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Sample records for underwater demolition team

  1. Sustainable Management of Construction and Demolition Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web page discusses how to sustainably manage construction and demolition materials, Information covers, what they are, and how builders, construction crews, demolition teams,and deign practitioners can divert C&D from landfills.

  2. Warfare Ecology on an Underwater Demolition Range: Acoustic Observations of Marine Life and Shallow Water Detonations in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lee H.

    Most studies investigating the effects of military-associated anthropogenic noise concentrate on deep sea or open ocean propagation of sonar and its effect on marine mammals. In littoral waters, U.S. military special operations units regularly conduct shallow water explosives training, yet relatively little attention has been given to the potential impact on nearshore marine ecosystems from these underwater detonations. This dissertation research focused on the Pu'uloa Underwater Detonation Range off the coast of O`ahu, and examined multiple aspects of the surrounding marine ecosystem and the effects of detonations using acoustic monitoring techniques. The soundscape of a nearshore reef ecosystem adjacent to the UNDET range was characterized through analysis of passive acoustic recordings collected over the span of 6 years. Snapping shrimp were the predominant source of noise, and a diel pattern was present, with increased sound energy during the night hours. Results revealed a difference of up to 7dB between two Ecological Acoustic Recorder locations 2.5km apart along the 60ft isobath. Passive acoustic recording files were searched visually and aurally for odontocete whistles. Whistles were detected in only 0.6% of files analyzed, indicating this area is not frequently transited by coastal odontocete emitting social sounds. The study also opportunistically captured a humpback whale singing during a detonation event, during which the animal showed no obvious alteration of its singing behavior. Four separate underwater detonation events were recorded using a surface deployed F-42C transducer, and the resulting analysis showed no measurable drop in the biologically produced acoustic energy in reaction to the explosive events. Coral reef fishes were recorded visually and acoustically during detonation events at a known distance and bearing from a known explosive sound source. Individual fish behavioral responses to the explosion varied, and a sharp uptick in fish

  3. DEMOLITION OF HANFORD'S 232-Z WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely

  4. Decommissioning and demolition 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    The decommissioning and demolition of structures offshore, onshore and in nuclear works involves new technologies and industries in demolition and removal. The aim of the conference was to provide a forum to keep up to date with technological developments, to publicise new techniques and to share and discuss present and future plans. A particular feature was the multi-disciplinary approach to promote and encourage communication between different sectors of this difficult field of operations. The conference emphasised not only technical issues but also legislative, management and health and safety aspects. Papers were presented by practising engineers, contractors and research workers involved in offshore structures, buildings, power stations, contaminated sites, nuclear plant and includes specialist techniques of cutting, lifting, explosives, ground treatment and decontamination. Many valuable case histories and records based on practical experience were reported. The volume provides a reference source on the state-of-the-art in decommissioning and demolition. The ten papers relevant to the decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities are indexed separately. (Author)

  5. Underwater Gliders by Dr. Kevin Smith [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Physics

    2015-01-01

    NPS Physics NPS Physics Research Projects Underwater glider research is currently underway in the physics department at the naval postgraduate in Monterey Ca. Dr. Kevin Smith is a specialist in underwater acoustics and sonar systems. He and his team are currently focused on autonomous underwater gliders and developing systems capable of detecting parameters in the ocean and listening for various sources of sound.

  6. A Sandia National Laboratories decontamination and demolition success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Barber, D.S.; Lipka, G.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) has established a formal facility assessment, decontamination and demolition oversight process with the goal of ensuring that excess or contaminated facilities are managed in a cost-effective manner that is protective of human health and the environment. The decontamination and demolition process is designed so that all disciplines are consulted and have input from the initiation of a project. The committee consists of all essential Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) and Facilities disciplines. The interdisciplinary-team approach has provided a mechanism that verifies adequate building and site assessment activities are conducted. This approach ensures that wastes generated during decontamination and demolition activities are handled and disposed according to Department of Energy (DOE), Federal, state, and local requirements. Because of the comprehensive nature of the SNL decontamination and demolition process, the strategy can be followed for demolition, renovation and new construction projects, regardless of funding source. An overview of the SNL/NM decontamination and demolition process is presented through a case study which demonstrates the practical importance of the formal process

  7. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  8. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  9. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  10. TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  11. Underwater robots

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    This book, now at the third edition, addresses the main control aspects in underwater manipulation tasks. The mathematical model with significant impact on the control strategy is discussed. The problem of controlling a 6-degrees-of-freedoms autonomous underwater vehicle is deeply investigated and a survey of fault detection/tolerant strategies for unmanned underwater vehicles is provided. Inverse kinematics, dynamic and interaction control for underwater vehicle-manipulator systems are then discussed. The code used to generate most of the numerical simulations is made available and briefly discussed.       

  12. Quality assurance and demolition: 2006 symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2006-01-01

    The '2006 Symposium: Quality Assurance and Demolition' jointly organized by compra GmbH and Brenk Systemplanung GmbH this year again focused on quality assurance and the demolition of nuclear facilities as its main topics. The papers presented ranged from issues of clearance and disposal to demolition technologies and status reports about specific demolition projects. The sixteen presentations at the '2006 Symposium: Quality Assurance and Demolition' offered an interesting and very topical cross section of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities in Germany. In 2007, the conference about similar main topics will again be held at the Schloss Bensberg Grand Hotel. (orig.)

  13. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  14. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  15. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  16. Drilling-and-blasting method of demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyn Denis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experience and gives the examples of dismantling and demolition of the construction structures of the buildings and facilities using the drilling-and-blasting method. The drilling-and-blasting method is widely used in construction and reconstruction. The demolition means may be classified according to impact on a material of structures to be demolished and to forces application, where, by virtue of an impact energy type, we choose the blasting method. This method is used during the complete demolition or fragmentation of concrete, reinforced concrete, masonry structures, of old buildings and facilities demolition to their base or in the intended direction. Blasting method may be used as well during the steel and reinforced concrete structures demolition to the smaller easy-to-move parts. Reviewed are the organizational-process activities, which are performed during the various structures dismantling. Given are the areas of application for the various methods of structures demolition. Given is the example of demolition of “Sevemaya” boiler house brick chimney at the territory of Murmansk DSK using the blast in confined spaces of the operating company. Subject of research: methods of construction structures demolition in alarm situations and acts of God. Objects: determination of the most efficient demolition methods in the present conditions of construction operations development. Materials and methods: the developed activities on the construction structures dismantling are given. Results: the most efficient methods and ways of construction structures demolition are defined. Conclusions: it is required for improvement of methods and ways of the structures drilling-and-blasting demolition.

  17. Demolition of the FRJ-1 research reactor (MERLIN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahn, B.; Matela, K.; Zehbe, C.; Poeppinghaus, J.; Cremer, J.

    2003-01-01

    FRJ-2 (MERLIN), the swimming pool reactor cooled and moderated by light water, was built at the then Juelich Nuclear Research Establishment (KFA) between 1958 and 1962. In the period between 1964 and 1985, it was used for. The reactor was decommissioned in 1985. Since 1996, most of the demolition work has been carried out under the leadership of a project team. The complete secondary cooling system was removed by late 1998. After the cooling loops and experimental installations had been taken out, the reactor vessel internals were removed in 2000 after the water had been drained from the reactor vessel. After the competent authority had granted a license, demolition of the reactor block, the central part of the research reactor, was begun in October 2001. In a first step, the reactor operating floor and the reactor attachment structures were removed by the GNS/SNT consortium charged with overall planning and execution of the job. This phase gave rise to approx. The reactor block proper is dismantled in a number of steps. A variety of proven cutting techniques are used for this purpose. Demolition of the reactor block is to be completed in the first half of 2003. (orig.) [de

  18. Concrete decontamination and demolition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding

  19. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Tahereh; Yousefi, Nader; Dadashzadeh, Dariush; Khalili, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Amin; Raei, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the generation rate of construction and demolition waste (C&D) has significantly augmented. The aim of this study was to assessed the quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran (capital of Iran). Questionnaire methods were used for estimating the amount of generated C&D wastes national statistical data and typical waste generation data. In order to defining the composition of C&D waste, trucks were randomly selected and their wastes were separated and weighted. According to obtained results, about 82,646,051 m 3 of C&D waste (average 16,529,210 m 3 per year) were generated during 2011 to 2016 which only about 26% of them has been recycled. Mixing sand and cement, concrete, broken bricks and soil have the highest amount of the composition of C&D waste in Tehran that was 30, 19, 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on the results, about 2,784,158 t of the waste will generate in 2025 and this is approximately 122% higher than wastes generate in 2016. Based on MAPSA's data, 360 teams of personnel cruise and control the illegal disposals, but due to the expansion of Tehran this number of teams is inadequate and can't be effective in controlling the situation. In general, the overall condition of C&D waste management in Tehran seems undesirable and needs to be updated based on the experience of successful countries in this field.

  20. Quality assurance and demolition: 2008 symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schartmann, F.; Thierfeldt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Quality Assurance and Demolition Symposium, which has become a tradition established jointly by Applus RTD Deutschland GmbH (formerly compra GmbH) and Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen, was held also in 2008 with the focus on quality assurance and the demolition of nuclear facilities. The conference began with a series of lectures on knowledge and document management in general, and the use of document management systems in the nuclear field in particular. The evening lecture was presented by Axel Weis (Karlsruhe Research Center) on 'Competence Preservation in Nuclear Technology'. The 24 technical papers presented on the next 2 days of the symposium dealt with non-destructive materials testing and with special problems of radiation protection, demolition, and waste management. In 2009, the meeting will cover similar main topics and will again be held in an interesting environment, perhaps in combination with a tour of a demolition project. (orig.)

  1. Mercury-Containing Devices and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some items inside residential buildings contain mercury, which poses a persistent and toxic human health and environmental threat. These materials should be carefully salvaged for proper recycling to prevent mercury contamination prior to demolition.

  2. Handling construction waste of building demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vondráčková Terezie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some building defects lead to their demolition. What about construction and demolition waste? According to the Waste Act 185/2001 Coll. and its amendment 223/2015 Coll., which comes into force on January 1, 2017, the production of waste has to be reduced because, as already stated in the amendment to Act No. 229/2014 Coll., the ban on landfilling of waste will apply from 2024 onwards. The main goals of waste management can thus be considered: Preventing or minimizing waste; Waste handling to be used as a secondary raw material - recycling, composting, combustion and the remaining waste to be dumped. Company AZS 98 s. r. o. was established, among other activities, also for the purpose of recycling construction and demolition waste. It operates 12 recycling centers throughout the Czech Republic and therefore we have selected it for a demonstration of the handling of construction and demolition waste in addressing the defects of the buildings.

  3. Solar One demolition and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill

  4. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction otherwise allowable...

  5. Blind equalization for underwater communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, K.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Underwater wireless (sensor) networks would vastly improve man's ability to explore and exploit remote aquatic environments. Despite underwater sensor and vehicle technology being relatively mature, underwater communications is still a major challenge. The most challenging characteristics of the

  6. Construction and Demolition Waste Characteristics in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction industry generates a lot of construction and demolition (C&D) waste which puts some challenges to its management. For example, currently, in many towns in Tanzania, there are no landfill sites for solid waste disposal; and as a consequence open air dumping sites are used. Dumping C&D waste puts ...

  7. K-25 Structural Separation and Demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cater, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The K-25 building is a former gaseous diffusion plant, built in 1944-1945 as part of the United States Manhattan Project. The structure was the largest structure under one roof, surpassed only by the Pentagon. Together the three wings represent about 17.8 hectare (44 acres) under roof and are generally about 18.3 meters (60 ft.) high on the outside face and approximately 12.2 meters (40 ft.) high on the inside face. The entire structure was built in the shape of a 'U', with a lateral distance of approximately one mile. It was constructed in individual building units with each unit connected using expansion joint-type connection. A single unit is approximately 24.4 meters (80 ft.) across and 122 meters (400 ft.) deep. The northern structure is connected to the eastern and western structures at the upper level floors. The four-level, U-shaped building is a steel-frame structure with corrugated cement-asbestos siding. The cell level is an elevated concrete structure supported by reinforced concrete columns located in the basement, or vault area. The vault area can be accessed at grade level from the outside perimeter. Inside the courtyard, the grade level has been raised to provide entry to the second or cell floor level. An engineering evaluation of the structure was performed to determine the condition of the structure and possibility of unplanned collapse of any portion of the structure. The evaluation included physical inspections, calculations for wind, pre-demolition loads, and evaluation of failure modes. The results of the evaluation have provided guidance for the demolition plan and the development of criteria for protection of personnel performing pre-demolition activities. Challenges include degradation of the structure that necessitated repair, dealing with changes in the code revisions from both the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), access to areas of the structure that were not necessarily designed

  8. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  9. Underwater Scene Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  10. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  11. Underwater Acoustic Tracer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-13

    for controlling and utilizing supercavitating projectile dynamics to produce a distinctive radiated noise signal. (2) Description of the Prior Art...metallic objects which travel relatively closely to a magnetic pickup. For larger, high speed, underwater projectiles, supercavitating underwater vehicles...have been proposed for use. The conditions for supercavitation are known in the art. Supercavitation allows for higher speeds to be sustainable

  12. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  13. Design of underwater work systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    In the near future, underwater vehicles will replace divers as the principal means for inspection and maintenance work. These vehicles will provide a maneuverable work platform for an underwater viewing system and manipulator/tool package. Some of the problems faced by the underwater designer, and some areas to consider in the design of an integrated underwater work system, are considered

  14. Green Residential Demolitions: Case Study of Vacant Land Reuse in Storm Water Management in Cleveland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolit...

  15. Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    From 1975 to 1991 the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites (HPADS) were used for demolition events. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for spent or abandoned chemical waste. Because the HPADS will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the sites will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy closure requirements of WAC 173-303-680 and for the thermal treatment closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the HPADS, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the HPADS. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. Only dangerous constituents derived from HPADS operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i). The HPADS are actually two distinct soil closure areas within the Hanford Patrol Academy training area

  16. Management of construction and demolition wastes as secondary building resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Ivanova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes the methods of management of construction and demolition wastes. The authors developed suggestions for improving the management system of the turnover of construction and demolition wastes. Today the issue of improving the management of construction and demolition wastes is of the same importance as problems of protecting the life-support field from pollution and of preserving biological and land resources. The authors educed the prospective directions and methods for improving the management of the turnover processes for construction and demolition wastes, including the evaluation of potential of wastes as secondary raw materials and the formation of a centralized waste management system.

  17. Underwater wireless communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, J H; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    Underwater communication has a range of applications including remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) communication and docking in the offshore industry. Current underwater transmission techniques is primarily utilise sound waves for large distance at lower frequencies and the velocity of sound in water is approximately 1500m/s the resultant communications have problems with multi-path propagation and low bandwidth problems. The use of electromagnetic (EM) techniques underwater has largely been overlooked because of the attenuation due to the conductivity of seawater. However, for short range applications, the higher frequencies and much higher velocity can prove advantageous. This paper will outline a project which will utilise recent investigations that demonstrate EM wave propagation up to the MHz frequency range is possible in seawater.

  18. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  19. Autonomous Underwater Gliders

    OpenAIRE

    Wood,; Stephen,

    2009-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles are only now being marketed as robust commercial vehicles for many industries, and of these vehicles underwater gliders are becoming the new tool for oceanographers. Satellites have provided scientists and marine specialists with measurements of the sea surface such as temperature since the late 1970s, and data via subsurface oceanographic moorings since the 1950's. As stated by David Smeed of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, England, that "gliders...

  20. Underwater Gliders: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid Muhammad Yasar; Ovinis Mark; Nagarajan T; Hashim Fakhruldin B M

    2014-01-01

    Underwater gliders are a type of underwater vehicle that transverse the oceans by shifting its buoyancy, during which its wings develop a component of the downward motion in the horizontal plane, thus producing a forward force. They are primarily used in oceanography sensing and data collection and play an important role in ocean research and development. Although there have been considerable developments in these gliders since the development of the first glider concept in 1989, to date, no ...

  1. Demolition wastes recycling; Reciclado de residuos de construccion y demolicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, A.; Monge, G. [INGURU Constructore, S.A. (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    This paper wants to show the up-to-date situation of demolition wastes from an international point of view. On the one hand it describes the different type of demolition wastes; on the other hand it explains the kind of treatment that is more adequate to each one. (Author)

  2. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  3. Portland blended cements: demolition ceramic waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trezza, M.A.; Zito, S.; Tironi, A.; Irassar, E.F.; Rahhal, V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Demolition ceramic wastes (DCWs) were investigated in order to determine their potential use as supplementary cementitious materials in Portland Blended Cements (PBCs). For this purpose, three ceramic wastes were investigated. After characterization of the materials used, the effect of ceramic waste replacement (8, 24 and 40% by mass) was analyzed. Pozzolanic activity, hydration progress, workability and compressive strength were determined at 2, 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the ground wastes behave as filler at an early age, but as hydration progresses, the pozzolanic activity of ceramic waste contributes to the strength requirement. [es

  4. Progressively safer, cheaper demolition of Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Robert; Pennington, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. has been progressively improving Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) at the Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project by applying new technologies and better methodologies to the work. Demolition issues existed in the past that necessitated new or improved solutions to maintain worker safety, protect the environment and accomplish the work in a cost effective manner. Lessons learned from D and D of 80 structures has led to a systematic approach, which can be implemented in various D and D arenas. When facility production was halted, hold-up material and process residues remained in the process piping and components. Over 500,000 pounds of material was removed by workers who completed the tasks two years ahead of schedule, $7 million under budget and with an excellent safety record. This success was the result of detailed planning and irdision of lessons learned as work progressed from facility to facility. Work sequences were developed that reduced airborne contamination. Demolition of structures has been performed at Fernald by carefully selected and qualified subcontractors. Asbestos and lead abatement, equipment, piping and conduit removal, and structural demolition have been completed to progressively higher performance specifications developed by Fluor Fernald based on lessons learned during execution. Safety continues to be the primary consideration in performing potentially hazardous work. Technologies such as hydraulic shears have been developed and used to keep workers away from danger. A new technology, ''Cool Suits,'' has been demonstrated to help prevent heat stress when anti-contamination clothing is required in elevated temperature working conditions. For tall structures, implosion technologies have been employed with progressively improved results, Several other new technologies have been evaluated by Fluor Fernald and applied by subcontractors. The improved technologies included the oxy-gas torch

  5. Filming Underwater in 3d Respecting Stereographic Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, R.; Hordosch, H.

    2015-04-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie's box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  6. FILMING UNDERWATER IN 3D RESPECTING STEREOGRAPHIC RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rinaldi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity" and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  7. Resources for Underwater Robotics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.

    2016-01-01

    4-H clubs can build and program underwater robots from raw materials. An annotated resource list for engaging youth in building underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is provided. This article is a companion piece to the Research in Brief article "Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics" in this issue of the "Journal of…

  8. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  9. Demolition of one of the old barracks

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Many people at CERN will no doubt remember having rented accommodation in the four barracks-type huts near Entrance A. The rates were certainly rock bottom but it was hardly the Ritz! Put up at the end of the 1950s, they were abandoned in favour of the Saint-Genis-Pouilly hostel and the Meyrin site hostels. As they no longer meet current safety standards, they will all ultimately have to be demolished. One of them, situated immediately below the HV power line, has just been demolished at the request of the Swiss electricity company Energie Ouest Suisse. With its demolition, a little piece of CERN's social history has gone for ever.

  10. Remediation and demolition of coke by-products plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiffler, M A; Gould, W C

    1992-08-01

    The programme undertaken by ICF Kaiser Engineers and LTV Steel Co. to clean up and demolish four closed coking plants is described, including PCB removal, asbestos abatement, pipe removal and cleaning, tank cleaning, demolition and soil bioremediation. Costs are discussed.

  11. Colour reconstruction of underwater images

    OpenAIRE

    Hoth, Julian; Kowalczyk, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Objects look very different in the underwater environment compared to their appearance in sunlight. Images with correct colouring simplify the detection of underwater objects and may allow the use of visual SLAM algorithms developed for land-based robots underwater. Hence, image processing is required. Current algorithms focus on the colour reconstruction of scenery at diving depth where different colours can still be distinguished. At greater depth this is not the case. In this study it is i...

  12. Underwater Welding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Esam F. Alajmi; Ahmad A. Alqenaei

    2017-01-01

    Welding demand in offshore and marine applications is increased with the increasing in oil and gas activities as well as increasing in the marine transportation and industrial applications. Applications of underwater welding well be increased in Kuwait in the coming years due to the strategic directive of the country toward starting the offshore oil and gas exploration and production, and the increase in marine transportation projects. Therefore, there is a need to understand the concept of u...

  13. Underwater Gliders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Muhammad Yasar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Underwater gliders are a type of underwater vehicle that transverse the oceans by shifting its buoyancy, during which its wings develop a component of the downward motion in the horizontal plane, thus producing a forward force. They are primarily used in oceanography sensing and data collection and play an important role in ocean research and development. Although there have been considerable developments in these gliders since the development of the first glider concept in 1989, to date, no review of these gliders have been done. This paper reviews existing underwater gliders, with emphasis on their respective working principles, range and payload capacity. All information on gliders available in the public domain or published in literature from the year 2000-2013 was reviewed. The majority of these gliders have an operational depth of 1000 m and a payload of less than 25 kg. The exception is a blend-body shape glider, which has a payload of approximately 800 kg and an operational depth around about 300 m. However, the commercialization of these gliders has been limited with only three know examples that have been successfully commercialized.

  14. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

    2010-02-01

    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  15. Simulation of construction and demolition waste leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, T.G.; Jang, Y.; Thurn, L.G.

    1999-11-01

    Solid waste produced from construction and demolition (C and D) activities is typically disposed of in unlined landfills. Knowledge of C{ampersand}D debris landfill leachate is limited in comparison to other types of wastes. A laboratory study was performed to examine leachate resulting from simulated rainfall infiltrating a mixed C and D waste stream consisting of common construction materials (e.g., concrete, wood, drywall). Lysimeters (leaching columns) filled with the mixed C and D waste were operated under flooded and unsaturated conditions. Leachate constituent concentrations in the leachate from specific waste components were also examined. Leachate samples were collected and analyzed for a number of conventional water quality parameters including pH, alkalinity, total organic carbon, total dissolved solids, and sulfate. In experiments with the mixed C and D waste, high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and sulfate were detected in the leachate. C and D leachates produced as a result of unsaturated conditions exhibited TDS concentrations in the range of 570--2,200 mg/L. The major contributor to the TDS was sulfate, which ranged in concentration between 280 and 930 mg/L. The concentrations of sulfate in the leachate exceeded the sulfate secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L.

  16. THE EFFECT OF VESSEL SUPPLY ON SHIP-DEMOLITION PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kagkarakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ship-demolition is one of the four main markets that form the shipping industry and plays an important role on the seaborne trade, as it mitigates imbalances between supply and demand for transportation services by adjusting the merchant fleet supply. The aim of this study is to examine whether the factors that determine the supply of vessels for demolition are capable of affecting materially the ship-demolition price formation. The availability of ships for demolition is primarily a function of the fleet’s age and the conditions on the freight and secondhand markets. The analysis is conducted on the crude tanker and the bulk carrier segments and the vector autoregressive model methodology is employed, whereby the effect of both the supply and the demand factors on the ship-demolition prices is examined. The results indicate that the supply side has limited effect on the price formation in the industry, which is driven by the demand for the steel-scrap commodity.

  17. 76 FR 35006 - Recovery Policy RP9523.4, Demolition of Private Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...] Recovery Policy RP9523.4, Demolition of Private Structures AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... (FEMA) is accepting comments on Recovery Policy RP9523.4, Demolition of Private Structures. DATES... guidance in determining the eligibility of demolition of private structures under the provisions of the...

  18. 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Facility is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. Dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components) are managed and produced on the Hanford Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site, the unit addressed in this closure plan. The 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A Permit Application (Revision 3) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application revision is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and three appendices. This 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of October 15, 1992

  19. Recycling the construction and demolition waste to produce polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mohammad T.; Hameed, Awham M., Dr.

    2018-05-01

    The sustainable management for solid wastes of the construction and demolition waste stimulates searching for safety applications for these wastes. The aim of this research is recycling of construction and demolition waste with some different types of polymeric resins to be used in manufacturing process of polymer mortar or polymer concrete, and studying their mechanical and physical properties, and also Specify how the values of compressive strength and the density are affected via the different parameters. In this research two types of construction and demolition waste were used as aggregates replacement (i.e. waste cement/concrete debris, and the waste blocks) while the two types of polymer resins (i.e. Unsaturated polyester and Epoxy) as cement replacements. The used weight percentages of the resins were changed within (1°, 20, 25 and 30) % to manufacture this polymer concrete.

  20. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques

  1. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  2. Estimation of construction and demolition waste using waste generation rates in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, V G; Kalidindi, Satyanarayana N

    2017-06-01

    A large amount of construction and demolition waste is being generated owing to rapid urbanisation in Indian cities. A reliable estimate of construction and demolition waste generation is essential to create awareness about this stream of solid waste among the government bodies in India. However, the required data to estimate construction and demolition waste generation in India are unavailable or not explicitly documented. This study proposed an approach to estimate construction and demolition waste generation using waste generation rates and demonstrated it by estimating construction and demolition waste generation in Chennai city. The demolition waste generation rates of primary materials were determined through regression analysis using waste generation data from 45 case studies. Materials, such as wood, electrical wires, doors, windows and reinforcement steel, were found to be salvaged and sold on the secondary market. Concrete and masonry debris were dumped in either landfills or unauthorised places. The total quantity of construction and demolition debris generated in Chennai city in 2013 was estimated to be 1.14 million tonnes. The proportion of masonry debris was found to be 76% of the total quantity of demolition debris. Construction and demolition debris forms about 36% of the total solid waste generated in Chennai city. A gross underestimation of construction and demolition waste generation in some earlier studies in India has also been shown. The methodology proposed could be utilised by government bodies, policymakers and researchers to generate reliable estimates of construction and demolition waste in other developing countries facing similar challenges of limited data availability.

  3. OFDM for underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver des

  4. Creation and demolition of illegal structures in Nigerian cities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the issue of demolition of illegal structures in Benin City. The study revealed that the poor economic condition of the country forced many landlords in the city to restructure and convert their houses into mixed uses in order to make a living. In the process many illegal structures sprang up as many ...

  5. Demolition of Building 12, an old plutonium filter facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.L.; Garde, R.; Valentine, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    This report discusses the decommissioning and disposal of a plutonium-contaminated air filter facility that provided ventilation for the main plutonium processing plant at Los Alamos from 1945 until 1973. The health physics, waste management, and environmental aspects of the demolition are also discussed

  6. Concrete block production from construction and demolition waste in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabai, M.M.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Mato, R.R.A.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Lichtenberg, J.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    In Tanzania, construction and demolition (C&D) waste is not recycled and knowledge on how it can be recycled especially into valuable products like building materials are still limited. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of recycling the C&D waste (mainly cementitious rubble) into

  7. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  8. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO 2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO 2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  9. Safety aspects for underwater vehicles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.

    instrumentation is intelligent small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV’s), autonomous profilers, gliders [1], etc. The ultimate aim in all autonomous platforms research and development is to reach the stage of unescorted missions with minimum failures...

  10. Demolition of the FRJ-1 research reactor (MERLIN); Abbau des Reaktorblocks des Forschungsreaktors FRJ-1 (MERLIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahn, B.; Matela, K.; Zehbe, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Poeppinghaus, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearservice, Essen (Germany); Cremer, J. [SNT Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    FRJ-2 (MERLIN), the swimming pool reactor cooled and moderated by light water, was built at the then Juelich Nuclear Research Establishment (KFA) between 1958 and 1962. In the period between 1964 and 1985, it was used for. The reactor was decommissioned in 1985. Since 1996, most of the demolition work has been carried out under the leadership of a project team. The complete secondary cooling system was removed by late 1998. After the cooling loops and experimental installations had been taken out, the reactor vessel internals were removed in 2000 after the water had been drained from the reactor vessel. After the competent authority had granted a license, demolition of the reactor block, the central part of the research reactor, was begun in October 2001. In a first step, the reactor operating floor and the reactor attachment structures were removed by the GNS/SNT consortium charged with overall planning and execution of the job. This phase gave rise to approx. The reactor block proper is dismantled in a number of steps. A variety of proven cutting techniques are used for this purpose. Demolition of the reactor block is to be completed in the first half of 2003. (orig.) [German] Der mit Leichtwasser gekuehlte und moderierte Schwimmbad-Forschungsreaktor FRJ-2 (MERLIN) wurde von 1958 bis 1962 fuer die damalige Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (KFA) errichtet. Von 1964 bis 1985 wurde er fuer Experimente mit zunaechst 5 MW und spaeter 10 MW thermischer Leistung bei einem maximalen thermischen Neutronenfluss von 1,1.10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s genutzt. Im Jahr 1985 stellte der Reaktor seinen Betrieb ein. Die Brennelemente wurden aus der Anlage entfernt und in die USA und nach Grossbritannien verbracht. Seit 1996 erfolgen die wesentlichen Abbautaetigkeiten unter Leitung eines verantwortlichen Projektteams. Bis Ende 1998 wurde das komplette Sekundaerkuehlsystem entfernt. Dem Abbau der Kuehlkreislaeufe und Experimentiereinrichtungen folgte im Jahr 2000 der Ausbau der

  11. Underwater radiation measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring, under water, radiation from spent fuels (long members to be detected) of nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities. Namely, a detecting insertion tube (insertion tube) is disposed so as to be in parallel with axial direction of the long member to be detected stored underwater. A γ-ray detector is inserted to the inside of the insertion tube. A driving mechanism is disposed for moving the γ-ray detector in axial direction inside of the insertion tube. The driving mechanism preferably has a system that it moves the γ-ray detector by winding a detection signal cable around a driving drum. The driving mechanism is formed by inserting and securing a driving tube having screws formed on the side surface and inserting it into the insertion tube. It may have a system of moving the γ-ray detector together with the driving tube while engaging the teeth of a driving transfer mechanism with the screws of the driving tube. (I.S.)

  12. An underwater shear compactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biver, E.; Sims, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper, originally presented at the WM'96 Conference in Tucson Arizona, describes a concept of a specialised decommissioning tool designed to operate underwater and to reduce the volume of radioactive components by shearing and compacting. The shear compactor was originally conceived to manage the size reduction of a variety of decommissioned stainless steel tubes stored within a reactor fuel cooling pond and which were consuming a substantial volume of the pond. The main objective of this tool was to cut the long tubes into shorter lengths and to compact them into a flat rectangular form which could be stacked on the pond floor, thus saving valuable space. The development programme, undertaken on this project, investigated a wide range of factors which could contribute to an extended cutting blade performance, ie: materials of construction, cutting blade shape and cutting loads required, shock effects, etc. The second phase was to review other aspects of the design, such as radiological protection, cutting blade replacement, maintenance, pond installation and resultant wall loads, water hydraulics, collection of products of shearing/compacting operations, corrosion of the equipment, control system, operational safety and the ability of the equipment to operate in dry environments. The paper summarises the extended work programme involved with this shear compactor tool. (author)

  13. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  14. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  15. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Environmental Impacts Assessment of Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania

    .e. soil and stones, concrete, asphalt and masonry, and as such it has the potential to be used as aggregate in the construction sector. A typical application is in an unbound state as filler in road structures. This practice offers evident benefits in terms of resource savings, however it might lead......Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is waste derived from the construction, demolition and renovation of buildings and civil infrastructure. With 900 million tons generated every year in Europe, it is the largest waste stream on the continent. C&DW is mainly constituted of mineral fractions, i...... be evaluated critically.Owing to its high toxicity and significant mobility, especially at high pH levels, Cr(VI) is one of the elements of concern found in C&DW leachates. Its fate in the sub-soil below road applications was assessed experimentally, and its vertical migration was then predicted through...

