistles were detected in only 0.6% of files analyzed, indicating this area is not frequently transited by coastal odontocete emitting social sounds. The study also opportunistically captured a humpback whale singing during a detonation event, during which the animal showed no obvious alteration of its singing behavior. Four separate underwater detonation events were recorded using a surface deployed F-42C transducer, and the resulting analysis showed no measurable drop in the biologically produced acoustic energy in reaction to the explosive events. Coral reef fishes were recorded visually and acoustically during detonation events at a known distance and bearing from a known explosive sound source. Individual fish behavioral responses to the explosion varied, and a sharp uptick in fish

  1. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.


    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  2. Underwater welding using remote controlled robots. Development of remote underwater welding technology with a high power YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Syuuichi; Kojima, Toshio; Owaki, Katsura; Hirose, Naoya


    As components in nuclear power plant have been periodically carried out their inspection and repair to keep their integrity, on radioactive liquid wastes storage facility, because of difficulty on their inspection by human beings, some are remained without inspection, and even when capable of inspection, conversion from human works to remote operations is desired from a viewpoint of their operation efficiency upgrading. For response to these needs, some developments on a technology capable of carrying out inspection of their inside at underwater environment and repairing welding with YAG laser by means of remote operation, have been performed. Remote underwater inspection and repair technology is a combination technology of already applied underwater mobile technique (underwater inspection robot) with underwater YAG laser welding technique which is recently at actual using level. Therefore, this technology is composed of an inspection robot and a repair welding robot. And, testing results using the underwater inspection robot and welding test results using the underwater repair welding robot, were enough preferable to obtain forecasting applicable to actual apparatuses. This technology is especially effective for inspection and repair of inside of nuclear fuel cycle apparatuses and relatively high dose apparatuses, and can be thought to be applicable also to large capacity tanks, tanks dealing with harmful matters, underwater structures, and so on, in general industries. (G.K.)

  3. Hemispherical optical dome for underwater communication (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water, even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple communication system, consisting only of a highly directional source/transmitter and small optical detector/receiver, has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter. Two versions of the optical dome (with 6" and 8" diameters) were designed using PTC's Creo CAD software and modeled using Synopsys' CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows that the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with

  4. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving. (United States)

    Reyff, James A


    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  5. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.


    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  6. Navigation System Fault Diagnosis for Underwater Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thomas; Gregersen, Rene Tavs; Blanke, Mogens


    This paper demonstrates fault diagnosis on unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) based on analysis of structure of the nonlinear dynamics. Residuals are generated using dierent approaches in structural analysis followed by statistical change detection. Hypothesis testing thresholds are made signal...... based to cope with non-ideal properties seen in real data. Detection of both sensor and thruster failures are demonstrated. Isolation is performed using the residual signature of detected faults and the change detection algorithm is used to assess severity of faults by estimating their magnitude...

  7. Adaptive Target Tracking for Underwater Maneuvering Targets. (United States)


    concenetrate on the bearings-only approach. In this method the Observer monitors his bearing to the Source, over a period of time. Usually the Observer must...developed in [ 5] was earlier applied with much success to tracking maneuvering air targets. This approach will now be applied in the underwater environment...April 1977. [11] A. H. Jazwinski, Stochastic Processes and Filtering Theory, Academic Press, New York, 1970. [12] D. H. Halliday, and R. Resnick, Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966. hI

  8. Population explosion, social change. (United States)

    Pethe, V P


    The issue of whether overpopulation is the cause of poverty or vice versa is a sham controversy. Both population explosion and poverty are symptoms of a deeper problem, i.e., the incapacity of the socioeconomic system and the international economic order to put into service modern science and technology for an optimal utilization of this planet's vast resources for economic development. There is no question that population growth cannot be allowed to go unabated for an indefinite period, yet there is no reason for alarm. History shows that human adjustments in social behavior have always restored equilibria in every crisis in the progress of humankind. Neo-Malthusians fail to see this point. Instead, they try to create a scare by making unrealistic projections. There is no need for the incorrect and dangerous neo-Malthusian theory as a way to plead for checking population growth. There are 3 simple reasons why population growth should slow down: populations in most less developed countries have a size sufficiently large to make them militarily and economically viable and will not face serious problems in economic and social management if their populations get stabilized at the current levels; there are several advantages in changing attitudes and behavior patterns in respect to matters such as marriage age, family limitation, and spacing of children, and these are desirable in their own right besides their effect on reducing fertility and population growth; and a need exists to intervene on the side of fertility in order to maintain the longrun equilibrium of population size. In the past, equilibrium between mortality and fertility was achieved through the operation of natural factors. Now, with the reduction in mortality as a result of human intervention, it has become necessary to bring about a decline in fertility through human intervention. Human intervention in the control of fertility is a difficult and complex process. The solution to the population