  17. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  18. Towards a more professional demolition and dismantling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The work of the National Economic Development Office Demolition and Dismantling Group in four areas which are crucial to the economic performance of the demolition and dismantling industry and its safety record is considered. The first concerns the availability and accessibility of information about unconventional structures and details are given of the sort of information often kept for different types of structure. Secondly, the need is stressed for guidelines for the client, particularly on the risks involved and the choice of a competent contractor. Thirdly, basic credentials which it is important for contractors to set out in order to establish a good reputation for the industry are set out. Finally, the particular case of nuclear power station decommissioning is considered with reference to the size of the market, the pioneering knowledge to be gained from the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, private sector involvement and the special techniques required. (U.K.)

  19. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, Camiel de

    2008-01-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Are real teams healthy teams?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buljac, M.; van Woerkom, M.; van Wijngaarden, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of real-team--as opposed to a team in name only--characteristics (i.e., team boundaries, stability of membership, and task interdependence) on team processes (i.e., team learning and emotional support) and team effectiveness in the long-term care sector. We employed a

  1. Stripping demolition of reinforced concrete by electric heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Wahei; Nishita, Kiwamu; Kasai, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    The present paper describes the procedures and results of a series of experiments the authors conducted to verify the efficiency of the electric heating method, previously proposed for so-called stripping demolition by applying electric current through reinforcing bars. In this method, a low voltage high current is run from one end to the other of a reinforcing bar or bars existing in a concrete structure, inducing intense heat in the bar(s) which in its turn brings about cracks in the surrounding concrete mass, facilitating secondary demolition by hammer picks or other means. The experiments were performed on full-scale biological shield wall mock-ups of a BWR and a small reactor. The results of the experiments are summarized as follows. (1) When electric current is applied through reinforcing bars, the bond between concrete and bars is loosened, and cracks start from one bar and progress toward other bars. Under appropriate conditions, the cracks in concrete run from the contact surface at one bar all the way to its the contact surface on another bar. (2) Cracks appear and grow only between two electrodes between which current is applied, not extending out of the area thus defined. (3) The concrete in the region closer to a current-bearing bar is intensely heated, whereas the concrete far from the bars remains nearly unheated. (4) Concrete walls after electric heating of bars disintegrates, if demolished with hammers, with the covering concrete are removed from the remaining portion of the structure together with heated bars, in shapes of flakes. (5) The reinforced concrete collapses in massive pieces of concrete, without generating much dust as is the case with the demolition of a concrete structure not heated by electricity. Results of the experiments show that the electric heating method is worth applying also to the demolition of nuclear power plants where concrete in the radioactivated surface region of shield walls needs to be stripped off in flakes

  2. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  3. 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruck, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ash Pit Demolition Site had two known demolition events, the first occurred in November of 1984, and the second occurred in June of 1986. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the Ash Pit Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'', Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A, Form 3, Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 4) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A, Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the Ash,Pit Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the Ash Pit Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in the demolitions, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only''. Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from Ash Pit Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

  4. 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site clean closure soil evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korematsu-Olund, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a soil sampling and analyses study performed for the 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site (218 E-8 Demolition Site). The 218 E-8 Demolition Site is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. The site was used for the thermal treatment of discarded explosive chemical products. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the soil by 218 E-8 Demolition Site activities

  5. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  6. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases

  7. Operational experience in underwater photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, John D.; John Turner, D.

    Underwater photogrammetry has become established as a cost-effective technique for inspection and maintenance of platforms and pipelines for the offshore oil industry. A commercial service based in Scotland operates in the North Sea, USA, Brazil, West Africa and Australia. 70 mm cameras and flash units are built for the purpose and analytical plotters and computer graphics systems are used for photogrammetric measurement and analysis of damage, corrosion, weld failures and redesign of underwater structures. Users are seeking simple, low-cost systems for photogrammetric analysis which their engineers can use themselves.

  8. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  9. Development of a highly maneuverable unmanned underwater vehicle on the basis of quad-copter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Osman Md; Karim, Md. Arshadul; Saad, Abdullah His

    2017-12-01

    At present, research on unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) has become a significant & familiar topic for researchers from various engineering fields. UUV is of mainly two types - AUV (Autonomous Underwater vehicle) & ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle). There exist a significant number of published research papers on UUV, where very few researchers emphasize on the ease of maneuvering and control of UUV. Maneuvering is important for underwater vehicle in avoiding obstacles, installing underwater piping system, searching undersea resources, underwater mine disposal operations, oceanographic surveys etc. A team from Dept. of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering of MIST has taken a project to design a highly maneuverable unmanned underwater vehicle on the basis of quad-copter dynamics. The main objective of the research is to develop a control system for UUV which would be able to maneuver the vehicle in six DOF (Degrees of Freedom) with great ease. For this purpose we are not only focusing on controllability but also designing an efficient hull with minimal drag force & optimized propeller using CFD technique. Motors were selected on the basis of the simulated thrust generated by propellers in ANSYS Fluent software module. Settings for control parameters to carry out different types of maneuvering such as hovering, spiral, one point rotation about its centroid, gliding, rolling, drifting and zigzag motions were explained in short at the end.

  10. A change in strategy for a CERCLA Removal Action Demolition Project in progress results in overall project enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Nichols, R.M.; Edwards, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses changes made in a demolition project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a site on the National Priorities list (NPL), owned by the Department of Energy. The project, to demolish fourteen uranium ore silos and their structure, was based on a Removal Action Work Plan, submitted and approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), that integrated Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements to remove the source of contamination and threat to public health and the environment. After the demolition contractor defaulted at 30% complete, completion of the project by the USEPA deadline was threatened. The recovery plan included re-evaluation of project documents in addition to the schedule. It was determined that re-interpretation of the removal action criteria, including design and Removal Action Work Plan, would eliminate road-blocks, and optimize resources, resulting in project completion by the original deadline even after lost-time in mobilizing another contractor. This presentation will discuss the open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes by the project team and illustrate how simplification of construction methods resulted in enhancements to the environmental controls, improved material handing, and created a safer work environment

  11. Underwater noise due to precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crum, Lawrence A.; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    1989-01-01

    In 1959, G. Franz published a thorough investigation of the underwater sound produced by liquid drop impacts [G. Franz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 1080 (1959)]. He discovered that, under certain conditions, a gas bubble was entrained by the impacting droplet, and the subsequent oscillation of this b...

  12. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  13. Underwater Robots Surface in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Randy C.; Hacking, Kip S.; Damarjian, Jennifer L.; Wright, Geoffrey A.; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-01-01

    Underwater robots (or ROVs: Remotely Operated Vehicles as they are typically called in industry) have recently become a very popular instructional STEM activity. Nationally, ROVs have been used in science and technology classrooms for several years in cities such as Seattle, San Diego, Virginia Beach, and other coastal areas. In the past two…

  14. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including electric...

  15. Postwar City: Importance of Recycling Construction and Demolition Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaraghuli, Hanan; Alsayed, Yaman; Almoghazy, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Wars and armed conflicts have heavy tolls on the built environment when they take place in cities. It is not only restricted to the actually fighting which destroys or damages buildings and infrastructure, but the damage and destruction inflicts its impacts way beyond the cessation of military actions. They can even have another impact through physical segregation of city quarters through walls and checkpoints that complicates, or even terminates, mobility of citizens, goods, and services in the post-war scenario. The accumulation of debris in the streets often impedes the processes of rescue, distribution of aid and services, and other forms of city life as well. Also, the amount of effort and energy needed to remove those residual materials to their final dumping sites divert a lot of urgently needed resources. In this paper, the components of construction and demolition waste found in post-war cities are to be discussed, relating each one to its origins and potential reuses. Then the issues related to the management of construction waste and demolition debris resulting from military actions are to be discussed. First, an outlook is to be given on the historical example of Berlin and how the city was severely damaged during World War II, and how the reconstruction of the city was aided in part by the reuse of demolition debris. Then two more recent examples will be given, the cities of Baghdad in Iraq, and Homs in Syria. In Baghdad, though major military actions have ceased but not all rubble is cleared out, some security structures in the form of concrete walls separate the cities into quarters and impede city life and lie around as poorly allocated resource needed for reconstruction. While in the case of Homs, and the wider Syrian context, major military operations are still raging, making more pressure on the resources needed for reconstruction. This recycling of demolition debris can bring economic and social stability through the conservation of resources

  16. Overview regarding construction and demolition waste in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; García-González, Julia; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The construction sector comprises a number of activities that may result in environmental impacts of considerable magnitude, waste generation being one of the major negative effects of this industry due to the large streams generated. Proper knowledge of the environmental problem caused by the sector is of great importance in order to achieve an effective waste management. Thus, this paper analyse the Spanish situation regarding construction and demolition waste (CDW) compared with other European Union countries; which sets out the current figures of the CDW scenario (legislation, generation, composition, treatment and market) as well as the difficulties encountered when handling this residue.

  17. Decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, H.; Leushacke, D.; Rittscher, D.

    1995-01-01

    The unexpected decision to decommission the plants in Greifswald makes the management and disposal of fuels and plant waste a major issue to be solved as a precondition for decommissioning and dismantling. The decisive point in waste management is the existence of an interim store or repository of sufficient capacity to accept both the nuclear fuel and the plant waste and the considerable volumes of radioactive residues arising in dismantling. Current major activities include planning for decommissioning and demolition, and drafting of the licensing documents; removal of the fuel elements from the reactor units; construction of the northern interim store for fuel elements and residues. (orig./HP)

  18. Assessment of leaching from Construction & Demolition Waste concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste features two very important properties when considering its management options: the large amounts, and the low environmental hazardousness. Therefore, concrete waste can be recycled relatively easily: most common end-of-life option is utilization as unbound...... approaches exist, often implying unrealistic or not relevant conditions if compared to real life utilization scenarios. A modified version of the CEN/TS 14405 column percolation test has been implemented on four crushed concrete samples, with the purpose of analysing the release of chromium, one...

  19. Management Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Belbin, R Meredith Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.

  20. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohan, Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani; Ancok, Djamaludin

    2010-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  1. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  2. Quantum demolition filtering and optimal control of unstable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavkin, V P

    2012-11-28

    A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for optimal control of quantum unstable systems is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme, we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects as in the usual case of quantum stable systems with non-demolition observation. This allows us to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation generalized to demolition observations and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. An unstable controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.

  3. Use of rubble from building demolition in mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, V; Giuggiolini, M; Moriconi, G

    2002-01-01

    Because of increasing waste production and public concerns about the environment, it is desirable to recycle materials from building demolition. If suitably selected, ground, cleaned and sieved in appropriate industrial crushing plants, these materials can be profitably used in concrete. Nevertheless, the presence of masonry instead of concrete rubble is particularly detrimental to the mechanical performance and durability of recycled-aggregate concrete and the same negative effect is detectable when natural sand is replaced by fine recycled aggregate fraction. An alternative use of both masonry rubble and fine recycled material fraction could be in mortars. These could contain either recycled instead of natural sand or powder obtained by bricks crushing as partial cement substitution. In particular, attention is focused on the modification that takes place when either polypropylene or stainless steel fibers are added to these mortars. Polypropylene fibers are added in order to reduce shrinkage of mortars, stainless steel fibers for improving their flexural strength. The combined use of polypropylene fibers and fine recycled material from building demolition could allow the preparation of mortars showing good performance, in particular when coupled with bricks. Furthermore, the combined use of stainless steel fibers and mortars containing brick powder seems to be an effective way to guarantee a high flexural strength.

  4. Cooperative OFDM underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xilin; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical enginee...

  5. International Conference on Underwater Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Jaulin, Luc; Creuze, Vincent; Debese, Nathalie; Quidu, Isabelle; Clement, Benoît; Billon-Coat, Annick

    2016-01-01

    This volume constitutes the results of the International Conference on Underwater Environment, MOQESM’14, held at “Le Quartz” Conference Center in Brest, France, on October 14-15, 2014, within the framework of the 9th Sea Tech Week, International Marine Science and Technology Event. The objective of MOQESM'14 was to bring together researchers from both academia and industry, interested in marine robotics and hydrography with application to the coastal environment mapping and underwater infrastructures surveys. The common thread of the conference is the combination of technical control, perception, and localization, typically used in robotics, with the methods of mapping and bathymetry. The papers presented in this book focus on two main topics. Firstly, coastal and infrastructure mapping is addressed, focusing not only on hydrographic systems, but also on positioning systems, bathymetry, and remote sensing. The proposed methods rely on acoustic sensors such as side scan sonars, multibeam echo sounders, ...

  6. Cutting method and device underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Genta; Kamei, Hiromasa; Beppu, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    A place of material to be cut is surrounded by an openable/closable box. The material to be cut is cut underwater, and materials generated in this case are removed from the cut portion by a pressurized water jet. The removed materials are sucked and recovered together with water in the box. Among the materials caused by the cutting underwater, solid materials not floating on water are caused to stay in the midway of a sucking and recovering channel. A large sucking force might be required for the entire region of the sucking and recovering channel when sucking and recovering large sized solid materials not floating on water, but even large sized materials can be recovered easily according to the present invention since they are recovered after being sucked and stayed in the midway of the sucking and recovering channel. (N.H.)

  7. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Games. USA Hockey offers additional information and resources. Softball It's not easy to field full teams of ... an annual tournament sponsored by the National Wheelchair Softball Association , where thirty or so teams show up ...

  8. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  9. 218-E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruck, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    The 218-E-8 Demolition Site was the site of a single demolition event in November of 1984. This demolition event was a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the 218-E-8 Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations,'' Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 218-E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3, Revision 4, and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the 218-E-8 Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the 218-E-8 Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in t he demolitions at the 218-E-8 Borrow Pit site, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only.'' Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from 218-E-8 Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

  10. Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    novel hot-cutting technique used to remove steel coatings from sections of each block was also instrumental in assisting with achieving this objective. Finally, the paper sets out the plans that have been developed for the sequenced demolition of the building structure, the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines and the base slab. This will include details of the means by which residually contaminated and partly inaccessible items will be recovered for disposal during the demolition process. The decommissioning programme remains on schedule and has been achieved by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has greatly assisted in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a number of problems that have arisen during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

  11. High Flux Isotopes Reactor (HFIR) Cooling Towers Demolition Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudelek, R. E.; Gilbert, W. C.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of a joint initiative between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, operated by UT-Battelle, and Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) to characterize, package, transport, treat, and dispose of demolition waste from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Cooling Tower. The demolition and removal of waste from the site was the first critical step in the planned HFIR beryllium reflector replacement outage scheduled. The outage was scheduled to last a maximum of six months. Demolition and removal of the waste was critical because a new tower was to be constructed over the old concrete water basin. A detailed sampling and analysis plan was developed to characterize the hazardous and radiological constituents of the components of the Cooling Tower. Analyses were performed for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) heavy metals and semi-volatile constituents as defined by 40 CFR 261 and radiological parameters including gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, alpha-emitting isotopes and beta-emitting isotopes. Analysis of metals and semi-volatile constituents indicated no exceedances of regulatory limits. Analysis of radionuclides identified uranium and thorium and associated daughters. In addition 60Co, 99Tc, 226Rm, and 228Rm were identified. Most of the tower materials were determined to be low level radioactive waste. A small quantity was determined not to be radioactive, or could be decontaminated. The tower was dismantled October 2000 to January 2001 using a detailed step-by-step process to aid waste segregation and container loading. The volume of waste as packaged for treatment was approximately 1982 cubic meters (70,000 cubic feet). This volume was comprised of plastic ({approx}47%), wood ({approx}38%) and asbestos transite ({approx}14%). The remaining {approx}1% consisted of the fire protection piping (contaminated with lead-based paint) and incidental metal from conduit, nails and braces/supports, and sludge from the basin. The waste

  12. Investigation of the Propagation Characteristics of Underwater Shock Waves in Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first-stage project of the main channel of Ningbo-Zhoushan Port’s Shipu Harbor, underwater shock waves were monitored. By analyzing a typical measured pressure time history curve, the characteristics of underwater shock waves in an engineering context were obtained. We obtained a traditional exponential attenuation formula for underwater shock waves based on the measured data, simplified the model of underwater drilling blasting based on engineering practice, deduced a revised formula for underwater shock wave peak overpressure on the basis of dimensional analysis, established a linear fitting model, and obtained the undetermined coefficients of the revised formula using a linear regression analysis. In addition, the accuracies of the two formulas used to predict underwater shock wave peak overpressure and the significance order of influence and influence mechanism of factors included in the revised formula on the underwater shock wave peak overpressure were discussed.

  13. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    types of team formation: random teacher pre-assigned, student selection, and teacher directed diversity. In each of these modules, ethnographic methods (interviews and observations) were employed. Additionally, we had access to students learning logs, formative and summative assessments, and final exams...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily......Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students...

  14. Streamlining of the Decontamination and Demolition Document Preparation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Nick; Meincke, Carol; Peek, Georgianne

    1999-01-01

    During the past five years, the Sandia National Labo- ratories Decontamination, Decommissioning, Demolition, and Reuse (D3R) Program has evolved and become more focused and efficient. Historical approaches to project documentation, requirements, and drivers are discussed detailing key assumptions, oversight authority, and proj- ect approvals. Discussion of efforts to streamline the D3R project planning and preparation process include the in- corporation of the principles of graded approach, Total Quality Management, and the Observational Method (CH2MHILL April 1989).1 Process improvements were realized by clearly defining regulatory requirements for each phase of a project, establishing general guidance for the program and combining project-specific documents to eliminate redundant and unneeded information. Proc- ess improvements to cost, schedule, and quality are dis- cussed in detail for several projects

  15. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed...... of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most...... of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing...

  16. Forecasting of construction and demolition waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Diogo Hf; Lafayette, Kalinny Pv

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a computerised tool (software) that facilitates the analysis of strategies for waste management on construction sites through the use of indicators of construction and demolition waste generation. The development involved the following steps: knowledge acquisition, structuring the system, coding and system evaluation. The step of knowledge acquisition aims to provide subsidies for the representation of them through models. In the step of structuring the system, it was presented the structuring and formalisation of knowledge for the development of the system, and has two stages: the construction of the conceptual model and the subsequent instantiation of the model. The coding system aims to implement (code) the conceptual model developed in a model played by computer (digital). The results showed that the system is very useful and applicable in construction sites, helping to improve the quality of waste management, and creating a database that will support new research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  18. The Ellweiler uranium plant - a demolition and recycling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mika, S.; Rohr, T.; Seehars, R.; Feser, A.

    1999-01-01

    The uranium plant at Ellweiler, district of Birkenfeld, was used for the production and storage of uranium concentrates. The owner of the Ellweiler uranium plant (UAE), Gewerkschaft Brunhilde GmbH, ceased processing uranium ore and recycling in 1989 and has been in liquidation since September 1991. The State of Rhineland-Palatinate, had safety measures adopted in a first step, getting the plant into a safe state by former plant personnel. The entire plant was demolished in a second step. The contract for demolishing the former uranium plant was awarded to ABB Reaktor as the general contractor in August 1996. Demolition work was carried out between April 1997 and May 1999. A total of approx. 7900 Mg of material was disposed of. At present, recultivation measures are being carried out. (orig.) [de

  19. Assessment of different construction and demolition waste management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal S. Abdelhamid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The waste generated from construction and demolition sites is considered one of the most irritating problems in Egypt. In the last 10 years some effort has been made toward solving this problem, the most outstanding is the newly issued Egyptian rating system “Green Pyramids Rating System”. It emphasizes on waste management and particularly “site provision and environment” which contributes to 75% of the management category score. However the traditional practice which is limited to dumping all the generated waste is still dominating. The absence of sustainable practices in construction sector in Egypt led to the lack in financial and environmental data. From strategic perspective, the research aims at developing a detailed procedure to evaluate two construction and demolition waste management approaches by means of Decision Matrix technique. A detailed study is introduced for the two approaches; for each approach a flow chart is developed to demonstrate its lifecycle, as well as the cost break down structure and the different stakeholders’ roles. A penetration discussion of the pros and cons for each approach was developed accordingly and came out with sixteen influencing attributes for both approaches. The previous steps paved the ground to construct a Decision Matrix to decide on one of the approaches from a strategic environmentally oriented perspective. The study relied on the detailed and deep demonstration of the two approaches to justify the assigned weight for attributes and scores for corresponding approach. From a strategic perspective, the decision came out in favor of the more environmentally friendly approach.

  20. ROV Based Underwater Blurred Image Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhishen; DING Tianfu; WANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of ROV based image processing to restore underwater blurry images from the theory of light and image transmission in the sea. Computer is used to simulate the maximum detection range of the ROV under different water body conditions. The receiving irradiance of the video camera at different detection ranges is also calculated. The ROV's detection performance under different water body conditions is given by simulation. We restore the underwater blurry images using the Wiener filter based on the simulation. The Wiener filter is shown to be a simple useful method for underwater image restoration in the ROV underwater experiments. We also present examples of restored images of an underwater standard target taken by the video camera in these experiments.

  1. Quantum imaging for underwater arctic navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The precise navigation of underwater vehicles is a difficult task due to the challenges imposed by the variable oceanic environment. It is particularly difficult if the underwater vehicle is trying to navigate under the Arctic ice shelf. Indeed, in this scenario traditional navigation devices such as GPS, compasses and gyrocompasses are unavailable or unreliable. In addition, the shape and thickness of the ice shelf is variable throughout the year. Current Arctic underwater navigation systems include sonar arrays to detect the proximity to the ice. However, these systems are undesirable in a wartime environment, as the sound gives away the position of the underwater vehicle. In this paper we briefly describe the theoretical design of a quantum imaging system that could allow the safe and stealthy navigation of underwater Arctic vehicles.

  2. Brownfields Recover Your Resources - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides background information on how the sustainable reuse of brownfield properties includes efforts to reduce the environmental impact by reusing and recycling materials generated during building construction, demolition, or renovation.

  3. Construction and Demolition Debris 2014 US Final Disposition Estimates Using the CDDPath Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of the final amount and final disposition of materials generated in the Construction and Demolition waste stream measured in total mass of each material....

  4. LAKE BAIKAL: Underwater neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A new underwater detector soon to be deployed in Lake Baikal in Siberia, the world's deepest lake with depths down to 1.7 kilometres, could help probe the deepest mysteries of physics. One of the big unsolved problems of astrophysics is the origin of very energetic cosmic rays. However there are many ideas on how particles could be accelerated by exotic concentrations of matter and provide the majority of the Galaxy's high energy particles. Clarification would come from new detectors picking up the energetic photons and neutrinos from these sources

  5. Stripping demolition of concrete by applying electric current through reinforcing bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Wahei; Kumegawa, Sadatsune

    1995-01-01

    The presence of reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structures is an obstruction hindering the smooth progress of demolition works. The electric heating method is, on the other hand, a demolition technique of unique concept since it adopts the bars to help the demolition of reinforced concrete structures. This technique has the following advantages for demolition: 1) the more densely a structure is reinforced with bars, the greater is the effect of the electric heating, 2) demolition after heating produces little dust, and 3) electric heating of reinforcing bars causes no damage to the portions of concrete not subjected to electric current. The present paper describes the procedures and results of a series of experiments we conducted to verify the efficiency of the electric heating method. In this method, a low-voltage high-current is run through reinforcing bars existing in a concrete structure, inducing intense heat in the bars which in its turn brings about cracks in the surrounding concrete mass, facilitating secondary demolition by hammer picks or other means. The experiments were performed on full-scale biological shield wall mock-ups of a BWR and a small nuclear reactor. The experiments revealed that these excellent features of the electric heating method are worth utilizing in stripping demolition of radioactivated regions of biological shield walls in nuclear power plants. The electric heating method is currently being adopted and shows effective results in partial demolition works in diaphragm wall shafts where starting/arriving holes are to be fixed for shield machines without damaging surrounding portions. (author)

  6. Application of Updated Construction and Demolition Waste Reduction Policy to Army Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    recovering materials for reuse and recycling from demolition, new construction, and renovation and repurposing projects. In its efforts to improve the...Building contents; reuse and recycling potential (including the follow- ing specific materials, products and components that are potentially re- usable...conventional demolition. Implement deconstruction wherever markets or on-site reuse opportunities exist or are anticipated.  Page 24, 3-7 REDUCE

  7. Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles: Advanced Sensing & Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From To) 7/1/05-12/31708 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles Advanced Sensing...assimilating data from underwater and surface autonomous vehicles in addition to the usual sources of Eulerian and Lagrangian systems into a small scale

  8. Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, André; Brito, Jorge de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environmental impacts of different demolition practices. ► “Top-down” approach to the Life Cycle Analysis methodology. ► Results based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities. ► Not every type of selective demolition brings about environmental benefits. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to quantify comparable environmental impacts within a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) perspective, for buildings in which the first (Materials) and last (End of Life) life cycle stages are adjusted to several waste/material management options. Unlike most LCAs, the approach is “top-down” rather than “bottom-up”, which usually involves large amounts of data and the use of specific software applications. This approach is considered appropriate for a limited but expedient LCA designed to compare the environmental impacts of different life cycle options. Present results, based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities, show that shallow, superficial, selective demolition may not result in reduced environmental impacts. Calculations actually show an increase (generally less than 5%) in most impact categories for the Materials and End of Life stages because of extra transportation needs. However, core material separation in demolition operations and its recycling and/or reuse does bring environmental benefits. A reduction of around 77% has been estimated in the climate change impact category, 57% in acidification potential and 81% in the summer smog impact (for the life cycle stages referred).

  9. Environmental impacts of manufactured gas plant demolition: examples from site remediation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unites, D. [Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc., Colchester, CT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Inappropriate demolition of manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites may leave a continuing legacy in the environmental record. Much of the contamination encountered at former gas plants originated from on-site disposal or from spills and leaks during operations. However, some of the greatest potential for continual release comes from inappropriately decommissioned vessels and tanks. These structures contained liquids such as tars, oils, water, and other fluids associated with by-product removal or the gas stream purification process. Inorganic `solids` constitute another, although generally minor, source of contaminants during demolition. These contaminants include: cyanide- and sulfide-containing purifier materials; asbestos from roofing, pipe lagging, etc.; mercury from controls and manometers; and lead from painted surfaces. Normal elements of decommissioning and dismantling include: purging the piping system with inert gas; removal and sale of liquids having commercial value; disposal or abandonment of non-saleable liquids; scrapping and dismantling of above-grade metal vessels; abandonment of below-grade vessels; and demolition of above-grade buildings. Depending on the time from the cessation of operations to the demolition, some steps may have been omitted. Appropriate demolition would also take into account removal and disposal of asbestos, cyanide, lead, and mercury-containing materials prior to razing structures. By employing precautions during demolition, widespread contamination can be avoided and subsequent reuse of the site can be facilitated.

  10. A new technique for robot vision in autonomous underwater vehicles using the color shift in underwater imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FOR ROBOT VISION IN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING by Jake A. Jones June 2017 Thesis Advisor...techniques to determine the distances from each pixel to the camera. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs), autonomous ... AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING Jake A. Jones Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S

  11. Dynamics and Control of Underwater Gliders I: Steady Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudian, N.; Geisbert, J.; Woolsey, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes analysis of steady motions for underwater gliders, a type of highly efficient underwater vehicle which uses gravity for propulsion. Underwater gliders are winged underwater vehicles which locomote by modulating their buoyancy and their attitude. Several such vehicles have been developed and have proven their worth as efficient long-distance, long-duration ocean sampling platforms. To date, the primary emphasis in underwater glider development has been on locomotive effici...

  12. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... different team formation strategies produce different teamwork and learning outcomes? Approach: We employed a multiple case study design comprising of 38 student teams to uncover potential links between team formation and student perception of learning. This research draws on data from three different....... A rigorous coding and inductive analysis process was undertaken. Pattern and relationship coding were used to reveal underlying factors, which helped to unveil important similarities and differences between student in different teams’ project progress and perception of learning. Results: When students...

  13. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  14. Recycling of construction and demolition waste in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartam, N.; Al-Mutairi, N.; Al-Ghusain, I.; Al-Humoud, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' There is an increasing pressure on the construction industry to reduce costs and improve our environment. The fact is that both of these goals can be achieved at the same time. Although construction and demolition (C and D) constitutes a major type of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling efforts have not seen the light in Kuwait. The goal of this research project is to study methods leading to the minimization of the total C and D waste that is landfilled in Kuwait. This can be achieved by applying the waste management hierarchy in order of importance: 1) reduce, 2) re-use, 3) recycle, 4) incineration (energy recovery), and 5) safe disposal. This paper presents the current C and D waste disposal system in Kuwait and identifies potential problems to the environment, people and economy. Then, it investigates the recycling option to manage and control this major type of waste in an economically efficient and environmentally safe manner. There are significant volumes of potentially valuable and recoverable resources being wasted in the construction industry, and these figures are continuously growing as we are starting the new millennium. C and D waste constitutes 15%-30% of all solid waste entering landfills in various countries [Bossink 1995]; and thus it is a major type of waste. An estimated 2-3 million ton of construction and demolition waste are being only disposed of in Kuwait's landfill sites each year despite the limited available land (Industrial Investment Company, 1990). C and D waste is a target because it is both heavy and bulky, and therefore undesirable for disposal in engineered, lined landfills because of the space it consumes. On the other hand, many C and D materials have high potential for recovery and use. Recovering C and D waste can help communities reach their recycling goals, preserve valuable space in their local landfills, and create better opportunities for handling other kind of waste. Therefore

  15. Underwater Object Segmentation Based on Optical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater optical environments are seriously affected by various optical inputs, such as artificial light, sky light, and ambient scattered light. The latter two can block underwater object segmentation tasks, since they inhibit the emergence of objects of interest and distort image information, while artificial light can contribute to segmentation. Artificial light often focuses on the object of interest, and, therefore, we can initially identify the region of target objects if the collimation of artificial light is recognized. Based on this concept, we propose an optical feature extraction, calculation, and decision method to identify the collimated region of artificial light as a candidate object region. Then, the second phase employs a level set method to segment the objects of interest within the candidate region. This two-phase structure largely removes background noise and highlights the outline of underwater objects. We test the performance of the method with diverse underwater datasets, demonstrating that it outperforms previous methods.

  16. Virtual Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  17. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: An analytical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zezhou; Yu, Ann T.W.; Shen, Liyin; Liu, Guiwen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prevailing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified and compared. • One specific methodology cannot fulfill all waste quantification scenarios. • A relevance tree for appropriate quantification methodology selection is proposed. • More attentions should be paid to civil and infrastructural works. • Classified information is suggested for making an effective waste management plan. - Abstract: Quantifying construction and demolition (C and D) waste generation is regarded as a prerequisite for the implementation of successful waste management. In literature, various methods have been employed to quantify the C and D waste generation at both regional and project levels. However, an integrated review that systemically describes and analyses all the existing methods has yet to be conducted. To bridge this research gap, an analytical review is conducted. Fifty-seven papers are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The characteristics of the selected papers are classified according to the following criteria - waste generation activity, estimation level and quantification methodology. Six categories of existing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified, including site visit method, waste generation rate method, lifetime analysis method, classification system accumulation method, variables modelling method and other particular methods. A critical comparison of the identified methods is given according to their characteristics and implementation constraints. Moreover, a decision tree is proposed for aiding the selection of the most appropriate quantification method in different scenarios. Based on the analytical review, limitations of previous studies and recommendations of potential future research directions are further suggested

  18. Development of porous ceramsite from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jian-Zhi; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has become a serious problem in China due to the rapid increase of Chinese construction industry in recent years. In the present study, typical C&D waste was employed for ceramsite fabrication so as to find a new way for its effective recycling. A novel process was developed for manufacturing high-quality porous ceramsite according to the special chemical composition and properties of C&D waste. Most importantly, a unique bloating agent was developed for the porous structure formation since it was difficult to obtain a suitable porous structure using traditional bloating agents. The effects of processing parameters such as sintering temperature, heating rate and soaking time were investigated, and the bloating mechanism for ceramsite was discussed. The C&D waste ceramsite (CDWC), with high-intensity, low density and homogeneous mechanical properties, was much more suitable for application in the construction field. This study provides a practical process for efficient recycling of the rapidly increasing quantities of C&D waste.

  19. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: an analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zezhou; Yu, Ann T W; Shen, Liyin; Liu, Guiwen

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation is regarded as a prerequisite for the implementation of successful waste management. In literature, various methods have been employed to quantify the C&D waste generation at both regional and project levels. However, an integrated review that systemically describes and analyses all the existing methods has yet to be conducted. To bridge this research gap, an analytical review is conducted. Fifty-seven papers are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The characteristics of the selected papers are classified according to the following criteria - waste generation activity, estimation level and quantification methodology. Six categories of existing C&D waste quantification methodologies are identified, including site visit method, waste generation rate method, lifetime analysis method, classification system accumulation method, variables modelling method and other particular methods. A critical comparison of the identified methods is given according to their characteristics and implementation constraints. Moreover, a decision tree is proposed for aiding the selection of the most appropriate quantification method in different scenarios. Based on the analytical review, limitations of previous studies and recommendations of potential future research directions are further suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsen, Carina; Kahn, Henrique; Hawlitschek, Gustav; Masini, Eldon A; Angulo, Sérgio C

    2013-03-01

    The quality of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is strictly related to the content of porous and low strength phases, and specifically to the patches of cement that remain attached to the surface of natural aggregates. This phase increases water absorption and compromises the consistency and strength of concrete made from recycled aggregates. Mineral processing has been applied to CDW recycling to remove the patches of adhered cement paste on coarse recycled aggregates. The recycled fine fraction is usually disregarded due to its high content of porous phases despite representing around 50% of the total waste. This paper focus on laboratory mineral separability studies for removing particles with a high content of cement paste from natural fine aggregate particles (quartz/feldspars). The procedure achieved processing of CDW by tertiary impact crushing to produce sand, followed by sieving and density and magnetic separability studies. The attained results confirmed that both methods were effective in reducing cement paste content and producing significant mass recovery (80% for density concentration and 60% for magnetic separation). The production of recycled sand contributes to the sustainability of the construction environment by reducing both the consumption of raw materials and disposal of CDW, particularly in large Brazilian centers with a low quantity of sand and increasing costs of this material due to long transportation distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental management of construction and demolition waste in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartam, Nabil; Al-Mutairi, Nayef; Al-Ghusain, Ibrahim; Al-Humoud, Jasem

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing pressure on the construction industry to reduce costs and improve the quality of our environment. The fact is that both of these goals can be achieved at the same time. Although construction and demolition (C&D) constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling efforts have not yet seen the light in Kuwait. This study focuses on recycling efforts leading to the minimization of the total C&D waste that is currently landfilled in Kuwait. This paper presents the current status of C&D waste disposal system in Kuwait and identifies the potential problems to the environment, people and economy. Then, it investigates alternative solutions to manage and control this major type of waste in an economically efficient and environmentally safe manner. Next, the paper describes the feasibility of establishing a C&D waste recycling facility in Kuwait. It concludes by highlighting the major benefits and bottleneck problems with such a recycling facility.

  2. Underwater photogrammetry successful in Spain and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry has been used to measure distortions in fuel assembly alignment pins in the upper internals of the Almarez and Dampierre PWRs. Photogrammetry is a three-dimensional precision measurement method using photographic techniques for the on-site measurement phase. On the strength of the operations at the two PWRs, underwater photogrammetry is now considered as a practical and effective technique for dimensional inspection at nuclear plants. (U.K.)

  3. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  4. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  5. Environmental and economical feasibility of selective demolition project; Viabilidad ambiental y economica de un proyecto de demolicion selectiva: hacia una optima gestion de los RCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegas, I.

    2004-07-01

    Selective demolition practices have not yet become popular in our country. Unlike conventional demolition practices, selective demolition helps to increase the amount of components to be reused or materials to be recycled. Thus, the percentage of demolition waste deposited in landfills can be reduced, and the production of recycled materials with optimum quality is fostered. Taking the case study of selective demolition carried out in the municipally of Lasarte-Oria (Basque Country-Spain) as its basis, this paper presents an economic and environmental analysis of the same. Likewise, the economic costs deriving from selective demolition are compared with analogous costs from conventional demolition with an aim to establishing the ideal frame supporting economically feasible selective demolition. (Author)

  6. Underwater welding and repair technologies applied in PWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandella, Fabrice; Carpreau, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe several welding processes and technologies which have been used for underwater applications and which can be applied when repairing components of a PWR type reactor. They address, describe and discuss wet arc welding processes, the peculiarities of underwater welding, and the use of various processes such as 111, 114 and 135 processes, underwater welding with the hybrid plasma MIG-MAG process, underwater welding with the laser wire process, underwater welding with the FSW, FSP or UWFSW processes, underwater welding with variants of the friction welding process (friction surfacing, taper stitch welding, hydro-pillar processing

  7. Secure Cooperation of Autonomous Mobile Sensors Using an Underwater Acoustic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Dini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies and algorithms are presented for the secure cooperation of a team of autonomous mobile underwater sensors, connected through an acoustic communication network, within surveillance and patrolling applications. In particular, the work proposes a cooperative algorithm in which the mobile underwater sensors (installed on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles—AUVs respond to simple local rules based on the available information to perform the mission and maintain the communication link with the network (behavioral approach. The algorithm is intrinsically robust: with loss of communication among the vehicles the coverage performance (i.e., the mission goal is degraded but not lost. The ensuing form of graceful degradation provides also a reactive measure against Denial of Service. The cooperative algorithm relies on the fact that the available information from the other sensors, though not necessarily complete, is trustworthy. To ensure trustworthiness, a security suite has been designed, specifically oriented to the underwater scenario, and in particular with the goal of reducing the communication overhead introduced by security in terms of number and size of messages. The paper gives implementation details on the integration between the security suite and the cooperative algorithm and provides statistics on the performance of the system as collected during the UAN project sea trial held in Trondheim, Norway, in May 2011.

  8. Jellyfish Identification Software for Underwater Laser Cameras (JTRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Mariani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish can form erratic blooms in response to seasonal and irregular changes in environmental conditions with often large, transient effects on local ecosystem structure as well as effects on several sectors of the marine and maritime economy. Early warning systems able to detect conditions for jelly fish proliferation can enable management responses to mitigate such effects providing benefit to local ecosystems and economies. We propose here the creation of a research team in response to the EU call for proposal under the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund called “Blue Labs: innovative solutions for maritime challenges”. The project will establish a BLUELAB team with a strong cross-sectorial component that will benefit of the expertise of researchers in IT and Marine Biology, Computer Vision and embedded systems, which will work in collaboration with Industry and Policy maker to develop an early warning system using a new underwater imaging system based on Time of Flight Laser cameras. The camera will be combined to machine learning algorithm allowing autonomous early detection of jellyfish species (e.g. polyp, ephyra and planula stages. The team will develop the system and the companion software and will demonstrate its applications in real case conditions.

  9. 48 CFR 52.249-3 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). 52.249-3 Section 52.249-3... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). As prescribed in 49.502(b)(2), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling...

  10. Modeling end-of-life pathways of construction and demolition debris in the United States (poster for LCM 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, the United States generated 530 million tons of construction and demolition debris (CDD), 90% of which was related to demolition. Despite this major contribution to national waste streams, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies and product declarations of buildings and buil...

  11. Ambivalence in Place Attachment : The Lived Experiences of Residents in Declining Neighbourhoods Facing Demolition in Shenyang, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kleinhans, R.J.; van Ham, M.

    This paper investigates the place attachment of residents in declining neighbourhoods that are facing demolition in Shenyang, China. Through in-depth interviews with homeowners living in danwei communities, or urban villages, at the pre-demolition phase, this paper reveals the strong connection

  12. The Effects of Data Collection Method and Monitoring of Workers’ Behavior on the Generation of Demolition Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Wook Cha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The roles of both the data collection method (including proper classification and the behavior of workers on the generation of demolition waste (DW are important. By analyzing the effect of the data collection method used to estimate DW, and by investigating how workers’ behavior can affect the total amount of DW generated during an actual demolition process, it was possible to identify strategies that could improve the prediction of DW. Therefore, this study surveyed demolition waste generation rates (DWGRs for different types of building by conducting on-site surveys immediately before demolition in order to collect adequate and reliable data. In addition, the effects of DW management strategies and of monitoring the behavior of workers on the actual generation of DW were analyzed. The results showed that when monitoring was implemented, the estimates of DW obtained from the DWGRs that were surveyed immediately before demolition and the actual quantities of DW reported by the demolition contractors had an error rate of 0.63% when the results were compared. Therefore, this study has shown that the proper data collection method (i.e., data were collected immediately before demolition applied in this paper and monitoring on the demolition site have a significant impact on waste generation.

  13. Quantities of arsenic-treated wood in demolition debris generated by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Brajesh; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsendt, Timothy G

    2007-03-01

    The disaster debris from Hurricane Katrina is one of the largest in terms of volume and economic loss in American history. One of the major components of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures such as electrical poles, fences, decks, and homes a considerable amount of treated wood and consequently arsenic will be disposed as disaster debris. In this study an effort was made to estimate the quantity of arsenic disposed through demolition debris generated in the Louisiana and Mississippi area through Hurricane Katrina. Of the 72 million cubic meters of disaster debris generated, roughly 12 million cubic meters were in the form of construction and demolition wood resulting in an estimated 1740 metric tons of arsenic disposed. Management of disaster debris should consider the relatively large quantities of arsenic associated with pressure-treated wood.

  14. Pilot-based assessment of the economics of recycling construction demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Issam M; Chehab, Ghassan R; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Tamraz, Sandy

    2013-11-01

    The significant amount of waste generated from construction demolition has become a chronic problem in many developing countries. Using data obtained from demolition contractors and various other sources, this paper proposes a framework for proper handling of construction demolition waste (CDW) to serve as a decision support tool in countries suffering from the lack of national CDW management guidelines. The framework is then demonstrated through a case study in the city of Beirut, Lebanon, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out to examine the economic feasibility of developing a recycling facility. The analysis showed that in order for a facility to be feasible, a gate fee should be charged in the presence of a market for recycled aggregates. The results confirm the significance of instigating and implementing legislation to control illegal dumping, constructing, and managing engineered landfills, and establishing markets for recycled CDW.

  15. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  16. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  17. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study.

  18. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hongping; Shen Liyin

    2011-01-01

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C and D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C and D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C and D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C and D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C and D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C and D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C and D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C and D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic.

  19. Biological sulfate removal from gypsum contaminated construction and demolition debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-12-15

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) contains high levels of sulfate that can cause detrimental environmental impacts when disposed without adequate treatment. In landfills, sulfate can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic conditions. CDD can thus cause health impacts or odor problems to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Reduction of the sulfate content of CDD is an option to overcome these problems. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate removal system to reduce the sulfate content of gypsum contaminated CDD in order to decrease the amount of solid waste, to improve the quality of CDD waste for recycling purposes and to recover sulfur from CDD. The treatment leached out the gypsum contained in CDD by water in a leaching column. The sulfate loaded leachate was then treated in a biological sulfate reducing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor to convert the sulfate to sulfide. The UASB reactor was operated at 23 ± 3 °C with a hydraulic retention time and upflow velocity of 15.5 h and 0.1 m h(-1), respectively while ethanol was added as electron donor at a final organic loading rate of 3.46 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The CDD leachate had a pH of 8-9 and sulfate dissolution rates of 526.4 and 609.8 mg L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in CDD gypsum and CDD sand, respectively. Besides, it was observed that the gypsum dissolution was the rate limiting step for the biological treatment of CDD. The sulfate removal efficiency of the system stabilized at around 85%, enabling the reuse of the UASB effluent for the leaching step, proving the versatility of the bioreactor for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2011-04-01

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C&D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C&D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C&D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C&D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C&D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C&D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C&D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C&D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A photogrammetric methodology for estimating construction and demolition waste composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.; Seibert, S.; Medeiros, S.; Cochran, K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2002-01-01

    Manual sorting of construction, demolition, and renovation (C and D) waste is difficult and costly. A photogrammetric method has been developed to analyze the composition of C and D waste that eliminates the need for physical contact with the waste. The only field data collected is the weight and volume of the solid waste in the storage container and a photograph of each side of the waste pile, after it is dumped on the tipping floor. The methodology was developed and calibrated based on manual sorting studies at three different landfills in Florida, where the contents of twenty roll-off containers filled with C and D waste were sorted. The component classifications used were wood, concrete, paper products, drywall, metals, insulation, roofing, plastic, flooring, municipal solid waste, land-clearing waste, and other waste. Photographs of each side of the waste pile were taken with a digital camera and the pictures were analyzed on a computer using Photoshop software. Photoshop was used to divide the picture into eighty cells composed of ten columns and eight rows. The component distribution of each cell was estimated and results were summed to get a component distribution for the pile. Two types of distribution factors were developed that allow the component volumes and weights to be estimated. One set of distribution factors was developed to correct the volume distributions and the second set was developed to correct the weight distributions. The bulk density of each of the waste components were determined and used to convert waste volumes to weights. (author)

  2. A photogrammetric methodology for estimating construction and demolition waste composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, H.H. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Dept. of divil Engineering, Melbourne, Florida (United States); Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.; Seibert, S.; Medeiros, S.; Cochran, K.; Chakrabarti, S

    2002-06-15

    Manual sorting of construction, demolition, and renovation (C and D) waste is difficult and costly. A photogrammetric method has been developed to analyze the composition of C and D waste that eliminates the need for physical contact with the waste. The only field data collected is the weight and volume of the solid waste in the storage container and a photograph of each side of the waste pile, after it is dumped on the tipping floor. The methodology was developed and calibrated based on manual sorting studies at three different landfills in Florida, where the contents of twenty roll-off containers filled with C and D waste were sorted. The component classifications used were wood, concrete, paper products, drywall, metals, insulation, roofing, plastic, flooring, municipal solid waste, land-clearing waste, and other waste. Photographs of each side of the waste pile were taken with a digital camera and the pictures were analyzed on a computer using Photoshop software. Photoshop was used to divide the picture into eighty cells composed of ten columns and eight rows. The component distribution of each cell was estimated and results were summed to get a component distribution for the pile. Two types of distribution factors were developed that allow the component volumes and weights to be estimated. One set of distribution factors was developed to correct the volume distributions and the second set was developed to correct the weight distributions. The bulk density of each of the waste components were determined and used to convert waste volumes to weights. (author)

  3. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered.

  4. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered

  5. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Felamban, M.; Shihada, Basem; Jamshaid, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are expected to play a vital role in the exploration and monitoring of underwater areas which are not easily reachable by humans. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance

  6. Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Climent, Salvador; Capella, Juan Vincente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    The specific characteristics of underwater environments introduce new challenges for networking protocols. In this paper, a specialized architecture for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed and evaluated. Experiments are conducted in order to analyze the suitability of this protocol for

  7. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  8. The decommissioning and demolition of four suites of high active chemical analysis cells at DNPDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.M.; Spence, B.W.; Stewart, C.W.

    1987-11-01

    The decommissioning and demolition of four laboratory suites of high active cells at DNPDE is described. All four suites had suffered drain leaks of high active liquor into underfloor ducts; the options available at the time and current policy for dealing with the resultant activity deposits are given. The decommissioning procedures are detailed to provide information for future similar exercises. Features to ease demolition of such facilities and to eliminate the possibility of long term activity deposition from drain leaks are highlighted for incorporation in future designs. The waste arisings and radiation doses received during the work are tabulated. (author)

  9. Modified Brokk Demolition Machine with Remote Operator Console. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Cost D and D System modifies a commercially available BROKK demolition system for remote viewing and long tether remote operation that provides a portable facility camera pod and interfaces with the Compact Remote Operator Console (TMS Tech ID 2180) to extend the applicability of the BROKK system to projects that require removal of the operator from the work area due to exposure to radiological, chemical, or industrial hazards. The modified BROKK has been integrated with the Compact Remote Operator Console to provide a true remotely operated low-cost D and D system applicable to a wide range of small D and D demolition tasks across the DOE complex

  10. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2013-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  11. TEAM ORGANISERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena

    2004-01-01

    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  12. Underwater Calibration of Dome Port Pressure Housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Fassi, F.; Remondino, F.

    2016-03-01

    Underwater photogrammetry using consumer grade photographic equipment can be feasible for different applications, e.g. archaeology, biology, industrial inspections, etc. The use of a camera underwater can be very different from its terrestrial use due to the optical phenomena involved. The presence of the water and camera pressure housing in front of the camera act as additional optical elements. Spherical dome ports are difficult to manufacture and consequently expensive but at the same time they are the most useful for underwater photogrammetry as they keep the main geometric characteristics of the lens unchanged. Nevertheless, the manufacturing and alignment of dome port pressure housing components can be the source of unexpected changes of radial and decentring distortion, source of systematic errors that can influence the final 3D measurements. The paper provides a brief introduction of underwater optical phenomena involved in underwater photography, then presents the main differences between flat and dome ports to finally discuss the effect of manufacturing on 3D measurements in two case studies.

  13. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  14. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-01

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D and D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D and D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D and D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  15. Centralised versus Decentralised Control Reconfiguration for Collaborating Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furno, Lidia; Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces an approach to fault-tolerant reconfiguration for collaborating underwater robots. Fault-tolerant reconfiguration is obtained using the virtual actuator approach, Steen (2005). The paper investigates properties of a centralised versus a decentralised implementation an...... an underwater drill needs to be transported and positioned by three collaborating robots as part of an underwater autonomous operation....

  16. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  17. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  18. Application of underwater radon measurements in geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varhegyi, A.; Baranyi, I.; Gerzson, I. (Mecsek Ore Mining Enterprise, Pecs (Hungary)); Somogyi, G.; Hakl, J.; Hunyadi, I. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1988-01-01

    Based on the observed phenomenon of geogas migration in microbubble form from deeper regions, the authors have developed a new model for the vertical transport of radon released from deeper sources. The physical properties of the rock relating to the upflow of microbubbles below the groundwater level are considered and the radon transport parameter of rocks is introduced. The vertical distribution of radon concentration in the case of a multi-layered geological model is given and the penetration depth of underwater radon measurements is examined. Aspects of underwater radon detection by the nuclear track detector technique are analyzed. The radon transport model gives a new theoretical basis for several applications of radon measurements in geology. The advantages of underwater radon detection have already been proved in uranium exploration. Further geological applications are proposed in earthquake prediction, in volcanology, in the survey of active faults and thermal waters. (author).

  19. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  20. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, Stefania, E-mail: stbu@teknologisk.dk; Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  1. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  2. Air Dispersion Modeling for Building 3026C/D Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Sjoreen, Andrea L [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    This report presents estimates of dispersion coefficients and effective dose for potential air dispersion scenarios of uncontrolled releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) buildings 3026C, 3026D, and 3140 prior to or during the demolition of the 3026 Complex. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD system1-6 was used to compute these estimates. AERMOD stands for AERMIC Model, where AERMIC is the American Meteorological Society-EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee. Five source locations (three in building 3026D and one each in building 3026C and the filter house 3140) and associated source characteristics were determined with the customer. In addition, the area of study was determined and building footprints and intake locations of air-handling systems were obtained. In addition to the air intakes, receptor sites consisting of ground level locations on four polar grids (50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 500 m) and two intersecting lines of points (50 m separation), corresponding to sidewalks along Central Avenue and Fifth Street. Three years of meteorological data (2006 2008) were used each consisting of three datasets: 1) National Weather Service data; 2) upper air data for the Knoxville-Oak Ridge area; and 3) local weather data from Tower C (10 m, 30 m and 100 m) on the ORNL reservation. Annual average air concentration, highest 1 h average and highest 3 h average air concentrations were computed using AERMOD for the five source locations for the three years of meteorological data. The highest 1 h average air concentrations were converted to dispersion coefficients to characterize the atmospheric dispersion as the customer was interested in the most significant response and the highest 1 h average data reflects the best time-averaged values available from the AERMOD code. Results are presented in tabular and graphical form. The results for dose were obtained using radionuclide activities for each of the buildings provided by the customer.7

  3. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  5. 24 CFR 970.15 - Specific criteria for HUD approval of demolition requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... modifications is cost-effective to return the public housing project or portion of the project to useful life... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific criteria for HUD approval of demolition requests. 970.15 Section 970.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  6. Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Chooi Mei; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Ho, Chin Siong

    2016-12-01

    Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m -2 , the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m -2 , and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m -2 . © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. 77 FR 63732 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may.... The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that this demolition project will pose a...

  8. 77 FR 70684 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 10. Indian Tribal... the Cline Avenue bridge in East Chicago, IN. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that this demolition project will pose a significant risk to public safety and property. Such...

  9. 78 FR 29648 - Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect... River between Prospect and Verona, ME, under and surrounding the Waldo- Hancock Bridge in order to... Prospect and Verona, ME. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA): All...

  10. Fracture analysis of cement treated demolition waste using a lattice model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Houben, L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture properties of cement treated demolition waste were investigated using a lattice model. In practice the investigated material is applied as a cement treated road base/subbase course. The granular aggregates used in this material were crushed recycled concrete and masonry. This results in six

  11. Applicability of LCA tool for building materials produced from construction and demolition waste : case of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabai, M.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Mato, R.R.A.M.; Lichtenberg, J.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about 10 million tonnes of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is generated annually in Tanzania. This waste is expected to increase even more because of population increases, urbanization, industrialization and commercialization which results in more utilization of natural

  12. Mixture optimization of cement treated demolition waste with recycled masonry and concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.X.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.H,

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental reasons and the shortage of natural resources, it is greatly valuable to recycle construction and demolition waste (CDW) as much as possible. One of effective ways to reuse more CDW is to produce a cemented road base material. The recycled CDW however is a mix of recycled

  13. Investigation of combined effect of mixture variables on mechanical properties of cement treated demolition waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.

    2012-01-01

    One of high efficient ways to reuse the recycled construction and demolition waste (CDW) is to consider it as a road base material. The recycled CDW however is mainly a mix of recycled masonry and concrete with a wide variation in composition. This results that the mechanical properties of cement

  14. Asbestos exposure among construction workers during demolition of old houses in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Normohammadi, Mohhammad

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02-0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers.

  15. Strategy of Construction and Demolition Waste Management after Chemical Industry Facilities Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkinova, I. N.; Batrakova, G. M.; Vaisman, Ya I.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed waste products are generated in the process of irrelevant industrial projects’ removal if conventional techniques of their demolition and dismantling are applied. In Russia the number of unused chemical industry facilities including structures with high rate of wear is growing. In removing industrial buildings and production shops it is used conventional techniques of demolition and dismantling in the process of which mixed waste products are generated. The presence of hazardous chemicals in these wastes makes difficulties for their use and leads to the increasing volume of unutilized residues. In the process of chemical industry facilities’ removal this fact takes on special significance as a high level of hazardous chemicals in the waste composition demands for the realization of unprofitable measures aimed at ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The proposed strategy of managing waste originated from the demolition and dismantling of chemical industry facilities is based on the methodology of industrial metabolism which allows identifying separate material flows of recycled, harmful and ballast components, performing separate collection of components during removal and taking necessary preventive measures. This strategy has been tested on the aniline synthesis plant being in the process of removal. As a result, a flow of 10 wt. %, subjected to decontamination, was isolated from the total volume of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste). The considered approach allowed using the resource potential of more than 80wt. % of waste and minimizing the disposed waste volume.

  16. Energy savings from housing: Ineffective renovation subsidies vs efficient demolition and reconstruction incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maarten; Allacker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Energy savings in the housing sector are key to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to incentivize energy savings are however disparate between countries. Taking into account environmental aspects and consumer surplus, the paper uses a stylized economic model to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of three economic instruments: subsidies for renovation, subsidies for demolition and reconstruction projects and subsidies for building new houses on virgin land. The assessment also relates to differentiated value added taxes and other financial incentives such as green loans. In a counter-intuitive way, the model highlights that subsidies for renovations with minor energy gains worsen the overall energy consumption of housing due to the inducement of lock-ins with energy inefficient houses. Structural changes are needed in the use of policy instruments. First, commonly applied support schemes for renovations with minor energy savings should be abolished. Second, scarce public resources should incentivize deep renovation and demolition and reconstruction. Finally, taxes should apply on the use of virgin land to persuade households with a high willingness to pay for a new house, to invest in demolition and reconstruction. - Highlights: • Renovation subsidies worsen overall energy consumption of housing. • Renovation induces a lock-in with energy inefficient houses. • Renovation subsidies should be abolished or structurally reformed. • Policy should incentivize demolition and reconstruction projects. • Building on virgin land should be taxed.

  17. HEAVY METALS IN RECOVERED FINES FOR CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION DEBRIS RECYCLING FACILITIES IN FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil....

  18. Choosing a sustainable demolition waste management strategy using multicriteria decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussat, Nicolas; Dujet, Christiane; Mehu, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the ELECTRE III decision-aid method in the context of choosing a sustainable demolition waste management strategy for a case study in the city of Lyon, France. This choice of waste management strategy takes into consideration the sustainable development objectives, i.e. economic aspects, environmental consequences, and social issues. Nine alternatives for demolition waste management were compared with the aid of eight criteria, taking into account energy consumption, depletion of abiotic resources, global warming, dispersion of dangerous substances in the environment, economic activity, employment, and quality of life of the local population. The case study concerned the demolition of 25 buildings of an old military camp. Each alternative was illustrated with different waste treatments, such as material recovery, recycling, landfilling, and energy recovery. The recommended solution for sustainable demolition waste management for the case study is a selective deconstruction of each building with local material recovery in road engineering of inert wastes, local energy recovery of wood wastes, and specific treatments for hazardous wastes

  19. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing for demolition waste management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, M.; Miranda-Xicotencat, B.; Ita-Nagy, D.; Prado, V.; Guinée, J.B.; van Roekel, E; Huismans, R.; Rens, F.; Lotfi, Somayeh; Di Maio, F.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.; Bakker, M.; Hu, M.; Vahidi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ninety five percent of the construction and demolition waste is recycled in the Netherlands. Most of it is used for low value applications such as road base materials; the use of secondary material in buildings is still less than 3%7. In order to recover waste for higher value applications,

  20. 78 FR 40705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Demolition and Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... (Zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) incidental to demolition and... activities by the general public. Over the last three years (2010 through 2012), an average of 1,556,184..., but because of basic year-round working condition needs for the lifeguards and the demand for...

  1. GIS-based planning system for managing the flow of construction and demolition waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Diogo Henrique Fernandes da; Lafayette, Kalinny Patrícia Vaz; Sobral, Maria do Carmo

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this article was to plan a network for municipal management of construction and demolition waste in Brazil with the assistance of a geographic information system, using the city of Recife as a case study. The methodology was carried out in three stages. The first was to map the illegal construction and demolition of waste disposal points across Recife and classify the waste according to its recyclability. In sequence, a method for indicating suitable areas for installation of voluntary delivery points, for small waste generators, are presented. Finally, a method for indicating suitable areas for the installation of trans-shipment and waste sorting areas, developed for large generators, is presented. The results show that a geographic information system is an essential tool in the planning of municipal construction and demolition waste management, in order to facilitate the spatial analysis and control the generation, sorting, collection, transportation, and final destination of construction and demolition waste, increasing the rate of recovery and recycling of materials.

  2. Characterizing the environmental impact of metals in construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danfeng; Duan, Huabo; Song, Qingbin; Li, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yicheng; Shen, Weijun; Wang, Jinben

    2018-05-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition (C&D) waste are generated in China every year, but their potential environmental impacts on the surrounding areas are rarely assessed. This study focuses on metals contained in C&D waste, characterizing the metal concentrations and their related environmental risks. C&D waste samples were collected in Shenzhen City, China, from building demolition sites, renovation areas undergoing refurbishment, landfill sites, and recycling companies (all located in Shenzhen city) that produce recycled aggregate, in order to identify pollution levels of the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The results showed that (1) the metal concentrations in most demolition and renovation waste samples were below the soil environmental quality standard for agricultural purposes (SQ-Agr.) in China; (2) Cd, Cu, and Zn led to relatively higher environmental risks than other metals, especially for Zn (DM5 tile sample, 360 mg/kg; R4 tile sample, 281 mg/kg); (3) non-inert C&D waste such as wall insulation and foamed plastic had high concentrations of As and Cd, so that these materials required special attention for sound waste management; and (4) C&D waste collected from landfill sites had higher concentrations of Cd and Cu than did waste collected from demolition and refurbishment sites.