  9. Shock Compression of Solid with Voids by Gridless Lagrangian SPH (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumi


    The mechanism of formation of local hot spots with a single or multiple voids has been studied numerically by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Temperature increase was not enough to initiate emulsion explosives for incident shock pressure lower than 10GPa in the case of single void. It is important for formation of local hot spot to consider complex physical interaction and chemistry in multiple voids.

  10. Testing of Confining Pressure Impacton Explosion Energy of Explosive Materials (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Jan; Myszkowski, Jacek; Pytlik, Andrzej; Pytlik, Mateusz


    This paper presents the results of testing the explosion effects of two explosive charges placed in an environment with specified values of confining pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of variable environmental conditions on the suitability of particular explosives for their use in the prevention of natural hazards in hard coal mining. The research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of currently adopted technologies of natural hazard prevention and aid in raising the level of occupational safety. To carry out the subject matter measurements, a special test stand was constructed which allows the value of the initial pressure inside the chamber, which constitutes its integral part, to be altered before the detonation of the charge being tested. The obtained characteristics of the pressure changes during the explosion of the analysed charge helped to identify the work (energy) which was produced during the process. The test results are a valuable source of information, opening up new possibilities for the use of explosives, the development of innovative solutions for the construction of explosive charges and their initiation.

  11. On the efficiency of Gore-Tex layer for brain protection from shock wave damage in cranioplasty (United States)

    Saito, T.; Voinovich, P. A.; Nakagawa, A.; Hosseini, S. H. R.; Takayama, K.; Hirano, T.


    The effectiveness of a Gore-Tex layer for protecting soft tissue from damage in shock wave therapy is investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally. Analytical considerations based on the fundamentals of wave dynamics and two-dimensional numerical simulations based on the elastodynamic equations are carried out for underwater shock wave propagation and interaction with Gore-Tex membrane models of different complexity. The results clearly demonstrate that considerable attenuation of shock waves with Gore-Tex is due to the air trapped inside the membrane. The experimental results confirm that a Gore-Tex sheet placed in the liquid reduces the transmitted shock wave peak overpressure significantly, by up to two orders of magnitude. Another experimental series reveals what kind of damage in the rat brain tissue can be caused by shock waves of different intensity.

  12. Vasogenic shock physiology


    Gkisioti, Sotiria; Mentzelopoulos, Spyros D


    Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can un...

  13. Life Shocks and Homelessness


    Marah A. Curtis; Hope Corman; Kelly Noonan; Nancy Reichman


    We exploit an exogenous health shock--the birth of a child with a severe health condition--to investigate the causal effect of a life shock on homelessness. Using survey data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study that have been augmented with information from hospital medical records, we find that the health shock increases the likelihood of homelessness three years later, particularly in cities with high housing costs. Homelessness is defined using both a traditional measure an...

  14. Shock transformations in quartzite (United States)

    Badjukov, D. D.; Koslov, E. A.; Zhugin, Yu. N.; Abakshin, E. V.


    We report results of studies of experimental shock metamorphism in a quartzite sample. Shock pressure increases in the experiment from a rim to a center of the bowl-shaped sample due to a design of a recovery assembly. The section along an equatorial plane shows a progressive development of shock metamorphism. On the basis of observations, it is proposed that diaplectic glass can be a product of quenching a melt.

  15. Interaction of MHD shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, R.M.


    A plane MHD shock wave of arbitrary strength meets a slender body moving at super-true-sonic speed in the opposite direction. The interaction between the given shock wave and the weak shock attached to the slender body is studied for aligned fields for axisymmetrical flow and for both aligned and transverse fields in the two-dimensional case. Formal solutions for the linearized flow in the interaction region are obtained by the use of integral transforms. (author)

  16. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. (United States)


    ...: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete your underwater survey, you may use divers or an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). (a) If you use divers to...

  17. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth / For Parents / Toxic Shock Syndrome What's ... en español Síndrome de shock tóxico About Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious ...

  18. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J.; Levret, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes


    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  19. Explosive actuated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, K.G.


    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means

  20. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  1. The Cambrian explosion. (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E G


    The sudden appearance of fossils that marks the so-called 'Cambrian explosion' has intrigued and exercised biologists since Darwin's time. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin made it clear that he believed that ancestral forms 'lived long before' their first fossil representatives. While he considered such an invisible record necessary to explain the level of complexity already seen in the fossils of early trilobites, Darwin was at a loss to explain why there were no corresponding fossils of these earlier forms. In chapter 9 of the Origin, entitled 'On the imperfection of the geological record', he emphasized the 'poorness of our palaeontological collections' and stated categorically that 'no organism wholly soft can be preserved'. Fortunately much has been discovered in the last 150 years, not least multiple examples of Cambrian and Precambrian soft-bodied fossils. We now know that the sudden appearance of fossils in the Cambrian (541-485 million years ago) is real and not an artefact of an imperfect fossil record: rapid diversification of animals coincided with the evolution of biomineralized shells. And although fossils in earlier rocks are rare, they are not absent: their rarity reflects the low diversity of life at this time, as well as the low preservation potential of Precambrian organisms (see Primer by Butterfield, in this issue). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics


    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  3. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  4. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  5. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with explosives...

  6. Shock and Detonation Physics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    WX-9 serves the Laboratory and the Nation by delivering quality technical results, serving customers that include the Nuclear Weapons Program (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense, the Department of Homeland Security and other government agencies. The scientific expertise of the group encompasses equations-of-state, shock compression science, phase transformations, detonation physics including explosives initiation, detonation propagation, and reaction rates, spectroscopic methods and velocimetry, and detonation and equation-of-state theory. We are also internationally-recognized in ultra-fast laser shock methods and associated diagnostics, and are active in the area of ultra-sensitive explosives detection. The facility capital enabling the group to fulfill its missions include a number of laser systems, both for laser-driven shocks, and spectroscopic analysis, high pressure gas-driven guns and powder guns for high velocity plate impact experiments, explosively-driven techniques, static high pressure devices including diamond anvil cells and dilatometers coupled with spectroscopic probes, and machine shops and target fabrication facilities.

  7. Ground Shock Resistant of Buried Nuclear Power Plant Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornai, D.; Adar, A.; Gal, E.


    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) might be subjected to hostile attacks such as Earth Penetrating Weapons (EPW) that carry explosive charges. Explosions of these weapons near buried NPP facility might cause collapse, breaching, spalling, deflection, shear, rigid body motion (depending upon the foundations), and in-structure shock. The occupants and the equipment in the buried facilities are exposed to the in-structure motions, and if they are greater than their fragility values than occupants might be wounded or killed and the equipment might be damaged, unless protective measures will be applied. NPP critical equipment such as pumps are vital for the normal safe operation since it requires constant water circulation between the nuclear reactor and the cooling system, including in case of an immediate shut down. This paper presents analytical- semi empirical formulation and analysis of the explosion of a penetrating weapon with a warhead of 100kgs TNT (Trinitrotoluene) that creates ground shock effect on underground NPP structure containing equipment, such as a typical pump. If the in-structure spectral shock is greater than the pump fragility values than protective measures are required, otherwise a real danger to the NPP safety might occur

  8. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.


    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  9. Gas explosion during diathermy gastrotomy. (United States)

    Joyce, F S; Rasmussen, T N


    The first report of rupture of the stomach due to diathermy-elicited gas explosion during gastrotomy in a patient with intestinal ischemia resulting in obstruction and jejunal and gastric dilatation is presented. In the obstructed stomach or small bowel, a proliferation of hydrogen- and methane-producing bacteria can occur, leading to the accumulation of these combustible gases in explosive concentrations. In cases of gastrointestinal tract obstruction, the diathermy knife should not be used in entering the gastrointestinal lumen.