  3. Application of micro blasting technique to demolition of biological shield wall of reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Although heavily reinforced concrete structures in nuclear facilities could be dismantled effectively with the controlled blasting technique, the noises and vibrations caused by blasting were matters of concern. Recently, in the building replacement at urban areas, there are increasing cases of demolition of large reinforced concrete members below ground. Instead of applying heavy weight breakers, the micro blasting technique that enables to lower noises and vibrations has developed and applied to demolition work of large reinforced concrete members in urban areas. In this report, the features of the micro blasting technique is reviewed by comparing with existing controlled blasting technique and its applicability to demolition work of nuclear facilities is investigated. The results of those study find that it is confirmed that the micro blasting technique could be applicable to large reinforced concrete structures in nuclear facilities because of the low levels of noises and vibrations. However, it is recommended to perform mock-up tests to confirm the demolition efficiency and levels of the noises and vibrations since the rebar used in nuclear facilities is larger in diameters and in rebar ratio compared with ordinary reinforced concrete structures. (author)

  4. Human Factors Issues When Operating Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    etiquette (Parasuraman & Miller, 2004). Through natural and intuitive communication, Johnson et al., (2007) hope that this interface will instill greater...and etiquette in high criticality automated systems. Communications of the ACM, 47(4), 51-55. Parasuraman, R., & Riley, V. (1997). Humans and... protocols for underwater wireless communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 97-102. Quazi, A. H., & Konrad, W. L. (1982, March 1982). Underwater

  5. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites. Viscous doughlike substance underwater cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingstedt, G.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    A viscous sealant is revolutionizing repair of the stone and concrete masonry of underwater dams, bridges and canals. There is now no need for expensive and time-consuming cofferdams, since a diver can extrude quick-setting mortar into underwater structures needing repair. This technique has worked well in recent years in various parts of Finland even in strongly flowing water. IVO experts are now starting to look more beyond the borders of Finland

  6. Asteroid team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue

  7. Asteroid team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue.

  8. Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly

  9. Underwater image mosaicking and visual odometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz; Tangirala, Sekhar; Sorber, Scott

    2017-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of studies in underwater odometery using a video camera for estimating the velocity of an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). Underwater vehicles are usually equipped with sonar and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) - an integrated sensor package that combines multiple accelerometers and gyros to produce a three dimensional measurement of both specific force and angular rate with respect to an inertial reference frame for navigation. In this study, we investigate the use of odometry information obtainable from a video camera mounted on a UUV to extract vehicle velocity relative to the ocean floor. A key challenge with this process is the seemingly bland (i.e. featureless) nature of video data obtained underwater which could make conventional approaches to image-based motion estimation difficult. To address this problem, we perform image enhancement, followed by frame to frame image transformation, registration and mosaicking/stitching. With this approach the velocity components associated with the moving sensor (vehicle) are readily obtained from (i) the components of the transform matrix at each frame; (ii) information about the height of the vehicle above the seabed; and (iii) the sensor resolution. Preliminary results are presented.

  10. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF). Th...

  11. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  12. MOSES, development of an Underwater Warfare Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentze, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The TNO underwater warfare (UWW) research programme results in a large number of models used in operational research projects. To enhance the accessibility and re-use of these models for new projects, TNO-FEL has developed the modelling environment ‘MOSES - Maritime Operations Simulation and

  13. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-08

    further underscored the need for this new guideline based on injury data. Conference Name: Personal Armour Systems Symposium Conference Date...29.  Cole, R., Underwater Explosion. (Dover Publications, Inc ., New York, N.Y., 1948) 30.  Nakahara, M., Nagayama, K, Mori, Y, Japanese Journal...Abstract of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc . Annual Scientific Meeting, (1976).

  14. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  15. Communication and cooperation in underwater acoustic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramalli, Srinivas

    In this thesis, we present a study of several problems related to underwater point to point communications and network formation. We explore techniques to improve the achievable data rate on a point to point link using better physical layer techniques and then study sensor cooperation which improves the throughput and reliability in an underwater network. Robust point-to-point communications in underwater networks has become increasingly critical in several military and civilian applications related to underwater communications. We present several physical layer signaling and detection techniques tailored to the underwater channel model to improve the reliability of data detection. First, a simplified underwater channel model in which the time scale distortion on each path is assumed to be the same (single scale channel model in contrast to a more general multi scale model). A novel technique, which exploits the nature of OFDM signaling and the time scale distortion, called Partial FFT Demodulation is derived. It is observed that this new technique has some unique interference suppression properties and performs better than traditional equalizers in several scenarios of interest. Next, we consider the multi scale model for the underwater channel and assume that single scale processing is performed at the receiver. We then derive optimized front end pre-processing techniques to reduce the interference caused during single scale processing of signals transmitted on a multi-scale channel. We then propose an improvised channel estimation technique using dictionary optimization methods for compressive sensing and show that significant performance gains can be obtained using this technique. In the next part of this thesis, we consider the problem of sensor node cooperation among rational nodes whose objective is to improve their individual data rates. We first consider the problem of transmitter cooperation in a multiple access channel and investigate the stability of

  16. Team designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and gi...... thinking and communication in design. Trying to answer the question: How can visual system models facilitate learning in design thinking and team designing?......Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and give...... in relation to a design-engineering education at Aalborg University. It will exemplify how the model has been used in workshops on team designing, challenged design learning and affected design competence. In specific it will investigate the influence of visual models of the perception of design, design...

  17. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the Demolition of the Masonry Block for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) has been prepared to clearly define the sampling and analysis activities to be performed in support of the demolition and disposition (or disposal) of the 108-F Biological Laboratory masonry block walls

  18. Stability analysis of hybrid-driven underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wen-dong; Wang, Shu-xin; Wang, Yan-hui; Song, Yang; Zhu, Ya-qiang

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid-driven underwater glider is a new type of unmanned underwater vehicle, which combines the advantages of autonomous underwater vehicles and traditional underwater gliders. The autonomous underwater vehicles have good maneuverability and can travel with a high speed, while the traditional underwater gliders are highlighted by low power consumption, long voyage, long endurance and good stealth characteristics. The hybrid-driven underwater gliders can realize variable motion profiles by their own buoyancy-driven and propeller propulsion systems. Stability of the mechanical system determines the performance of the system. In this paper, the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider developed by Tianjin University is selected as the research object and the stability of hybrid-driven underwater glider unitedly controlled by buoyancy and propeller has been targeted and evidenced. The dimensionless equations of the hybrid-driven underwater glider are obtained when the propeller is working. Then, the steady speed and steady glide path angle under steady-state motion have also been achieved. The steady-state operating conditions can be calculated when the hybrid-driven underwater glider reaches the desired steady-state motion. And the steadystate operating conditions are relatively conservative at the lower bound of the velocity range compared with the range of the velocity derived from the method of the composite Lyapunov function. By calculating the hydrodynamic coefficients of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider, the simulation analysis has been conducted. In addition, the results of the field trials conducted in the South China Sea and the Danjiangkou Reservoir of China have been presented to illustrate the validity of the analysis and simulation, and to show the feasibility of the method of the composite Lyapunov function which verifies the stability of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider.

  19. Travelling with football teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.

  20. PROJECT EXPERIENCE REPORT DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 233-S PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERLIN, G.T.; ORGILL, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the preparation, operations, innovative work practices, and lessons learned associated with demolition of the 2334 Plutonium Concentration Facility. This project represented the first open-air demolition of a highly-contaminated plutonium facility at the Hanford Site. This project may also represent the first plutonium facility in the US. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to have been demolished without first decontaminating surfaces to near ''free release'' standards. Demolition of plutonium contaminated structures, if not properly managed, can subject cleanup personnel and the environment to significant risk. However, with proper sequencing and innovative use of commercially available equipment, materials, and services, this project demonstrated that a plutonium processing facility can be demolished while avoiding the need to perform extensive decontamination or to construct large enclosures. This project utilized an excavator with concrete shears, diamond circular saws, water misting and fogging equipment, commercially available fixatives and dust suppressants, conventional mobile crane and rigging services, and near real-time modeling of meteorological and radiological conditions. Following a significant amount of preparation, actual demolition of the 233-S Facility began in October 2003 and was completed in late April 2004. The knowledge and experience gained on this project are important to the Hanford Site as additional plutonium processing facilities are scheduled for demolition in the near future. Other sites throughout the DOE Complex may also be faced with similar challenges. Numerous innovations and effective work practices were implemented on this project. Accordingly, a series of ''Lessons Learned and Innovative Practices Fact Sheets'' were developed and are included as an appendix to this report. This collection of fact sheets is not intended to capture every innovative work practice and lesson learned, but rather

  1. PROJECT EXPERIENCE REPORT DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 233-S PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERLIN, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the preparation, operations, innovative work practices, and lessons learned associated with demolition of the 2334 Plutonium Concentration Facility. This project represented the first open-air demolition of a highly-contaminated plutonium facility at the Hanford Site. This project may also represent the first plutonium facility in the US. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to have been demolished without first decontaminating surfaces to near ''free release'' standards. Demolition of plutonium contaminated structures, if not properly managed, can subject cleanup personnel and the environment to significant risk. However, with proper sequencing and innovative use of commercially available equipment, materials, and services, this project demonstrated that a plutonium processing facility can be demolished while avoiding the need to perform extensive decontamination or to construct large enclosures. This project utilized an excavator with concrete shears, diamond circular saws, water misting and fogging equipment, commercially available fixatives and dust suppressants, conventional mobile crane and rigging services, and near real-time modeling of meteorological and radiological conditions. Following a significant amount of preparation, actual demolition of the 2333 Facility began in October 2003 and was completed in late April 2004. The knowledge and experience gained on this project are important to the Hanford Site as additional plutonium processing facilities are scheduled for demolition in the near future. Other sites throughout the DOE Complex may also be faced with similar challenges. Numerous innovations and effective work practices were implemented on this project. Accordingly, a series of ''Lessons Learned and Innovative Practices Fact Sheets'' were developed and are included as an appendix to this report. This collection of fact sheets is not intended to capture every innovative work practice and lesson learned, but rather to

  2. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; D' Amato, V.; D' Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via Santa Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  3. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km 3 -scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT

  4. Study on team evaluation. Team process model for team evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou Kunihide; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Ayako

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been done to evaluate or improve team performance in nuclear and aviation industries. Crew resource management is the typical example. In addition, team evaluation recently gathers interests in other teams of lawyers, medical staff, accountants, psychiatrics, executive, etc. However, the most evaluation methods focus on the results of team behavior that can be observed through training or actual business situations. What is expected team is not only resolving problems but also training younger members being destined to lead the next generation. Therefore, the authors set the final goal of this study establishing a series of methods to evaluate and improve teams inclusively such as decision making, motivation, staffing, etc. As the first step, this study develops team process model describing viewpoints for the evaluation. The team process is defined as some kinds of power that activate or inactivate competency of individuals that is the components of team's competency. To find the team process, the authors discussed the merits of team behavior with the experienced training instructors and shift supervisors of nuclear/thermal power plants. The discussion finds four team merits and many components to realize those team merits. Classifying those components into eight groups of team processes such as 'Orientation', 'Decision Making', 'Power and Responsibility', 'Workload Management', 'Professional Trust', 'Motivation', 'Training' and 'staffing', the authors propose Team Process Model with two to four sub processes in each team process. In the future, the authors will develop methods to evaluate some of the team processes for nuclear/thermal power plant operation teams. (author)

  5. Team responsibility structure and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team‐based work. The case studies were executed

  6. Hydrodynamic Coefficients Identification and Experimental Investigation for an Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong XIE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic coefficients are the foundation of unmanned underwater vehicles modeling and controller design. In order to reduce identification complexity and acquire necessary hydrodynamic coefficients for controllers design, the motion of the unmanned underwater vehicle was separated into vertical motion and horizontal motion models. Hydrodynamic coefficients were regarded as mapping parameters from input forces and moments to output velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle. The motion models of the unmanned underwater vehicle were nonlinear and Genetic Algorithm was adopted to identify those hydrodynamic coefficients. To verify the identification quality, velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle was measured using inertial sensor under the same conditions as Genetic Algorithm identification. Curves similarity between measured velocities and acceleration and those identified by Genetic Algorithm were used as optimizing standard. It is found that the curves similarity were high and identified hydrodynamic coefficients of the unmanned underwater vehicle satisfied the measured motion states well.

  7. Delay Tolerance in Underwater Wireless Communications: A Routing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Hussain Bouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to terrestrial networks, underwater wireless networks (UWNs also aid several critical tasks including coastal surveillance, underwater pollution detection, and other maritime applications. Currently, once underwater sensor nodes are deployed at different levels of the sea, it is nearly impossible or very expensive to reconfigure the hardware, for example, battery. Taking this issue into account, considerable amount of research has been carried out to ensure minimum energy costs and reliable communication between underwater nodes and base stations. As a result, several different network protocols were proposed for UWN, including MAC, PHY, transport, and routing. Recently, a new paradigm was introduced claiming that the intermittent nature of acoustic channel and signal resulted in designing delay tolerant routing schemes for the UWN, known as an underwater delay tolerant network. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of underwater routing protocols with emphasis on the limitations, challenges, and future open issues in the context of delay tolerant network routing.

  8. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Zedini, Emna; Elafandy, Rami T.; Kammoun, Abla; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels

  9. Underwater videography and photography in Gulf of Kachchh. Sponsored by Gujarat Ecological Society, Vadodara, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Marine Archaeology Centre (MAC) has been carrying out underwater explorations and excavations of ancient ports and sunken shipwrecks to preserve underwater cultural heritage. MAC has the infrastructure facility to carry out underwater investigations...

  10. Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks and Hollow Tiles with Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carlos; Miñano, Isabel; Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Ortega, José Marcos; Parra, Carlos; Sánchez, Isidro

    2017-11-30

    In recent years there has been an increasing tendency to recycle the wastes generated by building companies in the construction industry, demolition wastes being the most important in terms of volume. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes in the preparation of precast non-structural concretes. To that purpose, two different percentages (15% and 30%) of natural aggregates were substituted by recycled aggregates in the manufacture of paving blocks and hollow tiles. Dosages used by the company have not been changed by the introduction of recycled aggregate. Precast elements have been tested by means of compressive and flexural strength, water absorption, density, abrasion, and slipping resistance. The results obtained show the possibility of using these wastes at an industrial scale, satisfying the requirements of the Spanish standards for these elements.

  11. An Estimation of Construction and Demolition Debris in Seoul, Korea: Waste Amount, Type, and Estimating Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongwon; Hwang, Yongwoo

    1999-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) debris is generated at the site of various construction activities. However, the amount of the debris is usually so large that it is necessary to estimate the amount of C&D debris as accurately as possible for effective waste management and control in urban areas. In this paper, an effective estimation method using a statistical model was proposed. The estimation process was composed of five steps: estimation of the life span of buildings; estimation of the floor area of buildings to be constructed and demolished; calculation of individual intensity units of C&D debris; and estimation of the future C&D debris production. This method was also applied in the city of Seoul as an actual case, and the estimated amount of C&D debris in Seoul in 2021 was approximately 24 million tons. Of this total amount, 98% was generated by demolition, and the main components of debris were concrete and brick.

  12. Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks and Hollow Tiles with Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing tendency to recycle the wastes generated by building companies in the construction industry, demolition wastes being the most important in terms of volume. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes in the preparation of precast non-structural concretes. To that purpose, two different percentages (15% and 30% of natural aggregates were substituted by recycled aggregates in the manufacture of paving blocks and hollow tiles. Dosages used by the company have not been changed by the introduction of recycled aggregate. Precast elements have been tested by means of compressive and flexural strength, water absorption, density, abrasion, and slipping resistance. The results obtained show the possibility of using these wastes at an industrial scale, satisfying the requirements of the Spanish standards for these elements.

  13. An integrated approach for the management of demolition waste in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmpanis, Basilis; Papadopoulos, Achilleas; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Kourmoussis, Fotis; Stylianou, Marinos; Loizidou, Maria

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the generation and management of demolition waste (DW) in Cyprus. A methodology has been developed and applied for the estimation of the quantities of the waste stream under examination, since quantitative primary data were not available. The existing situation relating to the practices applied for the management of DW was investigated and assessed. Furthermore, a multi-criteria analysis method (PROMETHEE II) was developed and applied in order to examine alternative systems that could be implemented for the management of the DW in the country. In particular, nine management systems (scenarios) were examined, evaluated and ranked according to their efficiency using seventeen individual criteria, divided into four groups (social-legislative, environmental, economic and technical). The ranking of the alternative waste management scenarios indicated that the optimum management system for possible implementation in the island included complete selective demolition procedures and transfer of mixed recyclable materials to the recycling centre and non-recyclable material to landfill.

  14. Total and respirable dust exposures among carpenters and demolition workers during indoor work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the construction industry the risk of lung disorders depends on the specific professions probably due to variations in the levels of dust exposure, and with dust levels depending on the work task and job function. We do not know the extent of exposure in the different professions...... was 3.90 (95 % confidence interval 1.13-13.5) mg/m(3). Dust exposure varied depending on work task for both professions. The dustiest work occurred during demolition, especially when it was done manually. Only few workers used personal respiratory protection and only while performing the dustiest work...... or the variation between the different work tasks. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess if there were differences in dust exposure between carpenters and demolition workers who were expected to have low and high dust exposure, respectively. METHODS: Through interviews of key persons...

  15. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.

  16. Bat Surveys of Retired Facilitiies Scheduled for Demolition by Washington Closure Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.; Lindsey, C. T.

    2011-06-30

    This project was conducted to evaluate buildings and facilities remaining in the Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition schedule for bat roost sites. The project began in spring of 2009 and was concluded in spring of 2011. A total of 196 buildings and facilities were evaluated for the presence of bat roosting sites. The schedule for the project was prioritized to accommodate the demolition schedule. As the surveys were completed, the results were provided to the project managers to facilitate planning and project completion. The surveys took place in the 300 Area, 400 Area, 100-H, 100-D, 100-N, and 100-B/C Area. This report is the culmination of all the bat surveys and summarizes the findings by area and includes recommended mitigation actions where bat roosts were found.

  17. Surveying the Underwater Arcaheological Site of Cape Glaros at Pagasetikos Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, E.; Spondylis, E.; Vlachaki, F.; Kolyva, E.

    2017-02-01

    The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A.)1 has been conducting an underwater archaeological research in the west coast of southern Pagasetikos Gulf, since 2000. Every year the underwater research focuses on specific archaeological targets that have been recovered during previous field campaigns. The current publication elaborates on the comprehensive documentation of the underwater archaeological site at Cape Glaros, during the 2015 field season, under the direction of the archaeologist Elias Spondylis. The 2015 research campaign was conducted within the framework of the ITACA- Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites European Project (FP7/2007-2013, GA No 606805), at two archaeological sites, namely the Cape Glaros and Metohi. It was among the most important challenges of the project to successfully produce the detailed and accurate 3D mapping of the Cape Glaros site that covers an extended area. Four large concentrations of pottery finds and numerous anchors of different typology have been recorded, that can be dated from the late Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods. This challenge was tackled through the simultaneous implementation of three recording methods; photogrammetry, geodesy and conventional architectural mapping. The workflow of the documentation process, including data acquisition, processing and graphic visualization, along with the derived results are presented below. 1The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A.) is a private, non-profit organization, founded in 1973, which undertakes maritime archaeological research under the supervision or in collaboration with the Greek Ministry of Culture. It has over 100 members, with diverse academic credentials, all of whom work, mainly, on a voluntary basis. 3D recording of underwater archaeological sites has been applied to numerous projects that have been carried out by the multidisciplinary team of H.I.M.A. in locations of utmost archaeological

  18. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  19. Cymbal and BB underwater transducers and arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnham, R.E.; Zhang, J.; Alkoy, S.; Meyer, R.; Hughes, W.J.; Hladky-Hennion, A.C.; Cochran, J.; Markley, D. [Materials Research Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The cymbal is a miniaturized class V flextensional transducer that was developed for use as a shallow water sound projector and receiver. Single elements are characterized by high Q, low efficiency, and medium power output capability. Its low cost and thin profile allow the transducer to be assembled into large flexible arrays. Efforts were made to model both single elements and arrays using the ATILA code and the integral equation formulation (EQI).Millimeter size microprobe hydrophones (BBs) have been designed and fabricated from miniature piezoelectric hollow ceramic spheres for underwater applications such as mapping acoustic fields of projectors, and flow noise sensors for complex underwater structures. Green spheres are prepared from soft lead zirconate titanate powders using a coaxial nozzle slurry process. A compact hydrophone with a radially-poled sphere is investigated using inside and outside electrodes. Characterization of these hydrophones is done through measurement of hydrostatic piezoelectric charge coefficients, free field voltage sensitivities and directivity beam patterns. (orig.)

  20. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: nathan.merchant@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  1. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcas, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.; Merchant, Nathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  2. Ocean Research Enabled by Underwater Gliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Underwater gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that profile vertically by changing their buoyancy and use wings to move horizontally. Gliders are useful for sustained observation at relatively fine horizontal scales, especially to connect the coastal and open ocean. In this review, research topics are grouped by time and length scales. Large-scale topics addressed include the eastern and western boundary currents and the regional effects of climate variability. The accessibility of horizontal length scales of order 1 km allows investigation of mesoscale and submesoscale features such as fronts and eddies. Because the submesoscales dominate vertical fluxes in the ocean, gliders have found application in studies of biogeochemical processes. At the finest scales, gliders have been used to measure internal waves and turbulent dissipation. The review summarizes gliders' achievements to date and assesses their future in ocean observation.

  3. Equipment and appliances for underwater operations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.

    1976-01-01

    The 6/75 edition of 'mt' reported on the 'ARGE underwater appliances' and the study on 'design development of appliances and equipment for underwater use' in a brief summary. One of these designs, the 'unmanned DSWS underwater appliance' was described in detail. The present article describes three further design developments mentioned in the above study and which are based on unmanned appliances connected to the mother-ship. These designs were developed by Preussag-Meerestechnik. (orig.) [de

  4. Quantum non-demolition phonon counter with a hybrid optomechnical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiao; Zhang, KeYe; Dong, Ying; Zhang, WeiPing

    2018-05-01

    A phonon counting scheme based on the control of polaritons in an optomechanical system is proposed. This approach permits us to measure the number of phonons in a quantum non-demolition (QND) manner for arbitrary modes not limited by the frequency matching condition as in usual photon-phonon scattering detections. The performance on phonon number transfer and quantum state transfer of the counter are analyzed and simulated numerically by taking into account all relevant sources of noise.

  5. MEDITERRANEAN: Underwater neutrinos get off the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Now funded is the initial stage of NESTOR, an imaginative new programme for a dedicated underwater neutrino astroparticle physics laboratory. Located in the international waters off the southernmost corner of continental Europe near the town of Pylos in S.W. Greece, NESTOR (NEutrinos from Supernovae and TeV sources Ocean Range) recalls the wise king of Pylos who counselled the Greeks during the Trojan war, an excellent tradition for new scientific goals of detecting neutrinos

  6. Inspecting the inside of underwater hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin

    2009-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within ship's underwater hull, sunken ships and other objects on the sea floor tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine submerged in the test basin filled with sea water have been performed. Results obtained for inspection of diesel fuel and explosive presence behind single and double hull constructions are presented.

  7. Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffard, Christine L; Boneka, Farnis; Full, Robert J

    2005-03-25

    Here we report bipedal movement with a hydrostatic skeleton. Two species of octopus walk on two alternating arms using a rolling gait and appear to use the remaining six arms for camouflage. Octopus marginatus resembles a coconut, and Octopus (Abdopus) aculeatus, a clump of floating algae. Using underwater video, we analyzed the kinematics of their strides. Each arm was on the sand for more than half of the stride, qualifying this behavior as a form of walking.

  8. Role of Confined Water in Underwater Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    Surface bound water is a strong deterrent for forming strong bonds between two surfaces underwater and expelling that bound water is important for strong adhesion. I will discuss examples of different strategies used by geckos, spiders, and mussels to handle this last layer of bound water. Recent results using infrared-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy to probe the structure of this bound water will be discussed. National Science Foundation.

  9. Study on underwater plasma arc cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yada, Toshio; Nakamura, Uhachiro; Tomidokoro, Sakae; Fukuzawa, Mitsuo

    1980-01-01

    The zirconium alloy tube of the impile creep test facility had been subjected to inner pressure in the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) environment. In the near future, it will be necessary to dismantle the facility and to take out the tube for such examinations as irradiation effects on material properties. In order to establish the dismantling technology for the radioactive facility, a study on underwater plasma arc cutting has been carried out since 1977. Primarily, optimum underwater cutting sequence and conditions were studied in details for developing the remote control handling and the cutting system. Further, the amounts of particles suspended in water as well as those contained in bubbled gas were quantitatively analyzed for developing a safe removal system for contaminants which were produced by cutting the radioactive material. As a result of this study, it has been concluded that the underwater plasma arc cutting method is generally suitable and effective for dismantling such radioactive material as the impile creep test facility of the JMTR. (author)

  10. Underwater Acoustic Target Tracking: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Fan, Liying

    2018-01-01

    Advances in acoustic technology and instrumentation now make it possible to explore marine resources. As a significant component of ocean exploration, underwater acoustic target tracking has aroused wide attention both in military and civil fields. Due to the complexity of the marine environment, numerous techniques have been proposed to obtain better tracking performance. In this paper, we survey over 100 papers ranging from innovative papers to the state-of-the-art in this field to present underwater tracking technologies. Not only the related knowledge of acoustic tracking instrument and tracking progress is clarified in detail, but also a novel taxonomy method is proposed. In this paper, algorithms for underwater acoustic target tracking are classified based on the methods used as: (1) instrument-assisted methods; (2) mode-based methods; (3) tracking optimization methods. These algorithms are compared and analyzed in the aspect of dimensions, numbers, and maneuvering of the tracking target, which is different from other survey papers. Meanwhile, challenges, countermeasures, and lessons learned are illustrated in this paper. PMID:29301318

  11. Underwater detection by using ultrasonic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, S. A. A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    This paper described the low cost implementation of hardware and software in developing the system of ultrasonic which can visualize the feedback of sound in the form of measured distance through mobile phone and monitoring the frequency of detection by using real time graph of Java application. A single waterproof transducer of JSN-SR04T had been used to determine the distance of an object based on operation of the classic pulse echo detection method underwater. In this experiment, the system was tested by placing the housing which consisted of Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module of HC-06, ultrasonic sensor and LEDs at the top of the box and the transducer was immersed in the water. The system which had been tested for detection in vertical form was found to be capable of reporting through the use of colored LEDs as indicator to the relative proximity of object distance underwater form the sensor. As a conclusion, the system can detect the presence of an object underwater within the range of ultrasonic sensor and display the measured distance onto the mobile phone and the real time graph had been successfully generated.

  12. Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

  13. Modeling and Control of Underwater Robotic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjoelberg, I:

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes modeling and control of underwater vehicle-manipulator systems. The thesis also presents a model and a control scheme for a system consisting of a surface vessel connected to an underwater robotic system by means of a slender marine structure. The equations of motion of the underwater vehicle and manipulator are described and the system kinematics and properties presented. Feedback linearization technique is applied to the system and evaluated through a simulation study. Passivity-based controllers for vehicle and manipulator control are presented. Stability of the closed loop system is proved and simulation results are given. The equation of motion for lateral motion of a cable/riser system connected to a surface vessel at the top end and to a thruster at the bottom end is described and stability analysis and simulations are presented. The equations of motion in 3 degrees of freedom of the cable/riser, surface vessel and robotic system are given. Stability analysis of the total system with PD-controllers is presented. 47 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Environmental effects on underwater optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peter C.; Breshears, Brian F.; Cullen, Alexander J.; Hammerer, Ross F.; Martinez, Ramon P.; Phung, Thai Q.; Margolina, Tetyana; Fan, Chenwu

    2017-05-01

    Optical communication/detection systems have potential to get around some limitations of current acoustic communications and detection systems especially increased fleet and port security in noisy littoral waters. Identification of environmental effects on underwater optical transmission is the key to the success of using optics for underwater communication and detection. This paper is to answer the question "What are the transfer and correlation functions that relate measurements of hydrographic to optical parameters?" Hydrographic and optical data have been collected from the Naval Oceanographic Office survey ships with the High Intake Defined Excitation (HIDEX) photometer and sea gliders with optical back scattering sensor in various Navy interested areas such as the Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, east Asian marginal seas, and Adriatic Sea. The data include temperature, salinity, bioluminescence, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, transmissivity at two different wavelengths (TRed at 670 nm, TBlue at 490 nm), and back scattering coefficient (bRed at 700 nm, bBlue at 470 nm). Transfer and correlation functions between the hydrographic and optical parameters are obtained. Bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima, transmissivity minimum with their corresponding depths, red and blue laser beam peak attenuation coefficients are identified from the optical profiles. Evident correlations are found between the ocean mixed layer depth and the blue and red laser beam peak attenuation coefficients, bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima in the Adriatic Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and Philippine Sea. Based on the observational data, an effective algorithm is recommended for solving the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for predicting underwater laser radiance.

  15. Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill VII: Permit application: Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has three major operating facilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee: the Y-12 Plant, the K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Operations associated with the DOE energy research and production facilities at Oak Ridge result in the production of several types of waste materials. Disposal of solid waste (as defined in the Solid Waste Processing and Disposal Rules for Tennessee) in disposal facilities operated by the Y-12 Plant is the responsibility of Y-12 Waste Management Division (MWD). The WMD is proposing to develop a facility that will include two new disposal units: one for construction/demolition waste and spoil and one for industrial solid waste. This manual describes the closure and post-closure plans for the construction/demolition waste and spoil disposal unit. This disposal unit is referred to as the Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill VII (CD-VII) and is to be operated by the Y-12 Plant for the DOE. This will be a Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class IV disposal unit

  16. Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify comparable environmental impacts within a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) perspective, for buildings in which the first (Materials) and last (End of Life) life cycle stages are adjusted to several waste/material management options. Unlike most LCAs, the approach is "top-down" rather than "bottom-up", which usually involves large amounts of data and the use of specific software applications. This approach is considered appropriate for a limited but expedient LCA designed to compare the environmental impacts of different life cycle options. Present results, based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities, show that shallow, superficial, selective demolition may not result in reduced environmental impacts. Calculations actually show an increase (generally less than 5%) in most impact categories for the Materials and End of Life stages because of extra transportation needs. However, core material separation in demolition operations and its recycling and/or reuse does bring environmental benefits. A reduction of around 77% has been estimated in the climate change impact category, 57% in acidification potential and 81% in the summer smog impact (for the life cycle stages referred). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An estimation framework for building information modeling (BIM)-based demolition waste by type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Park, Jae-Woo; Cha, Gi-Wook

    2017-12-01

    Most existing studies on demolition waste (DW) quantification do not have an official standard to estimate the amount and type of DW. Therefore, there are limitations in the existing literature for estimating DW with a consistent classification system. Building information modeling (BIM) is a technology that can generate and manage all the information required during the life cycle of a building, from design to demolition. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of research regarding its application to the demolition stage of a building. For an effective waste management plan, the estimation of the type and volume of DW should begin from the building design stage. However, the lack of tools hinders an early estimation. This study proposes a BIM-based framework that estimates DW in the early design stages, to achieve an effective and streamlined planning, processing, and management. Specifically, the input of construction materials in the Korean construction classification system and those in the BIM library were matched. Based on this matching integration, the estimates of DW by type were calculated by applying the weight/unit volume factors and the rates of DW volume change. To verify the framework, its operation was demonstrated by means of an actual BIM modeling and by comparing its results with those available in the literature. This study is expected to contribute not only to the estimation of DW at the building level, but also to the automated estimation of DW at the district level.

  18. Automatic stabilization of underwater robots in the time manipulation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filaretov, V.F.; Koval, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    When carrying out underwater technical works by means of an underwater vehicles having a manipulator it is desirable to perform manipulation operations in the regime of the underwater vehicle hovering above the object without durable and complicated operations up its rigid fixation. Underwater vehicle stabilization is achieved by compensation all the effects on the vehicle caused by the operating manipulator in water medium. This automatic stabilization is formed due to input of the required control signals into corresponding vehicle propellers proportional to calculated components of the generalized forces and moments. The propellers should form stops reacting against effects

  19. Underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016). Prelim......The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016...

  20. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  1. Autopilot Using Differential Thrust for ARIES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarton, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, communication antennas must point to specific satellites in this system and thus underwater vehicles must steer a specific course on the surface during the communication process...

  2. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M

    2007-01-01

    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  3. Better team management--better team care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, P; Powney, B

    1994-01-01

    Team building should not be a 'bolt-on' extra, it should be a well planned, integrated part of developing teams and assisting their leaders. When asked to facilitate team building by a group of NHS managers we developed a framework which enabled individual members of staff to become more effective in the way they communicated with each other, their teams and in turn within the organization. Facing the challenge posed by complex organizational changes, staff were able to use 3 training days to increase and develop their awareness of the principles of teamwork, better team management, and how a process of leadership and team building could help yield better patient care.

  4. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael R, Kruzic

    2008-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  5. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jack C.P.; Ma, Lauren Y.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  6. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  7. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  8. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  9. The FRJ-1 (MERLIN) research reactor: its main activity inventory has been removed by successful demolition of the reactor block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahn, B.; Printz, R.; Matela, K.; Zehbe, C.; Poeppinghaus, J.; Cremer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The FRJ-1 (MERLIN) research reactor was decommissioned in 1985 after twenty-three years of operation. Demolition of the plant was begun in 1996. The article contains a survey of the demolition steps carried out so far within the framework of three partial permits. The main activity is the demolition of the reactor core structures as a precondition for subsequent measures to ensure clearance measurements of the building. The core structures are demolished which were exposed to high neutron fluxes during reactor operation and now show the highest activity and dose rate levels, except for the core internals. For demolition and disassembly of the metal structures in this part of the plant, the tools specially designed and made include a remotely operated sawing system and a pipe cutting system for internal segmentation of the beam lines. The universal demolition tool for use also above and beyond the concrete structures has been found to be a remotely controlled electrohydraulic demolition shovel. Spreading contamination in the course of the demolition work was avoided. One major reason for this success was the fact that no major airborne contamination existed at any time as a consequence of the quality of the material demolished and also of the consistent use of technical tools. While the reactor block was being demolished, an application for clearance measurement of the reactor hall and subsequent release from the scope of the Atomic Energy Act was filed as early as in mid-2003. The fourth partial permit covering these activities is expected to be issued in the spring of 2004. (orig.)

  10. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  11. Team Orientations, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Howard L.

    1976-01-01

    Contradictions in post research on the concepts of "cohesiveness" and team success seem to arise from the ways in which cohesiveness is measured and the nature of the teams investigated in each study. (MB)

  12. Team cohesion and team success in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Albert V; Bray, Steven R; Eys, Mark A

    2002-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between task cohesiveness and team success in elite teams using composite team estimates of cohesion. A secondary aim was to determine statistically the consistency (i.e. 'groupness') present in team members' perceptions of cohesion. Elite university basketball teams (n = 18) and club soccer teams (n = 9) were assessed for cohesiveness and winning percentages. Measures were recorded towards the end of each team's competitive season. Our results indicate that cohesiveness is a shared perception, thereby providing statistical support for the use of composite team scores. Further analyses indicated a strong relationship between cohesion and success (r = 0.55-0.67). Further research using multi-level statistical techniques is recommended.

  13. Mitigation of Hexavalent Chromium in Storm Water Resulting from Demolition of Large Concrete Structure at the East Tennessee Technology Park - 12286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Ronnie; Brown, Bridget; Hale, Timothy B.; Hensley, Janice L.; Johnson, Robert T.; Patel, Madhu [Tetra Tech, Inc. (United States); Emery, Jerry A. [Energy Solutions, Inc. (United States); Gaston, Clyde [LATA-SHARP Remediation Services - LSRS (United States); Queen, David C. [U.S. DOE-ORO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    surface water at the out-falls that discharge to nearby receiving water. After implementation of the actions described above, concentrations of hexavalent chromium have been effectively reduced to less than 25 ppb at the out-falls. The LSRS team completed demolition of K-33 five months ahead of schedule, and debris removal was completed three months ahead of schedule. A total of 164,000 tons of steel and concrete from the building demolition, accounting for 13,000 shipments, were disposed to the EMWMF. Because of the high toxicity of hexavalent chromium at low concentrations, hexavalent chromium had to be controlled at ppb levels. Hexavalent chromium contaminant concentrations were successfully reduced by over 90% in surface water discharged from the K-33 demolition site into nearby receiving water. Initial efforts of wind-rowing debris piles and obtaining real-time hexavalent chromium measurements to focus initiatives coupled with placement of steel wool in pools or catch basins had some effectiveness. More significant reductions were obtained as the debris piles were removed/disposed in EMWMF, and treatment of surface water with sodium bisulfite in integrated manholes occurred. (authors)

  14. Your cancer care team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...

  15. WODA technical guidance on underwater sound from dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C. de; Wit, P. de; Goethals, F.; Holtkamp, M.; Martin, E.S.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Victor, G.Y.V.; Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic

  16. Evaluating the SCC resistance of underwater welds in sodium tetrathionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.A.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    The susceptibility of welds to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is enhanced by the surface residual tensile stresses generated by the typical welding process. However, underwater plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding has been shown to produce compressive surface residual stresses, an encouraging result if repairs of cracked boiling water reactor (BWR) components are to be made without further endangering them to SCC. This program was designed to verify that underwater PTA welds are resistant to SCC and to determine if underwater PTA welding could mitigate SCC in potentially susceptible welds. This was achieved by exposing various welds on solution annealed (SA) and SA + thermally sensitized 304 stainless steel at 25 C in a solution of 1.5 gm/liter of sodium sulfide added to 0.05M sodium tetrathionate, titrated to a pH of 1.25 with H 2 SO 4 . The autogeneous welds were produced using gas tungsten arc (GTA) and plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding under atmospheric conditions, and PTA welding underwater. After 1 hour of sodium tetrathionate exposure, GTA and air PTA welds exhibited SCC while the underwater PTA weld heat affected zones were more resistant. Underwater PTA welds bisecting a GTA weld eliminated the cracking in the GTA weld heat affected zone under certain conditions. The lack of IG cracking in the region influenced by the underwater PTA weld is consistent with the measurement of compressive surface residual stresses inherent to the underwater welding process

  17. Remarks on the observability of single beacon underwater navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Ross, Andrew

    This paper contributes a simple and intuitive result in the analysis of underwater navigation using a single ranging beacon. This analysis should help with the design of small and lightweight underwater vehicles by reducing the amount of instrumentation required for accurate navigation. The concept...

  18. Underwater laser cladding and seal welding for INCONEL 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masataka; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed at aged components of nuclear power plants under water environment and high exposure of radiation. Toshiba has been developing both an underwater laser welding directly onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. This paper reports underwater laser cladding and seal welding for INCONEL 52. (author)

  19. Underwater methods for study of salmonids in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow

    1994-01-01

    This guide describes underwater methods using snorkeling gear to study fish populations in flowing waters of the Intermountain West. It outlines procedures for estimating salmonid abundance and habitat use and provides criteria for identifying and estimating the size of fish underwater.

  20. The WODA guidance paper on underwater sound from dredging (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Witt, P. de; Holtkamp, M.; Goethals, F.; San Martin, E.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) was established to provide a guidance paper on dredging sound, impact on aquatic biota and advice on

  1. Does demolition or refurbishment of old and inefficient homes help to increase our environmental, social and economic viability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The issue of whether to demolish or refurbish older housing has been debated for over a century. It has been an active policy area since the late 1880s, when the Government first authorised the statutory demolition of insanitary slums. In the 1960s, revulsion at the scale of 'demolition blight' and new building caused a rethink, leading to a major reinvestment in inner city neighbourhoods of older housing. In the past 5 years, debate on demolition and new building has been intensified by the Government's Sustainable Communities Plan of 2003, with its proposals for large-scale clearance and building. Environmental arguments about renovating the existing stock have gained increasing prominence as people have sought to defend their communities from demolition. The evidence on whether demolition would reduce the amount of greenhouse gases we emit into the atmosphere is unclear and disputed. This paper summarises the evidence and arguments, and attempts to clarify the most realistic, achievable route to major reductions in energy use in homes

  2. The End of the Line, Preparing the Main Plant Process Building for Demolition at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hackett, M.; Gorsuch, G.; Sullivan, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act of 1980 authorized the Department of Energy to conduct a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant in West Valley, New York to demonstrate solidification techniques to prepare high-level liquid waste for disposal. The reprocessing facility at this site was the only commercial NRC-licensed spent fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. The spent fuel reprocessing operations ended in 1972 and DoE's cleanup operations have been underway since 1982. High-level waste solidification was safely concluded in 2002 and follow-on activities at the site have been concentrated on facility decontamination and waste management and off-site disposal. Among the features that remain at the WVDP site is the highly-contaminated Main Plant Process Building (MPPB). The five-story reinforced concrete structure, which was formerly used to reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel, contains residual levels of contamination in some areas that prohibit safe human entry. DoE's long-range plans for the site include demolition of the MPPB. Current site contractor, West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES), while actively working to dismantle equipment and decontaminate areas inside the MPPB, has developed a conceptual two-phase plan for demolishing the structure that provides a cost-effective, lower-dose alternative to conventional demolition techniques. This paper discusses the current condition of the MPPB and the demolition-ready preparations conducted in the facility thus far. This paper also introduces the concept of a two-part surgical demolition plan that has been proposed and is being evaluated as a safe method of demolishing the structure. The practical applications that support feasibility for the demolition approach are being demonstrated through current work applications in the MPPB. The Inside-Out Demolition proposal for the MPPB is a safe

  3. Does demolition or refurbishment of old and inefficient homes help to increase our environmental, social and economic viability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Anne [London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Sustainable Development Commission, Room 101, 55 Whitehall, c/o 3-8 Whitehall Place, London SW1A 2HH (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The issue of whether to demolish or refurbish older housing has been debated for over a century. It has been an active policy area since the late 1880s, when the Government first authorised the statutory demolition of insanitary slums. In the 1960s, revulsion at the scale of 'demolition blight' and new building caused a rethink, leading to a major reinvestment in inner city neighbourhoods of older housing. In the past 5 years, debate on demolition and new building has been intensified by the Government's Sustainable Communities Plan of 2003, with its proposals for large-scale clearance and building. Environmental arguments about renovating the existing stock have gained increasing prominence as people have sought to defend their communities from demolition. The evidence on whether demolition would reduce the amount of greenhouse gases we emit into the atmosphere is unclear and disputed. This paper summarises the evidence and arguments, and attempts to clarify the most realistic, achievable route to major reductions in energy use in homes. The arguments that apply to housing also apply to most other buildings and therefore to the overall built environment, which accounts for half of all carbon emissions. Three main sources of evidence have helped in the development of this paper, but there are many other studies we draw on in the discussion.

  4. Optimization of an Intelligent Controller for an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fauzi Nor Shah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Underwater environment poses a difficult challenge for autonomous underwater navigation. A standard problem of underwater vehicles is to maintain it position at a certain depth in order to perform desired operations. An effective controller is required for this purpose and hence the design of a depth controller for an unmanned underwater vehicle is described in this paper. The control algorithm is simulated by using the marine guidance navigation and control simulator. The project shows a radial basis function metamodel can be used to tune the scaling factors of a fuzzy logic controller. By using offline optimization approach, a comparison between genetic algorithm and metamodeling has been done to minimize the integral square error between the set point and the measured depth of the underwater vehicle. The results showed that it is possible to obtain a reasonably good error using metamodeling approach in much a shorter time compared to the genetic algorithm approach.

  5. A man-made object detection for underwater TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Wenwu; Chen, Yao

    2018-03-01

    It is a great challenging task to complete an automatic search of objects underwater. Usually the forward looking sonar is used to find the target, and then the initial identification of the target is completed by the side-scan sonar, and finally the confirmation of the target is accomplished by underwater TV. This paper presents an efficient method for automatic extraction of man-made sensitive targets in underwater TV. Firstly, the image of underwater TV is simplified with taking full advantage of the prior knowledge of the target and the background; then template matching technology is used for target detection; finally the target is confirmed by extracting parallel lines on the target contour. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited-memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects in underwater TV.

  6. Acquisition and tracking for underwater optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew J.; Laycock, Leslie L.; Griffith, Michael S.; McCarthy, Andrew G.; Rowe, Duncan P.

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing requirement to transfer large volumes of data between underwater platforms. As seawater is transmissive in the visible band, underwater optical communications is an active area of interest since it offers the potential for power efficient, covert and high bandwidth datalinks at short to medium ranges. Short range systems have been successfully demonstrated using sources with low directionality. To realise higher data rates and/or longer ranges, the use of more efficient directional beams is required; by necessity, these must be sufficiently aligned to achieve the required link margin. For mobile platforms, the acquisition and tracking of each node is therefore critical in order to establish and maintain an optical datalink. This paper describes work undertaken to demonstrate acquisition and tracking in a 3D underwater environment. A range of optical sources, beam steering technologies, and tracking sensors have been assessed for suitability. A novel scanning strategy exploiting variable beam divergence was developed to provide robust acquisition whilst minimising acquisition time. A prototype system was assembled and demonstrated in a large water tank. This utilised custom quadrant detectors based on Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) arrays for fine tracking, and a Wide Field of View (WFoV) sCMOS camera for link acquisition. Fluidic lenses provided dynamic control of beam divergence, and AC modulation/filtering enabled background rejection. The system successfully demonstrated robust optical acquisition and tracking between two nodes with only nanowatt received optical powers. The acquisition time was shown to be dependent on the initial conditions and the transmitted optical power.

  7. Leakage warning system for flexible underwater pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E; Bernstein, L

    1985-08-01

    Underwater pipelines for unloading oil tankers, e.g. in 30 km distance from the harbour site, are required to be flexible and require supervision. This is done by implementation of oil sensitive sensors between the inner rubber tube and the following impregnated textile layer. The generated sensor signals, influenced by leak oil, have to be wireless transmitted from 150 meters under water to the supervisory station at the coast. Sensor configurations are described, to derive the point of the leakage from the topologized warning signals.

  8. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  9. Underwater photography - A visual survey method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 173 Underwater photography - A visual survey method Rahul Sharma National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004 rsharma@nio.org Introduction “Photography as a means of observing...-sea photographs were those made by Maurice Ewing and his co-workers during cruises on Atlantis in 1940-48. Their subject was the seafloor and their method of clicking was to trigger the camera mechanically when its mounting struck bottom. This is the only...

  10. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le

    1996-01-01

    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  11. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  12. Underwater Activities in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    morska , no. 12, 1967, 558-559. Eighty hours under the ice. Poseidon, no. 10 (70), 1967, inside front cover, 433-438, and 465. Fisera, M. A tent, a...Schiffbautechnik, no. 10, 1968. 568-574. 222. Kullnski, J. Meduza-2 underwater base for divers. Technika i gospodarka morska , no. 1, 1969, 44-46. 223...Technika i gospodarka morska , no. 4, 1973, 225-226. Baras, J., S. A. Guljar, and J. N. Kiklewitsch. The Ikhtiandr experiments. Poseidon, no. 4(136

  13. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L

    1981-01-15

    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  14. Forecast of Remote Underwater Sensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Ndgrt o oth NIA ye ’ Suite 709NrtFaothMAO5i Arligton VA 2202Attn: Dave Ho0soci, Chief Enginee~r Attn : Jay W. -arford, Manlager, (617) 563-59)17 (703...0,1305 Attn: Dr. A. Zielinski , Asst. Professor Attn: C. R. B. Lister Faculty of Engineering and (20t) 325-5497 Applied Science (709) 753-1200 Lockheed...157. Zielinski , A.; Barbour, L.; "Swept Carrier Acoustic Underwater Communica- tions," IEEE/MTS Oceans 󈨒, Washington, DC, Sept. 6-8, 1978. 158

  15. Navigation System Fault Diagnosis for Underwater Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thomas; Gregersen, Rene Tavs; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates fault diagnosis on unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) based on analysis of structure of the nonlinear dynamics. Residuals are generated using dierent approaches in structural analysis followed by statistical change detection. Hypothesis testing thresholds are made signal...... based to cope with non-ideal properties seen in real data. Detection of both sensor and thruster failures are demonstrated. Isolation is performed using the residual signature of detected faults and the change detection algorithm is used to assess severity of faults by estimating their magnitude...

  16. Working underwater: deepwater drilling support by ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    Experience with the drill ships Discoverer Seven Seas and Penrod 78 explains some of the problems associated with the use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) for underwater operations. Support services are a bigger problem than depth. The author describes developments, such as the new guidewire methods, side launch A-frame davit, and top hat stabilizing frame. All parts of the ROV system must be of heavy duty design, and operative skill is of paramount importance. The major requirements for deep water ROVs are reliability, fail-safe redundancy, cage deployment, compact size, adequate power, and capacity for heavy intervention work. 8 figures.

  17. Determining spherical lens correction for astronaut training underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jason; Gibson, C Robert; Strauss, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    To develop a model that will accurately predict the distance spherical lens correction needed to be worn by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts while training underwater. The replica space suit's helmet contains curved visors that induce refractive power when submersed in water. Anterior surface powers and thicknesses were measured for the helmet's protective and inside visors. The impact of each visor on the helmet's refractive power in water was analyzed using thick lens calculations and Zemax optical design software. Using geometrical optics approximations, a model was developed to determine the optimal distance spherical power needed to be worn underwater based on the helmet's total induced spherical power underwater and the astronaut's manifest spectacle plane correction in air. The validity of the model was tested using data from both eyes of 10 astronauts who trained underwater. The helmet's visors induced a total power of -2.737 D when placed underwater. The required underwater spherical correction (FW) was linearly related to the spectacle plane spherical correction in air (FAir): FW = FAir + 2.356 D. The mean magnitude of the difference between the actual correction worn underwater and the calculated underwater correction was 0.20 ± 0.11 D. The actual and calculated values were highly correlated (r = 0.971) with 70% of eyes having a difference in magnitude of astronauts. The model accurately predicts the actual values worn underwater and can be applied (more generally) to determine a suitable spectacle lens correction to be worn behind other types of masks when submerged underwater.

  18. Underwater welding using remote controlled robots. Development of remote underwater welding technology with a high power YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Syuuichi; Kojima, Toshio; Owaki, Katsura; Hirose, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    As components in nuclear power plant have been periodically carried out their inspection and repair to keep their integrity, on radioactive liquid wastes storage facility, because of difficulty on their inspection by human beings, some are remained without inspection, and even when capable of inspection, conversion from human works to remote operations is desired from a viewpoint of their operation efficiency upgrading. For response to these needs, some developments on a technology capable of carrying out inspection of their inside at underwater environment and repairing welding with YAG laser by means of remote operation, have been performed. Remote underwater inspection and repair technology is a combination technology of already applied underwater mobile technique (underwater inspection robot) with underwater YAG laser welding technique which is recently at actual using level. Therefore, this technology is composed of an inspection robot and a repair welding robot. And, testing results using the underwater inspection robot and welding test results using the underwater repair welding robot, were enough preferable to obtain forecasting applicable to actual apparatuses. This technology is especially effective for inspection and repair of inside of nuclear fuel cycle apparatuses and relatively high dose apparatuses, and can be thought to be applicable also to large capacity tanks, tanks dealing with harmful matters, underwater structures, and so on, in general industries. (G.K.)

  19. Team Learning in Teacher Teams: Team Entitativity as a Bridge between Teams-in-Theory and Teams-in-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…

  20. Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long x 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe

  1. Underwater inspection training in intense radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Osaka Prefecture University has a large dose cobalt 60 gamma ray source of about 2 PBq, and is engaged in technological training and human resource development. It is assumed that the decommissioning underwater operation of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station would be the focus. The university aims at acquisition of the basic of underwater inspection work under radiation environment that is useful for the above purpose, radiation measurement under water, basic training in image measurement, and aims as well to evaluate the damage of imaging equipment due to radiation, and master practical knowledge for the use of inspection equipment under a large dose. In particular, it is valuable to train in the observation of Cherenkov light emitted from a large dose cobalt radiation source in water using a high sensitivity camera. The measurement of radiation dose distribution in water had difficulty in remote measurement due to water shielding effect. Although it took much time before, the method using high sensitivity camera is easy to sequentially perform two-dimensional measurement, and its utility value is large. Its effect on the dose distribution measurement of irregularly shaped sources is great. The contents of training includes the following: radiation source imaging in water, use of a laser rangefinder in water, dose distribution measurement in water and Cherenkov light measurement, judgment of equipment damage due to irradiation, weak radiation measurement, and measurement and decontamination of surface contamination. (A.O.)

  2. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    A recent addition to the anthropogenic sources of underwater noise is offshore wave energy converters. Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter located at Hastholm, Denmark (57°7.73´N, 8°37.23´E). The Wavestar is a full-scale test and demonstration converter...... in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...... significant noise above ambient could be detected above the 250 Hz band. The absolute increase in noise above ambient was very small. L50 third-octave levels in the four bands with the converter running were thus only 1-2 dB above ambient L50 levels. The noise recorded 25 m from the wave energy converter...

  3. Hybrid Underwater Vehicle: ARV Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang DENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of SMU-I, a new autonomous & remotely-operated vehicle (ARV is described. Since it has both the characteristics of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV and remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV, it is able to achieve precision fix station operation and manual timely intervention. In the paper the initial design of basic components, such as vehicle, propulsion, batteries etc. and the control design of motion are introduced and analyzed. ROV’s conventional cable is replaced by a fiber optic cable, which makes it available for high-bandwidth real-time video, data telemetry and high-quality teleoperation. Furthermore, with the aid of the manual real-time remote operation and ranging sonar, it also resolves the AUV’s conflicting issue, which can absolutely adapt the actual complex sea environment and satisfy the unknown mission need. The whole battery system is designed as two-battery banks, whose voltages and temperatures are monitored through CAN (controller area network bus to avoid battery fire and explosion. A fuzzy-PID controller is designed for its motion control, including depth control and direction control. The controller synthesizes the advantage of fuzzy control and PID control, utilizes the fuzzy rules to on-line tune the parameters of PID controller, and achieves a better control effect. Experiment results demonstrate to show the effectiveness of the test-bed.

  4. An explanatory model of underwater adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Colodro

    Full Text Available The underwater environment is an extreme environment that requires a process of human adaptation with specific psychophysiological demands to ensure survival and productive activity. From the standpoint of existing models of intelligence, personality and performance, in this explanatory study we have analyzed the contribution of individual differences in explaining the adaptation of military personnel in a stressful environment. Structural equation analysis was employed to verify a model representing the direct effects of psychological variables on individual adaptation to an adverse environment, and we have been able to confirm, during basic military diving courses, the structural relationships among these variables and their ability to predict a third of the variance of a criterion that has been studied very little to date. In this way, we have confirmed in a sample of professionals (N = 575 the direct relationship of emotional adjustment, conscientiousness and general mental ability with underwater adaptation, as well as the inverse relationship of emotional reactivity. These constructs are the psychological basis for working under water, contributing to an improved adaptation to this environment and promoting risk prevention and safety in diving activities.

  5. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  6. Increasing the Safety in Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste by Using Supervised Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuritcyn, P; Anding, K; Linß, E; Latyev, S M

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of the optical identification of recycled aggregates of construction and demolition waste (CDW) using methods of image processing, spectral analysis and machine learning. The classification performances in colour images shown, that we have to use other added spectral information to solve the recognition task in a satisfactory manner. In addition to investigations on a large colour image dataset first investigations in visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) spectrum were done for analysing significant characteristics in spectrum, which are useful for classification the C and D aggregates

  7. Recycling of construction and demolition waste: case study in the Port of Antwerp

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmans, Jef; Broos, Kris; Nielsen, Peter; Dierckx, Philippe; Brijsse, Yvan; Jacobs, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) represents one of the EU’s largest waste streams. According to the Directive 2008/98/EC on waste, at least 70 percent (by weight) of non-hazardous C&DW must be recuperated by 2020. Eurostat estimates an annual C&DW generation of 970 Mton in EU-27, representing an average value of almost 2.0 ton per inhabitant, with an average recovery rate of 47%. A case study in the Port of Antwerp (PoA) demonstrated new high grade recycling options for purified mater...

  8. Decontaminating agents and decontamination processes for nuclear industry and for plant demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination of surfaces of materials in nuclear facilities or in nuclear power plants under demolition can be carried out successfully if surface treatment is performed by dipping or in an ultrasonic bath by alternating between alkaline and acid baths with intermediate rinsing in demineralized water. Decontaminating aluminium surfaces sensitive to corrosion requires further treatment in an ultrasonic bath, after the first 2 ultrasonic baths, with a weak alkaline decontaminating agent. This applies alike to components to be decontaminated for re-use and parts of materials to be disposed of. The decontamination action depends on the surfaces either being free from corrosion or else showing pronounced corrosion. (orig.)

  9. An integrated life cycle inventory for demolition processes in the context of life cycle sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Hu, Mingming; van Roekel, Eric

    2012-01-01

    According to the Life Cycle Assessment in Building and Construction: State-of-the-Art Report (2003), the dismantling and demolition stage of the building life cycle is only sometimes included in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) when doing Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). The reason that it is less...... inventoried in a traditional LCA maybe because this stage is expected to have a negligible environmental impact comparing to other stages in the life cycle of the buildings. When doing a life cycle sustainability assessment considering not only environmental but also economic and social impacts, the impacts...

  10. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  11. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-01-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader’s verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time. PMID:28490856

  12. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-04-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader's verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time.

  13. Trust in Diverse Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    , maintaining team cohesiveness in multicultural teams to collaborate effectively presents a number of challenges. The present study employs the concept of trust to explore influences on team collaboration in high performing teams. The study is based on observation of teams in seven multinational corporations...... and interviews with managers from the US, Europe, China and Japan. The study presents a conceptual framework - a ‘trust buffer’ – which enables analysis and exemplification of the dynamics and challenges of teams as drivers of change. Each team has strategically important tasks, unique capacities and deal...... with change in particular ways: Each team is analyzed in relation to its global (HQ) mandate, local (national) stakeholders and organizational context. It is found that communication energy, resources and team mandate underscore the sense of trust in high performing teams. Diversity is understood...

  14. Underwater cladding with laser beam and plasma arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.A.; Fusaro, R.; Jones, M.G.; Solomon, H.D.; Milian-Rodriguez, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Two welding processes, plasma arc (transferred arc) (PTA) and laser beam, were investigated to apply cladding to austenitic stainless steels and Inconel 600. These processes have long been used to apply cladding layers , but the novel feature being reported here is that these cladding layers were applied underwater, with a water pressure equivalent to 24 m (80 ft). Being able to apply the cladding underwater is very important for many applications, including the construction of off-shore oil platforms and the repair of nuclear reactors. In the latter case, being able to weld underwater eliminates the need for draining the reactor and removing the fuel. Welding underwater in reactors presents numerous challenges, but the ability to weld without having to drain the reactor and remove the fuel provides a huge cost savings. Welding underwater in reactors must be done remotely, but because of the radioactive corrosion products and neutron activation of the steels, remote welding would also be required even if the reactor is drained and the fuel removed. In fact, without the shielding of the water, the remote welding required if the reactor is drained might be even more difficult than that required with underwater welds. Furthermore, as shall be shown, the underwater welds that the authors have made were of high quality and exhibit compressive rather than tensile residual stresses

  15. Underwater fiber-wireless communication with a passive front end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Sun, Bin; Lyu, Weichao; Kong, Meiwei; Sarwar, Rohail; Han, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Ning

    2017-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel concept on underwater fiber-wireless (Fi-Wi) communication system with a fully passive wireless front end. A low-cost step-index (SI) plastic optical fiber (POF) together with a passive collimating lens at the front end composes the underwater Fi-Wi architecture. We have achieved a 1.71-Gb/s transmission at a mean BER of 4.97 × 10-3 (1.30 × 10-3 when using power loading) over a 50-m SI-POF and 2-m underwater wireless channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Although the wireless part is very short, it actually plays a crucial role in practical underwater implementation, especially in deep sea. Compared with the wired solution (e.g. using a 52-m POF cable without the UWOC part), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi scheme can save optical wet-mate connectors that are sophisticated, very expensive and difficult to install in deep ocean. By combining high-capacity robust POF with the mobility and ubiquity of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi technology will find wide application in ocean exploration.

  16. Intelligent Navigation for a Solar Powered Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García-Córdova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an intelligent navigation system for an unmanned underwater vehicle powered by renewable energy and designed for shadow water inspection in missions of a long duration is proposed. The system is composed of an underwater vehicle, which tows a surface vehicle. The surface vehicle is a small boat with photovoltaic panels, a methanol fuel cell and communication equipment, which provides energy and communication to the underwater vehicle. The underwater vehicle has sensors to monitor the underwater environment such as sidescan sonar and a video camera in a flexible configuration and sensors to measure the physical and chemical parameters of water quality on predefined paths for long distances. The underwater vehicle implements a biologically inspired neural architecture for autonomous intelligent navigation. Navigation is carried out by integrating a kinematic adaptive neuro-controller for trajectory tracking and an obstacle avoidance adaptive neuro- controller. The autonomous underwater vehicle is capable of operating during long periods of observation and monitoring. This autonomous vehicle is a good tool for observing large areas of sea, since it operates for long periods of time due to the contribution of renewable energy. It correlates all sensor data for time and geodetic position. This vehicle has been used for monitoring the Mar Menor lagoon.

  17. The influence of underwater turbulence on optical phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Davis, Allen; Kirkendall, Clay; Dandridge, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Emerging underwater optical imaging and sensing applications rely on phase-sensitive detection to provide added functionality and improved sensitivity. However, underwater turbulence introduces spatio-temporal variations in the refractive index of water which can degrade the performance of these systems. Although the influence of turbulence on traditional, non-interferometric imaging has been investigated, its influence on the optical phase remains poorly understood. Nonetheless, a thorough understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through underwater turbulence are crucial to the design of phase-sensitive imaging and sensing systems. To address this concern, we combined underwater imaging with high speed holography to provide a calibrated characterization of the effects of turbulence on the optical phase. By measuring the modulation transfer function of an underwater imaging system, we were able to calibrate varying levels of optical turbulence intensity using the Simple Underwater Imaging Model (SUIM). We then used high speed holography to measure the temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through varying levels of turbulence. Using this method, we measured the variance in the amplitude and phase of the beam, the temporal correlation of the optical phase, and recorded the turbulence induced phase noise as a function of frequency. By bench marking the effects of varying levels of turbulence on the optical phase, this work provides a basis to evaluate the real-world potential of emerging underwater interferometric sensing modalities.

  18. Underwater television camera for monitoring inner side of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kazuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    An underwater television support device equipped with a rotatable and vertically movable underwater television camera and an underwater television camera controlling device for monitoring images of the inside of the reactor core photographed by the underwater television camera to control the position of the underwater television camera and the underwater light are disposed on an upper lattice plate of a reactor pressure vessel. Both of them are electrically connected with each other by way of a cable to rapidly observe the inside of the reactor core by the underwater television camera. The reproducibility is extremely satisfactory by efficiently concentrating the position of the camera and image information upon inspection and observation. As a result, the steps for periodical inspection can be reduced to shorten the days for the periodical inspection. Since there is no requirement to withdraw fuel assemblies over a wide reactor core region, and the device can be used with the fuel assemblies being left as they are in the reactor, it is suitable for inspection of detectors for nuclear instrumentation. (N.H.)