  10. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation


    K. Mansfield, Scott; Roderick Borrowdale, Roderick Borrowdale


    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  11. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation. (United States)

    Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick


    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Mansfield


    Full Text Available The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  13. Predictive Capability of the Compressible MRG Equation for an Explosively Driven Particle with Validation (United States)

    Garno, Joshua; Ouellet, Frederick; Koneru, Rahul; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan; Rollin, Bertrand


    An analytic model to describe the hydrodynamic forces on an explosively driven particle is not currently available. The Maxey-Riley-Gatignol (MRG) particle force equation generalized for compressible flows is well-studied in shock-tube applications, and captures the evolution of particle force extracted from controlled shock-tube experiments. In these experiments only the shock-particle interaction was examined, and the effects of the contact line were not investigated. In the present work, the predictive capability of this model is considered for the case where a particle is explosively ejected from a rigid barrel into ambient air. Particle trajectory information extracted from simulations is compared with experimental data. This configuration ensures that both the shock and contact produced by the detonation will influence the motion of the particle. The simulations are carried out using a finite volume, Euler-Lagrange code using the JWL equation of state to handle the explosive products. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program,under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  14. A systematic study of the explosion energy issue in core collapse supernova theory (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu


    -star evolutions are also illuminated in the introduction. Other important ingredients that are not directly related with the thesis, such as numerical treatments of neutrino transport, are given in appendices. To find the missing pieces of the current CCSNe theory, I employed an experimental way instead of running "realistic" simulations. In fact, I conducted experimental computations systematically so as to reveal (1) what is the necessary condition of the canonical explosion energy (2) what is the dominant contribution to the explosion energy (3) when the explosion energy is settled to the final value, and, finally, (4) features in pre-explosion structure of the progenitor are critical for the explosion energy. In this paper I paid particular attention to nuclear energies released in association with the production of various elements up to A 56, which are likely to contribute to the energetics of CCSNe. I performed multi-dimension hydrodynamic simulations that can also handle the evolution of elements in both nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) and non-equilibrium, taking particular care of transition from one to the other. We take a multi-step strategy: collapse, shock revival and the subsequent evolution until the settlement of explosion energy are treated separately and consecutively; the collapse phase is calculated under spherical symmetry to obtain mass accretion histories for different progenitors; in so doing, the inner part of the core is removed and replaced with the artificial inner boundary; the second phase treats shock revival; we construct steady accretion flows through the stalled shock wave on to the proto neutron star; using these configurations as initial conditions for 1D and 2D simulations, we determine the critical neutrino luminosities for shock revival; the evolutions that follow the shock revival are computed in the last phase, with the mass accretion histories obtained in the first phase being taken into account. In the first of two studies done for

  15. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.


    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  16. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok


    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  17. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi


    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  18. Underwater pipeline impact localization using piezoceramic transducers (United States)

    Zhu, Junxiao; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Patil, Devendra; Wang, Ning; Hirsch, Rachel; Song, Gangbing


    Reports indicated that impact events accounted for 47% of offshore pipeline failures, which calls for impact detection and localization for subsea pipelines. In this paper, an innovative method for rapid localization of impacts on underwater pipelines utilizing a novel determination technique for both arrival-time and group velocity (ATGV) of ultrasonic guided waves with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers is described. PZT transducers mounted on the outer surface of a model pipeline were utilized to measure ultrasonic guided waves generated by impact events. Based on the signals from PZT sensors, the ATGV technique integrates wavelet decomposition, Hilbert transform and statistical analysis to pinpoint the arrival-time of the designated ultrasonic guided waves with a specific group velocity. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the localization accuracy for eight impact points along a model underwater pipeline. All estimations errors were small and were comparable with the wavelength of the designated ultrasonic guided waves. Furthermore, the method is robust against the low frequency structural vibration introduced by other external forces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The open circuit underwater breathing apparatus can be a one or two-stage regulator used in scuba diving or a two-stage regulator used in surface supplied installations. These installations are proper in underwater sites at small depth. The pneumatic circuit of a two-stage regulator is composed mainly of a first stage regulator mounted on the air cylinders and a second stage carried by the diver in his mouth. The two regulators are linked together by a medium pressure hose. The circuit opens when the depression created by the diver’s inhalation, in the second stage body, reaches a certain value. The second stage opening causes a transient movement, namely an expansion wave that propagates through the medium pressure hose to the first stage regulator. The first stage regulator opens and the air in the cylinders is allowed to flow to the diver. The longer the hose, the greater the duration of the expansion wave propagation. Investigations on the wave propagation offer data on the inspiration unsteady motion duration which influences the respiratory effort of the diver.

  20. An explanatory model of underwater adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Colodro

    Full Text Available The underwater environment is an extreme environment that requires a process of human adaptation with specific psychophysiological demands to ensure survival and productive activity. From the standpoint of existing models of intelligence, personality and performance, in this explanatory study we have analyzed the contribution of individual differences in explaining the adaptation of military personnel in a stressful environment. Structural equation analysis was employed to verify a model representing the direct effects of psychological variables on individual adaptation to an adverse environment, and we have been able to confirm, during basic military diving courses, the structural relationships among these variables and their ability to predict a third of the variance of a criterion that has been studied very little to date. In this way, we have confirmed in a sample of professionals (N = 575 the direct relationship of emotional adjustment, conscientiousness and general mental ability with underwater adaptation, as well as the inverse relationship of emotional reactivity. These constructs are the psychological basis for working under water, contributing to an improved adaptation to this environment and promoting risk prevention and safety in diving activities.

  1. Hydrogel microphones for stealthy underwater listening (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Song, Jingfeng; Li, Shumin; Elowsky, Christian; Zhou, You; Ducharme, Stephen; Chen, Yong Mei; Zhou, Qin; Tan, Li


    Exploring the abundant resources in the ocean requires underwater acoustic detectors with a high-sensitivity reception of low-frequency sound from greater distances and zero reflections. Here we address both challenges by integrating an easily deformable network of metal nanoparticles in a hydrogel matrix for use as a cavity-free microphone. Since metal nanoparticles can be densely implanted as inclusions, and can even be arranged in coherent arrays, this microphone can detect static loads and air breezes from different angles, as well as underwater acoustic signals from 20 Hz to 3 kHz at amplitudes as low as 4 Pa. Unlike dielectric capacitors or cavity-based microphones that respond to stimuli by deforming the device in thickness directions, this hydrogel device responds with a transient modulation of electric double layers, resulting in an extraordinary sensitivity (217 nF kPa-1 or 24 μC N-1 at a bias of 1.0 V) without using any signal amplification tools.

  2. Software architecture of biomimetic underwater vehicle (United States)

    Praczyk, Tomasz; Szymak, Piotr


    Autonomous underwater vehicles are vehicles that are entirely or partly independent of human decisions. In order to obtain operational independence, the vehicles have to be equipped with a specialized software. The main task of the software is to move the vehicle along a trajectory with collision avoidance. Moreover, the software has also to manage different devices installed on the vehicle board, e.g. to start and stop cameras, sonars etc. In addition to the software embedded on the vehicle board, the software responsible for managing the vehicle by the operator is also necessary. Its task is to define mission of the vehicle, to start, to stop the mission, to send emergency commands, to monitor vehicle parameters, and to control the vehicle in remotely operated mode. An important objective of the software is also to support development and tests of other software components. To this end, a simulation environment is necessary, i.e. simulation model of the vehicle and all its key devices, the model of the sea environment, and the software to visualize behavior of the vehicle. The paper presents architecture of the software designed for biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV) that is being constructed within the framework of the scientific project financed by Polish National Center of Research and Development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Paotonan


    Full Text Available Geotube is, among others, a type of coastal structure that is increasingly accepted for coastal protection especially underwater breakwater. Besides its relatively low cost, it has other advantages such as flexibility, ease of construction and the fact that it can be filled with local sand material. Similar to all other coastal structures, it should also be stable under wave attack. A simple theoretical approach based on linear wave was adopted to estimate the stability of such structure. The theoretical solution was then compared with an experimental study. The experimental study was conducted at the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of Universitas Gadjah Mada. However, instead of a real geotube, PVC pipe was used where the weight of the PVC was varied by adjusting the volume of sand in the pipe. The result indicated that the agreement between the theoretical solution and the experiment was encouraging. The analytical solution may be utilized to predict underwater pipe stability under wave attack with certain degree of accuracy.

  4. Underwater noise levels in UK waters. (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J


    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97 th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  5. Underwater Wireless Acousto-Optic Waveguide (UWAOW) (United States)

    Giuliano, Giovanni; Kent, Lionel W. J.; Laycock, Leslie C.