  19. Developing Your Dream Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Kenda

    2005-01-01

    Almost anyone has held various roles on a team, be it a family unit, sports team, or a project-oriented team. As an educator, one must make a conscious decision to build and invest in a team. Gathering the best team possible will help one achieve one's goals. This article explores some of the key reasons why it is important to focus on the team…

  20. Autonomous docking control of visual-servo type underwater vehicle system aiming at underwater automatic charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanou, Akira; Ohnishi, Shota; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Minami, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    A visual-servo type remotely operated vehicle (ROV) system with binocular wide-angle lens was developed to survey submarine resources, decontaminate radiation from mud in dam lake and so on. This paper explores the experiments on regulator performance and underwater docking of the robot system utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA) for real-time recognition of the robot's relative position and posture through 3D marker. The visual servoing performances have been verified as follows; (1) The stability performances of the proposed regulator system have been evaluated by exerting abrupt distrubane force while the ROV is controlled by visual servoing. (2) The proposed system can track time-variant desired target position in x-axis (front-back direction of the robot). (3) The underwater docking can be completed by switching visual servoing and docking modes based on the error threshold, and by giving time-varying desired target position and orientation to the controller as a desired pose. (author)

  1. Summary of the guideline on underwater laser beam repair welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Hiroya; Yoda, Masaki; Motora, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    It is known that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) might occur at the weld of a reactor pressure vessel or core internals. Underwater laser beam clad welding for mitigation of SCC has been already established and the guideline 'Underwater laser beam clad welding' was published. Moreover, the guideline 'Seal welding' was also published as a repair method for SCC. In addition to these guidelines, the guideline 'Underwater laser beam repair welding' was newly published in November, 2012 for the repair welding after completely removing a SCC crack occurred in weld or base metal. This paper introduces the summary of this guideline. (author)

  2. A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Lo Duca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead.

  3. Application of YAG laser processing in underwater welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro; Kojima, Toshio; Sato, Shuichi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The high-power YAG laser is a new fabrication tool. The laser torch is easy to combine with complex with complex mechanics because of beam delivery through optical fiber. A direct underwater laser welding technology has been developed and applied to the preservation, maintenance and removal of nuclear power plants. For subdividing or removing operations for retirement of plants, the laser cutting properties were confirmed to allow a maximum cutting thickness of 80 mm. For repairing inner surface of stainless steel tanks, an underwater laser welding system using a remote-controlled robot was developed and the high quality of underwater laser welding was confirmed. (author)

  4. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  5. Development of underwater laser cladding and underwater laser seal welding techniques for reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Matsunaga, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been reported at the aged components in many nuclear power plants. Toshiba has been developing the underwater laser welding. This welding technique can be conducted without draining the water in the reactor vessel. It is beneficial for workers not to exposure the radiation. The welding speed can be attaining twice as fast as that of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The susceptibility of SCC can also be lower than the Alloy 600 base metal. (author)

  6. Chemical sulphate removal for treatment of construction and demolition debris leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) is a product of construction, renovation or demolition activities. It has a high gypsum content (52.4% of total gypsum), concentrated in the CDD sand (CDDS) fraction. To comply with the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulphate present in building sand, excess sulphate needs to be removed. In order to enable reuse of CDDS, a novel treatment process is developed based on washing of the CDDS to remove most of the gypsum, and subsequent sulphate removal from the sulphate-rich CDDS leachate. This study aims to assess chemical techniques, i.e. precipitation and adsorption, for sulphate removal from the CDDS leachate. Good sulphate removal efficiencies (up to 99.9%) from the CDDS leachate can be achieved by precipitation with barium chloride (BaCl2) and lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2). Precipitation with calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium oxide (CaO) gave less efficient sulphate removal. Adsorption of sulphate to aluminium oxide (Al2O3) yielded a 50% sulphate removal efficiency, whereas iron oxide-coated sand as adsorbent gave only poor (10%) sulphate removal efficiencies.

  7. Stripping in hot mix asphalt produced by aggregates from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, I; Pasandín, A R; Gallego, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of water on the durability of hot asphalt mixtures made with recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris. Indirect tensile stress tests were carried out to evaluate stripping behaviour. The mixtures tested were fabricated with 0, 20, 40 and 60% recycled aggregates. Two types of natural aggregates were used: schist and calcite dolomite. An increase in the percentage of recycled aggregates was found to produce a decrease in the tensile stress ratio of the hot asphalt mixtures. To study this phenomenon, two and three factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with indirect tensile stress being used as the dependent variable. The factors studied were the percentage of recycled aggregates (0, 20, 40 and 60%), the moisture state (dry, wet) and the type of natural aggregate (schist, calcite). On the basis of the ANOVA results, it was found that the most important factor affecting resistance was the moisture state (dry, wet) of the specimens. The percentage of recycled aggregate also affected indirect tensile stress, especially in the dry state. The type of natural aggregate did not have a significant effect on indirect tensile stress. The hot asphalt mixture specimens made with different percentages of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris and of natural quarry aggregates showed poor stripping behaviour. This stripping behaviour can be related to both the poor adhesion of the recycled aggregates and the high absorption of the mortar of cement adhered to them.

  8. Heavy metals in recovered fines from construction and demolition debris recycling facilities in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Leo, Kevin; Jambeck, Jenna

    2004-10-01

    A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil. Waste material that is reused in a manner similar to soil must first be characterized to examine potential risks to human health and the environment. In Florida, samples of C&D debris fines from 13 C&D debris recycling facilities were characterized for 11 total and leachable heavy metal concentrations. Total metal concentration results (mg/kg) were compared to existing data on background Florida soil concentrations and to Florida's risk-based soil cleanup target levels (SCTLs). All of the detected metals were found to be elevated with respect to background. The 95% upper confidence level of arsenic from 99 samples was 3.2 mg/kg; arsenic presented the greatest limitation to reuse when compared to the SCTLs. Lead was not found to pose a major problem, likely because of the relatively new building infrastructure in Florida, which results in less demolition debris and less material impacted by lead-based paint. The results of batch leaching tests conducted using simulated rainwater (mg/l) were compared directly to risk-based groundwater levels for Florida and were found not to pose a risk using existing risk assessment policies.

  9. Estimating construction and demolition debris generation using a materials flow analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, K M; Townsend, T G

    2010-11-01

    The magnitude and composition of a region's construction and demolition (C&D) debris should be understood when developing rules, policies and strategies for managing this segment of the solid waste stream. In the US, several national estimates have been conducted using a weight-per-construction-area approximation; national estimates using alternative procedures such as those used for other segments of the solid waste stream have not been reported for C&D debris. This paper presents an evaluation of a materials flow analysis (MFA) approach for estimating C&D debris generation and composition for a large region (the US). The consumption of construction materials in the US and typical waste factors used for construction materials purchasing were used to estimate the mass of solid waste generated as a result of construction activities. Debris from demolition activities was predicted from various historical construction materials consumption data and estimates of average service lives of the materials. The MFA approach estimated that approximately 610-78 × 10(6)Mg of C&D debris was generated in 2002. This predicted mass exceeds previous estimates using other C&D debris predictive methodologies and reflects the large waste stream that exists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recycled construction and demolition concrete waste as aggregate for structural concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Wagih

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In major Egyptian cities there is a surge in construction and demolition waste (CDW quantities causing an adverse effect on the environment. The use of such waste as recycled aggregate in concrete can be useful for both environmental and economical aspects in the construction industry. This study discusses the possibility to replace natural coarse aggregate (NA with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA in structural concrete. An investigation into the properties of RCA is made using crushing and grading of concrete rubble collected from different demolition sites and landfill locations around Cairo. Aggregates used in the study were: natural sand, dolomite and crushed concretes obtained from different sources. A total of 50 concrete mixes forming eight groups were cast. Groups were designed to study the effect of recycled coarse aggregates quality/content, cement dosage, use of superplasticizer and silica fume. Tests were carried out for: compressive strength, splitting strength and elastic modulus. The results showed that the concrete rubble could be transformed into useful recycled aggregate and used in concrete production with properties suitable for most structural concrete applications in Egypt. A significant reduction in the properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC made of 100% RCA was seen when compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC, while the properties of RAC made of a blend of 75% NA and 25% RCA showed no significant change in concrete properties.

  11. Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-01-01

    Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed.

  12. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: inorganic elements and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2014-07-15

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed) concrete waste, (ii) mixed masonry and concrete, (iii) asphalt and (iv) freshly cast concrete cores; both old and newly generated construction and demolition waste was included. PCBs and PAHs were detected in all samples, generally in non-critical concentrations. Overall, PAHs were comparable to background levels in urban environments. "Old" and "new" concrete samples indicated different PCB congener profiles and the presence of PCB even in new concrete suggested that background levels in raw materials may be an issue. Significant variability in total content of trace elements, even more pronounced for leaching, was observed indicating that the number of analysed samples may be critical in relation to decisions regarding management and utilisation of the materials. Higher leaching of chromium, sulphate and chloride were observed for masonry-containing and partly carbonated samples, indicating that source segregation and management practices may be important. Generally, leaching was in compliance with available leaching limits, except for selenium, and in some cases chromium, sulphate and antimony. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction and demolition waste as a source of PVC for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Sabrina Moretto Darbello; Mancini, Sandro Donnini; Rodolfo, Antonio; Keiroglo, Raquel Carramillo

    2012-02-01

    Construction and demolition waste can contain considerable amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This paper describes a study of the recycling of PVC pipes collected from such waste materials. In a sorting facility for the specific disposal of construction and demolition waste, PVC was found to represent one-third of the plastics separated by workers. Pipes were sorted carefully to preclude any possible contamination by poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) found in the waste. The material was ground into two distinct particle sizes (final mesh of 12.7 and 8 mm), washed, dried and recycled. The average formulation of the pipes was determined based on ash content tests and used in the fabrication of a similar compound made mainly of virgin PVC. Samples of recycled pipes and of compound based on virgin material were subjected to tensile and impact tests and provided very similar results. These results are a good indication of the application potential of the recycled material and of the fact that longer grinding to obtain finer particles is not necessarily beneficial.

  14. Thermal resistance and conductivity of recycled construction and demolition waste (RCDW concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Julio Apolonio Callejas

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, studies to reuse construction and demolition waste are a special issue because a large amount of this material has been delivered to the public landfills and in illegal places. Some researchers have suggested reusing this material in building elements, such as bricks or blocks. It is possible to find a lot of researches in physical/mechanical characterization, while little effort has been made to characterize recycled construction and demolition waste blocks (RCDW for their thermal properties. The aim of this work was to characterize the RCDW thermal resistance and conductivity in order to provide subsidies for a building's thermal performance analysis. The hot-box method was adapted, together with measuring techniques with a heat-flow meter to determine the RCDW thermal properties. The results indicated that the RCDW block overall thermal resistance and thermal conductivity in the solid region was within the intervals of 0.33≤RT≤0.41m2KW-1 and 0.60≤l≤0.78Wm-1K-1, respectively. The lower resistance and conductivity values are justified by the presence of aggregate with a lower density and lower thermal conductivity than the natural aggregate.

  15. Recycling of rubble from building demolition for low-shrinkage concretes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Valeria; Moriconi, Giacomo

    2010-04-01

    In this project concrete mixtures were prepared that were characterized by low ductility due to desiccation by using debris from building demolition, which after a suitable treatment was used as aggregate for partial replacement of natural aggregates. The recycled aggregate used came from a recycling plant, in which rubble from building demolition was selected, crushed, cleaned, sieved, and graded. Such aggregates are known to be more porous as indicated by the Saturated Surface Dry (SSD) moisture content. The recycled concrete used as aggregates were added to the concrete mixture in order to study their influence on the fresh and hardened concrete properties. They were added either after water pre-soaking or in dry condition, in order to evaluate the influence of moisture in aggregates on the performance of concrete containing recycled aggregate. In particular, the effect of internal curing, due to the use of such aggregates, was studied. Concrete behavior due to desiccation under dehydration was studied by means of both drying shrinkage test and German angle test, through which shrinkage under the restrained condition of early age concrete can be evaluated. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of leaching tests to determine and quantify the release of inorganic contaminants in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, Markus; Lager, Tanja; Schulz, Horst D.; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2007-01-01

    The changes in waste management policy caused by the massive generation of waste materials (e.g. construction and demolition waste material, municipal waste incineration products) has led to an increase in the reuse and recycling of waste materials. For environmental risk assessment, test procedures are necessary to examine waste materials before they can be reused. In this article, results of column and lysimeter leaching tests having been applied to inorganic compounds in a reference demolition waste material are presented. The results show a good agreement between the leaching behaviour determined with the lysimeter unit and the column units used in the laboratory. In view of less time and system requirements compared to lysimeter systems, laboratory column units can be considered as a practicable instrument to assess the time-dependent release of inorganic compounds under conditions similar to those encountered in a natural environment. The high concentrations of elements in the seepage water at the initial stage of elution are reflected by the laboratory column leaching tests. In particular, authorities or laboratories might benefit and have an easy-to-use, but nevertheless reliable, method to serve as a basis for decision-making

  17. Heavy metals in recovered fines from construction and demolition debris recycling facilities in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Leo, Kevin; Jambeck, Jenna

    2004-01-01

    A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C and D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C and D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil. Waste material that is reused in a manner similar to soil must first be characterized to examine potential risks to human health and the environment. In Florida, samples of C and D debris fines from 13 C and D debris recycling facilities were characterized for 11 total and leachable heavy metal concentrations. Total metal concentration results (mg/kg) were compared to existing data on background Florida soil concentrations and to Florida's risk-based soil cleanup target levels (SCTLs). All of the detected metals were found to be elevated with respect to background. The 95% upper confidence level of arsenic from 99 samples was 3.2 mg/kg; arsenic presented the greatest limitation to reuse when compared to the SCTLs. Lead was not found to pose a major problem, likely because of the relatively new building infrastructure in Florida, which results in less demolition debris and less material impacted by lead-based paint. The results of batch leaching tests conducted using simulated rainwater (mg/l) were compared directly to risk-based groundwater levels for Florida and were found not to pose a risk using existing risk assessment policies

  18. Task Allocation and Path Planning for Collaborative Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Operating through an Underwater Acoustic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and unstructured multiple cooperative autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV missions are highly complex operations, and task allocation and path planning are made significantly more challenging under realistic underwater acoustic communication constraints. This paper presents a solution for the task allocation and path planning for multiple AUVs under marginal acoustic communication conditions: a location-aided task allocation framework (LAAF algorithm for multitarget task assignment and the grid-based multiobjective optimal programming (GMOOP mathematical model for finding an optimal vehicle command decision given a set of objectives and constraints. Both the LAAF and GMOOP algorithms are well suited in poor acoustic network condition and dynamic environment. Our research is based on an existing mobile ad hoc network underwater acoustic simulator and blind flooding routing protocol. Simulation results demonstrate that the location-aided auction strategy performs significantly better than the well-accepted auction algorithm developed by Bertsekas in terms of task-allocation time and network bandwidth consumption. We also demonstrate that the GMOOP path-planning technique provides an efficient method for executing multiobjective tasks by cooperative agents with limited communication capabilities. This is in contrast to existing multiobjective action selection methods that are limited to networks where constant, reliable communication is assumed to be available.

  19. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  20. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar SCARLAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA projects versus information technology (IT projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and differences between the above mentioned types of projects. Distinct focus of the research is on the multiculturalism of the project teams: how the cultural background of the team members influences the team performance and team management. Besides the results of the study are the managerial implications: how the team managers could soften the cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts – in order to get a better performance. Some practical examples are provided as well.

  1. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapidis, Petros A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Athens 15310 (Greece)], E-mail: rapidis@inp.demokritos.gr

    2009-04-11

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  2. Transducers and arrays for underwater sound

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, John L

    2016-01-01

    This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains updates to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to select...

  3. Collision Detection for Underwater ROV Manipulator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satja Sivčev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Work-class ROVs equipped with robotic manipulators are extensively used for subsea intervention operations. Manipulators are teleoperated by human pilots relying on visual feedback from the worksite. Operating in a remote environment, with limited pilot perception and poor visibility, manipulator collisions which may cause significant damage are likely to happen. This paper presents a real-time collision detection algorithm for marine robotic manipulation. The proposed collision detection mechanism is developed, integrated into a commercial ROV manipulator control system, and successfully evaluated in simulations and experimental setup using a real industry standard underwater manipulator. The presented collision sensing solution has a potential to be a useful pilot assisting tool that can reduce the task load, operational time, and costs of subsea inspection, repair, and maintenance operations.

  4. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidis, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  5. Silent Localization of Underwater Sensors Using Magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Callmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor localization is a central problem for sensor networks. If the sensor positions are uncertain, the target tracking ability of the sensor network is reduced. Sensor localization in underwater environments is traditionally addressed using acoustic range measurements involving known anchor or surface nodes. We explore the usage of triaxial magnetometers and a friendly vessel with known magnetic dipole to silently localize the sensors. The ferromagnetic field created by the dipole is measured by the magnetometers and is used to localize the sensors. The trajectory of the vessel and the sensor positions are estimated simultaneously using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Simulations show that the sensors can be accurately positioned using magnetometers.

  6. Underwater colorectal EMR: remodeling endoscopic mucosal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Gabriele; Granata, Antonino; Ligresti, Dario; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Liotta, Rosa; Traina, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Underwater EMR (UEMR) has been reported as a new technique for the removal of large sessile colorectal polyps without need for submucosal injection. To evaluate (1) outcomes of UEMR, (2) whether UEMR can be easily performed by an endoscopist skilled in traditional EMR without specific dedicated training in UEMR, and (3) whether EUS is required before UEMR. Prospective, observational study. Single, tertiary-care referral center. Underwater EMR. Complete resection and adverse events. A total of 72 consecutive patients underwent UEMR of 81 sessile colorectal polyps. EUS was performed before UEMR in 9 cases (11.1%) with a suspicious mucosal/vascular pattern. The mean polyp size was 18.7 mm (range 10-50 mm); the mean UEMR time was 11.8 minutes. Fifty-five polyps (68%) were removed en bloc, and 26 (32%) were removed with a piecemeal technique. Histopathology consisted of tubular adenomas (25.9%), tubulovillous adenomas (5%), adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (42%), serrated polyps (4.9%), carcinoma in situ (13.6%), and hyperplastic polyps (8.6%). Surveillance colonoscopy was scheduled at 3 months. Complete resection was successful in all patients. No adverse events or recurrence was recorded in any of the patients. Limited follow-up; single-center, uncontrolled study. Interventional endoscopists skilled in conventional EMR performed UEMR without specific dedicated training. EUS may not be required for lesions with no invasive features on high-definition narrow-band imaging. UEMR appears to be an effective and safe alternative to traditional EMR and could eventually improve the way in which we can effectively and safely treat colorectal lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

  8. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Timothy F; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations). (paper)

  9. Event localization in underwater wireless sensor networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew John Robert; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han

    2012-01-01

    We propose m-courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consists of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can

  10. UTOFIA: an underwater time-of-flight image acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driewer, Adrian; Abrosimov, Igor; Alexander, Jonathan; Benger, Marc; O'Farrell, Marion; Haugholt, Karl Henrik; Softley, Chris; Thielemann, Jens T.; Thorstensen, Jostein; Yates, Chris

    2017-10-01

    In this article the development of a newly designed Time-of-Flight (ToF) image sensor for underwater applications is described. The sensor is developed as part of the project UTOFIA (underwater time-of-flight image acquisition) funded by the EU within the Horizon 2020 framework. This project aims to develop a camera based on range gating that extends the visible range compared to conventional cameras by a factor of 2 to 3 and delivers real-time range information by means of a 3D video stream. The principle of underwater range gating as well as the concept of the image sensor are presented. Based on measurements on a test image sensor a pixel structure that suits best to the requirements has been selected. Within an extensive characterization underwater the capability of distance measurements in turbid environments is demonstrated.

  11. Digital sonar design in underwater acoustics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qihu

    2012-01-01

    "Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics Principles and Applications" provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of research on sonar design, including the basic theory and techniques of digital signal processing, basic concept of information theory, ocean acoustics, underwater acoustic signal propagation theory, and underwater signal processing theory. This book discusses the general design procedure and approaches to implementation, the design method, system simulation theory and techniques, sonar tests in the laboratory, lake and sea, and practical validation criteria and methods for digital sonar design. It is intended for researchers in the fields of underwater signal processing and sonar design, and also for navy officers and ocean explorers. Qihu Li is a professor at the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Trade-off Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, G.; Das, R.

    2017-09-01

    In the last couple of decades, Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) were started to be used for various commercial and non-commercial purposes. However, in underwater environments, there are some specific inherent constraints, such as high bit error rate, variable and large propagation delay, limited bandwidth capacity, and short-range communications, which severely degrade the performance of UASNs and limit the lifetime of underwater sensor nodes as well. Therefore, proving reliability of UASN applications poses a challenge. In this study, we try to balance energy consumption of underwater acoustic sensor networks and minimize end-to-end delay using an efficient node placement strategy. Our simulation results reveal that if the number of hops is reduced, energy consumption can be reduced. However, this increases end-to-end delay. Hence, application-specific requirements must be taken into consideration when determining a strategy for node deployment.

  13. Localization of Energy Harvesting Empowered Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir; Celik, Abdulkadir; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    with insufficient battery, harvest the energy and starts communicating once it has sufficient energy storage. Network localization is carried out by measuring the RSSs of active nodes, which are modeled based on the underwater optical communication channel

  14. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  15. Wireless Underwater Monitoring Systems Based on Energy Harvestings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea-Hee HWANGBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important research fields for aquatic exploitation and conservation is underwater wireless sensor network. Since limited energy source for underwater nodes and devices is a main open problem, in this paper, we propose wireless underwater monitoring systems powered by energy harvester which resolves the energy constraint. The target system generates renewable energy from energy harvester and shares the energy with underwater sensor nodes. For the realization of the system, key components to be investigated are discriminated as follows: acoustic modem, actuator, smart battery charge controller, energy harvester and wireless power transfer module. By developing acoustic modem, actuator and smart battery charge controller and utilizing off-the-shelf energy harvester and wireless power transfer module, we design and implement a prototype of the system. Also, we verify the feasibility of concept of target system by conducting indoor and outdoor experiments.

  16. Underwater target positioning with a single acoustic sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    David, M-S; Pascoal, A.M.; Joaquin, A.

    The availability of reliable underwater positioning systems to localize one or more vehicles simultaneously based on information received on-board a support ship or an autonomous surface vessel is key to the operation of some classes of AUVs...

  17. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hawass

    2015-12-01

    The strain gauge data and displacement sensors results showed that the multi-layer plates have higher level of underwater shock wave mitigation than the triple aluminum plates with strain and deflection of nearly 50%.

  18. Low-contrast underwater living fish recognition using PCANet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Jianping; Wang, Changgang; Dong, Junyu; Wang, Xinhua

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative and statistical analysis of ocean creatures is critical to ecological and environmental studies. And living fish recognition is one of the most essential requirements for fishery industry. However, light attenuation and scattering phenomenon are present in the underwater environment, which makes underwater images low-contrast and blurry. This paper tries to design a robust framework for accurate fish recognition. The framework introduces a two stage PCA Network to extract abstract features from fish images. On a real-world fish recognition dataset, we use a linear SVM classifier and set penalty coefficients to conquer data unbalanced issue. Feature visualization results show that our method can avoid the feature distortion in boundary regions of underwater image. Experiments results show that the PCA Network can extract discriminate features and achieve promising recognition accuracy. The framework improves the recognition accuracy of underwater living fishes and can be easily applied to marine fishery industry.

  19. Euclidean reconstruction of natural underwater scenes using optic imagery sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han

    The development of maritime applications require monitoring, studying and preserving of detailed and close observation on the underwater seafloor and objects. Stereo vision offers advanced technologies to build 3D models from 2D still overlapping optic images in a relatively inexpensive way. However, while image stereo matching is a necessary step in 3D reconstruction procedure, even the most robust dense matching techniques are not guaranteed to work for underwater images due to the challenging aquatic environment. In this thesis, in addition to a detailed introduction and research on the key components of building 3D models from optic images, a robust modified quasi-dense matching algorithm based on correspondence propagation and adaptive least square matching for underwater images is proposed and applied to some typical underwater image datasets. The experiments demonstrate the robustness and good performance of the proposed matching approach.

  20. Object detection from images obtained through underwater turbulence medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furhad, Md. Hasan; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Imaging through underwater experiences severe distortions due to random fluctuations of temperature and salinity in water, which produces underwater turbulence through diffraction limited blur. Lights reflecting from objects perturb and attenuate contrast, making the recognition of objects of interest difficult. Thus, the information available for detecting underwater objects of interest becomes a challenging task as they have inherent confusion among the background, foreground and other image properties. In this paper, a saliency-based approach is proposed to detect the objects acquired through an underwater turbulent medium. This approach has drawn attention among a wide range of computer vision applications, such as image retrieval, artificial intelligence, neuro-imaging and object detection. The image is first processed through a deblurring filter. Next, a saliency technique is used on the image for object detection. In this step, a saliency map that highlights the target regions is generated and then a graph-based model is proposed to extract these target regions for object detection.

  1. Network lifetime-aware data collection in Underwater Sensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jalaja Janardanan Kartha

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... existing models to assess their effectiveness and to investigate the trade-offs. Results show ... coverage drops below a predefined threshold and (vi) connectivity is .... Cost Clustering Protocol (MCCP), Distributed Underwater.

  2. Performance evaluation of carbon black based electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Chon, Ki H

    2014-01-01

    Underwater electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring currently uses Ag/AgCl electrodes and requires sealing of the electrodes to avoid water intrusion, but this procedure is time consuming and often results in severe irritations or even tearing of the skin. To alleviate these problems, our research team developed hydrophobic electrodes comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for dry and water-immersed conditions. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to adhesive Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios which included recordings from a dry surface, water immersion, and post-water immersion conditions. CB/PDMS electrodes were able to acquire ECG signals highly correlated with those from adhesive Ag/AgCl electrodes during all conditions. Statistical reduction in ECG amplitude (pelectrodes when compared to Ag/AgCl electrodes sealed with their waterproof adhesive tape. Besides this reduction readability of the recordings was not obscured and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible. The advantages of our CB/PDMS electrodes are that they are reusable, can be fabricated economically, and most importantly, high-fidelity underwater ECG signals can be acquired without relying on the heavy use of waterproof sealing.

  3. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2015-01-01

    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (-1TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb...

  4. Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition, and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the US, was developed to expand access to data on CDD in the US and to support research on CDD and sustainable materials management. Since past US EPA CDD estima...

  5. Demolition Range Noise Abatement Technique Demonstration and Evaluation for the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALDERONE, JAMES J.; GARBIN H, DOUGLAS

    2001-01-01

    Public concern regarding the effects of noise generated by the detonation of excess and obsolete explosive munitions at U.S. Army demolition ranges is a continuing issue for the Army's demilitarization and disposal groups. Recent concerns of citizens living near the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) in Oklahoma have lead the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) to conduct a demonstration and evaluation of noise abatement techniques that could be applied to the MCAAP demolition range. With the support of the DAC, MCAAP, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), three types of noise abatement techniques were applied: aqueous foams, overburden (using combinations of sand beds and dirt coverings), and rubber or steel blast mats. Eight test configurations were studied and twenty-four experiments were conducted on the MCAAP demolition range in July of 2000. Instrumentation and data acquisition systems were fielded for the collection of near-field blast pressures, far-field acoustic pressures, plant boundary seismic signals, and demolition range meteorological conditions. The resulting data has been analyzed and reported, and a ranking of each technique's effects has been provided to the DAC

  6. Data Gap Analysis and Damage Case Studies: Risk Analyses from Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills and Recycling Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents an evaluation of construction and demolition (C&D) debris management in the US to update and expand upon the previous set of data to include information on more recent cases of damage and potential impacts and expand the breadth of damages beyond groundwater a...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.170 - What happens to the related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration should be given to designating items having possible historical or artistic value as personal... related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition? 102-75.170 Section 102-75.170 Public... As Personal Property § 102-75.170 What happens to the related personal property in a structure...

  8. Trends in demolition planning and in the cutting techniques employed; Trends bei der Rueckbauplanung und den verwendeten Schneidverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, Pascal [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The past couple of years have seen the continuous further development of cutting techniques employed in demolishing nuclear facilities. This trend is continuing. After mostly mechanical cutting techniques had been used initially, there has been a tendency in the past few years to make increasing use of thermal cutting. Reasons for this preference are the reduced space requirement and the advantages this technique offers in remote handling because of the low weight and the small dimensions of the cutting heads, and the high flexibility in materials to be cut. This results in greater planning reliability in calculating quotations and performing the demolition work. The emissions generated by these techniques are manageable reliably at low additional expense for the required extraction and filter systems. Thermal cutting is likely to achieve wide use in dismantling and demolition of nuclear plant components also in the future. Advanced developments in computer hardware and software allow more and more detailed planning of demolition work. While, in the past, CAD had been applied only to generate two-dimensional drawings, current 3D applications allow animated representations of entire demolition scenes with high accuracy in detail. In this way, potential problems associated with handling large components or using manipulators for cutting can be detected and solved much more easily in the preparatory phase. Although current CAD use can be no substitute for mockup tests, it does help to enhance clearly reliability in planning prior to running mockup tests. (orig.)

  9. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Hawass; Hosam Mostafa; Ahmed Elbeih

    2015-01-01

    The effect of underwater shock wave on different target plates has been studied. An underwater shock wave generator (shock tube) was used to study the interactions between water and different constructed targets which act as shock wave mitigation. Target plates, composed of sandwich of two aluminum sheets with rubber and foam in between, were prepared and studied. For comparison, the target plates composed of triple aluminum sheets were tested. The study includes the testing of the selected p...

  10. FILMING UNDERWATER IN 3D RESPECTING STEREOGRAPHIC RULES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rinaldi; H. Hordosch

    2015-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Under...

  11. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Walter David

    1999-01-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The underwater characterization equipment is often required to operate at depths exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m) and in relatively confined or congested spaces. The typical baseline approach has been the use of radiation detectors and underwater cameras mounted on long poles, or stationary cameras with pan and tilt features mounted on the sides of the underwater facility. There is a perceived need for an inexpensive, more mobile method of performing close-up inspection and radiation measurements in confined spaces underwater. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available ''Scallop'' vehicle, but has been modified by Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at Idaho National Engineering and environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a ''head-to-head'' fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations

  12. Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie

    2007-01-01

    To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.

  13. On the Performance of the Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    performance of UWSN. 5.1 Hardware and Software Details 5.1.1 Equipment Our experimental model consisted of an indoor swimming pool , two pairs...UWSN has many constraints mainly due to limited capacity, propagation loss, as well as power limitation since in underwater environment solar energy ...since in underwater environment solar energy cannot be used to recharge batteries. In our approach, we estimate the number of operating receivers

  14. The Theseus Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: A Canadian Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    P502414.PDF [Page: 1 of 9] P502414.PDF [Page: 2 of 9] P502414.PDF [Page: 3 of 9] The Theseus Autonomous Underwater Vehicle A Canadian Success Story...autonomous underwater vehicle, named Theseus , for laying optical fiber cables in ice- covered waters. In trials and missions conducted in 1996, this...stations. An acoustic telemetry system enables communication with Theseus from surface stations, and an optical telemetry system is used for system

  15. Monterey Bay ambient noise profiles using underwater gliders

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K.; Miller, Chris W.; Joseph, John

    2013-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4799131 In 2012, during two separate week-long deployments, underwater gliders outfitted with external hydrophones profiled the upper 100-200 m of the Monterey Bay. The environment contained various noises made by marine mammals, ships, winds, and earthquakes. Unlike hydrophone receivers moored to a fixed location, moving gliders measure noise variability across a wide terrain. However, underwater mobile s...