    The present study originated in the lack of research into achieving underwater total internal reflection (TIR) via the acousto-optic effect. The uniqueness of this technique exists in the fact that it is based on a high sound pressure level which induces a localised change in refractive index of seawater sufficient to achieve total internal reflection within the communication channel. Different transducer systems for generating the pressure wave have been investigated and take the form of a wave which may be either a standing wave, or a novel beamforming technique. The former is based on an array of transducers and with an acoustic mirror at the receiver in order to establish the standing wave. The alternative approach relies on the high intrinsic directionality of a novel beamformer where an annular transducer array is examined as an acoustic source. In this paper, the main characteristics of the acoustic optic waveguide will be presented. This will include both sound and light propagation in the ocean, TIR, novel beam propagation, the refractive index of water as a function of the externally applied acoustic pressure, and the acoustic technology. The modelled results, the limitations imposed by the challenging medium, and the system requirements required to obtain an Underwater Wireless Acousto-Optic Waveguide (UWAOW) will be also addressed.

  6. Analysis of recordings from underwater controlled sources in the Pacific Ocean received by the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoaki; Zampolli, Mario; Haralabus, Georgios; Heaney, Kevin; Prior, Mark; Isse, Takeshi


    Controlled impulsive scientific underwater sound sources in the Northwestern Pacific were observed at two IMS hydroacoustic stations in the Pacific Ocean. Although these experiments were conducted with the aim of studying the physical properties of the plate boundaries inside the Earth, they are also suitable for the investigation of long range underwater acoustic detections. In spite of the fact that the energy of these controlled impulsive scientific sources is significantly smaller than that of nuclear explosions, the signals were obtained by IMS hydrophone stations thousands of kilometres away and also by distant ocean bottom instruments operated by various Institutes, such as the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. These experiments provide calibrated (yield, time, location) long-range acoustic transmissions, which enable one to examine the physics of long-range acoustic propagation and to verify the capabilities of the CTBTO IMS network to detect even small explosions.The two IMS stations used are H03 (Juan Fernandez Island, Chile) off the coast of Chile in the Southeastern Pacific and H11 (Wake Island, USA) in the Western Pacific. Both stations consist of two triplets of hydrophones in the SOFAR channel, which monitor the oceans for signs of nuclear explosions. H03 detected low-yield explosions above flat terrain at distances of 15,000 km across the Pacific as well as explosions above the landward slope off the coast of Japan at distances above 16,000 km across the Pacific. These records showed that source signatures, such as short duration and bubble pulses, were preserved over the long propagation distances. It was found that the observed maximum amplitudes from each source exhibit order of magnitude variations even when the yield and detonation depth are the same. The experimental data and transmission loss simulations suggest that bathymetric features around the sources and between the sources and the receivers are the main causes for

  7. Sources of underwater sound and their characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Jong, C.A.F. de


    Because of the history of sonar and sonar engineering, the concept of “source level” is widely used to characterize anthropogenic sound sources, but is it useful for sources other than sonar transmitters? The concept and applicability of source level are reviewed for sonar, air guns, explosions,

  8. A Speed Control Method for Underwater Vehicle under Hydraulic Flexible Traction


    Zhao, Yin; Xia, Ying-kai; Chen, Ying; Xu, Guo-Hua


    Underwater vehicle speed control methodology method is the focus of research in this study. Driven by a hydraulic flexible traction system, the underwater vehicle advances steadily on underwater guide rails, simulating an underwater environment for the carried device. Considering the influence of steel rope viscoelasticity and the control system traction structure feature, a mathematical model of the underwater vehicle driven by hydraulic flexible traction system is established. A speed contr...

  9. Underwater television camera for monitoring inner side of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kazuhiko.


    An underwater television support device equipped with a rotatable and vertically movable underwater television camera and an underwater television camera controlling device for monitoring images of the inside of the reactor core photographed by the underwater television camera to control the position of the underwater television camera and the underwater light are disposed on an upper lattice plate of a reactor pressure vessel. Both of them are electrically connected with each other by way of a cable to rapidly observe the inside of the reactor core by the underwater television camera. The reproducibility is extremely satisfactory by efficiently concentrating the position of the camera and image information upon inspection and observation. As a result, the steps for periodical inspection can be reduced to shorten the days for the periodical inspection. Since there is no requirement to withdraw fuel assemblies over a wide reactor core region, and the device can be used with the fuel assemblies being left as they are in the reactor, it is suitable for inspection of detectors for nuclear instrumentation. (N.H.)