  16. Tiger Team audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will address the purpose, scope, and approach of the Department of Energy Tiger Team Assessments. It will use the Tiger Team Assessment experience of Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico, as illustration

  17. Transforming Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...

  18. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  19. Teaming up for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Fransen, J. (2012). Teaming up for learning: Team effectiveness in collaborative learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). November, 16, 2012, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  20. Culture and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Shapiro, Debra L; Lu, Shuye; McGurrin, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    We first review research on culture effects in teams, illustrating that mean levels of team cultural values have main (i.e. direct) effects, indirect effects (i.e. mediated by intervening variables), and moderating influences on team processes and outcomes. Variance in team cultural values or on country of origin (i.e. nationality diversity) also has main effects on team functioning, and we highlight contextual variables that strengthen or weaken these main effects. We next review research examining the effect of variance in team cultural values on global virtual teams, specifically. Finally, we review research on how cultural values shape employees' receptivity to empowering leadership behavior in teams. We conclude by discussing critical areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Your Dialysis Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z Health Guide Your Dialysis Care Team Tweet Share Print Email Good health care is ... dialyzers (artificial kidneys) for reuse. Vascular Access Care Team If you are a hemodialysis patient, another group ...

  2. Deep Learning Methods for Underwater Target Feature Extraction and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification and recognition technology of underwater acoustic signal were always an important research content in the field of underwater acoustic signal processing. Currently, wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients are used as a method of underwater acoustic signal feature extraction. In this paper, a method for feature extraction and identification of underwater noise data based on CNN and ELM is proposed. An automatic feature extraction method of underwater acoustic signals is proposed using depth convolution network. An underwater target recognition classifier is based on extreme learning machine. Although convolution neural networks can execute both feature extraction and classification, their function mainly relies on a full connection layer, which is trained by gradient descent-based; the generalization ability is limited and suboptimal, so an extreme learning machine (ELM was used in classification stage. Firstly, CNN learns deep and robust features, followed by the removing of the fully connected layers. Then ELM fed with the CNN features is used as the classifier to conduct an excellent classification. Experiments on the actual data set of civil ships obtained 93.04% recognition rate; compared to the traditional Mel frequency cepstral coefficients and Hilbert-Huang feature, recognition rate greatly improved.

  3. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Muhamad

    2011-10-01

    Almost 70% of planet Earth is covered by water. A large percentage of underwater environment is unexplored. In the past two decades, there has been an increase in the interest of exploring and monitoring underwater life among scientists and in industry. Underwater operations are extremely difficult due to the lack of cheap and efficient means. Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks have been introduced in underwater environment applications. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations, which makes the relevant research issues very different from those on land. In this thesis, we investigate node placement for building an initial Underwater Wireless Sensor Network infrastructure. Firstly, we formulated the problem into a nonlinear mathematic program with objectives of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted volume. We conducted experiments to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. We represented each node with a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. The truncated octahedrons are tiled in the 3D space with each node in the center where locations of the nodes are given using 3D coordinates. Results are supported using ns-3 simulator. Results from simulation are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  4. Cardiovascular response during submaximal underwater treadmill exercise in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Kwon, Yong-Geol

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation.

  5. Building multidisciplinary business teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, C.J.; Winte, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a description of an approach to managing Exploration and Production assets through the operation of multidisciplinary business teams. The business team approach can assist in improved asset performance in terms of efficiency, motivation and business results, compared with more traditional matrix style hierarchies. Within this paper certain critical success factors for the long term success of multidiscipline teams are outlined, together with some of the risk of business team operation

  6. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams......Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...

  7. Formalization of Team Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerman, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    This paper is divided to practical and theoretical part. Theoretical part defines essential background of personality and work psychology which are pillars for using the personality and roles typology in practical part. I also define conceptions such as group, team, procedures of making the team. Practical part is focused at making the repertoary grid which outlines proximity of team roles, anchored in the repertoary grids upon personal atributes basis and picked team positions.

  8. Downcycling versus recycling of construction and demolition waste: Combining LCA and LCC to support sustainable policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Andrea; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Acker, Karel

    2018-05-01

    Urgent solutions are needed in Europe to deal with construction and demolition waste (CDW). EU policy has contributed to significantly reducing the amount of CDW going to landfill, but most of the effort has been put in downcycling practices. Therefore, further policies are needed to stimulate high-quality recycling of CDW. The present paper presents a combined life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methodologies to analyse the environmental and the economic drivers in four alternative CDW end-of-life scenarios in the region of Flanders, in Belgium. The four analysed alternatives are (i) landfilling, (ii) downcycling, (iii) advanced recycling and (iv) recycling after selective demolition. LCA results show that landiflling is the scenario having the highest environmental impacts in terms of person equivalent (PE), followed by downcycling and recycling (-36%) and recycling after selective demolition (-59%). The decrease in environmental impacts is mostly due to the avoided landfilling of CDW and the recovery of materials from selective demolition. LCC results indicate that landfilling is the scenario bearing the highest total economic costs. This is due to the high landfill tax in Flanders. The recycling after selective demolition bears the second highest cost. The increase of high-quality CDW recycling can significantly reduce the overall environmental impact of the system. Implementing a high landfill tax, increasing the gate fee to the recycling plant, and boosting the sales price of recycled aggregates are the most effective drivers to facilitate a transition towards a more sustainable CDW management system. The paper demonstrates that the combined LCA and LCC results can highlight the environmental and economic drivers in CDW management. The results of the combined analysis can help policymakers to promote the aspects contributing to sustainability and to limit the ones creating a barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structuring Effective Student Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Ellen L.

    1997-01-01

    Experience with student teams working on policy analysis projects indicates the need for faculty supervision of teams in the process of addressing complex issues. The problem-solving approach adopted in one policy analysis course is described, including assignments and tasks, issues and sponsors, team dynamics, conflict management, and the…

  10. Fostering teachers' team learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Machiel; Runhaar, Piety; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of educational innovations by teachers seems to benefit from a team approach and team learning. The study's goal is to examine to what extent transformational leadership is associated with team learning, and to investigate the mediating roles of participative decision-making,

  11. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, J.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an

  12. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloupka, Allan B.; Finn, Kevin P.; Parsons, Duane A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    approximately 18,580 m{sup 2} (200,000 ft{sup 2}). The initially approved baseline for the ARRA D and D Project was to remove 22 buildings and structures that included approximately 14,680 m{sup 2} (158,000 ft{sup 2}) of footprint. By employing efficiencies during subcontracting, demolition, and waste segregation, the savings allowed an additional 1,580 m{sup 2} (17,000 ft{sup 2}) of footprint to be removed using ARRA funds. Additionally, the lessons learned from this experience were used to apply NNSA funding to the removal of six additional non-contaminated buildings and structures. In the end, 29 buildings and structures, including stacks, cooling towers and tanks, were removed from the mesa. The entire DP East area was cleared of buildings and sub-grade structures and the soils cleaned to residential standards. The total footprint reduction at TA-21 as a result of this effort was in excess of 17,650 m{sup 2} (190,000 ft{sup 2}). The use of a Laboratory self-performance team to start demolition of non-contaminated structures resulted in steady work performance early in the project while subcontracts were being put in place to perform more complicated abatement and contaminated demolition activities. Most importantly, there were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals or radioactive contamination were released and radiological dose to the public was negligible. The ARRA demolition activities were completed six months in advance of the deadline for employing ARRA funds. Additionally, over 17,585 m{sup 3} (23,000 yds{sup 3}) of building demolition debris was safely removed from DP Mesa. All of the major buildings have been removed, unencumbered access to the SWMUs that are required to be cleaned up by the Consent Order with the state of New Mexico, has been achieved, and a significant portion of the mesa has been prepared to

  13. The impact of team familiarity and team leader experience on team coordination errors: A panel analysis of professional basketball teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieweke, Jost; Zhao, B.

    2015-01-01

    To explore the dynamics involved in team coordination, we examine the impact of team familiarity and team leader experience on team coordination errors (TCEs). We argue that team familiarity has a U-shaped effect on TCEs. We study the moderating effects of team leader prior experience and team

  14. Hydrogen sulfide flux measurements from construction and demolition debris (C&D) landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Sangho; Reinhart, Debra R; Cooper, C David; Townsend, Timothy G; Faour, Ayman

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a principal odorous component of gaseous emissions from construction and demolition debris (C&D) landfills. Although several studies have reported the ambient concentrations of H2S near C&D landfills, few studies have quantified emission rates of H2S. One of the most widely used techniques for measuring surface gas emission rates from landfills is the flux chamber method. Flux measurements using the flux chamber were performed at five different C&D landfills from April to August, 2003. The flux rates of H2S measured in this research were between 0.192 and 1.76 mg/(m2-d).

  15. Detuned mechanical parametric amplification as a quantum non-demolition measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Clerk, A A; Doherty, A C

    2014-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the combination of continuous position detection with detuned parametric driving can lead to significant steady-state mechanical squeezing, far beyond the 3 dB limit normally associated with parametric driving. In this work, we show the close connection between this detuned scheme and quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement of a single mechanical quadrature. In particular, we show that applying an experimentally realistic detuned parametric drive to a cavity optomechanical system allows one to effectively realize a QND measurement despite being in the bad-cavity limit. In the limit of strong squeezing, we show that this scheme offers significant advantages over standard backaction evasion, not only by allowing operation in the weak measurement and low efficiency regimes, but also in terms of the purity of the mechanical state

  16. Management of construction and demolition waste; Gestion de residuos de construccion y demolicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgeno Munoz, A.

    2004-07-01

    The building sector is not considered a great pollutant although it does generate considerable amount of waste, traditionally called inert waste, as that is what it is composed of in the main, which requires specific management and for which specific rules and regulations are currently being drawn up (generally called Construction and Demolition Waste). So, far, for the mos part, they have ended up in the dump but a trend favouring recycling is the direct result of the regulations being drawn up and resultant financial criteria. The building industry will have to change its norms of conduct, it will have to start assessing waste, reduce the volume of the same and segregate properly what it generates. The former, necessarily linked with economic factors, factors relating to delivery dates and available space, will inevitably imply a change in the building sector in Spain in the medium term. (Author)

  17. Demolition, construction and excavation wastes in Copenhagen. Los residuos de demolicion, construccion y excavacion en Copenhague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, N.J.; Lauridsen, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Demolition Waste, Construction Waste and Excavation Waste will in a modern society represent a major part of the total amount of the industrial wastes. Implementation of the Regulation for Industrial Waste in Copenhagen has resulted insignificant changes in the transportation and processing of this type of waste was typically disposed of as mixed waste on landfill sites and open dumps. Today most of this waste is sorted at the source (see figure 1) and recycled namely as secondary raw materials. This change in the disposal of construction waste etc, is due to two main factors: implementation of the regulation of commercial wastes and a significant raise in the (governmental) waste tax on specially landfilling activities. (Author)

  18. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project approach to building dismantlement and demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spittler, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    When remediation began at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), there were 41 buildings on site. Twenty-nine of these buildings were ancillary structures and were not used for processing radioactive material. Most of these have been torn down. The remaining 12 buildings were used for uranium and thorium processing or were major support structures, such as the laboratory. Two of the buildings were major processing operations occurred were successfully demolished in February of this year. Demolition of all structures will be complete in September of this year. To give an understanding of the magnitude of the work, the following is a description of the physical characteristics of the green salt building. This building was used to convert brown oxide (UO3) to green salt (UF4), which is the last intermediate step in purifying the mostly yellow cake feed material into uranium metal.

  19. Microstructure of Concrete with Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Miguel; Santos Silva, António; de Brito, Jorge; Evangelista, Luís

    2016-02-01

    This paper intends to analyze the microstructure of concrete with recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste from various Portuguese recycling plants. To that effect, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were performed. Various concrete mixes were evaluated in order to analyze the influence of the RA's collection point and consequently of their composition on the mixes' characteristics. Afterward all the mixes were subjected to the capillary water absorption test in order to quantitatively evaluate their porosity. Results from the SEM/EDS analysis were compared with those from capillary water absorption test. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that the bond capacity of aggregates to the new cement paste is greatly influenced by the RA's nature. On the other hand, there was an increase in porosity with the incorporation of RA.

  20. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  1. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the Demolition of the 116-D and 116-DR Stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report has been developed to support demolition and disposal of the 116-D and 116-DR stacks in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. This project-specific summary was developed to meet the requirements in BHI-EE-01, Environmental Investigations Procedures, Procedure 1.2, ''Data Quality Objectives,'' using a simplified DQO process. The pathway for disposal of the 116-D and 116-DR stacks is the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), which requires the development of a waste profile. A combination of process knowledge, history, and existing analogous data will be used to build a waste profile to dispose of the stack and plenum debris in the ERDF. Additional sample data are not necessary for waste designation. This report also addresses the Resources, Conservation, and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal closure requirements associated with the 116-DR stack

  2. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release

  3. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: Inorganic elements and organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed...... for leaching, was observed indicating that the number of analysed samples may be critical in relation to decisions regarding management and utilisation of the materials. Higher leaching of chromium, sulphate and chloride were observed for masonry-containing and partly carbonated samples, indicating that source...... segregation and management practices may be important. Generally, leaching was in compliance with available leaching limits, except for selenium, and in some cases chromium, sulphate and antimony. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  4. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project approach to building dismantlement and demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spittler, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    When remediation began at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), there were 41 buildings on site. Twenty-nine of these buildings were ancillary structures and were not used for processing radioactive material. Most of these have been torn down. The remaining 12 buildings were used for uranium and thorium processing or were major support structures, such as the laboratory. Two of the buildings were major processing operations occurred were successfully demolished in February of this year. Demolition of all structures will be complete in September of this year. To give an understanding of the magnitude of the work, the following is a description of the physical characteristics of the green salt building. This building was used to convert brown oxide (UO3) to green salt (UF4), which is the last intermediate step in purifying the mostly yellow cake feed material into uranium metal

  5. Evaluating the performance and intellectual structure of construction and demolition waste research during 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Sun, Tiantian; Yang, Lie

    2017-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste diminishes scarce land resources and endangers human health and the surrounding environment. Quantitative and visualized analysis was conducted to evaluate worldwide scientific research output on C&D waste from 2000 to 2016. The related information of 857 publications was collected from SCI-Expanded database and statistically analyzed. The number of documents about C&D waste presented a general growth during the last 17 years. Construction and Building Materials publication ranked first in the most productive journals. China and Spain acted as dominated roles comparing to other countries, and Hong Kong Polytechnic University was the institution with the largest amount of C&D waste research. Recycled aggregates, sustainable C&D waste management, and the rewarding program and commerce system were the hottest topics during 2000-2016 and in the near future according to the intellectual structure analysis.

  6. Underwater Animal Monitoring Magnetic Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Kaidarova, Altynay

    2017-10-01

    Obtaining new insights into the behavior of free-living marine organisms is fundamental for conservation efforts and anticipating the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems. Despite the recent advances in biotelemetry, collecting physiological and behavioral parameters of underwater free-living animals remains technically challenging. In this thesis, we develop the first magnetic underwater animal monitoring system that utilizes Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors, the most sensitive solid-state sensors today, coupled with flexible magnetic composites. The TMR sensors are composed of CoFeB free layers and MgO tunnel barriers, patterned using standard optical lithography and ion milling procedures. The short and long-term stability of the TMR sensors has been studied using statistical and Allan deviation analysis. Instrumentation noise has been reduced using optimized electrical interconnection schemes. We also develop flexible NdFeB-PDMS composite magnets optimized for applications in corrosive marine environments, and which can be attached to marine animals. The magnetic and mechanical properties are studied for different NdFeB powder concentrations and the performance of the magnetic composites for different exposure times to sea water is systematically investigated. Without protective layer, the composite magnets loose more than 50% of their magnetization after 51 days in seawater. The durability of the composite magnets can be considerably improved by using polymer coatings which are protecting the composite magnet, whereby Parylene C is found to be the most effective solution, providing simultaneously corrosion resistance, flexibility, and enhanced biocompatibility. A Parylene C film of 2μm thickness provides the sufficient protection of the magnetic composite in corrosive aqueous environments for more than 70 days. For the high level performance of the system, the theoretically optimal position of the composite magnets with respect to the sensing

  7. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  8. Underwater hydraulic shock shovel control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Ping; Luo, A.-Ni; Xiao, Hai-Yan

    2008-06-01

    The control system determines the effectiveness of an underwater hydraulic shock shovel. This paper begins by analyzing the working principles of these shovels and explains the importance of their control systems. A new type of control system’s mathematical model was built and analyzed according to those principles. Since the initial control system’s response time could not fulfill the design requirements, a PID controller was added to the control system. System response time was still slower than required, so a neural network was added to nonlinearly regulate the proportional element, integral element and derivative element coefficients of the PID controller. After these improvements to the control system, system parameters fulfilled the design requirements. The working performance of electrically-controlled parts such as the rapidly moving high speed switch valve is largely determined by the control system. Normal control methods generally can’t satisfy a shovel’s requirements, so advanced and normal control methods were combined to improve the control system, bringing good results.

  9. Data extraction system for underwater particle holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebrensky, J. J.; Craig, Gary; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Nareid, Helge; Pescetto, A.; Trucco, Andrea; Watson, John

    2000-08-01

    Pulsed laser holography in an extremely powerful technique for the study of particle fields as it allows instantaneous, non-invasive high- resolution recording of substantial volumes. By relaying the real image one can obtain the size, shape, position and - if multiple exposures are made - velocity of every object in the recorded field. Manual analysis of large volumes containing thousands of particles is, however, an enormous and time-consuming task, with operator fatigue an unpredictable source of errors. Clearly the value of holographic measurements also depends crucially on the quality of the reconstructed image: not only will poor resolution degrade the size and shape measurements, but aberrations such as coma and astigmatism can change the perceived centroid of a particle, affecting position and velocity measurements. For large-scale applications of particle field holography, specifically the in situ recording of marine plankton with Holocam, we have developed an automated data extraction system that can be readily switched between the in-line and off-axis geometries and provides optimised reconstruction from holograms recorded underwater. As a videocamera is automatically stepped through the 200 by 200 by 1000mm sample volume, image processing and object tracking routines locate and extract particle images for further classification by a separate software module.

  10. Predictive Model for the Analysis of the Effects of Underwater Impulsive Sources on Marine Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazauski, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    A method is provided to predict the biological consequences to marine animals from exposure to multiple underwater impulsive sources by simulating underwater explosions over a defined period of time...

  11. A Framework for Evaluating Advanced Search Concepts for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Mine Countermeasures (MCM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gooding, Trent

    2001-01-01

    .... In recent years, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have emerged as a viable technology for conducting underwater search, survey, and clearance operations in support of the mine countermeasures (MCM) mission...

  12. A Game-theoretical Approach for Distributed Cooperative Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yimeng

    2018-01-01

    design and learning process of the algorithm are modified to fit specific constraints of underwater exploration/monitoring tasks. The revised approach can take the real scenario of underwater monitoring applications such as the effect of sea current

  13. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A J; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team's life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams' composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams' motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members' stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams' collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  14. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  15. Feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Park, Ki Hyun; Kang, Sung Won; Joo, Koan Sik

    2017-09-01

    We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2.273 MeV end-point energy spectrum of 90 Sr/ 90 Y when using the system underwater. The results demonstrate the feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment and can be applied for designing an in situ detector for radioactivity measurement in underwater environment. The in situ detector can also have other applications such as installation on the marine monitoring platform and quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1997-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  17. A Review of the Emerging Field of Underwater Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Chua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometers are versatile sensor systems, owing to their high sensitivity and ability to simultaneously measure multiple chemical species. Over the last two decades, traditional laboratory-based membrane inlet mass spectrometers have been adapted for underwater use. Underwater mass spectrometry has drastically improved our capability to monitor a broad suite of gaseous compounds (e.g., dissolved atmospheric gases, light hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds in the aquatic environment. Here we provide an overview of the progress made in the field of underwater mass spectrometry since its inception in the 1990s to the present. In particular, we discuss the approaches undertaken by various research groups in developing in situ mass spectrometers. We also provide examples to illustrate how underwater mass spectrometers have been used in the field. Finally, we present future trends in the field of in situ mass spectrometry. Most of these efforts are aimed at improving the quality and spatial and temporal scales of chemical measurements in the ocean. By providing up-to-date information on underwater mass spectrometry, this review offers guidance for researchers interested in adapting this technology as well as goals for future progress in the field.

  18. A bio-inspired electrocommunication system for small underwater robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Jindong; Xie, Guangming; Wen, Li; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-03-29

    Weakly electric fishes (Gymnotid and Mormyrid) use an electric field to communicate efficiently (termed electrocommunication) in the turbid waters of confined spaces where other communication modalities fail. Inspired by this biological phenomenon, we design an artificial electrocommunication system for small underwater robots and explore the capabilities of such an underwater robotic communication system. An analytical model for electrocommunication is derived to predict the effect of the key parameters such as electrode distance and emitter current of the system on the communication performance. According to this model, a low-dissipation, and small-sized electrocommunication system is proposed and integrated into a small robotic fish. We characterize the communication performance of the robot in still water, flowing water, water with obstacles and natural water conditions. The results show that underwater robots are able to communicate electrically at a speed of around 1 k baud within about 3 m with a low power consumption (less than 1 W). In addition, we demonstrate that two leader-follower robots successfully achieve motion synchronization through electrocommunication in the three-dimensional underwater space, indicating that this bio-inspired electrocommunication system is a promising setup for the interaction of small underwater robots.

  19. Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.

    2013-07-01

    The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.

  20. Interpersonal team leadership skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    1995-05-01

    To say that a team leader's job is a tough one is certainly not saying enough. It is up to the team leader to manage a group of people to be individuals but yet work as a team. The team leader must keep the peace and yet create a revolution with this group all at the same time. The good leader will require a lot of education, training, and tons of practical application to be a success. The good news, however, is that the team leader's job is a rewarding one, one that they'll always feel good about if they do it right. How many of us get the opportunity to take a group of wonderful, thinking individual minds and pull from them ideas that a whole team can take to success? Yes, the job is indeed tough, but the paybacks are many.

  1. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  2. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  3. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin, Gu; Jianghai, Chen; Zhenxiong, Wang; Zhihua, Wang; Jianqing, Liu; Ming, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater ...

  4. Managing multicultural teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne; Behfar, Kristin; Kern, Mary C

    2006-11-01

    Multicultural teams offer a number of advantages to international firms, including deep knowledge of different product markets, culturally sensitive customer service, and 24-hour work rotations. But those advantages may be outweighed by problems stemming from cultural differences, which can seriously impair the effectiveness of a team or even bring itto a stalemate. How can managers best cope with culture-based challenges? The authors conducted in-depth interviews with managers and members of multicultural teams from all over the world. Drawing on their extensive research on dispute resolution and teamwork and those interviews, they identify four problem categories that can create barriers to a team's success: direct versus indirect communication, trouble with accents and fluency, differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and conflicting norms for decision making. If a manager--or a team member--can pinpoint the root cause of the problem, he or she is likelier to select an appropriate strategy for solving it. The most successful teams and managers, the authors found, dealt with multicultural challenges in one of four ways: adaptation (acknowledging cultural gaps openly and working around them), structural intervention (changing the shape or makeup of the team), managerial intervention (setting norms early or bringing in a higher-level manager), and exit (removing a team member when other options have failed). Which strategy is best depends on the particular circumstances--and each has potential complications. In general, though, managers who intervene early and set norms; teams and managers who try to engage everyone on the team; and teams that can see challenges as stemming from culture, not personality, succeed in solving culture-based problems with good humor and creativity. They are the likeliest to harvest the benefits inherent in multicultural teams.

  5. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  6. Underwater wireless optical communications: From system-level demonstrations to channel modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we discuss about recent experimental advances in underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) over various underwater channel water types using different modulation schemes as well as modelling and describing the statistical properties of turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels using laser beam intensity fluctuations measurements.

  7. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2017-12-13

    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels. The model shows an excellent agreement with the measured data under all channel conditions.

  8. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-01-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse

  9. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition. Topical Report August1, 1995 - October 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition

  10. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  11. Experimental study on underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qing; Zhang Jun; Tan Xiangyu; Ren Baozhong; Zhang Qiaogen

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the physical process of underwater electrical wire explosion, electrical wire explosions with copper wires were investigated underwater using pulsed voltage in the time scale of a few microseconds. A self-integrating Rogowsky coil and a voltage divider were used for current and voltage at the wire load, respectively. The shock wave pressure is measured with a piezoelectric pressure probe at the same distance. The current rise rate was adjusted by changing the applied voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire. The change of the current rise rate had a great effect on the process of underwater electrical wire explosion with copper wires. At last, the effect of discharge voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire were obtained on the explosion voltage and current as well as shock wave pressure. (authors)

  12. The Research of Optical Turbulence Model in Underwater Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the effect of turbulence on underwater imaging system and image restoration, the underwater turbulence model is simulated by computer fluid dynamics. This model is obtained in different underwater turbulence intensity, which contains the pressure data that influences refractive index distribution. When the pressure value is conversed to refractive index, the refractive index distribution can be received with the refraction formula. In the condition of same turbulent intensity, the distribution of refractive index presents gradient in the whole region, with disorder and mutations in the local region. With the turbulence intensity increase, the holistic variation of the refractive index in the image is larger, and the refractive index change more tempestuously in the local region. All the above are illustrated by the simulation results with he ray tracing method and turbulent refractive index model. According to different turbulence intensity analysis, it is proved that turbulence causes image distortion and increases noise.

  13. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Felamban, M.

    2013-03-25

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are expected to play a vital role in the exploration and monitoring of underwater areas which are not easily reachable by humans. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations that are very different from those used for terresstrial networks. In this paper, we investigate node placement for building an initial underwater WSN infrastructure. We formulate this problem as a nonlinear mathematical program with the objective of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted coverage volume. The obtained solution is the location of each node represented via a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. Experiments are conducted to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. Simulation is also conducted using an ns-3 simulator, and the simulation results are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  14. Underwater video enhancement using multi-camera super-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, E.; Delory, E.; Callicó, G. M.; Tobajas, F.; Sarmiento, R.

    2017-12-01

    Image spatial resolution is critical in several fields such as medicine, communications or satellite, and underwater applications. While a large variety of techniques for image restoration and enhancement has been proposed in the literature, this paper focuses on a novel Super-Resolution fusion algorithm based on a Multi-Camera environment that permits to enhance the quality of underwater video sequences without significantly increasing computation. In order to compare the quality enhancement, two objective quality metrics have been used: PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and the SSIM (Structural SIMilarity) index. Results have shown that the proposed method enhances the objective quality of several underwater sequences, avoiding the appearance of undesirable artifacts, with respect to basic fusion Super-Resolution algorithms.

  15. Underwater electric field detection system based on weakly electric fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electric field detection system. However, due to the insufficient detection capacity of the electric field, the detection distance is not enough, and the detection accuracy is not high. In this paper, a method of underwater detection based on rotating current field theory is proposed to improve the performance of underwater electric field detection system. First of all, we built underwater detection system based on the theory of the spin current field mathematical model with the help of the results of previous researchers. Then we completed the principle prototype and finished the metal objects in the water environment detection experiments, laid the foundation for the further experiments.

  16. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  17. Automated gravity gradient tensor inversion for underwater object detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lin; Tian, Jinwen

    2010-01-01

    Underwater abnormal object detection is a current need for the navigation security of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In this paper, an automated gravity gradient tensor inversion algorithm is proposed for the purpose of passive underwater object detection. Full-tensor gravity gradient anomalies induced by an object in the partial area can be measured with the technique of gravity gradiometry on an AUV. Then the automated algorithm utilizes the anomalies, using the inverse method to estimate the mass and barycentre location of the arbitrary-shaped object. A few tests on simple synthetic models will be illustrated, in order to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the new algorithm. Moreover, the method is applied to a complicated model of an abnormal object with gradiometer and AUV noise, and interference from a neighbouring illusive smaller object. In all cases tested, the estimated mass and barycentre location parameters are found to be in good agreement with the actual values

  18. Cluster protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks: a Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ovaliadis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN have different characteristics in relation to terrestrial wireless sensor networks; such as limited bandwidth capacity, high propagation delays and limited battery power. Although there has been much work completed in developing protocols and models for terrestrial networks, these are rarely applicable for underwater sensor networks. Up to today major efforts have been made for designing efficient protocols while considering the underwater communication characteristics. An important issue on this research area is the construction of an efficient clustering algorithm. Clustering in the context of UWSN is important as it contributes a great deal towards the efficient use of energy resources. This paper reviews the most significant cluster based protocols proposed for UWSN. Major performance issues of these protocols with respect to the network conditions such as packet delivery ratio, average packet delay, node mobility effect and energy consumption are examined. The advantages and disadvantages of each protocol are also pointed out.

  19. Underwater Time Service and Synchronization Based on Time Reversal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Wang, Hai-bin; Aissa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Pyndiah, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    Real time service and synchronization are very important to many underwater systems. But the time service and synchronization in existence cannot work well due to the multi-path propagation and random phase fluctuation of signals in the ocean channel. The time reversal mirror technique can realize energy concentration through self-matching of the ocean channel and has very good spatial and temporal focusing properties. Based on the TRM technique, we present the Time Reversal Mirror Real Time service and synchronization (TRMRT) method which can bypass the processing of multi-path on the server side and reduce multi-path contamination on the client side. So TRMRT can improve the accuracy of time service. Furthermore, as an efficient and precise method of time service, TRMRT could be widely used in underwater exploration activities and underwater navigation and positioning systems.

  20. Silica dust control in small-scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muianga, C V; Rice, C H; Succop, P

    2009-01-01

    Work practices can influence exposure, especially in small-scale operations conducted by mobile work crews. This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations. A one-page employee silica task-based control guidance sheet for each of four demolition tasks and multiple-page silica control guidance for supervisors were developed. Interactive, hands-on worker training on these task-based good work practice controls was developed. Training was presented to 26 participants from two demolition crews. Feedback on the training and task-based good work practice control guidance sheets was elicited. Observations of work practices were made before and after training. Participants indicated gains in knowledge and checklists were used to document skill attainment. The quality of the training and usefulness of the material/skills was rated high by trainees. Increased use of water to suppress dust and wet cleaning methods on the job were documented following the training. Additional follow-up after training is required to determine long-term impact on sustained changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  1. Silica dust control in small-scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muianga, C. V.; Rice, C. H.; Succop, P.

    2009-02-01

    Work practices can influence exposure, especially in small-scale operations conducted by mobile work crews. This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations. A one-page employee silica task-based control guidance sheet for each of four demolition tasks and multiple-page silica control guidance for supervisors were developed. Interactive, hands-on worker training on these task-based good work practice controls was developed. Training was presented to 26 participants from two demolition crews. Feedback on the training and task-based good work practice control guidance sheets was elicited. Observations of work practices were made before and after training. Participants indicated gains in knowledge and checklists were used to document skill attainment. The quality of the training and usefulness of the material/skills was rated high by trainees. Increased use of water to suppress dust and wet cleaning methods on the job were documented following the training. Additional follow-up after training is required to determine long-term impact on sustained changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  2. Expanding the Advising Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Robert E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The process and results of team building by Emporia State University's centralized advising center are examined from the perspectives of president, enrollment management, centralized advising, and faculty. The effort demonstrates that administrative, state, and team commitment can produce positive results in freshman retention, higher graduation…

  3. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic and triadic configurations; as well...new metrics and ways to formulate team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic ...sensing, communication , information, and decision networks - Darryl Ahner (AFIT: Air Force Inst Tech) Panel Session: Mathematical Models of

  4. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  5. Climate Action Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Partnerships Contact Us Climate Action Team & Climate Action Initiative The Climate Action programs and the state's Climate Adaptation Strategy. The CAT members are state agency secretaries and the . See CAT reports Climate Action Team Pages CAT Home Members Working Groups Reports Back to Top

  6. Team Leadership in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neck, Christopher; Manz, Charles C.; Manz, Karen P.

    1998-01-01

    Although educational teams can help reduce teachers' feelings of isolation and enhance instruction, ineffective leadership often dooms their efforts. This article describes four team leadership approaches: "strong-man,""transactor,""visionary hero," and "SuperLeadership." The last is superior, since it…

  7. Gender diversity in teams

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazala Azmat

    2014-01-01

    Women’s representation on corporate boards, political committees, and other teams is increasing, in part because of legal mandates. Data on team dynamics and gender differences in preferences (risk-taking behavior, taste for competition, prosocial behavior) show how gender composition influences group decision-making and subsequent performance through channels such as investment decisions, internal management, corporate governance, and social responsibility.

  8. Trust in agile teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe

    2012-01-01

    actions influenced this. We see two important lessons from the analysis. First the agile practices of daily Scrum and self organizing team can empower DSD teams to manage their own development of trust and thereby alleviate the obstacles of DSD. Second if management fails to support the development...

  9. Time-of-flight range imaging for underwater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Hannes; Catregn, Gion-Pol; Leutenegger, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Precise and low-cost range imaging in underwater settings with object distances on the meter level is demonstrated. This is addressed through silicon-based time-of-flight (TOF) cameras operated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) at visible, rather than near-IR wavelengths. We find that the attainable performance depends on a variety of parameters, such as the wavelength dependent absorption of water, the emitted optical power and response times of the LEDs, or the spectral sensitivity of the TOF chip. An in-depth analysis of the interplay between the different parameters is given and the performance of underwater TOF imaging using different visible illumination wavelengths is analyzed.

  10. Airborne lidar detection of an underwater thermal vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddewig, Michael R.; Churnside, James H.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2017-07-01

    We report the lidar detection of an underwater feature that appears to be a thermal vent in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, USA, with the Montana State University Fish Lidar. The location of the detected vent was 30 m from the closest vent identified in a United States Geological Survey of Yellowstone Lake in 2008. A second possible vent is also presented, and the appearance of both vents in the lidar data is compared to descriptions of underwater thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake from the geological literature.

  11. Reduced Attitude Control of a Robotic Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bláha Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with stabilization and reduced attitude control of a robotic underwater vehicle. The vehicle is assumed to be able to perform a full stable rotations around all axes in underwater space, that is why the standard bottom-heavy structure is not used. The system preferably uses a vectored-thrust arrangement and is built as an overactuated system, which enables to gain a better robustness and guarantees a stable controlled motion even if some thruster suddenly stop working. Because the heading angle cannot be measured, the reduced attitude control strategy is designed and the stability of reduced state of the system is proved using perturbation method.

  12. 3D MODELING FOR UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION: METRIC VERIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D’Amelio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The survey in underwater environment has always presented considerable difficulties both operative and technical and this has sometimes made it difficult to use the techniques of survey commonly used for the documentation of Cultural Heritage in dry environment. The work of study concerns the evaluation in terms of capability and accuracy of the Autodesk123DCatch software for the reconstruction of a three-dimensional model of an object in underwater context. The subjects of the study are models generated from sets of photographs and sets of frames extracted from video sequence. The study is based on comparative method, using a reference model, obtained with laser scanner technique.

  13. Study of underwater laser propulsion using different target materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Han, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Hua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2014-07-14

    In order to investigate the influence of target materials, including aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), on underwater laser propulsion, the analytical formula of the target momentum IT is deduced from the enhanced coupling theory of laser propulsion in atmosphere with transparent overlay metal target. The high-speed photography method and numerical simulation are employed to verify the IT model. It is shown that the enhanced coupling theory, which was developed originally for laser propulsion in atmosphere, is also applicable to underwater laser propulsion with metal targets.

  14. Pressure vessel made by free forming using underwater explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Explosive forming is one particular forming technique, in which, mostcommonly, water is used as the pressure transmission medium. In recentyears, we have done the development of the method which obtains anecessary form of the metal by the control of underwater shock wave actson the metal plate, without a metal die. On the other hand, the pressurevessel is required in various fields, but we think that the free forming usingthe underwater shock wave is advantageous in the production of pressurevessel of a simple spherical, ellipse, parabola shape. In this paper, we willintroduce an experiment and several numerical simulations that we carriedout for this technical development.

  15. Underwater Shock Response Analysis of a Floating Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. van Aanhold

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a surface vessel to underwater shock has been calculated using an explicit finite element analysis. The analysis model is two-dimensional and contains the floating steel structure, a large surrounding water volume and the free surface. The underwater shock is applied in the form of a plane shock wave and cavitation is considered in the analysis. Advanced computer graphics, in particular video animations, provide a powerful and indispensable means for the presentation and evaluation of the analysis results.

  16. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination. PMID:29674991

  17. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. J. Van Hooft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  18. Leading Teams of Leaders: What Helps Team Member Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Monica; Young, Lissa; Weiner, Jennie; Wlodarczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    School districts are moving toward a new form of management in which superintendents need to form and nurture leadership teams. A study of 25 such teams in Connecticut suggests that a team's effectiveness is maximized when the team members are coached by other team members, not the superintendent, and when they are coached on task-related…

  19. Team Psychological Safety and Team Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauwelier, Peter; Ribière, Vincent M.; Bennet, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if the concept of team psychological safety, a key driver of team learning and originally studied in the West, can be applied in teams from different national cultures. The model originally validated for teams in the West is applied to teams in Thailand to evaluate its validity, and the views team…

  20. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  1. Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours in Response Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Anne; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Teams, teamwork and team learning have been the subject of many research studies over the last decades. This article aims at investigating and confirming the Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours (TLB&B) model within a very specific population, i.e. police and firemen teams. Within this context, the paper asks whether the team's…

  2. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  3. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the Demolition of the Masonry Block for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this data quality objectives (DQO) process is to support decision-making activities as they pertain to the demolition and disposition (or disposal) of the uncoated 108-F Biological Laboratory masonry block walls. The objective of DQO Step 1 is to use the information gathered from the DQO scoping process and other relevant information to clearly and concisely state the problem to be resolved. The free-form text sections included in this step are intended to define the project objectives and assumptions, present the project issues, summarize the facility background information, and provide a concise statement of the problem. The tables provided in this section are designed to document the personnel involved in the DQO process, identify the contaminants of concern, and summarize the key information needed to support the writing of the problem statement. The purpose of DQO Step 2 is to define the principal study question (PSQ) that needs to be resolved to address the problem identified in DQO Step 1 and to define the alternative actions that would result from the resolution of the PSQ. The PSQ and alternative actions are combined into a decision statement that expresses a choice among alternative actions. The purpose of DQO Step 3 is to identify the type of data needed to resolve the decision statement identified in DQO Step 2, as well as the analytical performance requirements (e.g., practical quantitation limit [PQL] requirement, precision, and accuracy) for the data. If it is determined that the required data do not already exist, the data may either be derived from computational or surveying/sampling and analysis methods. The primary objective of DQO Step 4 is for the DQO Team to identify the geographic (spatial) and temporal boundaries of the facility under investigation, as well as practical constraints (i.e., hindrances or obstacles) that must be taken into consideration in the surveying design. Implementing this step ensures that the surveying

  4. Building the team for team science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; O'Rourke, M.; Hong, G. S.; Hanson, P. C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Crowley, S.; Brewer, C. A.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to effectively exchange information and develop trusting, collaborative relationships across disciplinary boundaries is essential for 21st century scientists charged with solving complex and large-scale societal and environmental challenges, yet these communication skills are rarely taught. Here, we describe an adaptable training program designed to increase the capacity of scientists to engage in information exchange and relationship development in team science settings. A pilot of the program, developed by a leader in ecological network science, the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), indicates that the training program resulted in improvement in early career scientists’ confidence in team-based network science collaborations within and outside of the program. Fellows in the program navigated human-network challenges, expanded communication skills, and improved their ability to build professional relationships, all in the context of producing collaborative scientific outcomes. Here, we describe the rationale for key communication training elements and provide evidence that such training is effective in building essential team science skills.

  5. An Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithm for Environment Recognition and Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that require clear and easily recognizable images in the field of underwater robotics and marine science, such as underwater target detection and identification of robot navigation and obstacle avoidance. However, water turbidity makes the underwater image quality too low to recognize. This paper proposes the use of the dark channel prior model for underwater environment recognition, in which underwater reflection models are used to obtain enhanced images. The proposed approach achieves very good performance and multi-scene robustness by combining the dark channel prior model with the underwater diffuse model. The experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of the dark channel prior model in underwater scenarios.

  6. Single underwater image enhancement based on color cast removal and visibility restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongyi; Guo, Jichang; Wang, Bo; Cong, Runmin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Images taken under underwater condition usually have color cast and serious loss of contrast and visibility. Degraded underwater images are inconvenient for observation and analysis. In order to address these problems, an underwater image-enhancement method is proposed. A simple yet effective underwater image color cast removal algorithm is first presented based on the optimization theory. Then, based on the minimum information loss principle and inherent relationship of medium transmission maps of three color channels in an underwater image, an effective visibility restoration algorithm is proposed to recover visibility, contrast, and natural appearance of degraded underwater images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, qualitative comparison, quantitative comparison, and color accuracy test are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively remove color cast, improve contrast and visibility, and recover natural appearance of degraded underwater images. Additionally, the proposed method is comparable to and even better than several state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  8. Project team motyvation

    OpenAIRE

    Jasionis, Dominykas

    2016-01-01

    The term paper is to analyze the formation of the team and its - motyvation, and interviews from four different companies and find out the leaders in terms of your team, and what principle he tries to motivate her. The Tasks of this paper is to review the organization formed by a team; investigate the promotion of employees in enterprises; The four firms interviewed; Assess how you can work in different organizations. Methods used To analyze the topic, I decided to interview four different co...

  9. Learning Team Review 2016-0001: Installing Outlets for Programmatic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Kimberly Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bridgewater, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Frank X. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brenner, Andrew Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Ted T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henderson, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gordon, Lloyd Baumgardner [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blumberg, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilburn, Dianne Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of a Learning Team is to transfer and communicate the information into operational feedback and improvement. We want to pay attention to the small things that go wrong because they are often early warning signals and may provide insight into the health of the whole system. An ESR was placed in the October of 2015 to move/install a number of 120V and 208V outlets in 455-104B to support programmatic furnace needs. Electrical design review was completed for ESR 22217 on February 22, 2016 and a Design Change Form completed describing the modification needed as: demolish 1 existing receptacle and circuit leaving conduit and jbox for use to install new receptacle and 5 new receptacles/circuits are required and one existing receptacle is to be relocated, listed under FSR 149229. The FSR scope of work was written:: Please have the Electricians come out to perform demolition (1ea.), installation (6ea.)& relocation (1ea.) of receptacles / circuits. ESR 22217 & DCF-16-35-0455-1281 is in place for this work. Coordinate final receptacle locations with Laboratory Resident. Contact John Dunwoody or O-MC for this information. WO# 545580-01 was signed on April 20, 2016.: Electricians to perform demolition, installation, & relocation of receptacles / circuits PER attached DCF-16-0455-1281-SK-1.

  10. Investigating the determinants of contractor's construction and demolition waste management behavior in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zezhou; Yu, Ann T W; Shen, Liyin

    2017-02-01

    The abundant generation of construction and demolition (C&D) waste presents a significant challenge to the sustainable development of the construction industry in Mainland China. As the implementer of construction activities, the contractor's C&D waste management performance plays an important role in C&D waste minimization. This paper aims to investigate the determinants of the contractor's C&D waste management behavior in Mainland China. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was selected as the basis of the theoretical model. In addition, three contextual constructs (i.e., economic viability, governmental supervision, and project constraints) were introduced, formulating the initial model. Based on the initial model, eight constructs were identified and seven hypotheses were proposed. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data and a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Results showed that the C&D waste management intention is not a significant determinant of contractor's C&D waste management behavior. The most important determinant is economic viability, followed by governmental supervision as the second most important determinant. Nevertheless, the construct of project constraints is an insignificant determinant for contractor's adoption of C&D waste management behavior. The research findings imply that, in Mainland China, the government, at this stage, plays an important role in guiding and promoting the contractor to exhibit better C&D waste management behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A bi-level environmental impact assessment framework for comparing construction and demolition waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ardavan

    2018-04-27

    Several pioneering life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted in the past to assess the environmental impact of specific methods for managing mineral construction and demolition waste (MCDW), such as recycling the waste for use in concrete. Those studies focus on comparing the use of recycled MCDW and that of virgin components to produce materials or systems that serve specified functions. Often, the approaches adopted by the studies do not account for the potential environmental consequence of avoiding the existing or alternative waste management practices. The present work focuses on how product systems need to be defined in recycling LCA studies and what processes need to be within the system boundaries. A bi-level LCA framework is presented for modelling alternative waste management approaches in which the impacts are measured and compared at two scales of strategy and decision-making. Different functional units are defined for each level, all of which correspond to the same flow of MCDW in a cascade of product systems. For the sole purpose of demonstrating how the framework is implemented an illustrative example is presented, based on real data and a number of simplifying assumptions, which compares the impacts of a number of potential MCDW management strategies in New York City. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: effect of bioreactor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-03-30

    Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75-85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5h. A high calcium concentration up to 1,000 mg L(-1) did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mobilization of iron and arsenic from soil by construction and demolition debris landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sikora, Saraya; Kim, Hwidong; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2012-05-01

    Column experiments were performed to examine (a) the potential for leachate from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills to mobilize naturally-occurring iron and arsenic from soils underlying such facilities and (b) the ability of crushed limestone to remove these aqueous phase pollutants. In duplicate columns, water was added to a 30-cm layer of synthetic C&D debris, with the resulting leachate serially passed through a 30-cm soil layer containing iron and arsenic and a 30-cm crushed limestone layer. This experiment was conducted for two different soil types (one high in iron (10,400mg/kg) and the second high in iron (5400mg/kg) and arsenic (70mg/kg)); also monitored were control columns for both soil types with water infiltration alone. Despite low iron concentrations in the simulated C&D debris leachate, elevated iron concentrations were observed when leachate passed through the soils; reductive dissolution was concluded to be the cause of iron mobilization. In the soil containing elevated arsenic, increased iron mobilization from the soil was accompanied by a similar but delayed arsenic mobilization. Since arsenic sorbs to oxidized iron soil minerals, reductive dissolution of these minerals results in arsenic mobilization. Crushed limestone significantly reduced iron (to values below the detection limit of 0.01mg/L in most cases); however, arsenic was not removed to any significant extent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were debris landfills are suggested.

  15. Characterization of concrete made with recycled aggregate from concrete demolition waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terán Gilmore, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed: to characterize the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of recycled aggregate from construction and concrete structure demolition waste, processed before and after crushing; to characterize fresh and hardened concrete made with such recycled aggregate; and to design different doses varying the water/cement ratio, the amount of cement and the use of superplasticizing admixtures to offset the effects of absorption. The ultimate objective was to provide a broader perspective of the use of recycled aggregate in the manufacture of new concrete.El presente estudio nos permite caracterizar las propiedades físicas, químicas y mecánicas de los áridos reciclados, producto de residuos de la construcción y demolición de estructuras de hormigón, tratándolos antes y después de triturar; caracterizar el hormigón elaborado con áridos reciclados, en su estado fresco y endurecido, diseñando diferentes dosificaciones variando la relación agua/cemento, la cantidad de cemento y el uso de aditivos súper plastificantes para disminuir el efecto de la absorción; caracterización que nos permite tener una mayor perspectiva sobre el uso de áridos reciclados en la elaboración de nuevos hormigones.

  16. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weisheng; Yuan Hongping; Li Jingru; Hao, Jane J.L.; Mi Xuming; Ding Zhikun

    2011-01-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m 2 and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  17. Recycled blocks with improved sound and fire insulation containing construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Marrero, Madelyn; García Arenas, Celia

    2013-03-01

    The environmental problem posed by construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is derived not only from the high volume produced, but also from its treatment and disposal. Treatment plants receive C&D waste which is then transformed into a recycled mixed aggregate. The byproduct is mainly used for low-value-added applications such as land escape restoration, despite the high quality of the aggregate. In the present work, the chemical composition properties and grading curve properties of these aggregates are defined. Furthermore, the resulting recycled concrete with a high proportion of recycled composition, from 20% to 100% replacement of fine and coarse aggregate, is characterized physically and mechanically. An environmental study of the new construction material when all aggregates are substituted by C&D waste shows a low toxicity level, similar to that of other construction materials. The new material also has improved properties with respect to standard concrete such as high fire resistance, good heat insulation, and acoustic insulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A study of explosive demolition techniques for heavy reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, C.C.

    1984-10-01

    This report presents the results from a research programme aimed at advancing explosive demolition techniques from the present 'rule of thumb art' to a more scientifically based set of procedures to achieve the degree of control which will be essential in a nuclear power station decommissioning. The research is directed mainly at the biological shields of early Magnox reactors and the prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) of later Magnox and Advanced Gas-cooled reactors. Relevant structures of other commercial nuclear power plants in the European Community, in particular the PCPVs of French Gas Graphite reactors and the biological shields of Light Water reactors are also considered. The bulk of the programme has been based on experiments with an extensive usage of scaled models. The programme investigated the use of buried explosive charges in cratering concrete and the use of shaped charges in stripping surface cover and drilling holes. After an initial parametric study the programme considered concrete layer stripping using multiple charges and culminated in the stripping off of an equivalent thickness of concrete, for radiation protection, from the inside walls of a complete cylindrical model of a biological shield. (author)

  19. Investigation into the Application of Construction and Demolition Waste in Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling and reuse of waste materials is a topic of global concern and great international interest for those interested in sustainable development and protecting the environment. In recent decades, global production of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste has significantly increased and became a worldwide problem. This research proposes to evaluate the feasibility of using aggregate from recycled C&D waste for urban road embankment applications based on the Sanhuan road construction project in eastern Xi’an. An extensive suite of laboratory and field compaction tests were carried out to determine the physical properties and engineering characteristics of the C&D waste. The effect of curing on the strength of the C&D waste was investigated using unconfined compression strength (UCS, California bearing ratio (CBR, and deflection tests. The results show that the C&D waste has the characteristics of high strength and significant stability after simple treatment and further suggest that the use of these materials for paving urban road embankments is feasible. This study is of value for the reasonable and effective promotion of using C&D waste recycled materials in road subgrade applications.

  20. Identifying areas under potential risk of illegal construction and demolition waste dumping using GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Portnov, Boris A

    2018-05-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste, dumped illegally in ravines and open areas, contaminates soil and can cause underground water pollution and forests fires. Yet, effective monitoring of illegal C&D waste dumping and enforcing legislation against the offenders are often a difficult task due to the large size of geographic areas that need to be monitored, and limited human and financial resources available to environmental law enforcement agencies. In this study, we use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and geo-statistical modelling to identify the areas under potentially elevated risk of illegal C&D waste dumping in the Haifa district of Israel. As our analysis shows, locational factors, significantly associated with the accumulated amount of waste in the existing illegal C&D waste sites, include: distance to the nearest main road, depth of the ravine present at the site (pwaste dumping for future monitoring. As we suggest, the proposed approach may be useful for environmental law enforcement authorities, by helping them to focus on specific sites for inspection, save resources, and act against the offenders more efficiently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of brominated flame retardants in construction and demolition waste components: HBCD and PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Yu, Danfeng; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yukui; Niu, Yongning

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of construction material is inert and can be managed as nonhazardous. However, structures may have either been built with some environmentally unfriendly substances such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs), or have absorbed harmful elements such as heavy metals. This study focuses on end-of-life construction materials, i.e. construction and demolition (C&D) waste components. The aim was to characterize the concentration of extremely harmful substances, primarily BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and polybrominateddiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Results revealed extremely high contents of HBCD and PBDEs in typical C&D waste components, particularly polyurethane foam materials. Policies should therefore be developed for the proper management of C&D waste, with priority for POP-containing debris. The first priority is to develop a classification system and procedures to separate out the harmful materials for more extensive processing. Additionally, identification and quantification of the environmental implications associated with dumping-dominated disposal of these wastes are required. Finally, more sustainable materials should be selected for use in the construction industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergy analysis of the recycling options for construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Shen, Li-yin; Li, Qi-ming

    2011-12-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste is becoming a major contributor to environmental pollution. In Shanghai, China, the quantity of C&D waste is 2.11E+07 t/yr, which accounts for 45% of the total quantity of solid waste. There has been a growing promotion of recycling C&D waste as an effective way to solve this waste problem. However, the evaluation of the efficiency of recycling C&D waste as a potential source of resources is largely based on traditional economic analysis. The economic analysis emphasizes money instead of the harmony between economic benefit and environmental effects. There is a need for a new strategic approach to investigate the efficiency of recycling C&D waste to achieve the integration between economic, social and environmental effects. Emergy theory can be employed to analyze different recycling options for C&D waste. With reference to the Chinese construction industry, this paper demonstrates that the close-loop recycling option is better than the open-loop recycling option for C&D waste in terms of the integration of social, environmental and sustainable aspects. To evaluate different technology solutions for C&D waste recycling, the emergy theory and method is not limited to a cost-benefit balance but can include economic, social, environmental and sustainable effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A web-based Decision Support System for the optimal management of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banias, G; Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, N; Papaioannou, I

    2011-12-01

    Wastes from construction activities constitute nowadays the largest by quantity fraction of solid wastes in urban areas. In addition, it is widely accepted that the particular waste stream contains hazardous materials, such as insulating materials, plastic frames of doors, windows, etc. Their uncontrolled disposal result to long-term pollution costs, resource overuse and wasted energy. Within the framework of the DEWAM project, a web-based Decision Support System (DSS) application - namely DeconRCM - has been developed, aiming towards the identification of the optimal construction and demolition waste (CDW) management strategy that minimises end-of-life costs and maximises the recovery of salvaged building materials. This paper addresses both technical and functional structure of the developed web-based application. The web-based DSS provides an accurate estimation of the generated CDW quantities of twenty-one different waste streams (e.g. concrete, bricks, glass, etc.) for four different types of buildings (residential, office, commercial and industrial). With the use of mathematical programming, the DeconRCM provides also the user with the optimal end-of-life management alternative, taking into consideration both economic and environmental criteria. The DSS's capabilities are illustrated through a real world case study of a typical five floor apartment building in Thessaloniki, Greece. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of building-related construction and demolition waste in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Xiao, Jianzhuang

    2014-11-01

    One methodology is proposed to estimate the quantification and composition of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste in a fast developing region like Shanghai, PR China. The varieties of structure types and building waste intensities due to the requirement of progressive building design and structure codes in different decades are considered in this regional C&D waste estimation study. It is concluded that approximately 13.71 million tons of C&D waste was generated in 2012 in Shanghai, of which more than 80% of this C&D waste was concrete, bricks and blocks. Analysis from this study can be applied to facilitate C&D waste governors and researchers the duty of formulating precise policies and specifications. As a matter of fact, at least a half of the enormous amount of C&D waste could be recycled if implementing proper recycling technologies and measures. The appropriate managements would be economically and environmentally beneficial to Shanghai where the per capita per year output of C&D waste has been as high as 842 kg in 2010. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Usage of air jigging for multi-component separation of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrós, Weslei Monteiro; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Miltzarek, Gerson Luis; Miranda, Leonardo R

    2017-02-01

    The use of air jigging for performing multi-component separation in the treatment of mixed construction and demolition waste was studied. Sorting tests were carried out with mixtures of equal bulk volume of concrete and brick in which fixed quantities of unwanted materials - gypsum, wood and paper - were added. Experimental results have demonstrated the possibility to use air jigging to carry out both the removal of low-density contaminants and the concrete concentration in only one process step. In relation to the removal of contaminants only, the overall performance of jigging process can be comparable with that of commercial air classifiers and automatic sorting systems. Also, the initial content of contaminants seems does not have a significant effect on the separation extent. These results are of particular importance for recycling plants processing as they represent an alternative to optimize the use of air jigs. Further investigation is needed in order to evaluate the practical feasibility of such method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urban construction and demolition waste and landfill failure in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xia, Junqiang; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2017-05-01

    On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China's most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China's rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities. In total, China produces some 30% of the world's municipal solid waste and of this about 40% is CDW. To prevent landslides associated with CDW, the volume of waste dumped in landfills should be regulated. More specifically 4-Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) policies should be implemented more widely and efficiently. Although landfill will continue to be an important disposal option, proper management and careful monitoring of CDW are urgently needed to satisfy pressing safety issues. International collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and use of the latest technologies are needed so that the similar landslides can be prevented in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a hybrid model to predict construction and demolition waste: China as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yiliao; Wang, Yong; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Yixin

    2017-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is currently a worldwide issue, and the situation is the worst in China due to a rapid increase in the construction industry and the short life span of China's buildings. To create an opportunity out of this problem, comprehensive prevention measures and effective management strategies are urgently needed. One major gap in the literature of waste management is a lack of estimations on future C&DW generation. Therefore, this paper presents a forecasting procedure for C&DW in China that can forecast the quantity of each component in such waste. The proposed approach is based on a GM-SVR model that improves the forecasting effectiveness of the gray model (GM), which is achieved by adjusting the residual series by a support vector regression (SVR) method and a transition matrix that aims to estimate the discharge of each component in the C&DW. Through the proposed method, future C&DW volume are listed and analyzed containing their potential components and distribution in different provinces in China. Besides, model testing process provides mathematical evidence to validate the proposed model is an effective way to give future information of C&DW for policy makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decontamination and demolition of concrete and metal structures during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this report is to give a concise technical description of the techniques and equipment being used or developed for the decontamination and demolition of nuclear facilities in sufficient detail to assist Member States to plan decommissioning operations and make preliminary evaluations of techniques and equipment. This report also reviews new and/or different aspects which have not been well covered previously in readily available review documents or IAEA publications. This report is an up to date review of techniques and equipment being used or developed for decontamination or dismantling work during the decommissioning of all types of nuclear facility except mining and milling sites. Although the information presented is aimed at countries initiating decommissioning programmes, it should also be useful to others who are responsible for or interested in the planning and implementation of decommissioning tasks. This report describes the relevant techniques and equipment, their areas of application and degree of development and the conditions in which they are used, when these details are known. However, this publication should be used in conjunction with other published technical information on these topics, experience gained as a result of previous decommissioning operations and the assistance of experts in the appropriate areas are required. 64 refs, 33 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  12. A study of explosive demolition techniques for heavy reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results from a research programme aimed at advancing explosive demolition techniques from the present ''rule of thumb art'' to a more scientifically based set of procedures to achieve the degree of control which will be essential in a nuclear power station decommissioning. The research is directed mainly at the biological shields of early Magnox reactors and the prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) of later Magnox and advanced gas-cooled reactors. Relevant structures of other commercial nuclear power plants in the European Community, in particular the PCPVs of French gas graphite reactors and the biological shields of light water reactors are also considered. The bulk of the programme has been based on experiments with an extensive usage of scaled models. The programme investigated the use of buried explosive charges in cratering concrete and the use of shaped charges in stripping surface cover and drilling holes. After an initial parametric study the programme considered concrete layer stripping using multiple charges and culminated in the stripping off of an equivalent thickness of concrete, for radiation protection, from the inside walls of a complete cylindrical model of a biological shield

  13. Autonomous underwater vehicle for research and rescue operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous under water vehicles are ideal platforms for search and rescue operations. They can also be used for inspection of underwater terrains. These vehicles need to be autonomous and robust to cope with unpredictable current and high pressures...

  14. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    out in connection with the construction of a new quay at the existing harbour of Sisimiut, Greenland. Subsequent to the largest of a series of underwater blasts, the distribution of suspended sediment in the water column at and around the construction site was observed using a CTD (Conductivity...

  15. Submerged Pagodas of Mahabalipuram - Study based on underwater investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Rao, K.M.

    damaged and scattered due to underwater strong currents and swells. Though thick biological growth cover the details, if any, on the stone blocks, based on the structural alignment and form, they are considered to be man made structures. The available data...

  16. Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Crum, L. A.; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study of the underwater sound produced by water drop impacts on the surface is described. It is found that sound may be produced in two ways: first when the drop strikes the surface and, second, when a bubble is created in the water. The first process occurs for every drop...

  17. Sources of underwater sound and their characterisation (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2013-01-01

    After centuries of speculation, punctuated by occasional theoretical or experimental advances, the first intensive research into underwater sound took place 100 years ago, applied initially to provide advance warning of icebergs after the loss of RMS Titanic in 1912, and later to counter the U-boat

  18. ULTRA: Underwater Localization for Transit and Reconnaissance Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    This software addresses the issue of underwater localization of unmanned vehicles and the inherent drift in their onboard sensors. The software gives a 2 to 3 factor of improvement over the state-of-the-art underwater localization algorithms. The software determines the localization (position, heading) of an AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) in environments where there is no GPS signal. It accomplishes this using only the commanded position, onboard gyros/accelerometers, and the bathymetry of the bottom provided by an onboard sonar system. The software does not rely on an onboard bathymetry dataset, but instead incrementally determines the position of the AUV while mapping the bottom. In order to enable long-distance underwater navigation by AUVs, a localization method called ULTRA uses registration of the bathymetry data products produced by the onboard forward-looking sonar system for hazard avoidance during a transit to derive the motion and pose of the AUV in order to correct the DR (dead reckoning) estimates. The registration algorithm uses iterative point matching (IPM) combined with surface interpolation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. This method was used previously at JPL for onboard unmanned ground vehicle localization, and has been optimized for efficient computational and memory use.

  19. Underwater Munitions Expert System to Predict Mobility and Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    for predicting the location and possible burial of underwater munitions is required to advise site managers as they plan...that region above the given UXO relative density, which is defined as the UXO density divided by the sand grain density, ( nominally 2650 g...0.0 + 2.5*dsed ; % nominal bed roughness if no burial % (Potentially in future version, ripple height

  20. Underwater sound and vibrations due to oil & gas activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Binnerts, B.; Nennie, E.D.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von

    2014-01-01

    In the oil & gas industry there is a trend towards more subsea activities. To improve gas recovery from existing and new fields at greater depths, the produced gas will be compressed, processed and transported via subsea templates and underwater networks (pipelines, flexible risers, etc.). Besides