  10. Underwater fiber-wireless communication with a passive front end (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Sun, Bin; Lyu, Weichao; Kong, Meiwei; Sarwar, Rohail; Han, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Ning


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel concept on underwater fiber-wireless (Fi-Wi) communication system with a fully passive wireless front end. A low-cost step-index (SI) plastic optical fiber (POF) together with a passive collimating lens at the front end composes the underwater Fi-Wi architecture. We have achieved a 1.71-Gb/s transmission at a mean BER of 4.97 × 10-3 (1.30 × 10-3 when using power loading) over a 50-m SI-POF and 2-m underwater wireless channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Although the wireless part is very short, it actually plays a crucial role in practical underwater implementation, especially in deep sea. Compared with the wired solution (e.g. using a 52-m POF cable without the UWOC part), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi scheme can save optical wet-mate connectors that are sophisticated, very expensive and difficult to install in deep ocean. By combining high-capacity robust POF with the mobility and ubiquity of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi technology will find wide application in ocean exploration.

  11. Towards a Hybrid Approach to Context Reasoning for Underwater Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li


    Full Text Available Ontologies have been widely used to facilitate semantic interoperability and serve as a common information model in many applications or domains. The Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs project, aiming to facilitate coordination and cooperation between heterogeneous underwater vehicles, also adopts ontologies to formalize information that is necessarily exchanged between vehicles. However, how to derive more useful contexts based on ontologies still remains a challenge. In particular, the extreme nature of the underwater environment introduces uncertainties in context data, thus imposing more difficulties in context reasoning. None of the existing context reasoning methods could individually deal with all intricacies in the underwater robot field. To this end, this paper presents the first proposal applying a hybrid context reasoning mechanism that includes ontological, rule-based, and Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN reasoning methods to reason about contexts and their uncertainties in the underwater robot field. The theoretical foundation of applying this reasoning mechanism in underwater robots is given by a case study on the oil spill monitoring. The simulated reasoning results are useful for further decision-making by operators or robots and they show that the consolidation of different reasoning methods is a promising approach for context reasoning in underwater robots.

  12. A Literature Review of Shock Sensitivity Changes of TATB Due to Thermal Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Boyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Insensitive high explosives (IHEs) based on 1,3,5-triamino 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene (TATB) are the IHEs of choice for use in nuclear warheads over conventional high explosives when safety is the only consideration, because they are very insensitive to thermal or mechanical initiation stimuli. It is this inherent insensitivity to high temperatures, shock, and impact, which provides detonation design challenges when designing TATB explosive systems while at the same time providing a significant level of protection against accidental initiation. Although classified as IHE, over the past few years the focus on explosive safety has demonstrated that the shock sensitivity of TATB is influenced with respect to temperature. A number of studies have been performed on TATB and TATB formulations, plastic bonded explosives (PBX) 9502, and LX-17-01 (LX-17), which demonstrates the increase in shock sensitivity of the explosive after it has been preheated or thermally cycled over various temperature ranges. Many studies suggest the change in sensitivity is partly due to the decomposition rates of the temperature elevated TATB. Others point to the coefficient of thermal expansion, the crystalline structures of TATB and/or the combination of all factors, which create voids which can become active hot spots. During thermal cycling, TATB is known to undergo an irreversible increase in specific volume called ratchet growth. This increase in specific volume correlates to a decrease in density. This decrease in density and increase in volume, demonstrate the creations of additional void spaces which could serve as potential new initiation hot spots thus, increasing the overall sensitivity of the HE. This literature review evaluates the published works to understand why the shock sensitivity of TATB-based plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) changes with temperature.

  13. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens) (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Toxic Shock Syndrome What's ... it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's had ...

  14. Applications of Shock Wave Research to Developments of Therapeutic Devices. (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi


    Underwater shock wave research applied to medicine started in 1980 by exploding micro lead azide pellets in water. Collaboration with urologists in the School of Medicine, Tohoku University at the same time was directed to disintegration of kidney stones by controlling shock waves. We initially proposed a miniature truncated ellipsoidal cavity for generating high-pressures enough to disintegrate the stone but gave up the idea, when encountering the Dornie Systems' invention of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Then we confirmed its effectiveness by using 10 mg silver azide pellets and constructed our own lithotripter, which was officially approved for a clinical use in 1987. Tissue damage during ESWL was attributable to bubble collapse and we convinced it could be done in a controlled fashion. In 1996, we used 160 mJ pulsed Ho:YAG laser beam focusing inside a catheter for shock generation and applied it to the revascularization of cerebral embolism, which is recently expanded to the treatment of pulmonary infarction. Micro water jets discharged in air were so effective to dissect soft tissues preserving small blood vessels. Animal experiments are successfully performed with high frequency water jets driven by an actuator-assisted micro-pump. A metal foil is deformed at high speed by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam loading. We used this technique to project micro-particles or dry drugs attached on its reverse side and extended it to a laser ablation assisted dry drug delivery or DNA introductory system.

  15. Shock Probation in Iowa. (United States)

    Boudouris, James; Turnbull, Bruce W.


    Compared characteristics and recidivism of 820 shock probationers with recidivism of parolees, straight probationers, and persons sentenced to residential facilities or halfway houses. The results indicated that age, prior juvenile or adult commitments, unemployment, and marital status were related to recidivism for all male shock probationers.…

  16. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian


    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  17. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.


    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  18. Explosion-produced ground motion: technical summary with respect to seismic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, Howard C.


    This paper summarizes the present technical knowledge, experimental and theoretical, of how underground nuclear explosions produce seismic motion that may be a hazard at distances measured in tens of kilometers. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties (at the explosion, along the signal propagation path, and at the site where a hazard may exist) on the ground motion are described in detail, and some consideration is given to the relation between ground motion and damage criteria. The energy released in a nuclear explosion is sufficient to vaporize the explosive and to generate an intense shock wave that is propagated outward into the surrounding rock. Part of the energy transported by the shock wave is dissipated in the shocked material. The shock wave strength decreases with distance from the center of the explosion as a consequence of this energy loss and because of geometric (approximately spherical) divergence. The dissipated energy fraction ranges from over 95% (for competent rocks like granite) to over 99% (for crushable, porous rocks like alluvium) of the explosion yield. Therefore, the energy fraction that is radiated in the form of seismic waves ranges from a few percent down to a few tenths of a percent. This is consistent with the observation that explosions in granite produce more severe ground motion than corresponding explosions in alluvium. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties on the frequency spectrum of the seismic source function are demonstrated by both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis. The characteristics of an ideal elastic medium are such that its frequency response is that of a low-pass filter, with its cutoff frequency being a function of the elastic properties of the material and the radius at which the explosion-produced stress wave becomes elastic. There is further frequency- and distance-dependent attenuation (especially of the higher frequencies) of the seismic waves, because rocks are not

  19. Gasdynamics of detonations and explosions. International colloquium on gasdynamics of explosions and reactive systems, 7th, Gottingen, West Germany, August 20-24, 1979, technical papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, J.R.; Manson, N.; Oppenheim, A.K.; Soloukhin, R.I.


    Wall and confinement effects are considered along with liquid and solid phase phenomena, the cellular structure of detonations, and detonations at moderate pressures. Attention is given to turbulent flame propagation and acceleration in the presence of obstacles, the detonation of unconfined fuel aerosols, the initiation of unconfined gas detonations in hydrocarbon-air mixtures by a sympathetic mechanism, a detection method for the deflagration to detonation transition in gaseous explosive mixtures, the influence of the nature of confinement on gaseous detonation, mechanical effects of gaseous detonations on a flexible confinement, the pressure evolution behind spherical and hemispherical detonations in gases, molecular dynamics of shock and detonation phenomena in condensed matter, TNT explosions in a hard vacuum, the effect of the shock-wave front on the origin of reaction, induction delay and detonation failure diameter of nitromethane mixtures, the critical area concept for the initiation of a solid high explosive by the impact of small projectiles, the shock initiation of hydrazine mononitrate, the characterization of mass flow rates for various percussion primers, the diffraction of a planar detonation in various fuel-oxygen mixtures at an area change, and the detonation characteristics of two ethylene-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures containing aluminum particles in suspension.

  20. Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, W.B.


    By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs