WorldWideScience

Sample records for underwater coating strategy

  1. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  2. Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.W. Kwon

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger deformation and higher internal energy in the metallic material. Rubber coatings appeared to inhibit energy dissipation from the metallic material to the surrounding water medium. A parametric study of various coatings was performed on both aluminum and steel cylinders. The adverse effect of the coating decreased when the stiffness of the rubber layer increased, indicating the existence of a threshold value. The results of this study indicate that the stiffness of the coating is a critical factor to the shock hardening of the coated cylinder.

  3. Routing strategies for underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Russ E.; Leonard, Naomi E.; Fratantoni, David M.

    2009-02-01

    Gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that achieve long operating range by moving at speeds comparable to those of, or slower than, typical ocean currents. This paper addresses routing gliders to rapidly reach a specified waypoint or to maximize the ability to map a measured field, both in the presence of significant currents. For rapid transit in a frozen velocity field, direct minimization of travel time provides a trajectory "ray" equation. A simpler routing algorithm that requires less information is also discussed. Two approaches are developed to maximize the mapping ability, as measured by objective mapping error, of arrays of vehicles. In order to produce data sets that are readily interpretable, both approaches focus sampling near predetermined "ideal tracks" by measuring mapping skill only on those tracks, which are laid out with overall mapping skill in mind. One approach directly selects each vehicle's headings to maximize instantaneous mapping skill integrated over the entire array. Because mapping skill decreases when measurements are clustered, this method automatically coordinates glider arrays to maintain spacing. A simpler method that relies on manual control for array coordination employs a first-order control loop to balance staying close to the ideal track and maintaining vehicle speed to maximize mapping skill. While the various techniques discussed help in dealing with the slow speed of gliders, nothing can keep performance from being degraded when current speeds are comparable to vehicle speed. This suggests that glider utility could be greatly enhanced by the ability to operate high speeds for short periods when currents are strong.

  4. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  5. Robust and underwater superoleophobic coating with excellent corrosion and biofouling resistance in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mingji; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Yulin; He, Peixin

    2018-04-01

    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces are based on the surface with micro-/nanoscale roughness and hydration layer. But the self-cleaning surfaces are usually mechanically weak and will lose their underwater superoleophobicity when the surfaces are corroded or damaged. In this paper, to overcome these problems, the robust underwater superoleophobic coating (HN/ER-coating) has been fabricated successfully through MPS (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane)-SiO2/PNIPAM (N-isopropylacryamide) hybrid nanoparticles and epoxy resin (ER) via a simple solution-casting method. The SiO2/PNIPAM hybrid nanoparticles can enhance multiscale roughness and excellent abrasion-resistant property, and the epoxy resin can be used as an interlayer between hybrid nanoparticles and substrates to promote the robustness and corrosion resistance of the coating. The obtained coatings have excellent underwater superoleophobicity, and exhibit highly stability in harsh environments (including acid-base, strong ionic strength, mechanical abrasion). Moreover, this coating can provide protective effect on the substrate in corrosive solution, and may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation because of the presence of high density PNIPAM polymers. Herein, the developed underwater superoleophobic coating can be applied as an effective platform for the applications in underwater instruments, underwater oil transport, marine oil platform and ships.

  6. Different survival strategies amongst plants to cope with underwater conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, Hans; Vashisht, Divya; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Many plants experience flooding at some point during their life cycle. The underwater environment creates a carbon and energy crisis for the plant, for which two successful strategies have been identified, quiescence and escape. During quiescence, growth is actively reduced until the water levels

  7. Underwater and surface strategies of 200 m world level swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Santiago; Roig, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Pacing strategies of elite swimmers have been consistently characterised from the average lap velocities. In the present study, we examined the racing strategies of 200 m world class-level swimmers with regard to their underwater and surface lap components. The finals and semi-finals of the 200 m races at the 2013 World Swimming Championships (Barcelona, Spain) were analysed by an innovative image-processing system (InThePool® 2.0). Free swimming velocities of elite swimmers typically decreased throughout the 200 m race laps (-0.12 m · s(-1), 95% CI -0.11 to -0.14 m · s(-1), P = 0.001, η(2) = 0.81), whereas underwater velocities, which were faster than free swimming, were not meaningfully affected by the race progress (0.02 m · s(-1), -0.01 to 0.04 m · s(-1), P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.04). When swimming underwater, elite swimmers typically travelled less distance (-0.66 m, -0.83 to -0.49 m, P = 0.001, η(2) = 0.34) from the first to the third turn of the race, although underwater distances were maintained on the backstroke and butterfly races. These strategies allowed swimmers to maintain their average velocity in the last lap despite a decrease in the free swimming velocity. Elite coaches and swimmers are advised to model their racing strategies by considering both underwater and surface race components.

  8. Underwater sound scattering and absorption by a coated infinite plate with a distributed inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanni; Pan, Jie

    2013-04-01

    This paper concerns itself with the scattering and absorption of underwater incident sound by a coated infinite plate with an attached distributed inhomogeneity. Its objective is to determine if the distributed inhomogeneity can provide additional local reflection, such that it only increases the signal-to-noise ratio for a hydrophone detector placed on the inhomogeneity without significantly decreasing the overall sound absorption of the coated plate.

  9. Nacre-inspired design of mechanical stable coating with underwater superoleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Peng, Jitao; Liu, Yibiao; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

    2013-06-25

    Because of the frequent oil spill accidents in marine environment, stable superoleophobic coatings under seawater are highly desired. Current underwater superoleophobic surfaces often suffer from mechanical damages and lose their superoleophobicity gradually. It remains a challenge to fabricate a stable and robust underwater superoleophobic film which can endure harsh conditions in practical application. Nacre is one of most extensively studied rigid biological materials. Inspired by the outstanding mechanical property of seashell nacre and those underwater superoleophobic surfaces from nature, we fabricated a polyelectrolyte/clay hybrid film via typical layer-by-layer (LBL) method based on building blocks with high surface energy. 'Bricks-and-mortar' structure of seashell nacre was conceptually replicated into the prepared film, which endows the obtained film with excellent mechanical property and great abrasion resistance. In addtion, the prepared film also exhibits stable underwater superoleophobicity, low oil adhesion, and outstanding environment durability in artificial seawater. We anticipate that this work will provide a new method to design underwater low-oil-adhesion film with excellent mechanical property and improved stability, which may advance the practical applications in marine antifouling and microfluidic devices.

  10. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  11. Tri-component phononic crystals for underwater anechoic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Honggang; Liu, Yaozong; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen

    2007-01-01

    Localized resonance in phononic crystal, composed of three-dimensional arrays of composite units, has been discovered recently. The composite unit is a high-density sphere coated by soft silicon rubber. In this Letter, the absorptive properties induced by the localized resonance are systemically investigated. The mode conversions during the Mie scattering of a single coated lead sphere in unbounded epoxy are analyzed by referring the elements of the scattering matrix. Then the anechoic properties of a slab containing a plane of such composite scatterers are investigated with the multiple-scattering method by accounting the effects of the multiple scattering and the viscous dissipation. The results show that the longitudinal to transverse mode conversion nearby the locally resonant region is an effective way to enhance the anechoic performance of the finite slab of phononic crystal. Then, the influences of the viscoelasticity of the silicon rubber and the coating thickness on the acoustic properties of the finite slab are investigated for anechoic optimization. Finally, we synthetically consider the destructive scattering in the finite slab of phononic crystal and the backing, and design an anechoic slab composed of bi-layer coated spheres. The results show that the most of the incident energy is absorbed at the desired frequency band

  12. Flow around an autonomous underwater vehicle with bio-inspired coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Scott; Montoya-Segnini, Jose; Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Curet, Oscar; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Kazemi, Amirkhosro; Chamorro, Leonardo; Castillo, Luciano

    2017-11-01

    Flow separation plays a major factor in the form drag of a moving object. In particular, suppressing or reducing flow separation is critical in the energy expenditure of autonomous underwater vehicles. Previous research suggests that bio-inspired micro-fibrillar structures are capable of reducing the boundary layer separation in a turbulent flow. Here, we present laboratory measurements using PIV near the wall and in the wake of two submersible vessel models; one had a coating composed of ordered fibers, and the other had smooth walls. Flow characterization with planar PIV included the presence or absence of a tail fin at multiple angles of attack of the vessels. Preliminary results reveal changes of the flow in the wake of the vessel with coating resulting in lower or similar velocity deficit in the wake compared to the smooth vessel.

  13. Underwater sound radiation from an elastically coated plate with an embedded and distributed inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanni; Pan, Jie

    2015-05-01

    This paper studies the effects of an embedded and distributed inhomogeneity on the underwater sound radiation from an elastically coated plate. Embedding a signal conditioning plate (SCP) in the coating material provides an extra parameter for controlling the sound radiation of the plate, as compared with the previous design with an SCP on the coating surface [Y. Zhang and J. Pan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(1), 173-185 (2013)]. For such a configuration, the vibration and sound responses of the coated plate to a point force excitation are described by three coupled Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. Its acoustical properties are examined by comparing the radiation powers from plates without an SCP, with a surface SCP, and with an embedded SCP. The differences in the sound powers are explained through resonance and scattering caused by the interaction of the embedded SCP with structural waves. The effects of the depth of the embedded SCP in the coating material on the sound radiation properties of the plate are discussed in detail.

  14. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  15. Underwater sound radiation from an elastically coated plate with a discontinuity introduced by a signal conditioning plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanni; Pan, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Underwater structural sound radiation and reflection can be reduced by adding an elastic coating to a structure. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio of a detecting hydrophone placed in front of the coating, a signal conditioning plate (SCP) of finite size placed between the coating and the hydrophone is proposed to increase the local reflection of incoming sound. This paper studies the effects of a SCP as a distributed discontinuity on the general properties of the sound radiation of a coated plate. The discontinuity introduced by the SCP changes the vibration and radiated sound power of the coated plate by scattering and reflecting structural waves in the coating. The trapped modal response of the structural waves is also observed and found to be responsible for the increase of sound and vibration of the plate at the corresponding resonance frequencies.

  16. Underwater robots

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    This book, now at the third edition, addresses the main control aspects in underwater manipulation tasks. The mathematical model with significant impact on the control strategy is discussed. The problem of controlling a 6-degrees-of-freedoms autonomous underwater vehicle is deeply investigated and a survey of fault detection/tolerant strategies for unmanned underwater vehicles is provided. Inverse kinematics, dynamic and interaction control for underwater vehicle-manipulator systems are then discussed. The code used to generate most of the numerical simulations is made available and briefly discussed.       

  17. Semi-active control of piezoelectric coating's underwater sound absorption by combining design of the shunt impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Huang, Aigen; Li, Qihu

    2015-10-01

    Piezoelectric shunt damping technology has been applied in the field of underwater sound absorption in recent years. In order to achieve broadband echo reduction, semi-active control of sound absorption of multi-layered piezoelectric coating by shunt damping is significant. In this paper, a practical method is proposed to control the underwater sound absorption coefficients of piezoelectric coating layers by combining design of the shunt impedance that allows certain sound absorption coefficients at setting frequencies. A one-dimensional electro-acoustic model of the piezoelectric coating and the backing is established based on the Mason equivalent circuit theory. First, the shunt impedance of the coating is derived under the constraint of sound absorption coefficient at one frequency. Then, taking the 1-3 piezoelectric composite coating as an example, the sound absorption properties of the coating shunted to the designed shunt impedance are investigated. Next, on the basis of that, an iterative method for two constrained frequencies and an optimizing algorithm for multiple constrained frequencies are provided for combining design of the shunt impedances. At last, an experimental sample with four piezoelectric material layers is manufactured, of which the sound absorption coefficients are measured in an impedance tube. The experimental results show good agreement with the finite element simulation results. It is proved that a serial R-L circuit can control the peak frequency, maximum and bandwidth of the sound absorption coefficient and the combining R-L circuits shunted to multiple layers can control the sound absorption coefficients at multiple frequencies.

  18. Preparation and characterization of underwater superoleophobic chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings for self-cleaning and oil/water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian; Fu, Youjia; Yan, Xiaoxia; Chang, Yanjiao; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Underwater superoleophobic CS/PVA coatings were prepared using a facile method. • Immersion in NaOH solution was crucial to enhance roughness of the coating surface. • Effects of coating composition on wettability of coating surface were investigated. • The CS/PVA coatings possess self-cleaning property. • The CS/PVA coatings can be used for oil/water separation with high efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, chitosan (CS)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coatings cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) were prepared. Effects of the coating composition and NaOH solution treatment on surface morphology and topography were investigated by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It was found that the process of immersing the CS/PVA coatings into NaOH solution was crucial to enhance rough structure on the coating surface. The rough surface structure and the hydrophilic groups of CS and PVA made the CS/PVA coatings possess underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oil. Oil contact angle of the prepared CS/PVA coatings was up to 161° and slide angle was only 3°. Moreover, the CS/PVA coatings showed stable superoleophobicity in high salt, strong acidic, and alkaline environments as well as underwater self-cleaning property and excellent transparency. The CS/PVA coatings could be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with high efficiency.

  19. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielli Barreto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic networks (UAN allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC codes and fountain codes (FC for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Underwater sound scattering and absorption by a coated infinite plate with attached periodically located inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanni; Huang, Hai; Zheng, Jing; Pan, Jie

    2015-11-01

    This paper extends previous work of Zhang and Pan [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(4), 2082-2096 (2013)] on sound scattering and absorption by an underwater coated plate with a single attached distributed-inhomogeneity to that with periodically located distributed-inhomogeneities. A comparison is made among cases of a plate without inhomogeneities, a plate with inhomogeneities, and one with inhomogeneities ignoring the mutual coupling. Results show that coupling of the structural waves scattered by the inhomogeneities plays an important role in modifying the sound absorption and scattering of surface sound pressure, especially at low frequencies and/or the resonance frequencies of the trapped modes of the plate. The sound absorption of the plate is dependent on the distance between the adjacent inhomogeneities, the length of the inhomogeneity, and the angle of the incident sound. On the surface of the inhomogeneities, the scattered/total sound pressure is generally enhanced. On the surface in between the inhomogeneities, the pressure is also enhanced at low frequencies but is nearly unchanged at higher frequencies. Results also show that the coupling-induced variation of scattered/total pressure is significant only at the resonance frequencies of the global modes and trapped modes. The surface normal velocity is presented to explain the coupling-induced variations in the vibration and pressure fields.

  1. Coordination of Multiple Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using Strategies Based on the Schooling Behaviour of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan McColgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (BAUVs are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs that employ similar propulsion and steering principles as real fish. While the real life applicability of these vehicles has yet to be fully investigated, laboratory investigations have demonstrated that at low speeds, the propulsive mechanism of these vehicles is more efficient when compared with propeller based AUVs. Furthermore, these vehicles have also demonstrated superior manoeuvrability characteristics when compared with conventional AUVs and Underwater Glider Systems (UGSs. Further performance benefits can be achieved through coordination of multiple BAUVs swimming in formation. In this study, the coordination strategy is based on the schooling behaviour of fish, which is a decentralized approach that allows multiple AUVs to be self-organizing. Such a strategy can be effectively utilized for large spatiotemporal data collection for oceanic monitoring and surveillance purposes. A validated mathematical model of the BAUV developed at the University of Glasgow, RoboSalmon, is used to represent the agents within a school formation. The performance of the coordination algorithm is assessed through simulation where system identification techniques are employed to improve simulation run time while ensuring accuracy is maintained. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of implementing coordination algorithms based on the behavioural mechanisms of fish to allow a group of BAUVs to be considered self-organizing.

  2. Design of underwater robot lines based on a hybrid automatic optimization strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wenjing; Luo, Weilin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid automatic optimization strategy is proposed for the design of underwater robot lines. Isight is introduced as an integration platform. The construction of this platform is based on the user programming and several commercial software including UG6.0, GAMBIT2.4.6 and FLUENT12.0. An intelligent parameter optimization method, the particle swarm optimization, is incorporated into the platform. To verify the strategy proposed, a simulation is conducted on the underwater robot model 5470, which originates from the DTRC SUBOFF project. With the automatic optimization platform, the minimal resistance is taken as the optimization goal; the wet surface area as the constraint condition; the length of the fore-body, maximum body radius and after-body's minimum radius as the design variables. With the CFD calculation, the RANS equations and the standard turbulence model are used for direct numerical simulation. By analyses of the simulation results, it is concluded that the platform is of high efficiency and feasibility. Through the platform, a variety of schemes for the design of the lines are generated and the optimal solution is achieved. The combination of the intelligent optimization algorithm and the numerical simulation ensures a global optimal solution and improves the efficiency of the searching solutions.

  3. Energy balanced strategies for maximizing the lifetime of sparsely deployed underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjiang; Guo, Zhongwen; Wu, Kaishun; Hong, Feng; Feng, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWA-SNs) are envisioned to perform monitoring tasks over the large portion of the world covered by oceans. Due to economics and the large area of the ocean, UWA-SNs are mainly sparsely deployed networks nowadays. The limited battery resources is a big challenge for the deployment of such long-term sensor networks. Unbalanced battery energy consumption will lead to early energy depletion of nodes, which partitions the whole networks and impairs the integrity of the monitoring datasets or even results in the collapse of the entire networks. On the contrary, balanced energy dissipation of nodes can prolong the lifetime of such networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy balance dissipation problem of two types of sparsely deployed UWA-SNs: underwater moored monitoring systems and sparsely deployed two-dimensional UWA-SNs. We first analyze the reasons of unbalanced energy consumption in such networks, then we propose two energy balanced strategies to maximize the lifetime of networks both in shallow and deep water. Finally, we evaluate our methods by simulations and the results show that the two strategies can achieve balanced energy consumption per node while at the same time prolong the networks lifetime.

  4. Performance and strategy comparisons of human listeners and logistic regression in discriminating underwater targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixue; Chen, Kean

    2015-11-01

    To improve the design of underwater target recognition systems based on auditory perception, this study compared human listeners with automatic classifiers. Performances measures and strategies in three discrimination experiments, including discriminations between man-made and natural targets, between ships and submarines, and among three types of ships, were used. In the experiments, the subjects were asked to assign a score to each sound based on how confident they were about the category to which it belonged, and logistic regression, which represents linear discriminative models, also completed three similar tasks by utilizing many auditory features. The results indicated that the performances of logistic regression improved as the ratio between inter- and intra-class differences became larger, whereas the performances of the human subjects were limited by their unfamiliarity with the targets. Logistic regression performed better than the human subjects in all tasks but the discrimination between man-made and natural targets, and the strategies employed by excellent human subjects were similar to that of logistic regression. Logistic regression and several human subjects demonstrated similar performances when discriminating man-made and natural targets, but in this case, their strategies were not similar. An appropriate fusion of their strategies led to further improvement in recognition accuracy.

  5. Bioinspired Composite Coating with Extreme Underwater Superoleophobicity and Good Stability for Wax Prevention in the Petroleum Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong

    2015-10-13

    Wax deposition is a detrimental problem that happens during crude oil production and transportation, which greatly reduces transport efficiency and causes huge economic losses. To avoid wax deposition, a bioinspired composite coating with excellent wax prevention and anticorrosion properties is developed in this study. The prepared coating is composed of three films, including an electrodeposited Zn film for improving corrosion resistance, a phosphating film for constructing fish-scale morphology, and a silicon dioxide film modified by a simple spin-coating method for endowing the surface with superhydrophilicity. Good wax prevention performance has been investigated in a wax deposition test. The surface morphology, composition, wetting behaviors, and stability are systematically studied, and a wax prevention mechanism is proposed, which can be calculated from water film theory. This composite coating strategy which shows excellent properties in both wax prevention and stability is expected to be widely applied in the petroleum industry.

  6. Design and Performance Evaluation of Underwater Data Dissemination Strategies using Interference Avoidance and Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios, Raul; Heide, Janus; Fitzek, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The long propagation delays of the underwater acoustic channel make traditional Medium Access schemes impractical and inefficient under water. This paper introduces and studies Interference Avoidance and Network Coding for Medium Access protocol design aiming to cope with the underwater channel c...

  7. Google™ underwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    The first underwater panoramic images were added to Google Maps™, the company announced on 25 September. This first “underwater Street View collection,” launched in partnership with the Caitlin Seaview Survey, provides people with the opportunity to “become the next virtual Jacques Cousteau.” For more information, see: maps.google.com/ocean.

  8. Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, James L

    2007-01-01

    There is thus provided an underwater vehicle having facility for maneuvering alongside a retrieving vehicle, as by manipulation of bow and stern planes, for engaging a hull surface of the retrieving...

  9. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  10. An expansion of glider observation strategies to systematically transmit and analyze preferred waypoints of underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedstad, Lucy F.; Barron, Charlie N.; Bourg, Rachel N.; Brooking, Michael W.; Bryant, Danielle A.; Carr, Robert J.; Heaney, Kevin D.; Holmberg, Edward A.; Mask, Andrea C.; Mensi, Bryan L.

    2015-05-01

    The Glider Observation STrategies (GOST) system provides real-time assistance to ocean glider pilots by suggesting preferred ocean glider waypoints based on ocean forecasts and their uncertainties. Restrictions on waterspace, preferred operational areas, and other glider trajectories are also taken into account. Using existing operational regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (RNCOM) output, demonstrations of glider waypoint calculation are ongoing in Navy operational areas. After the ocean forecast models and GOST components run at the Navy DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (Navy DSRC), GOST-suggested glider paths are transferred to the Glider Operations Center (GOC). The glider pilots at the GOC import this information into their Unmanned Systems Interface (USI), developed at the University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL-UW) to evaluate the suggested glider paths, make adjustments, and update waypoints for the gliders. The waypoints being sent are visualized and analyzed using graphic capabilities to convey guidance uncertainty developed under a grant to the University of New Orleans (UNO) and added under the Environmental Measurements Path Planner (EMPath) system within GOST. USI forwards automatic messages from the gliders with recent glider location, speed, and depth to GOST for the next cycle. Over the course of these demonstrations, capabilities were added or modified including use of initial glider bearing, preferred path, refinement of glider turn frequency, correction of glider speed, and introduction of glider rendezvous locations. Automation has been added with help from the modeling group at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). GOST supports NAVOCEANO's ongoing efforts to direct and recover gliders, to safely navigate in changing ocean conditions, and to provide feedback to improve ocean model prediction.

  11. A new process control strategy for aqueous film coating of pellets in fluidised bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.C.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan

    2003-01-01

    (top spray, bottom spray), inlet air humidity and type of pellets (sugar spheres, microcrystalline cellulose pellets). The maximum spray rate was not influenced by the coating principles. The highest spray rate was obtained for the film polymer with the lowest tackiness which is assumed......The parameters with effect on maximum spray rate and maximum relative outlet air humidity when coating pellets in a fluidised bed were investigated. The tested variables include type of water based modified release film coating (Eudragit® NE 30D, Eudragit® RS 30D, Aquacoat ECD®) coating principle...... to be the controlling factor. The type of pellets affected the maximum spray rate. A thermodynamic model for the coating process is employed throughout the process and not just during steady state. The thermodynamic model is incorporated into a new process control strategy. The process control strategy is based on in...

  12. Facile Coating Strategy to Functionalize Inorganic Nanoparticles for Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Il; Kim, Eunha; Huang, Chen-Han; Park, Ki Soo; Castro, Cesar M; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-18

    The use of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for biosensing requires that they exhibit high colloidal stability under various physiological conditions. Here, we report on a general approach to render hydrophobic NPs into hydrophilic ones that are ready for bioconjugation. The method uses peglyated polymers conjugated with multiple dopamines, which results in multidentate coordination. As proof-of-concept, we applied the coating to stabilize ferrite and lanthanide NPs synthesized by thermal decomposition. Both polymer-coated NPs showed excellent water solubility and were stable at high salt concentrations under physiological conditions. We used these NPs as molecular-sensing agents to detect exosomes and bacterial nucleic acids.

  13. Coating Strategies to Improve Lithium-ion Battery Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Jonathan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of Al2O3 ALD coatings on the performance and thermal abuse tolerance of graphite based anodes and Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) based cathodes. It was found that 5 cycles of Al2O3 ALD on the graphite anode increased the onset temperature of thermal runaway by approximately 20 °C and drastically reduced the anode’s contribution to the overall amount of heat released during thermal runaway. Although Al2O3 ALD improves the cycling stability of NMC based cathodes, the thermal abuse tolerance was not greatly improved. A series of conductive aluminum oxide/carbon composites were created and characterized as potential thicker protective coatings for use on NMC based cathode materials. A series of electrodes were coated with manganese monoxide ALD to test the efficacy of an oxygen scavenging coating on NMC based cathodes.

  14. Underwater Noise Modeling in Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Bagočius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with rising awareness of public and scientific societies about environmental and ecological impacts of underwater noise, the need for underwater noise modelling in the shallow Lithuanian area of Baltic Sea emerged. Marine Strategy Framework Directive issues regarding underwater noise indicators refers to possibility of evaluation of Good Environmental State using underwater noise measurements as well as possibility to model underwater noise. Main anthropogenic underwater noise contributor in the Seas is the shipping lanes as known due to date, with no exclusion of Lithuanian Baltic Sea area. In this manuscript, it is presented the methods of development of simplistic underwater ambient noise model purposed for computation of underwater soundscape in shallow area of the Lithuanian Baltic Sea.

  15. The Location of Lake Titicaca's Coastal Area During the Tiwanaku and Inca Periods: Methodology and Strategies of Underwater Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaere, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    For more than 30 years, numerous research projects have revealed the dense and complex human settlement of the lacustrine basin of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and Peru. Physical evidence of such establishments has been discovered in plains, valleys, and highlands connected to the lake. These remains confirm human occupation and development in this environment, particularly during the Tiwanaku (AD 500-1150) and Inca (AD 1400-1532) Periods. The research project discussed in this paper includes consideration of submerged areas through underwater archaeology. This investigation involves analysis of two areas that have evidence of ancient human occupation but are poorly documented: the coastal and lacustrine regions. Due to its dominance in the landscape, Lake Titicaca has always been a major feature in the life and identity of populations of this vicinity. These inhabitants have developed socio-economic and ritual behaviours directly associated with the lake that have left cultural and material prints that are the foci of the present study.

  16. Underwater manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  17. Underwater manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer ±45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer ±10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion

  18. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Zambrano-Zaragoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work.

  19. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  20. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). ...

  1. Formulation and process strategies to minimize coat damage for compaction of coated pellets in a rotary tablet press: A mechanistic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2016-02-29

    Compaction of multiple-unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets has been extensively studied in the past few decades but with marginal success. This study aims to investigate the formulation and process strategies for minimizing pellet coat damage caused by compaction and elucidate the mechanism of damage sustained during the preparation of MUPS tablets in a rotary tablet press. Blends containing ethylcellulose-coated pellets and cushioning agent (spray dried aggregates of micronized lactose and mannitol), were compacted into MUPS tablets in a rotary tablet press. The effects of compaction pressure and dwell time on the physicomechanical properties of resultant MUPS tablets and extent of pellet coat damage were systematically examined. The coated pellets from various locations at the axial and radial peripheral surfaces and core of the MUPS tablets were excavated and assessed for their coat damage individually. Interestingly, for a MUPS tablet formulation which consolidates by plastic deformation, the tablet mechanical strength could be enhanced without exacerbating pellet coat damage by extending the dwell time in the compaction cycle during rotary tableting. However, the increase in compaction pressure led to faster drug release rate. The location of the coated pellets in the MUPS tablet also contributed to the extent of their coat damage, possibly due to uneven force distribution within the compact. To ensure viability of pellet coat integrity, the formation of a continuous percolating network of cushioning agent is critical and the applied compaction pressure should be less than the pellet crushing strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Underwater Geotechnical Foundations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Landris

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview and description of the design and construction of underwater geotechnical foundations and offers preliminary guidance based on past and current technology applications...

  3. A novel strategy for durable superhydrophobic coating on glass substrate via using silica chains to fix silica particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-Zhang; Fang, Yue-Yun; Liu, Peng-Yi; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Shi, Ji-Fu; Xu, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The practical application of superhydrophobic coatings on glass is usually restricted by their poor wear resistance due to the insufficient adhesion. A double-silica-layered structure was proposed to reinforce the coating adhesion on glass substrate. The wettability, surface morphologies, and chemical composition were investigated by water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared superhydrophobic coating displays a good wear-resistance by emery paper and sand abrasion, which also has excellent thermal stability and UV resistance. This strategy shows a bright future for durable superhydrophobic coating on glass.

  4. Underwater Scene Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  5. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  6. Underwater Glider System Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Scott A; Humphreys, Douglas E; Sherman, Jeff; Osse, Jim; Jones, Clayton; Leonard, Naomi; Graver, Joshua; Bachmayer, Ralf; Clem, Ted; Carroll, Paul; Davis, Philip; Berry, Jon; Worley, Paul; Wasyl, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this study are to determine how to advance from present capabilities of underwater glider (and hybrid motorglider) technology to what could be possible within the next few years; and to identify critical research issues that must be resolved to make such advancements possible. These goals were pursued by merging archival flight data with numerical model results and system spreadsheet analysis to extrapolate from the present state-of-the–art in underwater (UW) gliders to potential...

  7. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  8. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  9. A baculovirus-mediated strategy for full-length plant virus coat protein expression and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Rocha, Juliana Ribeiro; da Costa, Márcio Hedil Oliveira; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Dusi, André Nepomuceno; de Oliveira Resende, Renato; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-08-15

    Garlic production is severely affected by virus infection, causing a decrease in productivity and quality. There are no virus-free cultivars and garlic-infecting viruses are difficult to purify, which make specific antibody production very laborious. Since high quality antisera against plant viruses are important tools for serological detection, we have developed a method to express and purify full-length plant virus coat proteins using baculovirus expression system and insects as bioreactors. In this work, we have fused the full-length coat protein (cp) gene from the Garlic Mite-borne Filamentous Virus (GarMbFV) to the 3'-end of the Polyhedrin (polh) gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The recombinant baculovirus was amplified in insect cell culture and the virus was used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Thus, the recombinant fused protein was easily purified from insect cadavers using sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed by Western Blotting. Interestingly, amorphous crystals were produced in the cytoplasm of cells infected with the recombinant virus containing the chimeric-protein gene but not in cells infected with the wild type and recombinant virus containing the hexa histidine tagged Polh. Moreover, the chimeric protein was used to immunize rats and generate antibodies against the target protein. The antiserum produced was able to detect plants infected with GarMbFV, which had been initially confirmed by RT-PCR. The expression of a plant virus full-length coat protein fused to the baculovirus Polyhedrin in recombinant baculovirus-infected insects was shown to produce high amounts of the recombinant protein which was easily purified and efficiently used to generate specific antibodies. Therefore, this strategy can potentially be used for the development of plant virus diagnostic kits for those viruses that are difficult to purify, are present in low titers or are present in mix infection in

  10. "Boxnep" advanced modular underwater robot

    OpenAIRE

    Buluev, Ilia

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the relevance of the underwater vehicles' ability to solve a wide range of problems. The idea put in the basis of this research is designing a modular underwater robot. It allows to mount various equipment and test it in underwater environment. The paper deals with the concept of the robot and its characteristics.

  11. Resources for Underwater Robotics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.

    2016-01-01

    4-H clubs can build and program underwater robots from raw materials. An annotated resource list for engaging youth in building underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is provided. This article is a companion piece to the Research in Brief article "Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics" in this issue of the "Journal of…

  12. Trade-off Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, G.; Das, R.

    2017-09-01

    In the last couple of decades, Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) were started to be used for various commercial and non-commercial purposes. However, in underwater environments, there are some specific inherent constraints, such as high bit error rate, variable and large propagation delay, limited bandwidth capacity, and short-range communications, which severely degrade the performance of UASNs and limit the lifetime of underwater sensor nodes as well. Therefore, proving reliability of UASN applications poses a challenge. In this study, we try to balance energy consumption of underwater acoustic sensor networks and minimize end-to-end delay using an efficient node placement strategy. Our simulation results reveal that if the number of hops is reduced, energy consumption can be reduced. However, this increases end-to-end delay. Hence, application-specific requirements must be taken into consideration when determining a strategy for node deployment.

  13. Role of Confined Water in Underwater Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    Surface bound water is a strong deterrent for forming strong bonds between two surfaces underwater and expelling that bound water is important for strong adhesion. I will discuss examples of different strategies used by geckos, spiders, and mussels to handle this last layer of bound water. Recent results using infrared-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy to probe the structure of this bound water will be discussed. National Science Foundation.

  14. Combined strategy of endothelial cells coating, Sertoli cells coculture and infusion improves vascularization and rejection protection of islet graft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Improving islet graft revascularization and inhibiting rejection become crucial tasks for prolonging islet graft survival. Endothelial cells (ECs are the basis of islet vascularization and Sertoli cells (SCs have the talent to provide nutritional support and exert immunosuppressive effects. We construct a combined strategy of ECs coating in the presence of nutritious and immune factors supplied by SCs in a co-culture system to investigate the effect of vascularization and rejection inhibition for islet graft. In vivo, the combined strategy improved the survival and vascularization as well as inhibited lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, we found the combinatorial strategy improved the function of islets and the effect of ECs-coating on islets. Combined strategy treated islets revealed higher levels of anti-apoptotic signal molecules (Bcl-2 and HSP-32, survival and function related molecules (PDX-1, Ki-67, ERK1/2 and Akt and demonstrated increased vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR and angiogenesis signal molecules (FAk and PLC-γ. SCs effectively inhibited the activation of lymphocyte stimulated by islets and ECs. Predominantly immunosuppressive cytokines could be detected in culture supernatants of the SCs coculture group. These results suggest that ECs-coating and Sertoli cells co-culture or infusion synergistically enhance islet survival and function after transplantation.

  15. Underwater laser detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  16. Underwater Gliders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Muhammad Yasar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Underwater gliders are a type of underwater vehicle that transverse the oceans by shifting its buoyancy, during which its wings develop a component of the downward motion in the horizontal plane, thus producing a forward force. They are primarily used in oceanography sensing and data collection and play an important role in ocean research and development. Although there have been considerable developments in these gliders since the development of the first glider concept in 1989, to date, no review of these gliders have been done. This paper reviews existing underwater gliders, with emphasis on their respective working principles, range and payload capacity. All information on gliders available in the public domain or published in literature from the year 2000-2013 was reviewed. The majority of these gliders have an operational depth of 1000 m and a payload of less than 25 kg. The exception is a blend-body shape glider, which has a payload of approximately 800 kg and an operational depth around about 300 m. However, the commercialization of these gliders has been limited with only three know examples that have been successfully commercialized.

  17. A combined coating strategy based on atomic layer deposition for enhancement of corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Yang, Qiuyue; Li, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Wei; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2018-03-01

    Rapid corrosion restricts the wide application of Mg and Mg-based alloys. In this work, a combined surface strategy was employed to modify the surface of AZ31 Mg Alloy. An atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized to prepare ZrO2 nanofilm on Mg substrate. During this course, the film thickness could be precisely controlled by adjusting the ALD cycles with a deposition rate of 0.117 nm/cycle. The subsequent PLGA grafting on ZrO2 nanofilm was carried out by a spin-coating process to further enhance the corrosion resistance. The nanoscratch tests showed that this hybrid coating had good bonding strength with substrate and similar Young's modulus to natural bone. In vitro corrosion tests demonstrated that a thicker ZrO2 nanofilm on the surface could reduce the corrosion rate of Mg substrate when compared to a thinner coating. When increasing ZrO2 deposition cycles from 25 to 100, the corrosion resistance could be significantly increased by two or three orders of magnitude. Hydrogen evolution tests revealed the synergetic effects of both galvanic corrosion and local acidic action could accelerate the corrosion of the AZ31 modified with the PLGA/ZrO2 coating once the ZrO2 nanofilm was damaged. Therefore, by changing the ALD cycles, the corrosion resistance of both ZrO2 thin film and ZrO2/PLGA hybrid coatings can be adjusted. This work provides an effective combined surface strategy that can be employed to adjust the corrosion resistance of Mg-based alloys for biomedical applications.

  18. A general strategy toward graphitized carbon coating on iron oxides as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-08-01

    Integration of carbon materials with benign iron oxides is blazing a trail in constructing high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, a unique general, simple, and controllable strategy is developed toward in situ uniform coating of iron oxide nanostructures with graphitized carbon (GrC) layers. The basic synthetic procedure only involves a simple dip-coating process for the loading of Ni-containing seeds and a subsequent Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of GrC layers. More importantly, the CVD treatment is conducted at a quite low temperature (450 °C) and with extremely facile liquid carbon sources consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethanol (EA). The GrC content of the resulting hybrids can be controllably regulated by altering the amount of carbon sources. The electrochemical results reveal remarkable performance enhancements of iron oxide@GrC hybrids compared with pristine iron oxides in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate and cycling performance. This can be attributed to the network-like GrC coating, which can improve not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity of iron oxides. Moreover, the lithium storage performance of samples with different GrC contents is measured, manifesting that optimized electrochemical property can be achieved with appropriate carbon content. Additionally, the superiority of GrC coating is demonstrated by the advanced performance of iron oxide@GrC compared with its corresponding counterpart, i.e., iron oxides with amorphous carbon (AmC) coating. All these results indicate the as-proposed protocol of GrC coating may pave the way for iron oxides to be promising anodes for LIBs.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Thermophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Attorney Docket No. 300009 1 of 8 A CARBON NANOTUBE UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC THERMOPHONE STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The...the Invention [0003] The present invention is an acoustically transparent carbon nanotube thermophone. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...amplitude of the resulting sound waves. [0006] Recently, there has been development of underwater acoustic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn sheets capable

  20. Closed Pore Structured NiCo2O4-Coated Nickel Foams for Stable and Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Xi; Yan, Zhanheng; Tian, Dongliang; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaofang; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-30

    To solve the serious problem caused by oily wastewater pollution, unique interface designs, for example, membranes with superwetting properties such as superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity and superhydrophilicity/underwater superoleophobicity, provide a good way to achieve oil/water separation. Here, inspired by the liquid storage property of the honeycomb structure, we propose a strategy to fabricate NiCo 2 O 4 -coated nickel foams for stable and efficient oil/water separation. NiCo 2 O 4 with a closed-pore structure was formed by assembling nanoflakes with a micro/nanoscale hierarchical structure. Compared with nickel foam coated by NiCo 2 O 4 with an open-pore structure (NiCo 2 O 4 nanowires), the enclosed nanostructure of NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes can firmly hold water for a more stable superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic interface. As a consequence, the NiCo 2 O 4 -nanoflake-coated nickel foam has a larger oil breakthrough pressure than the NiCo 2 O 4 -nanowire-coated nickel foam because of a slightly larger oil advancing angle and a lower underwater oil adhesion force, which makes it more stable and efficient for oil/water separation. Moreover, the NiCo 2 O 4 -coated nickel foams have excellent chemical and mechanical stability, and they are reusable for oil-water separation. This work will be beneficial for the design and development of stable underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related device applications, such as oil/water separation.

  1. Underwater gas tornado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byalko, Alexey V.

    2013-07-01

    We present the first experimental observation of a new hydrodynamic phenomenon, the underwater tornado. Simple measurements show that the tornado forms a vortex of the Rankine type, i.e. the rising gas rotates as a solid body and the liquid rotates with a velocity decreasing hyperbolically with the radius. We obtain the dependence of the tornado radius a on the gas stream value j theoretically: a ∼ j2/5. Processing of a set of experiments yielded the value 0.36 for the exponent in this expression. We also report the initial stages of the theoretical study of this phenomenon.

  2. Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Future large-scale implementation of wave energy converts (WECs) will introduce an anthropogenic activity in the ocean which may contribute to underwater noise. The Ocean houses several marine species with acoustic sensibility; consequently the potential impact of the underwater noise needs to be addressed. At present, there are no acoustic impact studies based on acquired data. The WEAM project (Wave Energy Acoustic Monitoring) aims at developing an underwater noise monitoring plan for WECs. The development of an acoustic monitoring plan must consider the sound propagation in the ocean, identify noise sources, understand the operational characteristics and select adequate instrumentation. Any monitoring strategy must involve in-situ measurements. However, the vast distances which sound travels within the ocean, can make in-situ measurements covering the entire area of interest, impracticable. This difficulty can be partially overcome through acoustic numerical modelling. This paper presents a synthetic study, on the application of acoustic forward modelling and the evaluation of the impact of noise produced by wave energy devices on marine mammals using criteria based on audiograms of dolphins, or other species. The idea is to illustrate the application of that methodology, and to show to what extent it allows for estimating distances of impacts due to acoustic noise.

  3. Underwater drag-reducing effect of superhydrophobic submarine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songsong; Ouyang, Xiao; Li, Jie; Gao, Shan; Han, Shihui; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao

    2015-01-01

    To address the debates on whether superhydrophobic coatings can reduce fluid drag for underwater motions, we have achieved an underwater drag-reducing effect of large superhydrophobic submarine models with a feature size of 3.5 cm × 3.7 cm × 33.0 cm through sailing experiments of submarine models, modified with and without superhydrophobic surface under similar power supply and experimental conditions. The drag reduction rate reached as high as 15%. The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings on a large area of submarine model surfaces was realized by immobilizing hydrophobic copper particles onto a precross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The pre-cross-linking time was optimized at 20 min to obtain good superhydrophobicity for the underwater drag reduction effect by investigating the effect of pre-cross-linking on surface wettability and water adhesive property. We do believe that superhydrophobic coatings may provide a promising application in the field of drag-reducing of vehicle motions on or under the water surface.

  4. Underwater Hearing in Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.

  5. OFDM for underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver des

  6. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  7. Ag-HPBs by a coating-etching strategy and their derived injectable implants for enhanced tumor photothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun Yan; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Shuang; Tian, Wei; Liu, Wen Fei; Wang, Shou Ju; Liu, Ying; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Xiao Dong; Teng, Zhao Gang; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2018-02-15

    Herein, we demonstrate a coating-etching strategy to directly synthesize hollow Prussian blue (PB) nanocubes with well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles (denoted as Ag-HPB). The method is accomplished by introduction of PB precursors, K 3 Fe(CN) 6 and Fe 3+ into a reaction system containing AgNO 3 and ascorbic acid, in which a series reactions contain formation of Ag nanoparticles, coating of PB on the nanoparticles, and diffusion of Ag into the PB frameworks occur. The strategy for preparation of the hollow structured Ag-HPB is intrinsically simple and does not require pre-preparation of any sacrificial templates or toxic etching agents. The obtained Ag-HPB nanocubes possess uniform size (69 nm), well-defined hollow structure, strong near-infrared photothermal conversion capacity, and excellent photoacoustic and magnetic resonance imaging abilities. Furthermore, an injectable photothermal implants are prepared for the first time by mixing the Ag-HPB nanocubes with clinically used biological glue, which significantly enhance photothermal anti-tumor efficacy, showing great potential for clinical tumor treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety aspects for underwater vehicles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.

    . This stresses for implementation of multiple safety measures of a high degree so that the platform operates continuously in a fail-safe mode. This paper discusses issues on safety measures implemented on the autonomous underwater platforms namely MAYA AUV...

  9. A novel and facile strategy for highly flame retardant polymer foam composite materials: Transforming silicone resin coating into silica self-extinguishing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Li; Li, Shi-Neng; Wu, Lian-Bin; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Tang, Long-Cheng

    2017-08-15

    In this study, a novel strategy was developed to fabricate highly flame retardant polymer foam composite materials coated by synthesized silicone resin (SiR) polymer via a facile dip-coating processing. Applying the SiR polymer coating, the mechanical property and thermal stability of SiR-coated polymer foam (PSiR) composites are greatly enhanced without significantly altering their structure and morphology. The minimum oxygen concentration to support the combustion of foam materials is greatly increased, i.e. from LOI 14.6% for pure foam to LOI 26-29% for the PSiR composites studied. Especially, adjusting pendant group to SiOSi group ratio (R/Si ratio) of SiRs produces highly flame retardant PSiR composites with low smoke toxicity. Cone calorimetry results demonstrate that 44-68% reduction in the peak heat release rate for the PSiR composites containing different R/Si ratios over pure foam is achieved by the presence of appropriate SiR coating. Digital and SEM images of post-burn chars indicate that the SiR polymer coating can be transformed into silica self-extinguishing porous layer as effective inorganic barrier effect, thus preserving the polymer foam structure from fire. Our results show that the SiR dip-coating technique is a promising strategy for producing flame retardant polymer foam composite materials with improved mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation and Characteristics Analysis on Vibration and Sound Radiation Response for a Small Underwater Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An underwater robot is one of the important ocean equipment, and especially its stealth performance has influenced on the vitality in naval warfare. Structure radiation noise as the main source of underwater robot noise, so analysis on vibration and noise radiation is a topic of great concern. The way is used widely that based on fluid-solid coupling modal analysis combined with simulation on vibration and noise-radiation response in order to evaluate stealth performance of underwater structure. In the paper, firstly via finite element method and boundary element method, the modal frequencies and vibration modes of small underwater robot are calculated. Then the surface vibration displacements of underwater robot and the sound pressures of acoustic field under different frequency horizontal exciting force are obtained and analyzed. Lastly, through the analysis of the structural vibration and acoustic performance, the control strategies for structure bending vibration, acoustic radiation and structural acoustic design are proposed.

  11. Underwater optical wireless communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  12. Antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of silver nanoparticles coated catheters via a biomimetic surface functionalization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ke Wu,1 Yun Yang,2,3 Yanmei Zhang,2,3 Jiexi Deng,1 Changjian Lin2,31Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Dongnan Hospital of Xiamen University, Zhangzhou, 2Department of Medical Materials, Beijing Medical Implant Engineering Research Center, Beijing Naton Technology Group, Beijing, 3State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Catheter-related bloodstream infections are a significant problem in the clinic and may result in a serious infection. Here, we developed a facile and green procedure for buildup of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the central venous catheters (CVCs surface. Inspired by mussel adhesive proteins, dopamine was used to form a thin polydopamine layer and induce AgNPs formation without additional reductants or stabilizers. The chemical and physicochemical properties of AgNPs coated CVCs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle. The Staphylococcus aureus culture experiment was used to study the antibacterial properties. The cytocompatibility was assessed by water soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1 assay, fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results indicated that the CVCs surface was successfully coated with compact AgNPs. AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with a size of 30–50 nm. The density of AgNPs could be modulated by the concentration of silver nitrate solution. The antibacterial activity was dependent on the AgNPs dose. The high dose of AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial activity while associated with increased cytotoxicity. The appropriate density of AgNPs coated CVCs could exhibit improved biocompatibility and maintained evident sterilization effect. It is promising to design mussel-inspired silver releasing CVCs with both

  13. Sustained release vancomycin-coated titanium alloy using a novel electrostatic dry powder coating technique may be a potential strategy to reduce implant-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Yang, Yi; Lu, Junren; Wang, Chenzhong; Xie, Youtao; Zheng, Xuebin; Yao, Zhenjun; Zhang, Chi

    2017-07-24

    In order to tackle the implant-related infection, a novel way was developed in this study to coat vancomycin particles mixed with controlled release coating materials onto the surface of titanium alloy by using an electrostatic dry powder coating technique. To characterize this sustained release antibacterial coating, surface morphology, in vitro and in vivo drug release were sequentially evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and cytological changes were observed by inverted microscope. The antibacterial properties against MRSA, including a bacterial growth inhibition assay and a colony-counting test by spread plate method were performed. Results indicated that the vancomycin-coated sample was biocompatible for Human osteoblast cell line MG-63 and displayed effective antibacterial ability against MRSA. The coating film was revealed uniform by scanning electron microscopy. Both the in vitro and in vivo drug release kinetics showed an initially high release rate, followed by an extended period of sustained drug release over 7 days. These results suggest that with good biocompatibility and antibacterial ability, the sustained release antibacterial coating of titanium alloy using our novel electrostatic dry powder coating process may provide a promising candidate for the treatment of orthopedic implant-related infection.

  14. Task Allocation and Path Planning for Collaborative Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Operating through an Underwater Acoustic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and unstructured multiple cooperative autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV missions are highly complex operations, and task allocation and path planning are made significantly more challenging under realistic underwater acoustic communication constraints. This paper presents a solution for the task allocation and path planning for multiple AUVs under marginal acoustic communication conditions: a location-aided task allocation framework (LAAF algorithm for multitarget task assignment and the grid-based multiobjective optimal programming (GMOOP mathematical model for finding an optimal vehicle command decision given a set of objectives and constraints. Both the LAAF and GMOOP algorithms are well suited in poor acoustic network condition and dynamic environment. Our research is based on an existing mobile ad hoc network underwater acoustic simulator and blind flooding routing protocol. Simulation results demonstrate that the location-aided auction strategy performs significantly better than the well-accepted auction algorithm developed by Bertsekas in terms of task-allocation time and network bandwidth consumption. We also demonstrate that the GMOOP path-planning technique provides an efficient method for executing multiobjective tasks by cooperative agents with limited communication capabilities. This is in contrast to existing multiobjective action selection methods that are limited to networks where constant, reliable communication is assumed to be available.

  15. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  16. ROV-based Underwater Vision System for Intelligent Fish Ethology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish ethology is a prospective discipline for ocean surveys. In this paper, one ROV-based system is established to perform underwater visual tasks with customized optical sensors installed. One image quality enhancement method is first presented in the context of creating underwater imaging models combined with homomorphic filtering and wavelet decomposition. The underwater vision system can further detect and track swimming fish from the resulting images with the strategies developed using curve evolution and particular filtering, in order to obtain a deeper understanding of fish behaviours. The simulation results have shown the excellent performance of the developed scheme, in regard to both robustness and effectiveness.

  17. Validation of multi-body modelling methodology for reconfigurable underwater robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.C.; Eidsvik, O. A.; Blanke, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of employing reconfigurable robots in an underwater setting. The main results presented is the experimental validation of a modelling methodology for a system consisting of N dynamically connected robots with heterogeneous dynamics. Two distinct types...... of experiments are performed, a series of hydrostatic free-decay tests and a series of open-loop trajectory tests. The results are compared to a simulation based on the modelling methodology. The modelling methodology shows promising results for usage with systems composed of reconfigurable underwater modules....... The purpose of the model is to enable design of control strategies for cooperative reconfigurable underwater systems....

  18. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  19. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  20. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  1. Substrate and coating defect planarization strategies for high-laser-fluence multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Wolfe, Justin E.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Folta, James A.; Adams, John J.; Menor, Marlon G.; Teslich, Nick E.; Soufli, Regina; Menoni, Carmen S.; Patel, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Planarizing or smoothing over nodular defects in multilayer mirrors can be accomplished by a discrete deposit-and-etch process that exploits the angle-dependent etching rate of optical materials. Typically, nodular defects limit the fluence on mirrors irradiated at 1064 nm with 10 ns pulse lengths due to geometrically- and interference-induced light intensification. Planarized hafina/silica multilayer mirrors have demonstrated > 125 J/cm 2 laser resistance for single-shot testing and 50 J/cm 2 for multi-shot testing for nodular defects originating on the substrate surface. Two planarization methods were explored: thick planarization layers on the substrate surface and planarized silica layers throughout the multilayer in which only the silica layers that are below one half of the incoming electric field value are etched. This paper also describes the impact of planarized defects that are buried within the multilayer structure compared to planarized substrate particulate defects. - Highlights: • Defect planarization significantly improves multilayer mirror laser resistance • Substrate and coating defects have both been effectively planarized • Single and multishot laser resistance improvement was demonstrated

  2. Underwater noise levels in UK waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J

    2016-11-10

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97 th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  3. An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot

    2015-12-01

    Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.

  4. A strategy for the reduction of ac losses in YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, Stephen P; Grilli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    YBCO coated conductors (CCs) are being developed with extremely high dc critical currents, which should allow their extensive use in power applications. However, the CCs manufactured at present have unacceptably high energy losses in ac magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the CC face. This magnetic ac loss can be significantly reduced if the superconductor is divided into parallel electromagnetically decoupled filaments. Simply cutting the YBCO into filaments does not achieve this, as the filaments remain coupled. In this paper we present a new technique for obtaining decoupled filaments. This is achieved by cutting the superconductor into parallel filaments plus introducing periodic transverse cross-cuts. The cross-cuts allow the magnetic flux to penetrate between the filaments and thus decouples them. The continuity of the current path is maintained by means of normal metal 'bridges' across the cross-cuts. We present data demonstrating that at power frequencies five cross-cuts every metre are sufficient to decouple the filaments. We also show that it is straightforward to produce normal metal bridges whose Ohmic losses due to the transport current are sufficiently low that the overall losses of a CC carrying ac or dc transport currents in applied ac magnetic fields are reduced to manageable levels. In a specific example, the losses of a CC in a 20 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field carrying 100 A ac transport current were reduced by nearly two orders of magnitude. Numerical simulations based on the finite-element method have been also performed and confirm some of the experimental results. We also indicate how this technique may be further improved

  5. Development of Polymeric Coatings for Antifouling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumayan, Edward Philip

    Fouling, or the deposition of unwanted material onto a surface, is a serious problem that can impair the function of submerged structures, such as marine-going vessels and underwater equipment. Water filtration membranes are particularly susceptible to fouling due to their microstructure and high water pressure operating conditions. For this reason, there has been considerable interest in developing fouling-resistant, or "antifouling" coatings for membranes, specifically coatings that mitigate fouling propensity while maintain high water flux. Polymer coatings have garnered significant interest in antifouling literature, due to their synthetic versatility and variety, and their promising resistance to a wide range of foulants. However, antifouling research has yet to establish a consistent framework for polymer coating synthesis and fouling evaluation, making it difficult or impossible to compare previously established methodologies. To this end, this work establishes a standardized methodology for synthesizing and evaluating polymer antifouling coatings. Specifically, antifouling coatings are synthesized using a grafting-from polymerization and fouling propensity is evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Using this framework, a number of different surface functionalization strategies are compared, including grafting-to and grafting-from polymerization. A number of different surface functionalization strategies, including grafting-to and grafting-from, were investigated and the fouling performance of these films was evaluated. Primarily, sulfobetaine methacrylate, and poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate monomers were investigated, among others. Grafting-to, while advantageous from a characterization standpoint, was ultimately limited to low grafting densities, which did not afford a significant improvement in fouling resistance. However, the higher grafting densities achievable by grafting-from did indicate improved fouling resistance. A

  6. Calibration of Underwater Sound Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    H.R.S. Sastry

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of calibration of underwater sound transducers for farfield, near-field and closed environment conditions are reviewed in this paper .The design of acoustic calibration tank is mentioned. The facilities available at Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, Cochin for calibration of transducers are also listed.

  7. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  8. Underwater Robots Surface in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Randy C.; Hacking, Kip S.; Damarjian, Jennifer L.; Wright, Geoffrey A.; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-01-01

    Underwater robots (or ROVs: Remotely Operated Vehicles as they are typically called in industry) have recently become a very popular instructional STEM activity. Nationally, ROVs have been used in science and technology classrooms for several years in cities such as Seattle, San Diego, Virginia Beach, and other coastal areas. In the past two…

  9. H∞ control of a remotely operated underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, G.; Serrani, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of H∞ control techniques to the design of a control system for a remotely operated underwater vehicle. As the main problem in defining a control strategy for such vehicles is the nonlinear and uncertain nature of the modeled dynamics, the robustness properties of H∞ controllers can in principle be used to provide stability and nominal performances for the closed loop system. Therefore, a control strategy based on a scheduling of such controllers has been proposed, and the overall performance of the closed loop system have been evaluated by means of nonlinear simulation in a broad range of working conditions, with particular attention to the effects of the underwater current that acts on the vehicle

  10. A new strategy for improvement of the corrosion resistance of a green cerium conversion coating through thermal treatment procedure before and after application of epoxy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidashti, Z. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi, T., E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), P.O. 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ce conversion coating was post-heated at various conditions. • The corrosion resistance of post-heated Ce films was evaluated. • A crack free and denser Ce film were obtained after post-heating. • The corrosion resistance of Ce film noticeably increased. • Post-heated Ce film resulted better protection performance of epoxy coating. - Abstract: The effect of post-heating of CeCC on its surface morphology and chemistry has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The corrosion protection performance of the coatings was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of thermal treatment of CeCC on the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coating was investigated by EIS. Results showed that the heat treatment of Ce film noticeably improved its corrosion resistance and adhesion properties compared to that of untreated samples. The CeCC deposited on the steel substrate at room temperature had a highly cracked structure, while the amount of micro-cracks significantly reduced after post-heating procedure. Results obtained from EIS analysis confirmed the effect of post-heating of CeCC on its corrosion protection performance enhancement. The increase of post-heating temperature and time up to 140 °C and 3 h led to better results.

  11. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images for inspection. Due to the spatial-temporal decoupling characteristics of individual path following controller, the velocities of the followers can be adapted in the coordinated control level, only relying on the information of generalized along-path length from the leader, in order to build the desired formation. Thus, the communication variable broadcast from the leader is kept to a minimum, which is feasible under the severely constraints of acoustic communication bandwidth. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of coordinated formation controller proposed for underwater pipeline inspection.

  12. Strategies for specifically directing metal functionalization of protein nanotubes: constructing protein coated silver nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño-Fuentes, Liliana; Ascencio, Jorge A; Medina, Ariosto; Aguila, Sergio; Palomares, Laura A; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2013-06-14

    Biological molecules that self-assemble in the nanoscale range are useful multifunctional materials. Rotavirus VP6 protein self-assembles into tubular structures in the absence of other rotavirus proteins. Here, we present strategies for selectively directing metal functionalization to the lumen of VP6 nanotubes. The specific in situ metal reduction in the inner surface of nanotube walls was achieved by the simple modification of a method previously reported to functionalize the nanotube outer surface. Silver nanorods and nanowires as long as 1.5 μm were formed inside the nanotubes by coalescence of nanoparticles. Such one-dimensional structures were longer than others previously obtained using bioscaffolds. The interactions between silver ions and the nanotube were simulated to understand the conditions that allowed nanowire formation. Molecular docking showed that a naturally occurring arrangement of aspartate residues enabled the stabilization of silver ions on the internal surface of the VP6 nanotubes. This is the first time that such a spatial arrangement has been proposed for the nucleation of silver nanoparticles, opening the possibility of using such an array to direct functionalization of other biomolecules. These results demonstrate the natural capabilities of VP6 nanotubes to function as a versatile biotemplate for nanomaterials.

  13. A novel in situ strategy for the preparation of a β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine-coated capillary column for capillary electrochromatography enantioseparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heying; Niu, Xiaoying; Pan, Congjie; Yi, Tao; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2017-06-01

    Inspired by the chiral recognition ability of β-cyclodextrin and the natural adhesive properties of polydopamine under alkaline conditions, in this study, a rapid and in situ modification strategy was developed to fabricate β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine composite material coated-capillary columns for open tubular capillary electrochromatography. The results of scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, streaming potential, and electro-osmotic flow studies indicated that β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine was successfully fixed on the inner wall of the capillary column. This coating can be achieved within 1 h affording a greatly reduced capillary preparation time. The performance of the β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine-coated capillary was validated by the analysis of seven pairs of chiral analytes, namely epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoprenaline, terbutaline, verapamil, tryptophane, carvedilol. Good enantioseparation efficiencies were achieved for all. For three consecutive runs, the relative standard deviations for the migration times of the analytes for intraday, interday, and column-to-column repeatability were in the range of 0.41-1.74, 1.03-4.18, and 1.66-8.24%, respectively. Moreover, the separation efficiency of the β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine-coated capillary column did not decrease obviously over 90 runs. The strategy should also be feasible to introduce and immobilize other chiral selectors on the inner walls surface of capillary columns. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Network Computing for Distributed Underwater Acoustic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Physical layer in UASNs Our main investigations are about underwater communications using acoustic waves. Elec- tromagnetic and optical waves do not...Shengli, Z., and Jun-Hong, C. (2008), Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks, Wirel. Commun . Mob. Comput., 8(8... Wireless Communications , 9(9), 2934–2944. [21] Pompili, D. and Akyildiz, I. (2010), A multimedia cross-layer protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks

  15. Cooperative OFDM underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xilin; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical enginee...

  16. International Conference on Underwater Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Jaulin, Luc; Creuze, Vincent; Debese, Nathalie; Quidu, Isabelle; Clement, Benoît; Billon-Coat, Annick

    2016-01-01

    This volume constitutes the results of the International Conference on Underwater Environment, MOQESM’14, held at “Le Quartz” Conference Center in Brest, France, on October 14-15, 2014, within the framework of the 9th Sea Tech Week, International Marine Science and Technology Event. The objective of MOQESM'14 was to bring together researchers from both academia and industry, interested in marine robotics and hydrography with application to the coastal environment mapping and underwater infrastructures surveys. The common thread of the conference is the combination of technical control, perception, and localization, typically used in robotics, with the methods of mapping and bathymetry. The papers presented in this book focus on two main topics. Firstly, coastal and infrastructure mapping is addressed, focusing not only on hydrographic systems, but also on positioning systems, bathymetry, and remote sensing. The proposed methods rely on acoustic sensors such as side scan sonars, multibeam echo sounders, ...

  17. Compact Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Underwater Chemical Sensing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Minagawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the development of compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors for mobile robot olfaction. Underwater robots benefit from olfactory sensing capabilities in various tasks including the search for unexploded ordnance and undersea wreckage. Although the SPR-based chemical sensor is a promising sensing platform, the cumbersome optical setup has been limiting its use on mobile robots. The proposed sensor employs a periodic metal structure formed on a self-assembled layer of polystyrene particles of 200 nm in diameter. With the grating of this size, SPR can be excited even with a simple LED light source. The change in the absorbance is simply measured using a photodiode. Demonstration of the proposed SPR sensor is provided by mounting the sensors on an underwater crayfish robot that autonomously searches for a chemical source. The fabricated sensor shows linear response to ascorbic acid for a concentration range from 20 to 80 mM. Responses of the bare and thiol-coated gold nanostructure to different chemical substances are presented to show the change in the selectivity of the sensor by the coating. Discussions are made on the importance of sample collection for the sensor to attain sensitive chemical detection on a mobile robot.

  18. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun

    2018-04-01

    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  19. Underwater Animal Monitoring Magnetic Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Kaidarova, Altynay

    2017-10-01

    Obtaining new insights into the behavior of free-living marine organisms is fundamental for conservation efforts and anticipating the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems. Despite the recent advances in biotelemetry, collecting physiological and behavioral parameters of underwater free-living animals remains technically challenging. In this thesis, we develop the first magnetic underwater animal monitoring system that utilizes Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors, the most sensitive solid-state sensors today, coupled with flexible magnetic composites. The TMR sensors are composed of CoFeB free layers and MgO tunnel barriers, patterned using standard optical lithography and ion milling procedures. The short and long-term stability of the TMR sensors has been studied using statistical and Allan deviation analysis. Instrumentation noise has been reduced using optimized electrical interconnection schemes. We also develop flexible NdFeB-PDMS composite magnets optimized for applications in corrosive marine environments, and which can be attached to marine animals. The magnetic and mechanical properties are studied for different NdFeB powder concentrations and the performance of the magnetic composites for different exposure times to sea water is systematically investigated. Without protective layer, the composite magnets loose more than 50% of their magnetization after 51 days in seawater. The durability of the composite magnets can be considerably improved by using polymer coatings which are protecting the composite magnet, whereby Parylene C is found to be the most effective solution, providing simultaneously corrosion resistance, flexibility, and enhanced biocompatibility. A Parylene C film of 2μm thickness provides the sufficient protection of the magnetic composite in corrosive aqueous environments for more than 70 days. For the high level performance of the system, the theoretically optimal position of the composite magnets with respect to the sensing

  20. An investigation on mechanical properties of steel fibre reinforced for underwater welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, K.; Zakaria, M. S.; Zairi, S.

    2017-09-01

    Underwater pipelines are always exposed to water and have a high tendency to have corrosion especially on the welded joint. This research is about using fiber glass as steel fiber to coat the welded joint to determine the effectiveness in corrosion prevention of the welded joint. Number of coating is varied to determine the better number coating to coat the pipeline. Few samples were left without immersion in salt water and few samples are immersed into salt water with same salinity as sea water. The material sample is prepared in dog bone shape to enable to be used in Universal Tensile Machine (UTM). The material prepared is left immersed for recommended time and tested in Universal Tensile Machine. Upon analyzing the result, the result is used to determine the breakage point whether broken on the welded joint or different place and also the suitable number of coating to be used.

  1. A new strategy for improvement of the corrosion resistance of a green cerium conversion coating through thermal treatment procedure before and after application of epoxy coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahidashti, Z.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of post-heating of CeCC on its surface morphology and chemistry has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The corrosion protection performance of the coatings was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of thermal treatment of CeCC on the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coating was investigated by EIS. Results showed that the heat treatment of Ce film noticeably improved its corrosion resistance and adhesion properties compared to that of untreated samples. The CeCC deposited on the steel substrate at room temperature had a highly cracked structure, while the amount of micro-cracks significantly reduced after post-heating procedure. Results obtained from EIS analysis confirmed the effect of post-heating of CeCC on its corrosion protection performance enhancement. The increase of post-heating temperature and time up to 140 °C and 3 h led to better results.

  2. Development of the underwater robot to clean the inlet channel for power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Katsuhiko; Saeki, Masato; Nomura, Kazuo; Ohba, Kohzo; Hatta, Takashi; Doi, Syojiro; Hirai, Yasuo; Yamada, Yutaka; Miwa, Kazuhito.

    1994-01-01

    A new remote-controlled underwater robot is developed for taking off marine organisms attached to the inside of inlet channel for power station. As oppose to most robot can be used in square shaped cross section of the culvert, this system can take it off attached inside the circular pipe with coating and move automatically. Evaluations of the performance of movement and cleaning are described in this report. (author)

  3. ABS-FishCount: An Agent-Based Simulator of Underwater Sensors for Measuring the Amount of Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magariño, Iván; Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime

    2017-11-13

    Underwater sensors provide one of the possibilities to explore oceans, seas, rivers, fish farms and dams, which all together cover most of our planet's area. Simulators can be helpful to test and discover some possible strategies before implementing these in real underwater sensors. This speeds up the development of research theories so that these can be implemented later. In this context, the current work presents an agent-based simulator for defining and testing strategies for measuring the amount of fish by means of underwater sensors. The current approach is illustrated with the definition and assessment of two strategies for measuring fish. One of these two corresponds to a simple control mechanism, while the other is an experimental strategy and includes an implicit coordination mechanism. The experimental strategy showed a statistically significant improvement over the control one in the reduction of errors with a large Cohen's d effect size of 2.55.

  4. Model based image restoration for underwater images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Thomas; Frühberger, Peter; Werling, Stefan; Heizmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The inspection of offshore parks, dam walls and other infrastructure under water is expensive and time consuming, because such constructions must be inspected manually by divers. Underwater buildings have to be examined visually to find small cracks, spallings or other deficiencies. Automation of underwater inspection depends on established water-proved imaging systems. Most underwater imaging systems are based on acoustic sensors (sonar). The disadvantage of such an acoustic system is the loss of the complete visual impression. All information embedded in texture and surface reflectance gets lost. Therefore acoustic sensors are mostly insufficient for these kind of visual inspection tasks. Imaging systems based on optical sensors feature an enormous potential for underwater applications. The bandwidth from visual imaging systems reach from inspection of underwater buildings via marine biological applications through to exploration of the seafloor. The reason for the lack of established optical systems for underwater inspection tasks lies in technical difficulties of underwater image acquisition and processing. Lightening, highly degraded images make a computational postprocessing absolutely essential.

  5. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  6. A new technique for robot vision in autonomous underwater vehicles using the color shift in underwater imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FOR ROBOT VISION IN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING by Jake A. Jones June 2017 Thesis Advisor... VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jake A. Jones 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...underwater vehicles (AUVs), robot vision, autonomy, visual odometry, underwater color shift, optical properties of water 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 75 16

  7. Underwater gliders as virtual moorings; lessons from the RAPID program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeed, David; McCarthy, Gerard; White, David

    2013-04-01

    The RAPID program measures the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in the sub tropical Atlantic using an array of moored instruments. We have made trials using autonomous underwater gliders as a replacement for one of the RAPID moorings. The mooring is located on the continental slope at a water depth of 1000m. Six glider deployments have been made concurrent with mooring deployments. In this presentation data from the moorings and from the gliders are compared; different glider sampling strategies are considered; and the advantages and disadvantages of gliders are described. The capability of gliders to resolve tidal motion and to quantify geostrophic currents is examined.

  8. Calibration and Characterization of Autonomous Recorders Used in the Measurement of Underwater Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Gary; Robinson, Stephen; Lepper, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The use of autonomous recorders is motivated by the need to monitor underwater noise, such as in response to the requirements of the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The performance of these systems is a crucial factor governing the quality of the measured data, providing traceability for future underwater noise-monitoring programs aimed at the protection of the marine environment from anthropogenic noise. In this paper, a discussion is presented of measurement methodologies for the key acoustic performance characteristics of the recorders, including self-noise, dynamic range, and the absolute sensitivity as a function of frequency of the hydrophone and recorder system.

  9. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2009-03-01

    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  10. Corrosion Resistant Cladding by YAG Laser Welding in Underwater Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutomi Kochi; Toshio Kojima; Suemi Hirata; Ichiro Morita; Katsura Ohwaki

    2002-01-01

    It is known that stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in nickel-base alloys used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Internals of nuclear power plants. A SCC sensitivity has been evaluated by IHI in each part of RPV and Internals. There are several water level instrumentation nozzles installed in domestic BWR RPV. In water level instrumentation nozzles, 182 type nickel-base alloys were used for the welding joint to RPV. It is estimated the SCC potential is high in this joint because of a higher residual stress than the yield strength (about 400 MPa). This report will describe a preventive maintenance method to these nozzles Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and welds by a corrosion resistant cladding (CRC) by YAG Laser in underwater environment (without draining a reactor water). There are many kinds of countermeasures for SCC, for example, Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI), Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP) and so on. A YAG laser CRC is one of them. In this technology a laser beam is used for heat source and irradiated through an optical fiber to a base metal and SCC resistant material is used for welding wires. After cladding the HAZ and welds are coated by the corrosion resistant materials so their surfaces are improved. A CRC by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in an air environment had been developed and already applied to a couple of operating plants (16 Nozzles). This method was of course good but it spent much time to perform because of an installation of some water-proof working boxes to make a TIG-weldability environment. CRC by YAG laser welding in underwater environment has superior features comparing to this conventional TIG method as follows. At the viewpoint of underwater environment, (1) an outage term reduction (no drainage water). (2) a radioactive exposure dose reduction for personnel. At that of YAG laser welding, (1) A narrower HAZ. (2) A smaller distortion. (3) A few cladding layers. A YAG laser CRC test in underwater

  11. Underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shiro; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2017-06-01

    The underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosives was taken by high-speed photography. The diameter and the thickness of the pellet were 20 and 10 mm, respectively. The experimental system consists of the precise electric detonator, two grams of composition C4 booster and three pellets, and these were set in water tank. High-speed video camera, HPV-X made by Shimadzu was used with 10 Mfs. The underwater explosions of the precise electric detonator, the C4 booster and a pellet were also taken by high-speed photography to estimate the propagation processes of the underwater shock waves. Numerical simulation of the underwater sympathetic detonation of the pellet explosives was also carried out and compared with experiment.

  12. Underwater Grass Comeback Helps Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fortified Susquehanna Flats, the largest bed of underwater grasses in the Chesapeake Bay, seems able to withstand a major weather punch. Its resilience is contributing to an overall increase in the Bay’s submerged aquatic vegetation.

  13. Underwater Object Segmentation Based on Optical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater optical environments are seriously affected by various optical inputs, such as artificial light, sky light, and ambient scattered light. The latter two can block underwater object segmentation tasks, since they inhibit the emergence of objects of interest and distort image information, while artificial light can contribute to segmentation. Artificial light often focuses on the object of interest, and, therefore, we can initially identify the region of target objects if the collimation of artificial light is recognized. Based on this concept, we propose an optical feature extraction, calculation, and decision method to identify the collimated region of artificial light as a candidate object region. Then, the second phase employs a level set method to segment the objects of interest within the candidate region. This two-phase structure largely removes background noise and highlights the outline of underwater objects. We test the performance of the method with diverse underwater datasets, demonstrating that it outperforms previous methods.

  14. Sensor network architectures for monitoring underwater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (radio frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  15. A Speed Control Method for Underwater Vehicle under Hydraulic Flexible Traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater vehicle speed control methodology method is the focus of research in this study. Driven by a hydraulic flexible traction system, the underwater vehicle advances steadily on underwater guide rails, simulating an underwater environment for the carried device. Considering the influence of steel rope viscoelasticity and the control system traction structure feature, a mathematical model of the underwater vehicle driven by hydraulic flexible traction system is established. A speed control strategy is then proposed based on the sliding mode variable structure of fuzzy reaching law, according to nonlinearity and external variable load of the vehicle speed control system. Sliding mode variable structure control theory for the nonlinear system allows an improved control effect for movements in “sliding mode” when compared with conventional control. The fuzzy control theory is also introduced, weakening output chattering caused by the sliding mode control switchover while producing high output stability. Matlab mathematical simulation and practical test verification indicate the speed control method as effective in obtaining accurate control results, thus inferring strong practical significance for engineering applications.

  16. Underwater photogrammetry successful in Spain and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry has been used to measure distortions in fuel assembly alignment pins in the upper internals of the Almarez and Dampierre PWRs. Photogrammetry is a three-dimensional precision measurement method using photographic techniques for the on-site measurement phase. On the strength of the operations at the two PWRs, underwater photogrammetry is now considered as a practical and effective technique for dimensional inspection at nuclear plants. (U.K.)

  17. Underwater gait analysis in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Daniele; Pavan, Davide; Morris, Meg; Guiotto, Annamaria; Iansek, Robert; Fortuna, Sofia; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi

    2017-02-01

    Although hydrotherapy is one of the physical therapies adopted to optimize gait rehabilitation in people with Parkinson disease, the quantitative measurement of gait-related outcomes has not been provided yet. This work aims to document the gait improvements in a group of parkinsonians after a hydrotherapy program through 2D and 3D underwater and on land gait analysis. Thirty-four parkinsonians and twenty-two controls were enrolled, divided into two different cohorts. In the first one, 2 groups of patients underwent underwater or land based walking training; controls underwent underwater walking training. Hence pre-treatment 2D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed, together with post-treatment on land gait analysis. Considering that current literature documented a reduced movement amplitude in parkinsonians across all lower limb joints in all movement planes, 3D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed on a second cohort of subjects (10 parkinsonians and 10 controls) who underwent underwater gait training. Baseline land 2D and 3D gait analysis in parkinsonians showed shorter stride length and slower speed than controls, in agreement with previous findings. Comparison between underwater and on land gait analysis showed reduction in stride length, cadence and speed on both parkinsonians and controls. Although patients who underwent underwater treatment exhibited significant changes on spatiotemporal parameters and sagittal plane lower limb kinematics, 3D gait analysis documented a significant (p<0.05) improvement in all movement planes. These data deserve attention for research directions promoting the optimal recovery and maintenance of walking ability. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  19. An underwater optical wireless communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2009-08-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. We present models of three kinds of optical wireless communication links a) a line-of-sight link, b) a modulating retro-reflector link and c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered lighted it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. We conclude from the analysis that a high data rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV to UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  20. Acid-coated Textiles (pH 5.5-6.5)--a New Therapeutic Strategy for Atopic Eczema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Teresa; Rothmaier, Markus; Zander, Holger; Ring, Johannes; Gutermuth, Jan; Anliker, Mark D

    2015-07-01

    Increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and decreased skin capacitance are characteristic features of the disturbed epidermal barrier in atopic eczema (AE). The "acid mantle", which is a slightly acidic film on the surface of the skin has led to the development of acidic emollients for skin care. In this context, the effect of citric acid-coated textiles on atopic skin has not been examined to date. A textile carrier composed of cellulose fibres was coated with a citric acid surface layer by esterification, ensuring a constant pH of 5.5-6.5. Twenty patients with AE or atopic diathesis were enrolled in the study. In a double-blind, half-side experiment, patients had to wear these textiles for 12 h a day for 14 days. On day 0 (baseline), 7 and 14, tolerability (erythema, pruritus, eczema, wearing comfort) and efficacy on skin barrier were assessed by TEWL skin hydration (corneometry/capacitance), pH and clinical scoring of eczema (SCORAD). Citric acid-coated textiles were well tolerated and improved eczema and objective parameters of skin physiology, including barrier function and a reduced skin surface pH, with potential lower pathogenic microbial colonisation.

  1. End-specific strategies of attachment of long double stranded DNA onto gold-coated nanofiber arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckys, Diana B; De Jonge, Niels; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2008-01-01

    We report the effective and site-specific binding of long double stranded (ds)DNA to high aspect ratio carbon nanofiber arrays. The carbon nanofibers were first coated with a thin gold layer to provide anchorage for two controllable binding methods. One method was based on the direct binding of thiol end-labeled dsDNA. The second and enhanced method used amine end-labeled dsDNA bound with crosslinkers to a carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The bound dsDNA was first visualized with a fluorescent, dsDNA-intercalating dye. The specific binding onto the carbon nanofiber was verified by a high resolution detection method using scanning electron microscopy in combination with the binding of neutravidin-coated fluorescent microspheres to the immobilized and biotinylated dsDNA. Functional activity of thiol end-labeled dsDNA on gold-coated nanofiber arrays was verified with a transcriptional assay, whereby Chinese hamster lung cells (V79) were impaled upon the DNA-modified nanofibers and scored for transgene expression of the tethered template. Thiol end-labeled dsDNA demonstrated significantly higher expression levels than nanofibers prepared with control dsDNA that lacked a gold-binding end-label. Employing these site-specific and robust techniques of immobilization of dsDNA onto nanodevices can be of advantage for the study of DNA/protein interactions and for gene delivery applications.

  2. Antibacterial and Biocompatible Titanium-Copper Oxide Coating May Be a Potential Strategy to Reduce Periprosthetic Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, German A; Patel, Robin; Karau, Melissa; Wyles, Cody C; Jannetto, Paul J; Bennet, Kevin E; Hanssen, Arlen D; Sierra, Rafael J

    2017-03-01

    Periprosthetic infections are devastating for patients and more efficacious preventive strategies are needed. Surface-modified implants using antibacterial coatings represent an option to cope with this problem; however, manufacturing limitations and cytotoxicity have curbed clinical translation. Among metals with antibacterial properties, copper has shown superior in vitro antibacterial performance while maintaining an acceptable cytotoxicity profile. A thin film containing copper could prevent early biofilm formation to limit periprosthetic infections. This pilot study presents the in vitro antibacterial effect, cytotoxicity, and copper ion elution pattern of a thin film of titanium-copper oxide (TiCuO). (1) Do titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) discs coated with a thin film of TiCuO reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm and planktonic cell density compared with uncoated discs? (2) Do Ti6Al4V discs coated with a thin film of TiCuO affect normal human osteoblast viability compared with untreated cells? (3) Is copper ion concentration generated by coated discs lower than previously published copper ion concentrations that cause 50% toxicity in similar human cell lines in vitro (TC50)? Ninety Ti6Al4V discs (12.5 mm diameter; 1.25 mm thick) were used in this study. Seventy-two Ti6Al4V discs were coated with a thin film of either titanium oxide (TiO) or TiCuO containing 20%, 40%, or 80% copper using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Eighteen Ti6Al4V discs remained uncoated for control purposes. We tested antibacterial properties of S epidermidis grown on discs in wells containing growth medium. After 24 hours, planktonic bacteria as well as biofilms removed by sonication were quantitatively cultured. Annexin/Pi staining was used to quantify in vitro normal human osteoblast cell viability at 24 hours and Day 7, respectively. Copper elution was measured at Days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 28 using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to analyze aliquots of

  3. Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Climent, Salvador; Capella, Juan Vincente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    The specific characteristics of underwater environments introduce new challenges for networking protocols. In this paper, a specialized architecture for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed and evaluated. Experiments are conducted in order to analyze the suitability of this protocol for

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic underwater vehicular propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallom, D.W.; Sadovnik, I.; Gibbs, J.S.; Gurol, H.; Nguyen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The development of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion systems for underwater vehicles is discussed. According to the authors, it is a high risk endeavor that offers the possibility of a number of significant advantages over conventional propeller propulsion systems. These advantages may include the potential for greater stealth characteristics, increased maneuverability, enhanced survivability, elimination of cavitation limits, and addition of a significant emergency propulsion system. The possibility of increased stealth is by far the most important advantage. A conceptual design study has been completed with numerical results that shows that these advantages may be obtained with a magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system in an annular configuration externally surrounding a generic study submarine that is neutrally buoyant and can operate with the existing submarine propulsion system power plant. The classical submarine mission requirements make the use of these characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system particularly appropriate for submarine missions. The magnetohydrodynamic annular propulsion system for a generic attack class submarine has been designed to take advantage of the magnetohydrodynamic thruster characteristics

  5. Erosive wear of a surface coated hydroturbine steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Gun on a hot rolled 21Cr–4Ni–N steel meant for fabrication of hydro turbine underwater parts. The coatings have been characterized for microstructure, porosity, microhardness and crystalline nature. The erosion experiments were carried out using an air jet erosion test rig at a velocity of 120 ms. –1 and impingement angles.

  6. Dual Recognition Strategy for Specific and Sensitive Detection of Bacteria Using Aptamer-Coated Magnetic Beads and Antibiotic-Capped Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Yu, Mengqun; Fu, Fei; Han, Weiye; Li, Gan; Xie, Jianping; Song, Yang; Swihart, Mark T; Song, Erqun

    2016-01-05

    Food poisoning and infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are serious public health concerns. A method of specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of such bacteria is essential and important. This study presents a strategy that combines aptamer and antibiotic-based dual recognition units with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection to achieve specific and sensitive quantification of SA in authentic specimens and in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria. Aptamer-coated magnetic beads (Apt-MB) were employed for specific capture of SA. Vancomycin-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@Van) were prepared by a simple one-step process and used for sensitive quantification of SA in the range of 32-10(8) cfu/mL with the detection limit of 16 cfu/mL via a fluorescence intensity measurement. And using this strategy, about 70 cfu/mL of SA in complex samples (containing 3 × 10(8) cfu/mL of other different contaminated bacteria) could be successfully detected. In comparison to prior studies, the developed strategy here not only simplifies the preparation procedure of the fluorescent probes (AuNCs@Van) to a great extent but also could sensitively quantify SA in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria directly with good accuracy. Moreover, the aptamer and antibiotic used in this strategy are much less expensive and widely available compared to common-used antibodies, making it cost-effective. This general aptamer- and antibiotic-based dual recognition strategy, combined with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection of trace bacteria, shows great potential application in monitoring bacterial food contamination and infectious diseases.

  7. Fuzzy Adaptive Control for Trajectory Tracking of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nakhkoob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of the position and attitude tracking of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV in the horizontal plane, under the presence of ocean current disturbances is discussed. The effect of the gradual variation of the parameters is taken into account. The effectiveness of the adaptive controller is compared with a feedback linearization method and fuzzy gain control approach. The proposed strategy has been tested through simulations. Also, the performance of the propos-ed method is compared with other strategies given in some other studies. The boundedness and asymptotic converge-nce properties of the control algorithm and its semi-global stability are analytically proven using Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat’s lemma.

  8. Recent developments in underwater repair welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offer, H.P.; Chapman, T.L.; Willis, E.R.; Maslakowski, J.; Van Diemen, P.; Smith, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    As nuclear plants age and reactor internal components begin to show increased evidence of age-related phenomena such as corrosion and fatigue, interest in the development of cost-effective mitigation and repair remedies grows. One technology currently receiving greater development and application program focus is underwater welding. Underwater welding, as used herein, is the application of weld metal to a substrate surface that is wet, but locally dry in the immediate area surrounding the welding torch. The locally dry environment is achieved by the use of a mechanical device that is specifically designed for water exclusion from the welding torch, surface to be welded, and the welding groove. This paper will explore recent developments in the use of underwater welding as a mitigation and repair technique. (author)

  9. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF......). This paper presents an application of the Udwadia-Kalaba Equation for modelling the Reconfigurable Underwater Robots. The constraints developed to enforce the rigid connection between robots in the system is derived through restrictions on relative distances and orientations. To avoid singularities...... in the orientation and, thereby, allow the robots to undertake any relative configuration the attitude is represented in Euler parameters....

  10. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Underwater noise from offshore oil production vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; McPherson, Craig; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Underwater acoustic recordings of six Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels moored off Western Australia are presented. Monopole source spectra were computed for use in environmental impact assessments of underwater noise. Given that operations on the FPSOs varied over the period of recording, and were sometimes unknown, the authors present a statistical approach to noise level estimation. No significant or consistent aspect dependence was found for the six FPSOs. Noise levels did not scale with FPSO size or power. The 5th, 50th (median), and 95th percentile source levels (broadband, 20 to 2500 Hz) were 188, 181, and 173 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m, respectively.

  12. Hydroelastic behaviour of a structure exposed to an underwater explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, G.; Greco, M.; Brocchini, M.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydroelastic interaction between an underwater explosion and an elastic plate is investigated num- erically through a domain-decomposition strategy. The three-dimensional features of the problem require a large computational effort, which is reduced through a weak coupling between a one-dimensional radial blast solver, which resolves the blast evolution far from the boundaries, and a three-dimensional compressible flow solver used where the interactions between the compression wave and the boundaries take place and the flow becomes three-dimensional. The three-dimensional flow solver at the boundaries is directly coupled with a modal structural solver that models the response of the solid boundaries like elastic plates. This enables one to simulate the fluid–structure interaction as a strong coupling, in order to capture hydroelastic effects. The method has been applied to the experimental case of Hung et al. (2005 Int. J. Impact Eng. 31, 151–168 (doi:10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2003.10.039)) with explosion and structure sufficiently far from other boundaries and successfully validated in terms of the evolution of the acceleration induced on the plate. It was also used to investigate the interaction of an underwater explosion with the bottom of a close-by ship modelled as an orthotropic plate. In the application, the acoustic phase of the fluid–structure interaction is examined, highlighting the need of the fluid–structure coupling to capture correctly the possible inception of cavitation. PMID:25512585

  13. Power Control Optimization of an Underwater Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Aramendia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, it has been established that vibration energy harvesters with intentionally designed components can be used for frequency bandwidth enhancement under excitation for sufficiently high vibration amplitudes. Pipelines are often necessary means of transporting important resources such as water, gas, and oil. A self-powered wireless sensor network could be a sustainable alternative for in-pipe monitoring applications. A new control algorithm has been developed and implemented into an underwater energy harvester. Firstly, a computational study of a piezoelectric energy harvester for underwater applications has been studied for using the kinetic energy of water flow at four different Reynolds numbers Re = 3000, 6000, 9000, and 12,000. The device consists of a piezoelectric beam assembled to an oscillating cylinder inside the water of pipes from 2 to 5 inches in diameter. Therefore, unsteady simulations have been performed to study the dynamic forces under different water speeds. Secondly, a new control law strategy based on the computational results has been developed to extract as much energy as possible from the energy harvester. The results show that the harvester can efficiently extract the power from the kinetic energy of the fluid. The maximum power output is 996.25 µW and corresponds to the case with Re = 12,000.

  14. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites. Viscous doughlike substance underwater cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingstedt, G.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    A viscous sealant is revolutionizing repair of the stone and concrete masonry of underwater dams, bridges and canals. There is now no need for expensive and time-consuming cofferdams, since a diver can extrude quick-setting mortar into underwater structures needing repair. This technique has worked well in recent years in various parts of Finland even in strongly flowing water. IVO experts are now starting to look more beyond the borders of Finland

  15. Hybrid strategy with a bioresorbable scaffold and a drug-coated balloon for diffuse coronary artery disease: the "no more metallic cages" multicentre pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielasi, Alfonso; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Geraci, Salvatore; Testa, Luca; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Ruparelia, Neil; Sato, Takao; Caramanno, Giuseppe; Bedogni, Francesco; Tespili, Maurizio; Colombo, Antonio; Latib, Azeem

    2016-04-08

    Our aim was to assess the feasibility and results of a hybrid approach with a bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) plus a drug-coated balloon (DCB) for the treatment of diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD). A retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive patients with diffuse de novo or in-stent restenosis treated with BRS implantation (larger proximal segment) and DCB inflation (smaller distal segment or bifurcation side branch). Endpoints were procedural success, then ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularisation (ID-TLR) and BRS/DCB segment thrombosis rates at follow-up. A total of 42 consecutive patients were treated with the hybrid strategy. Mean patient age was 62±1.02 years, while 12 (28.6%) patients were diabetics. Mean BRS and DCB length were 28.0±5.1 mm and 25.8±8.8 mm, respectively. Procedural success was obtained in all patients, but three (7.3%) patients required bail-out scaffolding for DCB-related dissection. At a median follow-up of 12 months (IQR: 6-18), there were no cases of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or BRS/DCB segment thrombosis. ID-TLR occurred in two (4.7%) BRS-treated segments. Our data in consecutive patients with diffuse CAD suggest that a hybrid strategy using BRS and DCB in different segments of the diseased vessel is feasible and associated with encouraging clinical outcomes.

  16. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  17. Underwater Advanced Time-Domain Electromagnetic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    sufficiently waterproofed ...................................................................... 20 Objective: Calibration method can be used both topside... additional background variability is observed at early times, as illustrated in Figure 15. The layout of this figure is the same as Figure 14. Now the...are discussed in the following sections and summarized in Table 5. Objective: System is sufficiently waterproofed The array remained underwater up to

  18. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  19. Detection of Underwater UXOs in Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    2nd International Conference on Underwater Acoustic Measurements, Crete, Greece, 2007. 16 [10] P.T. Gough and D.W. Hawkins “Imaging algorithms...course. Runs 275 and 325 folla.v the same trad < and run 322 foUows a track on the opposite side of the swath. The LF SAS image of run 325 is shown

  20. Adaptive turbo equalization for underwater acoustic communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannelli, L; Leus, G.; Dol, H.S.; Walree, P.A. van

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a multiband transceiver designed for underwater channels is presented. Multi-branch filtering at the receiver is used to leverage the diversity offered by a multi-scale multi-lag scenario. The multi-branch bank of filters is constructed by estimating scale and delay coefficients

  1. Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly

  2. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  4. Stability analysis of hybrid-driven underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wen-dong; Wang, Shu-xin; Wang, Yan-hui; Song, Yang; Zhu, Ya-qiang

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid-driven underwater glider is a new type of unmanned underwater vehicle, which combines the advantages of autonomous underwater vehicles and traditional underwater gliders. The autonomous underwater vehicles have good maneuverability and can travel with a high speed, while the traditional underwater gliders are highlighted by low power consumption, long voyage, long endurance and good stealth characteristics. The hybrid-driven underwater gliders can realize variable motion profiles by their own buoyancy-driven and propeller propulsion systems. Stability of the mechanical system determines the performance of the system. In this paper, the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider developed by Tianjin University is selected as the research object and the stability of hybrid-driven underwater glider unitedly controlled by buoyancy and propeller has been targeted and evidenced. The dimensionless equations of the hybrid-driven underwater glider are obtained when the propeller is working. Then, the steady speed and steady glide path angle under steady-state motion have also been achieved. The steady-state operating conditions can be calculated when the hybrid-driven underwater glider reaches the desired steady-state motion. And the steadystate operating conditions are relatively conservative at the lower bound of the velocity range compared with the range of the velocity derived from the method of the composite Lyapunov function. By calculating the hydrodynamic coefficients of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider, the simulation analysis has been conducted. In addition, the results of the field trials conducted in the South China Sea and the Danjiangkou Reservoir of China have been presented to illustrate the validity of the analysis and simulation, and to show the feasibility of the method of the composite Lyapunov function which verifies the stability of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider.

  5. Biocompatible coatings for CMUTs in a harsh, aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X.; Nikoozadeh, A.; Beasley, M. A.; Yaralioglu, G. G.; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.; Pruitt, B. L.

    2007-05-01

    The results of coating capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with two different biocompatible materials, parylene-c and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), are reported. These materials were characterized for use with CMUTs to enable direct contact transcutaneous and in vivo imaging. A passivation coating is required to provide electrical isolation to the active areas of the device and to protect it from a corrosive environment. It must also provide good mechanical characteristics to void imaging artifacts. The coated devices were compared side by side with uncoated devices for testing in air. The resonant frequency, collapse voltage and crosstalk were sampled. Parylene coated CMUTs were also tested underwater using pulse excitation. The parylene coating provided electrical insulation to the aqueous solution for 14 days. Both coatings showed a decrease in device resonant frequency and an increase in collapse voltage, as expected from the proposed theory.

  6. Versatile synthetic strategy for coating upconverting nanoparticles with polymer shells through localized photopolymerization by using the particles as internal light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazit, Selim; Ambrosini, Serena; Marchyk, Nataliya; Palo, Emilia; Kale, Vishal; Soukka, Tero; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette; Haupt, Karsten

    2014-08-18

    We present a straightforward and generic strategy for coating upconverting nanoparticles (UCPs) with polymer shells for their protection, functionalization, conjugation, and for biocompatibility. UCPs are attracting much attention for their potential use as fluorescent labels in biological applications. However, they are hydrophobic and non-compatible with aqueous media; thus prior surface modification is essential. Our method uses the internal UV or visible light emitted from UCPs upon photoexcitation with near-infrared radiation, to locally photopolymerize a thin polymer shell around the UCPs. In this way, a large variety of monomers with different chemical functionalities can be incorporated. If required, a second layer can be added on top of the first. Our method can provide a large spectrum of surface functional groups rapidly and in one pot, hence offering a platform for the preparation of libraries of functional polymer-encapsulated UCPs for applications in bioassays, biosensing, optical imaging, and theranostics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Underwater videography and photography in Gulf of Kachchh. Sponsored by Gujarat Ecological Society, Vadodara, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Marine Archaeology Centre (MAC) has been carrying out underwater explorations and excavations of ancient ports and sunken shipwrecks to preserve underwater cultural heritage. MAC has the infrastructure facility to carry out underwater investigations...

  8. Hydrodynamic Coefficients Identification and Experimental Investigation for an Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong XIE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic coefficients are the foundation of unmanned underwater vehicles modeling and controller design. In order to reduce identification complexity and acquire necessary hydrodynamic coefficients for controllers design, the motion of the unmanned underwater vehicle was separated into vertical motion and horizontal motion models. Hydrodynamic coefficients were regarded as mapping parameters from input forces and moments to output velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle. The motion models of the unmanned underwater vehicle were nonlinear and Genetic Algorithm was adopted to identify those hydrodynamic coefficients. To verify the identification quality, velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle was measured using inertial sensor under the same conditions as Genetic Algorithm identification. Curves similarity between measured velocities and acceleration and those identified by Genetic Algorithm were used as optimizing standard. It is found that the curves similarity were high and identified hydrodynamic coefficients of the unmanned underwater vehicle satisfied the measured motion states well.

  9. Delay Tolerance in Underwater Wireless Communications: A Routing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Hussain Bouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to terrestrial networks, underwater wireless networks (UWNs also aid several critical tasks including coastal surveillance, underwater pollution detection, and other maritime applications. Currently, once underwater sensor nodes are deployed at different levels of the sea, it is nearly impossible or very expensive to reconfigure the hardware, for example, battery. Taking this issue into account, considerable amount of research has been carried out to ensure minimum energy costs and reliable communication between underwater nodes and base stations. As a result, several different network protocols were proposed for UWN, including MAC, PHY, transport, and routing. Recently, a new paradigm was introduced claiming that the intermittent nature of acoustic channel and signal resulted in designing delay tolerant routing schemes for the UWN, known as an underwater delay tolerant network. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of underwater routing protocols with emphasis on the limitations, challenges, and future open issues in the context of delay tolerant network routing.

  10. An Evaluation of Potential Operating Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    remote control of such vehicles requires the use of a tether , limiting the vehicle’s range; however operating underwater vehicles autonomously requires...URBI Universal Robot Body Interface UUV Unmanned Underwater Vehicle UNCLASSIFIED xi DSTO–TN–1194 UNCLASSIFIED THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY BLANK xii... underwater environment, where many platforms are still reliant upon an umbilical tether for power and high bandwidth communications. This tether

  11. On the Performance of the Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    waves for Underwater Wireless Communication (UWC); radio waves, optical waves, and acoustic waves are few to name. Radio waves are good for extra low...2211 underwater communication , wireless sensors, mutual information REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR...Cotae, “On the Performance of the Underwater Wireless Communication Sensor Networks: Work in Progress” ASEE Mid-Atlantic Fall 2014 Conference

  12. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  13. Cymbal and BB underwater transducers and arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnham, R.E.; Zhang, J.; Alkoy, S.; Meyer, R.; Hughes, W.J.; Hladky-Hennion, A.C.; Cochran, J.; Markley, D. [Materials Research Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The cymbal is a miniaturized class V flextensional transducer that was developed for use as a shallow water sound projector and receiver. Single elements are characterized by high Q, low efficiency, and medium power output capability. Its low cost and thin profile allow the transducer to be assembled into large flexible arrays. Efforts were made to model both single elements and arrays using the ATILA code and the integral equation formulation (EQI).Millimeter size microprobe hydrophones (BBs) have been designed and fabricated from miniature piezoelectric hollow ceramic spheres for underwater applications such as mapping acoustic fields of projectors, and flow noise sensors for complex underwater structures. Green spheres are prepared from soft lead zirconate titanate powders using a coaxial nozzle slurry process. A compact hydrophone with a radially-poled sphere is investigated using inside and outside electrodes. Characterization of these hydrophones is done through measurement of hydrostatic piezoelectric charge coefficients, free field voltage sensitivities and directivity beam patterns. (orig.)

  14. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: nathan.merchant@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  15. Ocean Research Enabled by Underwater Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that profile vertically by changing their buoyancy and use wings to move horizontally. Gliders are useful for sustained observation at relatively fine horizontal scales, especially to connect the coastal and open ocean. In this review, research topics are grouped by time and length scales. Large-scale topics addressed include the eastern and western boundary currents and the regional effects of climate variability. The accessibility of horizontal length scales of order 1 km allows investigation of mesoscale and submesoscale features such as fronts and eddies. Because the submesoscales dominate vertical fluxes in the ocean, gliders have found application in studies of biogeochemical processes. At the finest scales, gliders have been used to measure internal waves and turbulent dissipation. The review summarizes gliders' achievements to date and assesses their future in ocean observation.

  16. Durable underwater superoleophobic PDDA/halloysite nanotubes decorated stainless steel mesh for efficient oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kun; Zeng, Yicheng; Zhou, Cailong; Chen, Jiahui; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Lin, Yingguang; Pi, Pihui

    2017-09-01

    A durable underwater superoleophobic mesh was conveniently prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) on a stainless steel mesh. The hierarchical structure and roughness of the PDDA/HNTs coating surface were controlled by adjusting the number of layer deposition cycles. When the PDDA/HNTs coating with 10 deposition cycles was decorated on the mesh with pore size of about 54 μm, the underwater superoleophobic mesh was obtained. The as-prepared underwater superoleophobic PDDA/HNTs decorated mesh exhibits outstanding oil-water separation performance with a separation efficiency of over 97% for various oil/water mixtures, which allowed water to pass through while repelled oil completely. In addition, the as-prepared decorated mesh still maintained high separation efficiency above 97% after repeated 20 separation times for hexane/water mixture or chloroform/water mixture. More importantly, the as-prepared decorated mesh is durable enough to resist chemical and mechanical challenges, such as strong alkaline, salt aqueous and sand abrasion. Therefore, the as-prepared decorated mesh has practical utility in oil-water separation due to its stable oil-water performance, remarkable chemical and mechanical durability and the facile and eco-friendly preparation process.

  17. A MAC protocol for underwater sensors networks

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio; Meseguer Pallarès, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    “The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26401-1_37." Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of its everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geo-localization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. It is well-known the challenge that represents to perfo...

  18. Passive Mode Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    irreversible Joule heat) by an electric light bulb . The reciprocal (or reverse) of this process by supplying heat and shining light to the same electric bulb ...limit the invention to the precise form disclosed; and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching...300151 1 of 14 PASSIVE MODE CARBON NANOTUBE UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC TRANSDUCER STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described

  19. Underwater suction device for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Peloquin, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    An underwater suction device for collecting irradiated materials in a pool of water includes injection and suction tubes and a removable, disposable filter for capturing irradiated materials. Pressurized water is injected into the suction tube through a jet pump nozzle to establish a suction flow through the tube. The suction device is manoeuverable by a pole, which is pivotally connected to the suction device by a latching mechanism. (author)

  20. Tethered Antennas for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Concepts The first design (Figure 1) was based on the concept of an airfoil kite. The shape of the tow body was built around a NACA5515 hydrofoil to...Underwater Vehicles Brooke Ocean Technology (USA) Inc. 6 Figure 1: Hydrofoil Design The second design was based on that of a boat hull...communications. A sharp bow was utilized to cut through the water to reduce drag when on the surface. Like the hydrofoil design the top profile was

  1. MEDITERRANEAN: Underwater neutrinos get off the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Now funded is the initial stage of NESTOR, an imaginative new programme for a dedicated underwater neutrino astroparticle physics laboratory. Located in the international waters off the southernmost corner of continental Europe near the town of Pylos in S.W. Greece, NESTOR (NEutrinos from Supernovae and TeV sources Ocean Range) recalls the wise king of Pylos who counselled the Greeks during the Trojan war, an excellent tradition for new scientific goals of detecting neutrinos

  2. Obstacle avoidance in underwater glider path planning

    OpenAIRE

    Isern González, Josep; Hernández Sosa, Daniel; Fernández Perdomo, Enrique; Cabrera Gámez, Jorge; Domínguez Brito, Antonio Carlos; Prieto Marañón, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Underwater gliders have revealed as a valuable scientific platform, with a growing number of successful environmental sampling applications. They are specially suited for long range missions due to their unmatched autonomy level, although their low surge speed make them strongly affected by ocean currents. Path planning constitute a real concern for this type of vehicle, as it may reduce the time taken to reach a given waypoint or save power. In such a dynamic environment it is not easy to fi...

  3. A Recovery System for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    300170 1 of 10 A RECOVERY SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED UNDERWATER VEHICLES STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may...6 of 10 forces cannot be easily predicted and can be strong enough to require a significantly larger handling system and significantly more...the sea state, the ship handling system , the capture mechanism and the design of the capture mechanism 400. [0024] The water jets 100 will increase

  4. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M

    2007-01-01

    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  5. Underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016). Prelim......The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016...

  6. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-12-07

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  7. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shortis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  8. Automatic stabilization of underwater robots in the time manipulation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filaretov, V.F.; Koval, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    When carrying out underwater technical works by means of an underwater vehicles having a manipulator it is desirable to perform manipulation operations in the regime of the underwater vehicle hovering above the object without durable and complicated operations up its rigid fixation. Underwater vehicle stabilization is achieved by compensation all the effects on the vehicle caused by the operating manipulator in water medium. This automatic stabilization is formed due to input of the required control signals into corresponding vehicle propellers proportional to calculated components of the generalized forces and moments. The propellers should form stops reacting against effects

  9. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  10. Autopilot Using Differential Thrust for ARIES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarton, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, communication antennas must point to specific satellites in this system and thus underwater vehicles must steer a specific course on the surface during the communication process...

  11. Underwater Acoustic Target Tracking: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhai; Han, Ying; Fan, Liying

    2018-01-02

    Advances in acoustic technology and instrumentation now make it possible to explore marine resources. As a significant component of ocean exploration, underwater acoustic target tracking has aroused wide attention both in military and civil fields. Due to the complexity of the marine environment, numerous techniques have been proposed to obtain better tracking performance. In this paper, we survey over 100 papers ranging from innovative papers to the state-of-the-art in this field to present underwater tracking technologies. Not only the related knowledge of acoustic tracking instrument and tracking progress is clarified in detail, but also a novel taxonomy method is proposed. In this paper, algorithms for underwater acoustic target tracking are classified based on the methods used as: (1) instrument-assisted methods; (2) mode-based methods; (3) tracking optimization methods. These algorithms are compared and analyzed in the aspect of dimensions, numbers, and maneuvering of the tracking target, which is different from other survey papers. Meanwhile, challenges, countermeasures, and lessons learned are illustrated in this paper.

  12. Underwater detection by using ultrasonic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, S. A. A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    This paper described the low cost implementation of hardware and software in developing the system of ultrasonic which can visualize the feedback of sound in the form of measured distance through mobile phone and monitoring the frequency of detection by using real time graph of Java application. A single waterproof transducer of JSN-SR04T had been used to determine the distance of an object based on operation of the classic pulse echo detection method underwater. In this experiment, the system was tested by placing the housing which consisted of Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module of HC-06, ultrasonic sensor and LEDs at the top of the box and the transducer was immersed in the water. The system which had been tested for detection in vertical form was found to be capable of reporting through the use of colored LEDs as indicator to the relative proximity of object distance underwater form the sensor. As a conclusion, the system can detect the presence of an object underwater within the range of ultrasonic sensor and display the measured distance onto the mobile phone and the real time graph had been successfully generated.

  13. Modeling and Control of Underwater Robotic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjoelberg, I:

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes modeling and control of underwater vehicle-manipulator systems. The thesis also presents a model and a control scheme for a system consisting of a surface vessel connected to an underwater robotic system by means of a slender marine structure. The equations of motion of the underwater vehicle and manipulator are described and the system kinematics and properties presented. Feedback linearization technique is applied to the system and evaluated through a simulation study. Passivity-based controllers for vehicle and manipulator control are presented. Stability of the closed loop system is proved and simulation results are given. The equation of motion for lateral motion of a cable/riser system connected to a surface vessel at the top end and to a thruster at the bottom end is described and stability analysis and simulations are presented. The equations of motion in 3 degrees of freedom of the cable/riser, surface vessel and robotic system are given. Stability analysis of the total system with PD-controllers is presented. 47 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  15. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O 2 ) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H 2 O 2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H 2 O 2 addition with O 2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH • , H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O 2 injected and H 2 O 2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  16. Photoactivatable Mussel-Based Underwater Adhesive Proteins by an Expanded Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, Matthias; Richter, Florian; Schneider, Tobias; Faidt, Thomas; Martins, Berta M; Baumann, Tobias; Durkin, Patrick; Dobbek, Holger; Jacobs, Karin; Möglich, Andreas; Budisa, Nediljko

    2017-09-19

    Marine mussels exhibit potent underwater adhesion abilities under hostile conditions by employing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-rich mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, their recombinant production is a major biotechnological challenge. Herein, a novel strategy based on genetic code expansion has been developed by engineering efficient aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases (aaRSs) for the photocaged noncanonical amino acid ortho-nitrobenzyl DOPA (ONB-DOPA). The engineered ONB-DOPARS enables in vivo production of MAP type 5 site-specifically equipped with multiple instances of ONB-DOPA to yield photocaged, spatiotemporally controlled underwater adhesives. Upon exposure to UV light, these proteins feature elevated wet adhesion properties. This concept offers new perspectives for the production of recombinant bioadhesives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of Multiple Linear Regression-Based Limited Sampling Strategies for Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Tett, Susan E; Isbel, Nicole M; McWhinney, Brett; Staatz, Christine E

    2018-04-01

    Although multiple linear regression-based limited sampling strategies (LSSs) have been published for enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, none have been evaluated for the prediction of subsequent mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. This study aimed to examine the predictive performance of the published LSS for the estimation of future MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) in renal transplant recipients. Total MPA plasma concentrations were measured in 20 adult renal transplant patients on 2 occasions a week apart. All subjects received concomitant tacrolimus and were approximately 1 month after transplant. Samples were taken at 0, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, and 8 hours and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 hours after dose on the first and second sampling occasion, respectively. Predicted MPA AUC0-12 was calculated using 19 published LSSs and data from the first or second sampling occasion for each patient and compared with the second occasion full MPA AUC0-12 calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Bias (median percentage prediction error) and imprecision (median absolute prediction error) were determined. Median percentage prediction error and median absolute prediction error for the prediction of full MPA AUC0-12 were multiple linear regression-based LSS was not possible without concentrations up to at least 8 hours after the dose.

  18. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed underwater cutting technique for 4.2 mm thick zircaloy pressure tubes and up to 6 mm thick steel using fibre-coupled 250 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This underwater cutting technique will be highly useful in various nuclear applications as well as in dismantling/repair of ship and pipe lines ...

  19. Visual-adaptation-mechanism based underwater object extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Huibin; Xu, Lizhong; Shen, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Due to the major obstacles originating from the strong light absorption and scattering in a dynamic underwater environment, underwater optical information acquisition and processing suffer from effects such as limited range, non-uniform lighting, low contrast, and diminished colors, causing it to become the bottleneck for marine scientific research and projects. After studying and generalizing the underwater biological visual mechanism, we explore its advantages in light adaption which helps animals to precisely sense the underwater scene and recognize their prey or enemies. Then, aiming to transform the significant advantage of the visual adaptation mechanism into underwater computer vision tasks, a novel knowledge-based information weighting fusion model is established for underwater object extraction. With this bionic model, the dynamical adaptability is given to the underwater object extraction task, making them more robust to the variability of the optical properties in different environments. The capability of the proposed method to adapt to the underwater optical environments is shown, and its outperformance for the object extraction is demonstrated by comparison experiments.

  20. Self-localization for underwater inspection robot in reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Futoshi; Kojima, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    An underwater inspection robot has been needed for preventive maintenance in a nuclear power plant. This paper deals with a self-localization method for the underwater inspection robot. In this method, the position and the orientation of the robot are estimated by using the particle filter. For showing the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment with real robot is demonstrated. (author)

  1. WODA technical guidance on underwater sound from dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C. de; Wit, P. de; Goethals, F.; Holtkamp, M.; Martin, E.S.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Victor, G.Y.V.; Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic

  2. Characterization of ships as sources of underwater noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the possible impact of anthropogenic underwater noise on marine life [1]. One of the concerns is the increasing contribution of shipping noise, with the growing number and size of commercial ships. Traditionally, underwater radiated noise control was only of interest

  3. The WODA guidance paper on underwater sound from dredging (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Witt, P. de; Holtkamp, M.; Goethals, F.; San Martin, E.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) was established to provide a guidance paper on dredging sound, impact on aquatic biota and advice on

  4. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser cutting; underwater laser cutting; fibre optic beam delivery; Nd:YAG laser; material processing; heat affected zone; microstructure. PACS Nos 42.62.Cf; 42.62.-b; 42.55.Rz; 42.81.Ai; 42.81.-i. 1. Introduction. Underwater laser cutting and welding has many applications in nuclear facilities and shiping industry and is a ...

  5. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs for Underwater Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer structure for use in underwater imaging is designed, fabricated and tested in this paper. In this structure, a silicon dioxide insulation layer is inserted between the top electrodes and the vibration membrane to prevent ohmic contact. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristic curve shows that the transducer offers suitable levels of hysteresis and repeatability performance. The −6 dB center frequency is 540 kHz and the transducer has a bandwidth of 840 kHz for a relative bandwidth of 155%. Underwater pressure of 143.43 Pa is achieved 1 m away from the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer under 20  excitation. Two-dimensional underwater ultrasonic imaging, which is able to prove that a rectangular object is present underwater, is achieved. The results presented here indicate that our work will be highly beneficial for the establishment of an underwater ultrasonic imaging system.

  6. Underwater Sensor Network Redeployment Algorithm Based on Wolf Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Feng, Yang; Wu, Feng

    2016-10-21

    This study addresses the optimization of node redeployment coverage in underwater wireless sensor networks. Given that nodes could easily become invalid under a poor environment and the large scale of underwater wireless sensor networks, an underwater sensor network redeployment algorithm was developed based on wolf search. This study is to apply the wolf search algorithm combined with crowded degree control in the deployment of underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm uses nodes to ensure coverage of the events, and it avoids the prematurity of the nodes. The algorithm has good coverage effects. In addition, considering that obstacles exist in the underwater environment, nodes are prevented from being invalid by imitating the mechanism of avoiding predators. Thus, the energy consumption of the network is reduced. Comparative analysis shows that the algorithm is simple and effective in wireless sensor network deployment. Compared with the optimized artificial fish swarm algorithm, the proposed algorithm exhibits advantages in network coverage, energy conservation, and obstacle avoidance.

  7. Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Rohrer, John S.; Caviggia, Kurt A.

    2011-09-19

    The purpose of this study was to design and build two versions of an underwater sound recording device. The device designed is referred to as the Underwater Sound Recorder (USR), which can be connected to one or two hydrophones or other underwater sound sensors. The URS contains a 26 dB preamplifier and a user selectable gain that permits additional amplification of input to the system from 26 dB to 46 dB. Signals within the frequency range up to 15 kHz may be recorded using the USR. Examples of USR applications are monitoring underwater processes that have the potential to create large pressure waves that could potentially harm fish or other aquatic life, such as underwater explosions or pile driving. Additional applications are recording sound generated by vessels or the vocalizations of some marine mammals, such as the calls from many species of whales.

  8. A man-made object detection for underwater TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Wenwu; Chen, Yao

    2018-03-01

    It is a great challenging task to complete an automatic search of objects underwater. Usually the forward looking sonar is used to find the target, and then the initial identification of the target is completed by the side-scan sonar, and finally the confirmation of the target is accomplished by underwater TV. This paper presents an efficient method for automatic extraction of man-made sensitive targets in underwater TV. Firstly, the image of underwater TV is simplified with taking full advantage of the prior knowledge of the target and the background; then template matching technology is used for target detection; finally the target is confirmed by extracting parallel lines on the target contour. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited-memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects in underwater TV.

  9. Underwater welding using remote controlled robots. Development of remote underwater welding technology with a high power YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Syuuichi; Kojima, Toshio; Owaki, Katsura; Hirose, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    As components in nuclear power plant have been periodically carried out their inspection and repair to keep their integrity, on radioactive liquid wastes storage facility, because of difficulty on their inspection by human beings, some are remained without inspection, and even when capable of inspection, conversion from human works to remote operations is desired from a viewpoint of their operation efficiency upgrading. For response to these needs, some developments on a technology capable of carrying out inspection of their inside at underwater environment and repairing welding with YAG laser by means of remote operation, have been performed. Remote underwater inspection and repair technology is a combination technology of already applied underwater mobile technique (underwater inspection robot) with underwater YAG laser welding technique which is recently at actual using level. Therefore, this technology is composed of an inspection robot and a repair welding robot. And, testing results using the underwater inspection robot and welding test results using the underwater repair welding robot, were enough preferable to obtain forecasting applicable to actual apparatuses. This technology is especially effective for inspection and repair of inside of nuclear fuel cycle apparatuses and relatively high dose apparatuses, and can be thought to be applicable also to large capacity tanks, tanks dealing with harmful matters, underwater structures, and so on, in general industries. (G.K.)

  10. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le

    1996-01-01

    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  11. Hemispherical optical dome for underwater communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2017-08-01

    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water, even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple communication system, consisting only of a highly directional source/transmitter and small optical detector/receiver, has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter. Two versions of the optical dome (with 6" and 8" diameters) were designed using PTC's Creo CAD software and modeled using Synopsys' CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows that the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with

  12. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  13. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  14. Navigation System Fault Diagnosis for Underwater Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thomas; Gregersen, Rene Tavs; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates fault diagnosis on unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) based on analysis of structure of the nonlinear dynamics. Residuals are generated using dierent approaches in structural analysis followed by statistical change detection. Hypothesis testing thresholds are made signal...... based to cope with non-ideal properties seen in real data. Detection of both sensor and thruster failures are demonstrated. Isolation is performed using the residual signature of detected faults and the change detection algorithm is used to assess severity of faults by estimating their magnitude...

  15. Adaptive Target Tracking for Underwater Maneuvering Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    concenetrate on the bearings-only approach. In this method the Observer monitors his bearing to the Source, over a period of time. Usually the Observer must...developed in [ 5] was earlier applied with much success to tracking maneuvering air targets. This approach will now be applied in the underwater environment...April 1977. [11] A. H. Jazwinski, Stochastic Processes and Filtering Theory, Academic Press, New York, 1970. [12] D. H. Halliday, and R. Resnick, Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966. hI

  16. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete your underwater survey, you may use divers or an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). (a) If you use divers to...

  17. Underwater Robot Task Planning Using Multi-Objective Meta-Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Torres, Itziar; Manjarres, Diana; Bilbao, Sonia; Del Ser, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Robotics deployed in the underwater medium are subject to stringent operational conditions that impose a high degree of criticality on the allocation of resources and the schedule of operations in mission planning. In this context the so-called cost of a mission must be considered as an additional criterion when designing optimal task schedules within the mission at hand. Such a cost can be conceived as the impact of the mission on the robotic resources themselves, which range from the consumption of battery to other negative effects such as mechanic erosion. This manuscript focuses on this issue by devising three heuristic solvers aimed at efficiently scheduling tasks in robotic swarms, which collaborate together to accomplish a mission, and by presenting experimental results obtained over realistic scenarios in the underwater environment. The heuristic techniques resort to a Random-Keys encoding strategy to represent the allocation of robots to tasks and the relative execution order of such tasks within the schedule of certain robots. The obtained results reveal interesting differences in terms of Pareto optimality and spread between the algorithms considered in the benchmark, which are insightful for the selection of a proper task scheduler in real underwater campaigns. PMID:28375160

  18. Underwater Robot Task Planning Using Multi-Objective Meta-Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Landa-Torres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Robotics deployed in the underwater medium are subject to stringent operational conditions that impose a high degree of criticality on the allocation of resources and the schedule of operations in mission planning. In this context the so-called cost of a mission must be considered as an additional criterion when designing optimal task schedules within the mission at hand. Such a cost can be conceived as the impact of the mission on the robotic resources themselves, which range from the consumption of battery to other negative effects such as mechanic erosion. This manuscript focuses on this issue by devising three heuristic solvers aimed at efficiently scheduling tasks in robotic swarms, which collaborate together to accomplish a mission, and by presenting experimental results obtained over realistic scenarios in the underwater environment. The heuristic techniques resort to a Random-Keys encoding strategy to represent the allocation of robots to tasks and the relative execution order of such tasks within the schedule of certain robots. The obtained results reveal interesting differences in terms of Pareto optimality and spread between the algorithms considered in the benchmark, which are insightful for the selection of a proper task scheduler in real underwater campaigns.

  19. Underwater Robot Task Planning Using Multi-Objective Meta-Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Torres, Itziar; Manjarres, Diana; Bilbao, Sonia; Del Ser, Javier

    2017-04-04

    Robotics deployed in the underwater medium are subject to stringent operational conditions that impose a high degree of criticality on the allocation of resources and the schedule of operations in mission planning. In this context the so-called cost of a mission must be considered as an additional criterion when designing optimal task schedules within the mission at hand. Such a cost can be conceived as the impact of the mission on the robotic resources themselves, which range from the consumption of battery to other negative effects such as mechanic erosion. This manuscript focuses on this issue by devising three heuristic solvers aimed at efficiently scheduling tasks in robotic swarms, which collaborate together to accomplish a mission, and by presenting experimental results obtained over realistic scenarios in the underwater environment. The heuristic techniques resort to a Random-Keys encoding strategy to represent the allocation of robots to tasks and the relative execution order of such tasks within the schedule of certain robots. The obtained results reveal interesting differences in terms of Pareto optimality and spread between the algorithms considered in the benchmark, which are insightful for the selection of a proper task scheduler in real underwater campaigns.

  20. A Scalable Method toward Superhydrophilic and Underwater Superoleophobic PVDF Membranes for Effective Oil/Water Emulsion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Meng, Jianqiang; Hao, Tingyu; Wang, Zihong; Zhang, Yufeng

    2015-07-15

    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic PVDF membrane (PVDFAH) has been prepared by surface-coating of a hydrogel onto the membrane surface, and its superior performance for oil/water emulsion separation has been demonstrated. The coated hydrogel was constructed by an interfacial polymerization based on the thiol-epoxy reaction of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) with diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) and simultaneously tethered on an alkaline-treated commercial PVDF membrane surface via the thio-ene reaction. The PVDFAH membranes can be fabricated in a few minutes under mild conditions and show superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties for a series of organic solvents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis shows that the hydrogel coating was efficient throughout the pore lumen. The membrane shows superior oil/water emulsion separation performance, including high water permeation, quantitative oil rejection, and robust antifouling performance in a series oil/water emulsions, including that prepared from crude oil. In addition, a 24 h Soxhlet-extraction experiment with ethanol/water solution (50:50, v/v) was conducted to test the tethered hydrogel stability. We see that the membrane maintained the water contact angle below 5°, indicating the covalent tethering stability. This technique shows great promise for scalable fabrication of membrane materials for handling practical oil emulsion purification.

  1. High-rate wireless data communications: An underwater acoustic communications framework at the physical layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessios Anthony G.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of signal processing functions are performed by Underwater Acoustic Systems. These include: 1 detection to determine presence or absence of information signals in the presence of noise, or an attempt to describe which of a predetermined finite set of possible messages { m i , i , ... , M } the signal represents; 2 estimation of some parameter θ ˆ associated with the received signal (i.e. range, depth, bearing angle, etc.; 3 classification and source identification; 4 dynamics tracking; 5 navigation (collision avoidance and terminal guidance; 6 countermeasures; and 7 communications. The focus of this paper is acoustic communications. There is a global current need to develop reliable wireless digital communications for the underwater environment, with sufficient performance and efficiency to substitute for costly wired systems. One possible goal is a wireless system implementation that insures underwater terminal mobility. There is also a vital need to improve the performance of the existing systems in terms of data-rate, noise immunity, operational range, and power consumption, since, in practice, portable high-speed, long range, compact, low-power systems are desired. We concede the difficulties associated with acoustic systems and concentrate on the development of robust data transmission methods anticipating the eventual need for real time or near real time video transmission. An overview of the various detection techniques and the general statistical digital communication problem is given based on a statistical decision theory framework. The theoretical formulation of the underwater acoustic data communications problem includes modeling of the stochastic channel to incorporate a variety of impairments and environmental uncertainties, and proposal of new compensation strategies for an efficient and robust receiver design.

  2. Underwater pipeline impact localization using piezoceramic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junxiao; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Patil, Devendra; Wang, Ning; Hirsch, Rachel; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-01

    Reports indicated that impact events accounted for 47% of offshore pipeline failures, which calls for impact detection and localization for subsea pipelines. In this paper, an innovative method for rapid localization of impacts on underwater pipelines utilizing a novel determination technique for both arrival-time and group velocity (ATGV) of ultrasonic guided waves with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers is described. PZT transducers mounted on the outer surface of a model pipeline were utilized to measure ultrasonic guided waves generated by impact events. Based on the signals from PZT sensors, the ATGV technique integrates wavelet decomposition, Hilbert transform and statistical analysis to pinpoint the arrival-time of the designated ultrasonic guided waves with a specific group velocity. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the localization accuracy for eight impact points along a model underwater pipeline. All estimations errors were small and were comparable with the wavelength of the designated ultrasonic guided waves. Furthermore, the method is robust against the low frequency structural vibration introduced by other external forces.

  3. GAS FLOW IN UNDERWATER BREATHING INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca CONSTANTIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The open circuit underwater breathing apparatus can be a one or two-stage regulator used in scuba diving or a two-stage regulator used in surface supplied installations. These installations are proper in underwater sites at small depth. The pneumatic circuit of a two-stage regulator is composed mainly of a first stage regulator mounted on the air cylinders and a second stage carried by the diver in his mouth. The two regulators are linked together by a medium pressure hose. The circuit opens when the depression created by the diver’s inhalation, in the second stage body, reaches a certain value. The second stage opening causes a transient movement, namely an expansion wave that propagates through the medium pressure hose to the first stage regulator. The first stage regulator opens and the air in the cylinders is allowed to flow to the diver. The longer the hose, the greater the duration of the expansion wave propagation. Investigations on the wave propagation offer data on the inspiration unsteady motion duration which influences the respiratory effort of the diver.

  4. An explanatory model of underwater adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Colodro

    Full Text Available The underwater environment is an extreme environment that requires a process of human adaptation with specific psychophysiological demands to ensure survival and productive activity. From the standpoint of existing models of intelligence, personality and performance, in this explanatory study we have analyzed the contribution of individual differences in explaining the adaptation of military personnel in a stressful environment. Structural equation analysis was employed to verify a model representing the direct effects of psychological variables on individual adaptation to an adverse environment, and we have been able to confirm, during basic military diving courses, the structural relationships among these variables and their ability to predict a third of the variance of a criterion that has been studied very little to date. In this way, we have confirmed in a sample of professionals (N = 575 the direct relationship of emotional adjustment, conscientiousness and general mental ability with underwater adaptation, as well as the inverse relationship of emotional reactivity. These constructs are the psychological basis for working under water, contributing to an improved adaptation to this environment and promoting risk prevention and safety in diving activities.

  5. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  6. Hydrogel microphones for stealthy underwater listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Song, Jingfeng; Li, Shumin; Elowsky, Christian; Zhou, You; Ducharme, Stephen; Chen, Yong Mei; Zhou, Qin; Tan, Li

    2016-08-01

    Exploring the abundant resources in the ocean requires underwater acoustic detectors with a high-sensitivity reception of low-frequency sound from greater distances and zero reflections. Here we address both challenges by integrating an easily deformable network of metal nanoparticles in a hydrogel matrix for use as a cavity-free microphone. Since metal nanoparticles can be densely implanted as inclusions, and can even be arranged in coherent arrays, this microphone can detect static loads and air breezes from different angles, as well as underwater acoustic signals from 20 Hz to 3 kHz at amplitudes as low as 4 Pa. Unlike dielectric capacitors or cavity-based microphones that respond to stimuli by deforming the device in thickness directions, this hydrogel device responds with a transient modulation of electric double layers, resulting in an extraordinary sensitivity (217 nF kPa-1 or 24 μC N-1 at a bias of 1.0 V) without using any signal amplification tools.

  7. Hybrid Underwater Vehicle: ARV Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang DENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of SMU-I, a new autonomous & remotely-operated vehicle (ARV is described. Since it has both the characteristics of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV and remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV, it is able to achieve precision fix station operation and manual timely intervention. In the paper the initial design of basic components, such as vehicle, propulsion, batteries etc. and the control design of motion are introduced and analyzed. ROV’s conventional cable is replaced by a fiber optic cable, which makes it available for high-bandwidth real-time video, data telemetry and high-quality teleoperation. Furthermore, with the aid of the manual real-time remote operation and ranging sonar, it also resolves the AUV’s conflicting issue, which can absolutely adapt the actual complex sea environment and satisfy the unknown mission need. The whole battery system is designed as two-battery banks, whose voltages and temperatures are monitored through CAN (controller area network bus to avoid battery fire and explosion. A fuzzy-PID controller is designed for its motion control, including depth control and direction control. The controller synthesizes the advantage of fuzzy control and PID control, utilizes the fuzzy rules to on-line tune the parameters of PID controller, and achieves a better control effect. Experiment results demonstrate to show the effectiveness of the test-bed.

  8. Software architecture of biomimetic underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praczyk, Tomasz; Szymak, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are vehicles that are entirely or partly independent of human decisions. In order to obtain operational independence, the vehicles have to be equipped with a specialized software. The main task of the software is to move the vehicle along a trajectory with collision avoidance. Moreover, the software has also to manage different devices installed on the vehicle board, e.g. to start and stop cameras, sonars etc. In addition to the software embedded on the vehicle board, the software responsible for managing the vehicle by the operator is also necessary. Its task is to define mission of the vehicle, to start, to stop the mission, to send emergency commands, to monitor vehicle parameters, and to control the vehicle in remotely operated mode. An important objective of the software is also to support development and tests of other software components. To this end, a simulation environment is necessary, i.e. simulation model of the vehicle and all its key devices, the model of the sea environment, and the software to visualize behavior of the vehicle. The paper presents architecture of the software designed for biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV) that is being constructed within the framework of the scientific project financed by Polish National Center of Research and Development.

  9. STABILITY OF UNDERWATER STRUCTURE UNDER WAVE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Paotonan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Geotube is, among others, a type of coastal structure that is increasingly accepted for coastal protection especially underwater breakwater. Besides its relatively low cost, it has other advantages such as flexibility, ease of construction and the fact that it can be filled with local sand material. Similar to all other coastal structures, it should also be stable under wave attack. A simple theoretical approach based on linear wave was adopted to estimate the stability of such structure. The theoretical solution was then compared with an experimental study. The experimental study was conducted at the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of Universitas Gadjah Mada. However, instead of a real geotube, PVC pipe was used where the weight of the PVC was varied by adjusting the volume of sand in the pipe. The result indicated that the agreement between the theoretical solution and the experiment was encouraging. The analytical solution may be utilized to predict underwater pipe stability under wave attack with certain degree of accuracy.

  10. Underwater Wireless Acousto-Optic Waveguide (UWAOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Giovanni; Kent, Lionel W. J.; Laycock, Leslie C.

    2017-10-01

    The present study originated in the lack of research into achieving underwater total internal reflection (TIR) via the acousto-optic effect. The uniqueness of this technique exists in the fact that it is based on a high sound pressure level which induces a localised change in refractive index of seawater sufficient to achieve total internal reflection within the communication channel. Different transducer systems for generating the pressure wave have been investigated and take the form of a wave which may be either a standing wave, or a novel beamforming technique. The former is based on an array of transducers and with an acoustic mirror at the receiver in order to establish the standing wave. The alternative approach relies on the high intrinsic directionality of a novel beamformer where an annular transducer array is examined as an acoustic source. In this paper, the main characteristics of the acoustic optic waveguide will be presented. This will include both sound and light propagation in the ocean, TIR, novel beam propagation, the refractive index of water as a function of the externally applied acoustic pressure, and the acoustic technology. The modelled results, the limitations imposed by the challenging medium, and the system requirements required to obtain an Underwater Wireless Acousto-Optic Waveguide (UWAOW) will be also addressed.

  11. A Speed Control Method for Underwater Vehicle under Hydraulic Flexible Traction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yin; Xia, Ying-kai; Chen, Ying; Xu, Guo-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Underwater vehicle speed control methodology method is the focus of research in this study. Driven by a hydraulic flexible traction system, the underwater vehicle advances steadily on underwater guide rails, simulating an underwater environment for the carried device. Considering the influence of steel rope viscoelasticity and the control system traction structure feature, a mathematical model of the underwater vehicle driven by hydraulic flexible traction system is established. A speed contr...

  12. Underwater television camera for monitoring inner side of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kazuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    An underwater television support device equipped with a rotatable and vertically movable underwater television camera and an underwater television camera controlling device for monitoring images of the inside of the reactor core photographed by the underwater television camera to control the position of the underwater television camera and the underwater light are disposed on an upper lattice plate of a reactor pressure vessel. Both of them are electrically connected with each other by way of a cable to rapidly observe the inside of the reactor core by the underwater television camera. The reproducibility is extremely satisfactory by efficiently concentrating the position of the camera and image information upon inspection and observation. As a result, the steps for periodical inspection can be reduced to shorten the days for the periodical inspection. Since there is no requirement to withdraw fuel assemblies over a wide reactor core region, and the device can be used with the fuel assemblies being left as they are in the reactor, it is suitable for inspection of detectors for nuclear instrumentation. (N.H.)

  13. Underwater fiber-wireless communication with a passive front end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Sun, Bin; Lyu, Weichao; Kong, Meiwei; Sarwar, Rohail; Han, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Ning

    2017-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel concept on underwater fiber-wireless (Fi-Wi) communication system with a fully passive wireless front end. A low-cost step-index (SI) plastic optical fiber (POF) together with a passive collimating lens at the front end composes the underwater Fi-Wi architecture. We have achieved a 1.71-Gb/s transmission at a mean BER of 4.97 × 10-3 (1.30 × 10-3 when using power loading) over a 50-m SI-POF and 2-m underwater wireless channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Although the wireless part is very short, it actually plays a crucial role in practical underwater implementation, especially in deep sea. Compared with the wired solution (e.g. using a 52-m POF cable without the UWOC part), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi scheme can save optical wet-mate connectors that are sophisticated, very expensive and difficult to install in deep ocean. By combining high-capacity robust POF with the mobility and ubiquity of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi technology will find wide application in ocean exploration.

  14. Towards a Hybrid Approach to Context Reasoning for Underwater Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies have been widely used to facilitate semantic interoperability and serve as a common information model in many applications or domains. The Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs project, aiming to facilitate coordination and cooperation between heterogeneous underwater vehicles, also adopts ontologies to formalize information that is necessarily exchanged between vehicles. However, how to derive more useful contexts based on ontologies still remains a challenge. In particular, the extreme nature of the underwater environment introduces uncertainties in context data, thus imposing more difficulties in context reasoning. None of the existing context reasoning methods could individually deal with all intricacies in the underwater robot field. To this end, this paper presents the first proposal applying a hybrid context reasoning mechanism that includes ontological, rule-based, and Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN reasoning methods to reason about contexts and their uncertainties in the underwater robot field. The theoretical foundation of applying this reasoning mechanism in underwater robots is given by a case study on the oil spill monitoring. The simulated reasoning results are useful for further decision-making by operators or robots and they show that the consolidation of different reasoning methods is a promising approach for context reasoning in underwater robots.

  15. Exploring cancer metastasis prevention strategy: interrupting adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelia of potential metastatic tissues by antibody-coated nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Dong, Haiyan; Chen, Hongning; Zhao, Rongli; Sinko, Patrick J; Shen, Weiyu; Wang, Jichuang; Lu, Yusheng; Yang, Xiang; Xie, Fangwei; Jia, Lee

    2015-02-03

    Cancer metastasis caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) accounts for 90% cancer-related death worldwide. Blocking the circulation of CTCs in bloodstream and their hetero-adhesion to vascular endothelia of the distant metastatic organs may prevent cancer metastasis. Nanomaterial-based intervention with adhesion between CTCs and endothelia has not been reported. Driven by the novel idea that multivalent conjugation of EpCAM and Slex antibodies to dendrimer surface may enhance the capacity and specificity of the nanomaterial conjugates for capturing and down-regulating colorectal CTCs, we conjugated the dendrimer nanomaterial with the EpCAM and Slex antibodies, and examined the capacity of the dual antibody-coated nanomaterial for their roles in interrupting CTCs-related cancer metastasis. The antibody-coated nanomaterial was synthesized and characterized. The conjugates specifically bound and captured colon cancer cells SW620. The conjugate inhibited the cells' viability and their adhesion to fibronectin (Fn)-coated substrate or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a concentration-dependent manner. In comparison with SW480 and LoVo cell lines, the activity and adhesion of SW620 to Fn-coated substrate and HUVECs were more specifically inhibited by the dual antibody conjugate because of the higher levels of EpCAM and Slex on SW620 cell surface. The hetero-adhesion between SW620 and Fn-coated substrate, or HUVECs was inhibited by about 60-70%. The dual conjugate showed the inhibition capacity more significant than its corresponding single antibody conjugates. The present study provides the new evidence that coating nanomaterials with more than one antibody against CTCs may effectively interfere with the interaction between SW620 and HUVECs.

  16. Impact of Vessel Noise on Oyster Toadfish (Opsanus tau) Behavior and Implications for Underwater Noise Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahforst, Cecilia S.

    Underwater noise and its impacts on marine life are growing management concerns. This dissertation considers both the ecological and social concerns of underwater noise, using the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) as a model species. Oyster toadfish call for mates using a boatwhistle sound, but increased ambient noise levels from vessels or other anthropogenic activities are likely to influence the ability of males to find mates. If increased ambient noise levels reduce fish fitness then underwater noise can impact socially valued ecosystem services (e.g. fisheries). The following ecological objectives of the impacts of underwater noise on oyster toadfish were investigated: (1) to determine how noise influences male calling behavior; (2) to assess how areas of high vessel activity ("noisy") and low vessel activity ("quiet") influence habitat utilization (fish standard length and occupancy rate); and (3) to discover if fitness (number of clutches and number of embryos per clutch) is lower in "noisy" compared with "quiet" sites. Field experiments were executed in "noisy" and "quiet" areas. Recorded calls by males in response to playback sounds (vessel, predator, and snapping shrimp sounds) and egg deposition by females ("noisy" vs. "quiet" sites) demonstrated that oyster toadfish are impacted by underwater noise. First, males decreased their call rates and called louder in response to increased ambient noise levels. Second, oyster toadfish selected nesting sites in areas with little or no inboard motorboat activity. Third, male oyster toadfish at "noisy" sites either had no egg clutches on their shelters or the number of embryos per clutch was significantly lower than in the "quiet" areas. Underwater noise and disturbance from vessels are influencing the fitness of the oyster toadfish. The social significance of the growing concerns regarding underwater noise was investigated by identifying dominant themes found within two types of texts: four recent underwater noise

  17. Superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)-grafted glass fiber filters for oil-water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Patel, Ankit A; Liu, Lingyun

    2014-06-25

    Oil-water separation is a major problem in industries such as oil production and wastewater treatment, where millions of gallons of oil-contaminated water are produced. Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) is a superhydrophilic polymer due to its strong interaction with water via electrostatic interactions. By coating surfaces of filter media with such a superhydrophilic polymer, it is expected that one can effectively separate oil and water. In this work, pSBMA was grafted onto glass fiber surfaces using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The in-air water contact angle of the pSBMA-treated glass was 8-15°, as compared to 31° for the control untreated glass, whereas the underwater-oil contact angle of the pSBMA-grafted glass was 162-169°, as compared to 142° for the control pristine glass, suggesting that the pSBMA-grafted glass slides are superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic. Such superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity were realized by modifying surface chemistry only, with no need to create rough surfaces. The pSBMA-grafted glass fiber filters demonstrated exceptional results at separating oil from water without even allowing miniscule amounts of visible oil to permeate through.

  18. A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Lo Duca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead.

  19. Application of YAG laser processing in underwater welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro; Kojima, Toshio; Sato, Shuichi

    2002-01-01

    The high-power YAG laser is a new fabrication tool. The laser torch is easy to combine with complex with complex mechanics because of beam delivery through optical fiber. A direct underwater laser welding technology has been developed and applied to the preservation, maintenance and removal of nuclear power plants. For subdividing or removing operations for retirement of plants, the laser cutting properties were confirmed to allow a maximum cutting thickness of 80 mm. For repairing inner surface of stainless steel tanks, an underwater laser welding system using a remote-controlled robot was developed and the high quality of underwater laser welding was confirmed. (author)

  20. Centralised versus Decentralised Control Reconfiguration for Collaborating Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furno, Lidia; Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces an approach to fault-tolerant reconfiguration for collaborating underwater robots. Fault-tolerant reconfiguration is obtained using the virtual actuator approach, Steen (2005). The paper investigates properties of a centralised versus a decentralised implementation...... an underwater drill needs to be transported and positioned by three collaborating robots as part of an underwater autonomous operation....... and assesses the capabilities under communication constraints between the individual robots. In the centralised case, each robot sends information related to its own status to a unique virtual actuator that computes the necessary reconfiguration. In the decentralised case, each robot is equipped with its own...

  1. Adaptive Decentralized Control of Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks and Robots for Modeling Underwater Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrick Detweiler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of bodies of water and their impact on the global environment requires sensing information over the full volume of water. In this article, we develop a gradient-based decentralized controller that dynamically adjusts the depth of a network of underwater sensors to optimize sensing for computing maximally detailed volumetric models. We prove that the controller converges to a local minimum and show how the controller can be extended to work with hybrid robot and sensor network systems. We implement the controller on an underwater sensor network with depth adjustment capabilities. Through simulations and in-situ experiments, we verify the functionality and performance of the system and algorithm.

  2. Investigation of washing and storage strategy on aging Of Mg-aminoclay (MgAC) coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Young-Chul; Mines, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The tendency towards agglomeration and oxidation of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles limits its application for in situ groundwater and soil remediation. Although the effect of surface coatings on nanoparticle stabilization has been commonly practiced, the effect of preparation procedu...

  3. Design considerations for an underwater soft-robot inspired from marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Sledge, Isaac; Mohseni, Kamran

    2015-10-29

    This article serves as an overview of the unique challenges and opportunities made possible by a soft, jellyfish inspired, underwater robot. We include a description of internal pressure modeling as it relates to propulsive performance, leading to a desired energy-minimizing volume flux program. Strategies for determining optimal actuator placement derived from biological body motions are presented. In addition a feedback mechanism inspired by the epidermal line sensory system of cephalopods is presented, whereby internal pressure distribution can be used to determine pertinent deformation parameters.

  4. How Might We Assess and Manage the Effects of Underwater Noise on Populations of Marine Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) aims to achieve good environmental status (GES) in European seas by 2020. One of the features of GES is that underwater sound should not adversely affect the marine environment. Direct injury of marine life may occur, but a more pervasive effect is likely to be through the cumulative indirect effects on behavior. Assessing the significance of these effects on an ecosystem scale is difficult. If subsequent management of these effects is required, complex and challenging international decisions will be required.

  5. Port Security Strategy 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    incidents and events. The cognitive thinking and behavior of humans could be influenced by psychological operation. The emotions, motives, objective...to emulate dolphin sonar and incorporate search strategies that are specifically effective in the noisy near-shore environment. This is to emulate...Animals can be also trained to aid port security on different dimensions. Trained sea lions and dolphins are able to locate underwater divers

  6. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  7. Status of the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hallewell, G D

    2003-01-01

    The ANTARES Collaboration is constructing a deep underwater neutrino detector for operation at -2400 m off the French Mediterranean coast near Toulon. The detector, which will begin operation in 2004, will have an aperture of approx 0.1 km sup 2 , and will contain 900 photomultiplier tubes. The photomultiplier axes will be angled 45 deg. downward toward the seabed to observe the Cherenkov emissions of upward-going muons created by the interactions in or near the detector of high energy neutrinos traversing the Earth. These neutrinos arrive undeviated from a variety of galactic and extragalactic sources of astrophysical interest, and might be produced in the possible annihilation of dark matter neutralinos. The design and present status of the detector are summarized. Results from site evaluation and the development of supporting instrumentation are outlined.

  8. Transducers and arrays for underwater sound

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, John L

    2016-01-01

    This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains updates to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to select...

  9. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapidis, Petros A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Athens 15310 (Greece)], E-mail: rapidis@inp.demokritos.gr

    2009-04-11

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  10. A Validation Process for Underwater Localization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Hildebrandt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the validation process of a localization algorithm for underwater vehicles. In order to develop new localization algorithms, it is essential to characterize them with regard to their accuracy, long-term stability and robustness to external sources of noise. This is only possible if a gold-standard reference localization (GSRL is available against which any new localization algorithm (NLA can be tested. This process requires a vehicle which carries all the required sensor and processing systems for both the GSRL and the NLA. This paper will show the necessity of such a validation process, briefly sketch the test vehicle and its capabilities, describe the challenges in computing the localizations of both the GSRL and the NLA simultaneously for comparison, and conclude with experimental data of real-world trials.

  11. Improved Underwater Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Casey; daCunha, John; Rhoades, Bruce; Twardowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution, two-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorometer (EEMF) has been designed and built specifically for use in identifying and measuring the concentrations of organic compounds, including polluting hydrocarbons, in natural underwater settings. Heretofore, most EEMFs have been designed and built for installation in laboratories, where they are used to analyze the contents of samples collected in the field and brought to the laboratories. Because the present EEMF can be operated in the field, it is better suited to measurement of spatially and temporally varying concentrations of substances of interest. In excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorometry, fluorescence is excited by irradiating a sample at one or more wavelengths, and the fluorescent emission from the sample is measured at multiple wavelengths. When excitation is provided at only one wavelength, the technique is termed one-dimensional (1D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting matrix of fluorescence emission data (the EEM) contains only one row or column. When excitation is provided at multiple wavelengths, the technique is termed two-dimensional (2D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting EEM contains multiple rows and columns. EEM fluorometry - especially the 2D variety - is well established as a means of simultaneously detecting numerous dissolved and particulate compounds in water. Each compound or pool of compounds has a unique spectral fluorescence signature, and each EEM is rich in information content, in that it can contain multiple fluorescence signatures. By use of deconvolution and/or other mixture-analyses techniques, it is often possible to isolate the spectral signature of compounds of interest, even when their fluorescence spectra overlap. What distinguishes the present 2D EEMF over prior laboratory-type 2D EEMFs are several improvements in packaging (including a sealed housing) and other aspects of design that render it suitable for use in natural underwater

  12. Adaptive control of nonlinear underwater robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of controlling underwater mobile robots in 6 degrees of freedom (DOF is addressed. Uncertainties in the input matrix due to partly known nonlinear thruster characteristics are modeled as multiplicative input uncertainty. This paper proposes two methods to compensate for the model uncertainties: (1 an adaptive passivity-based control scheme and (2 deriving a hybrid (adaptive and sliding controller. The hybrid controller consists of a switching term which compensates for uncertainties in the input matrix and an on-line parameter estimation algorithm. Global stability is ensured by applying Barbalat's Lyapunovlike lemma. The hybrid controller is simulated for the horizontal motion of the Norwegian Experimental Remotely Operated Vehicle (NEROV.

  13. Collision Detection for Underwater ROV Manipulator Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivčev, Satja; Rossi, Matija; Coleman, Joseph; Omerdić, Edin; Dooly, Gerard; Toal, Daniel

    2018-04-06

    Work-class ROVs equipped with robotic manipulators are extensively used for subsea intervention operations. Manipulators are teleoperated by human pilots relying on visual feedback from the worksite. Operating in a remote environment, with limited pilot perception and poor visibility, manipulator collisions which may cause significant damage are likely to happen. This paper presents a real-time collision detection algorithm for marine robotic manipulation. The proposed collision detection mechanism is developed, integrated into a commercial ROV manipulator control system, and successfully evaluated in simulations and experimental setup using a real industry standard underwater manipulator. The presented collision sensing solution has a potential to be a useful pilot assisting tool that can reduce the task load, operational time, and costs of subsea inspection, repair, and maintenance operations.

  14. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidis, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  15. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Timothy F; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations). (paper)

  16. On sampling the ocean using underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.; Cole, Sylvia T.

    2011-08-01

    The sampling characteristics of an underwater glider are addressed through comparison with contemporaneous measurements from a ship survey using a towed vehicle. The comparison uses the underwater glider Spray and the towed vehicle SeaSoar north of Hawaii along 158°W between 22.75°N and 34.5°N. A Spray dive from the surface to 1000 m and back took 5.6 h and covered 5.3 km, resulting in a horizontal speed of 0.26 m s-1. SeaSoar undulated between the surface and 400 m, completing a cycle in 11 min while covering 2.6 km, for a speed of 3.9 m s-1. Adjacent profiles of temperature and salinity are compared between the two platforms to prove that each is accurate. Spray and SeaSoar data are compared through sections, isopycnal spatial series, and wave number spectra. The relative slowness of the glider results in the projection of high-frequency oceanic variability, such as internal waves, onto spatial structure. The projection is caused by Doppler smearing because of finite speed and aliasing due to discrete sampling. The projected variability is apparent in properties measured on depth surfaces or in isopycnal depth. No projected variability is seen in observations of properties on constant density surfaces because internal waves are intrinsically filtered. Wave number spectra suggest that projected variability affects properties at constant depth at wavelengths shorter than 30 km. These results imply that isobaric quantities, like geostrophic shear, are valid at wavelengths longer than 30 km, while isopycnal quantities, like spice, may be analyzed for scales as small as a glider measures.

  17. Short Communication Evaluation of an underwater biopsy probe for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lethal methods may become an increasingly useful tool to investigate shark populations where researchers encounter logistical or conservation-related constraints. Keywords: biopsy probe, laser photogrammetry, non-lethal sampling, underwater ...

  18. Digital sonar design in underwater acoustics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qihu

    2012-01-01

    "Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics Principles and Applications" provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of research on sonar design, including the basic theory and techniques of digital signal processing, basic concept of information theory, ocean acoustics, underwater acoustic signal propagation theory, and underwater signal processing theory. This book discusses the general design procedure and approaches to implementation, the design method, system simulation theory and techniques, sonar tests in the laboratory, lake and sea, and practical validation criteria and methods for digital sonar design. It is intended for researchers in the fields of underwater signal processing and sonar design, and also for navy officers and ocean explorers. Qihu Li is a professor at the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Automated Underwater Image Restoration and Retrieval of Related Optical Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, Weilin; Gray, Deric J; Weidemann, Alan D; Fournier, Georges R; Forand, J. L

    2007-01-01

    ...) in the spatial domain and the modulation transfer function (MTF) in the frequency domain. Due to the intensity variations involved in underwater sensing, denoising is carefully carried out by wavelet decompositions...

  20. Wireless Underwater Monitoring Systems Based on Energy Harvestings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea-Hee HWANGBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important research fields for aquatic exploitation and conservation is underwater wireless sensor network. Since limited energy source for underwater nodes and devices is a main open problem, in this paper, we propose wireless underwater monitoring systems powered by energy harvester which resolves the energy constraint. The target system generates renewable energy from energy harvester and shares the energy with underwater sensor nodes. For the realization of the system, key components to be investigated are discriminated as follows: acoustic modem, actuator, smart battery charge controller, energy harvester and wireless power transfer module. By developing acoustic modem, actuator and smart battery charge controller and utilizing off-the-shelf energy harvester and wireless power transfer module, we design and implement a prototype of the system. Also, we verify the feasibility of concept of target system by conducting indoor and outdoor experiments.

  1. Object detection from images obtained through underwater turbulence medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furhad, Md. Hasan; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Imaging through underwater experiences severe distortions due to random fluctuations of temperature and salinity in water, which produces underwater turbulence through diffraction limited blur. Lights reflecting from objects perturb and attenuate contrast, making the recognition of objects of interest difficult. Thus, the information available for detecting underwater objects of interest becomes a challenging task as they have inherent confusion among the background, foreground and other image properties. In this paper, a saliency-based approach is proposed to detect the objects acquired through an underwater turbulent medium. This approach has drawn attention among a wide range of computer vision applications, such as image retrieval, artificial intelligence, neuro-imaging and object detection. The image is first processed through a deblurring filter. Next, a saliency technique is used on the image for object detection. In this step, a saliency map that highlights the target regions is generated and then a graph-based model is proposed to extract these target regions for object detection.

  2. Filming Underwater in 3d Respecting Stereographic Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, R.; Hordosch, H.

    2015-04-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie's box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  3. Collision Avoidance of Moving Obstacles for Underwater Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KWON KYOUNG YOUB

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy logic for autonomous navigation of underwater robot is proposed in this paper. The VFF(Virtual Force Field algorithm, which is widely used in the field of mobile robot, is modified for application to the autonomous navigation of underwater robot. This Modified Virtual Force Field(MVFF algorithm using the fuzzy logic can be used in either track keeping or obstacle avoidance. Fuzzy logics are devised to handle various situations which can be faced during autonomous navigation of underwater robot. A graphic simulator based on OpenGL for an autonomous navigation has been developed. The good performance of the proposed MVFF algorithm is verified through computer simulations on an underwater robot.

  4. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hawass

    2015-12-01

    The strain gauge data and displacement sensors results showed that the multi-layer plates have higher level of underwater shock wave mitigation than the triple aluminum plates with strain and deflection of nearly 50%.

  5. Underwater image enhancement through depth estimation based on random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Shen-Chuan; Tsai, Ting-Chou; Huang, Jyun-Han

    2017-11-01

    Light absorption and scattering in underwater environments can result in low-contrast images with a distinct color cast. This paper proposes a systematic framework for the enhancement of underwater images. Light transmission is estimated using the random forest algorithm. RGB values, luminance, color difference, blurriness, and the dark channel are treated as features in training and estimation. Transmission is calculated using an ensemble machine learning algorithm to deal with a variety of conditions encountered in underwater environments. A color compensation and contrast enhancement algorithm based on depth information was also developed with the aim of improving the visual quality of underwater images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms existing methods with regard to subjective visual quality as well as objective measurements.

  6. Navigation of autonomous underwater vehicle using extended kalman filter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranjan, T.N.; Nherakkol, A.; Navelkar, G.S.

    To navigate the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) accurately is one of the most important aspects in its application. A truly autonomous vehicle must determine its position which requires the optimal integration of all available attitude...

  7. Euclidean reconstruction of natural underwater scenes using optic imagery sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han

    The development of maritime applications require monitoring, studying and preserving of detailed and close observation on the underwater seafloor and objects. Stereo vision offers advanced technologies to build 3D models from 2D still overlapping optic images in a relatively inexpensive way. However, while image stereo matching is a necessary step in 3D reconstruction procedure, even the most robust dense matching techniques are not guaranteed to work for underwater images due to the challenging aquatic environment. In this thesis, in addition to a detailed introduction and research on the key components of building 3D models from optic images, a robust modified quasi-dense matching algorithm based on correspondence propagation and adaptive least square matching for underwater images is proposed and applied to some typical underwater image datasets. The experiments demonstrate the robustness and good performance of the proposed matching approach.

  8. A Support Vector Learning-Based Particle Filter Scheme for Target Localization in Communication-Constrained Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinbin; Zhang, Chenglin; Yan, Lei; Han, Song; Guan, Xinping

    2017-12-21

    Target localization, which aims to estimate the location of an unknown target, is one of the key issues in applications of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). However, the constrained property of an underwater environment, such as restricted communication capacity of sensor nodes and sensing noises, makes target localization a challenging problem. This paper relies on fractional sensor nodes to formulate a support vector learning-based particle filter algorithm for the localization problem in communication-constrained underwater acoustic sensor networks. A node-selection strategy is exploited to pick fractional sensor nodes with short-distance pattern to participate in the sensing process at each time frame. Subsequently, we propose a least-square support vector regression (LSSVR)-based observation function, through which an iterative regression strategy is used to deal with the distorted data caused by sensing noises, to improve the observation accuracy. At the same time, we integrate the observation to formulate the likelihood function, which effectively update the weights of particles. Thus, the particle effectiveness is enhanced to avoid "particle degeneracy" problem and improve localization accuracy. In order to validate the performance of the proposed localization algorithm, two different noise scenarios are investigated. The simulation results show that the proposed localization algorithm can efficiently improve the localization accuracy. In addition, the node-selection strategy can effectively select the subset of sensor nodes to improve the communication efficiency of the sensor network.

  9. Underwater acoustic communications. From point-to-point to networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    This is a review presentation that addresses recent developments in underwater acoustic telemetry as a tool for ocean observation, monitoring and protection. Distributed sensing is a paradigm with important reflections in oceanic technology where bottom installed structures can not always be connected to a central hub through cabled networks. Moreover, recent developments in ocean robotics lead to the off-the-shelf availability of autonomous underwater vehicles that rely on wireless communica...

  10. Estimation of underwater acoustic fields at high frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Temsamani, A.B.; Vandenplas, S.; Van Biesen, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this work a parametric modeling of the underwater acoustic field is investigated in a laboratory scale at high frequencies (150-850 kHz). The aim is to develop experimentally verifiable theoretical models to investigate the acoustic field propagation in elastic and viscoelastic or porous media. To achieve this goal, the efforts have been directed to three integral parts pertaining to the development of the methods. The first part deals with the modeling of the underwater acoustic field fol...

  11. Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kun; Fang, Shao-Ji; Pang, Yong-Jie

    2007-06-01

    To impove underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.

  12. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional mod...

  13. Characterization of ships as sources of underwater noise

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, C.A.F. de

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the possible impact of anthropogenic underwater noise on marine life [1]. One of the concerns is the increasing contribution of shipping noise, with the growing number and size of commercial ships. Traditionally, underwater radiated noise control was only of interest for naval [2,3] and fishery research vessels [4]. Due to the potential environmental impact, it becomes also relevant for commercial shipping. The challenge is to bring the expertise from the naval ...

  14. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Walter David

    1999-01-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The underwater characterization equipment is often required to operate at depths exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m) and in relatively confined or congested spaces. The typical baseline approach has been the use of radiation detectors and underwater cameras mounted on long poles, or stationary cameras with pan and tilt features mounted on the sides of the underwater facility. There is a perceived need for an inexpensive, more mobile method of performing close-up inspection and radiation measurements in confined spaces underwater. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available ''Scallop'' vehicle, but has been modified by Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at Idaho National Engineering and environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a ''head-to-head'' fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations

  15. Terminal homing position estimation forAutonomous underwater vehicle docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    79  ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  NPS REMUS 100 with WHOI Docking Station. Source: [1...underwater missions were short and quick . Now, with advanced technology, underwater missions can be as long as the user desires. The new AUVs have...the full information problem. In order to use the MHE approach for real-time applications, the optimization process should be quick and accurate

  16. A potential flow based flight simulator for an underwater glider

    OpenAIRE

    Phoemsapthawee, Surasak; Le Boulluec, Marc; Laurens, Jean-marc; Deniset, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Underwater gliders are recent innovative types of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) used in ocean exploration and observation. They adjust their buoyancy to dive and to return to the ocean surface. During the change of altitude, they use the hydrodynamic forces developed by their wings to move forward. Their flights are controlled by changing the position of their centers of gravity and their buoyancy to adjust their trim and heel angles. For better flight control, the understanding of th...

  17. Analytical and Numerical Optimal Motion Planning for an Underwater Glider

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for oceanic observation and research is becoming more common. Underwater gliders are a specific class of AUV that do not use conventional propulsion. Instead they change their buoyancy and center of mass location to control attitude and trajectory. The vehicles spend most of their time in long, steady glides, so even minor improvements in glide range can be magnified over multiple dives. This dissertation presents a rigid-body dynamic system...

  18. Boundary curvature effects on gas bubble oscillations in underwater explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro

    1996-01-01

    The oscillation of a gas bubble produced as a result of underwater explosion could cause the severe whipping damage on nearby marine vehicle. The effects of rigid boundary curvatures to explosive gas bubble oscillation behavior in underwater were investigated. The analyses were conducted using a multimaterial Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element code, MSC/DYTRAN. The incident shock wave pressure, bubble pulse pressure, gas bubble radius and period were calculated for the case of detonation of a...

  19. Deep Learning Methods for Underwater Target Feature Extraction and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification and recognition technology of underwater acoustic signal were always an important research content in the field of underwater acoustic signal processing. Currently, wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients are used as a method of underwater acoustic signal feature extraction. In this paper, a method for feature extraction and identification of underwater noise data based on CNN and ELM is proposed. An automatic feature extraction method of underwater acoustic signals is proposed using depth convolution network. An underwater target recognition classifier is based on extreme learning machine. Although convolution neural networks can execute both feature extraction and classification, their function mainly relies on a full connection layer, which is trained by gradient descent-based; the generalization ability is limited and suboptimal, so an extreme learning machine (ELM was used in classification stage. Firstly, CNN learns deep and robust features, followed by the removing of the fully connected layers. Then ELM fed with the CNN features is used as the classifier to conduct an excellent classification. Experiments on the actual data set of civil ships obtained 93.04% recognition rate; compared to the traditional Mel frequency cepstral coefficients and Hilbert-Huang feature, recognition rate greatly improved.

  20. Underwater and in-air sounds from a small hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Susanna B.; Greene, Charles R.

    2005-12-01

    Underwater and in-air recordings were made from a boat anchored near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, while a Griffon 2000TD hovercraft drove by at or near full power on four passes. At the closest point of approach (CPA, 6.5 m), underwater broadband (10-10 000 Hz) levels reached 133 and 131 dB re: 1 μPa at depths of 1 and 7 m, respectively. In-air unweighted and A-weighted broadband (10-10 000 Hz) levels reached 104 and 97 dB re: 20 μPa, respectively. The hovercraft produced sound at a wide range of frequencies. Both underwater and in air, the largest spectral peak was near 87 Hz, which corresponded to the blade rate of the thrust propeller. In addition, the spectral composition included several harmonics of this frequency. The shaft or blade rate of the lift fan was barely detectable underwater despite its proximity to the water. The hovercraft was considerably quieter underwater than similar-sized conventional vessels and may be an attractive alternative when there is concern over underwater sounds.

  1. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Muhamad

    2011-10-01

    Almost 70% of planet Earth is covered by water. A large percentage of underwater environment is unexplored. In the past two decades, there has been an increase in the interest of exploring and monitoring underwater life among scientists and in industry. Underwater operations are extremely difficult due to the lack of cheap and efficient means. Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks have been introduced in underwater environment applications. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations, which makes the relevant research issues very different from those on land. In this thesis, we investigate node placement for building an initial Underwater Wireless Sensor Network infrastructure. Firstly, we formulated the problem into a nonlinear mathematic program with objectives of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted volume. We conducted experiments to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. We represented each node with a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. The truncated octahedrons are tiled in the 3D space with each node in the center where locations of the nodes are given using 3D coordinates. Results are supported using ns-3 simulator. Results from simulation are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Swarm Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuela PERSIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underwater Swarm is a particular Underwater Network configuration characterized by nodes very close one to each other, with mobility capability. The structure of the network is that of a distributed network, in which the nodes, through the exchange of control information, will take decisions in collaborative manner. This type of network raises challenges for its effective design and development, for which the only use of acoustic communication as traditionally suggested in underwater communication could be not enough. A new emerging solution could be a hybrid solution that combines the use of acoustic and optical channel in order to overcome the acoustic channel limitations in underwater environment. In this work, we want to investigate how the acoustic and optical communications influence the Underwater Swarm performance by considering the Low Layers Protocols (Physical Layer, Data Link Layer and Network Layer effects over the two different propagation technologies. Performance simulations have been carried out to suggest how the new hybrid system could be designed. This study will permit to provide useful analysis for the real implementation of an Underwater Swarm based on hybrid communication technology.

  3. Quantitative lead determination in coating paint on children's outwear by LA-ICP-MS: a practical calibration strategy for solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Selda; Ellez, Sevinç Zeynep; Türkmen, Zeynep; Yayla, Murat; Cengiz, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a hazardous compound that affects the central nervous system in people, particularly children, and may cause some reversible and irreversible diseases. Legal regulations try to prevent the exposure from products especially produced for children such as coating paints, jewelry, toys, bed linen, textile, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the lead levels of coating paints on children׳s outwear selling in district bazaar by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and to specify the percent of non-complying samples. Here we described the solid matrix calibration method and confirmed the results with the microwave-assisted acid digestion method. Both comparative methods were validated by analysis of the certified reference materials (NIST SRM-612 glass matrix, NIST SRM-2582 powdered paint and ERM-EC681k) and bias% for accuracy and RSD% for precision were calculated lower than 6.8% and 7.3%, respectively. The recovery ranges of laser ablation and microwave-assisted acid digestion method for Pb were found to be between 88.2-98.1% and 95.3-101.3%, respectively. The limits of detection values were determined as 0.162 mg kg(-1) for direct sampling in the ablation chamber and 0.002 ng mL(-1) for aqueous solutions. Correlation result of 16 samples (r=0.99) examined in both methods was satisfactory. In coating paint samples, 14.65% of 198 (n=29) did not comply with the 90 mg kg(-1) lead limit according to regulation. Validated quantitative laser ablation method may be preferred to quickly and reliably determine the Pb levels in other solid samples as well as coating paints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  5. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  6. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Magnetic Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwalt, R.; Johnson, R. M.; Trembanis, A. C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Tait, G.

    2012-12-01

    An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Magnetic Mapping (MM) System has been developed and tested for military munitions detection as well as pipeline locating, wreck searches, and geologic surveys in underwater environments. The system is comprised of a high sensitivity Geometrics G-880AUV cesium vapor magnetometer integrated with a Teledyne-Gavia AUV and associated Doppler enabled inertial navigation further utilizing traditional acoustic bathymetric and side scan imaging. All onboard sensors and associated electronics are managed through customized crew members to autonomously operate through the vehicles primary control module. Total field magnetic measurements are recorded with asynchronous time-stamped data logs which include position, altitude, heading, pitch, roll, and electrical current usage. Pre-planned mission information can be uploaded to the system operators to define data collection metrics including speed, height above seafloor, and lane or transect spacing specifically designed to meet data quality objectives for the survey. As a result of the AUVs modular design, autonomous navigation and rapid deployment capabilities, the AUV MM System provides cost savings over current surface vessel surveys by reducing the mobilization/demobilization effort, thus requiring less manpower for operation and reducing or eliminating the need for a surface support vessel altogether. When the system completes its mission, data can be remotely downloaded via W-LAN and exported for use in advanced signal processing platforms. Magnetic compensation software has been concurrently developed to accept electrical current measurements directly from the AUV to address distortions from permanent and induced magnetization effects on the magnetometer. Maneuver and electrical current compensation terms can be extracted from the magnetic survey missions to perform automated post-process corrections. Considerable suppression of system noise has been observed over traditional

  7. Underwater Optical Wireless Channel Modeling Using Monte-Carlo Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, P. Sri; Prince, Shanthi

    2011-10-01

    At present, there is a lot of interest in the functioning of the marine environment. Unmanned or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (UUVs or AUVs) are used in the exploration of the underwater resources, pollution monitoring, disaster prevention etc. Underwater, where radio waves do not propagate, acoustic communication is being used. But, underwater communication is moving towards Optical Communication which has higher bandwidth when compared to Acoustic Communication but has shorter range comparatively. Underwater Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is mainly affected by the absorption and scattering of the optical signal. In coastal waters, both inherent and apparent optical properties (IOPs and AOPs) are influenced by a wide array of physical, biological and chemical processes leading to optical variability. The scattering effect has two effects: the attenuation of the signal and the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) of the signal. However, the Inter-Symbol Interference is ignored in the present paper. Therefore, in order to have an efficient underwater OWC link it is necessary to model the channel efficiently. In this paper, the underwater optical channel is modeled using Monte-Carlo method. The Monte Carlo approach provides the most general and most flexible technique for numerically solving the equations of Radiative transfer. The attenuation co-efficient of the light signal is studied as a function of the absorption (a) and scattering (b) coefficients. It has been observed that for pure sea water and for less chlorophyll conditions blue wavelength is less absorbed whereas for chlorophyll rich environment red wavelength signal is absorbed less comparative to blue and green wavelength.

  8. A Framework for Evaluating Advanced Search Concepts for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Mine Countermeasures (MCM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gooding, Trent

    2001-01-01

    .... In recent years, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have emerged as a viable technology for conducting underwater search, survey, and clearance operations in support of the mine countermeasures (MCM) mission...

  9. A comparative view of routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayrakdar, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Kantarci, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    Design of efficient routing protocols for underwater sensor networks is challenging because of the distinctive characteristics of the water medium. Currently, many routing protocols are available for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. However, specific properties of underwater medium such as

  10. US-Japan Cooperative Research on Biology-Inspired Precision Maneuvering of Underwater Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kato, Naomi

    2004-01-01

    .... We constructed an underwater vehicle equipped with two pairs of mechanical pectoral fins and pectoral fin controllers to examine the swimming performance of the underwater vehicle in still water...

  11. Predictive Model for the Analysis of the Effects of Underwater Impulsive Sources on Marine Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazauski, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    A method is provided to predict the biological consequences to marine animals from exposure to multiple underwater impulsive sources by simulating underwater explosions over a defined period of time...

  12. Shape optimisation of an underwater Bernoulli gripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Tim; Sellier, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we are interested in maximising the suction produced by an underwater Bernoulli gripper. Bernoulli grippers work by exploiting low pressure regions caused by the acceleration of a working fluid through a narrow channel, between the gripper and a surface, to provide a suction force. This mechanism allows for non-contact adhesion to various surfaces and may be used to hold a robot to the hull of a ship while it inspects welds for example. A Bernoulli type pressure analysis was used to model the system with a Darcy friction factor approximation to include the effects of frictional losses. The analysis involved a constrained optimisation in order to avoid cavitation within the mechanism which would result in decreased performance and damage to surfaces. A sensitivity based method and gradient descent approach was used to find the optimum shape of a discretised surface. The model's accuracy has been quantified against finite volume computational fluid dynamics simulation (ANSYS CFX) using the k- ω SST turbulence model. Preliminary results indicate significant improvement in suction force when compared to a simple geometry by retaining a pressure just above that at which cavitation would occur over as much surface area as possible. Doctoral candidate in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

  13. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 μPa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 μPa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  14. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  15. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, J. R.; Knox, A.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.

    2013-07-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are a vital part of the oceanographer's toolbox, allowing long-term measurements across a range of ocean depths of a number of ocean properties such as salinity, fluorescence, and temperature profile. Buoyancy-based gliding, rather than direct propulsion, dramatically reduces AUV power consumption and allows long-duration missions on the order of months rather than hours or days, allowing large distances to be analyzed or many successive analyses of a certain area without the need for retrieval. Recent versions of these gliders have seen the buoyancy variation system change from electrically powered to thermally powered using phase-change materials, however a significant battery pack is still required to power communications and sensors, with power consumption in the region of 250 mW. The authors propose a novel application of a thermoelectric generation system, utilizing the depth-related variation in oceanic temperature. A thermal energy store provides a temperature differential across which a thermoelectric device can generate from repeated dives, with the primary purpose of extending mission range. The system is modeled in Simulink to analyze the effect of variation in design parameters. The system proves capable of generating all required power for a modern AUV.

  16. Data extraction system for underwater particle holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebrensky, J. J.; Craig, Gary; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Nareid, Helge; Pescetto, A.; Trucco, Andrea; Watson, John

    2000-08-01

    Pulsed laser holography in an extremely powerful technique for the study of particle fields as it allows instantaneous, non-invasive high- resolution recording of substantial volumes. By relaying the real image one can obtain the size, shape, position and - if multiple exposures are made - velocity of every object in the recorded field. Manual analysis of large volumes containing thousands of particles is, however, an enormous and time-consuming task, with operator fatigue an unpredictable source of errors. Clearly the value of holographic measurements also depends crucially on the quality of the reconstructed image: not only will poor resolution degrade the size and shape measurements, but aberrations such as coma and astigmatism can change the perceived centroid of a particle, affecting position and velocity measurements. For large-scale applications of particle field holography, specifically the in situ recording of marine plankton with Holocam, we have developed an automated data extraction system that can be readily switched between the in-line and off-axis geometries and provides optimised reconstruction from holograms recorded underwater. As a videocamera is automatically stepped through the 200 by 200 by 1000mm sample volume, image processing and object tracking routines locate and extract particle images for further classification by a separate software module.

  17. Research of Algorithms for Approaching and Docking Underwater Vehicle with Underwater Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshikhopov Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors consider problem of maintenance and service of underwater vehicles. Usually, underwater station or accompanying ship is required for such operations. Docking is one of the most difficult tasks on the vehicle path from the outer space to the servicing bay. Algorithms allowing docking were presented in the earlier paper, and in this paper authors prove their stability. Movement control is based upon the path regulator. The stability of the closed-loop system according to Liapunov with the given control and limitations is proven. Equations, showing that vehicle will complete the positioning task with account to given limitations and staying stable are given. The criterion for switching movement and “positioning to point” algorithms is proposed. Achievement of the developed criterion was researched theoretically and in computer simulation. Experiments provide deviation of actual coordinates and velocity from the required ones and proved that achieving of criterion is enough to claim that system will be stable while performing algorithms with limitations for controls.

  18. Autonomous docking control of visual-servo type underwater vehicle system aiming at underwater automatic charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanou, Akira; Ohnishi, Shota; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Minami, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    A visual-servo type remotely operated vehicle (ROV) system with binocular wide-angle lens was developed to survey submarine resources, decontaminate radiation from mud in dam lake and so on. This paper explores the experiments on regulator performance and underwater docking of the robot system utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA) for real-time recognition of the robot's relative position and posture through 3D marker. The visual servoing performances have been verified as follows; (1) The stability performances of the proposed regulator system have been evaluated by exerting abrupt distrubane force while the ROV is controlled by visual servoing. (2) The proposed system can track time-variant desired target position in x-axis (front-back direction of the robot). (3) The underwater docking can be completed by switching visual servoing and docking modes based on the error threshold, and by giving time-varying desired target position and orientation to the controller as a desired pose. (author)

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Chandan Deep Singh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the u...

  20. Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jayson J; Myers, Josh R; Carlson, Thomas J; Deng, Z Daniel; Rohrer, John S; Caviggia, Kurt A; Woodley, Christa M; Weiland, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by anthropogenic activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system was designed to record underwater acoustic signals. The underwater sound recording device (USR) allows for connections of two hydrophones or other dynamic pressure sensors, filters high frequency noise out of the collected signals, has a gain that can be independently set for each sensor, and allows for 2 h of data collection. Two versions of the USR were created: a submersible model deployable to a maximum depth of 300 m, and a watertight but not fully submersible model. Tests were performed on the USR in the laboratory using a data acquisition system to send single-frequency sinusoidal voltages directly to each component. These tests verified that the device operates as designed and performs as well as larger commercially available data acquisition systems, which are not suited for field use. On average, the designed gain values differed from the actual measured gain values by about 0.35 dB. A prototype of the device was used in a case study to measure blast pressures while investigating the effect of underwater rock blasting on juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. In the case study, maximum positive pressure from the blast was found to be significantly correlated with frequency of injury for individual fish. The case study also demonstrated that the device withstood operation in harsh environments, making it a valuable tool for collecting field measurements.

  1. Design and Implementation of an Underwater Sound Recording Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa M. Woodley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by anthropogenic activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system was designed to record underwater acoustic signals. The underwater sound recording device (USR allows for connections of two hydrophones or other dynamic pressure sensors, filters high frequency noise out of the collected signals, has a gain that can be independently set for each sensor, and allows for 2 h of data collection. Two versions of the USR were created: a submersible model deployable to a maximum depth of 300 m, and a watertight but not fully submersible model. Tests were performed on the USR in the laboratory using a data acquisition system to send single-frequency sinusoidal voltages directly to each component. These tests verified that the device operates as designed and performs as well as larger commercially available data acquisition systems, which are not suited for field use. On average, the designed gain values differed from the actual measured gain values by about 0.35 dB. A prototype of the device was used in a case study to measure blast pressures while investigating the effect of underwater rock blasting on juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. In the case study, maximum positive pressure from the blast was found to be significantly correlated with frequency of injury for individual fish. The case study also demonstrated that the device withstood operation in harsh environments, making it a valuable tool for collecting field measurements.

  2. Underwater topography acquired by remote sensing based on SOFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhu; Zhou, Fengnian; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, Juanjuan

    2008-12-01

    In large-scope marine investigation, the traditional bathymetric measurement can not meet the requirement of rapid data acquisition with lower cost of financial and material resources, while remote sensing (RS) technology provides a perfect way in the work. RS can not only provide quickly and efficiently the information of underwater topography with respect to the traditional method, but also present corresponding underwater topography with different-period RS images. In this paper, we depict in detail the procedures and some key techniques in acquiring underwater topography by remote sensing inversion technology based on self-organization feature mapping (SOFM). Firstly, we introduce some basic theories about the acquisition of underwater topography by the RS inversion technology. Besides, we discuss the data acquisition and preparation in the work. Moreover, we implement correlation analysis and find out the sensitive bands used for building RS inversion model. In virtue of SOFM, we construct the mapping relation between water depth and the reflectivity of sensitive band in the studied area, and test the it in two experimental water areas. The model achieves satisfying accuracy and can meet the requirement of given bathymetric scale. Finally the mapping relation is used for the water depth inversion in the studied water area. We also use the water depth from the model to draw the underwater topographic map in the water area.

  3. A bio-inspired electrocommunication system for small underwater robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Jindong; Xie, Guangming; Wen, Li; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-03-29

    Weakly electric fishes (Gymnotid and Mormyrid) use an electric field to communicate efficiently (termed electrocommunication) in the turbid waters of confined spaces where other communication modalities fail. Inspired by this biological phenomenon, we design an artificial electrocommunication system for small underwater robots and explore the capabilities of such an underwater robotic communication system. An analytical model for electrocommunication is derived to predict the effect of the key parameters such as electrode distance and emitter current of the system on the communication performance. According to this model, a low-dissipation, and small-sized electrocommunication system is proposed and integrated into a small robotic fish. We characterize the communication performance of the robot in still water, flowing water, water with obstacles and natural water conditions. The results show that underwater robots are able to communicate electrically at a speed of around 1 k baud within about 3 m with a low power consumption (less than 1 W). In addition, we demonstrate that two leader-follower robots successfully achieve motion synchronization through electrocommunication in the three-dimensional underwater space, indicating that this bio-inspired electrocommunication system is a promising setup for the interaction of small underwater robots.

  4. Feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Park, Ki Hyun; Kang, Sung Won; Joo, Koan Sik

    2017-09-01

    We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2.273 MeV end-point energy spectrum of 90 Sr/ 90 Y when using the system underwater. The results demonstrate the feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment and can be applied for designing an in situ detector for radioactivity measurement in underwater environment. The in situ detector can also have other applications such as installation on the marine monitoring platform and quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Review of the Emerging Field of Underwater Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Chua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometers are versatile sensor systems, owing to their high sensitivity and ability to simultaneously measure multiple chemical species. Over the last two decades, traditional laboratory-based membrane inlet mass spectrometers have been adapted for underwater use. Underwater mass spectrometry has drastically improved our capability to monitor a broad suite of gaseous compounds (e.g., dissolved atmospheric gases, light hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds in the aquatic environment. Here we provide an overview of the progress made in the field of underwater mass spectrometry since its inception in the 1990s to the present. In particular, we discuss the approaches undertaken by various research groups in developing in situ mass spectrometers. We also provide examples to illustrate how underwater mass spectrometers have been used in the field. Finally, we present future trends in the field of in situ mass spectrometry. Most of these efforts are aimed at improving the quality and spatial and temporal scales of chemical measurements in the ocean. By providing up-to-date information on underwater mass spectrometry, this review offers guidance for researchers interested in adapting this technology as well as goals for future progress in the field.

  6. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  7. Underwater wireless optical communications: From system-level demonstrations to channel modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we discuss about recent experimental advances in underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) over various underwater channel water types using different modulation schemes as well as modelling and describing the statistical properties of turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels using laser beam intensity fluctuations measurements.

  8. 76 FR 31233 - Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... maritime public and safety of navigation from recently discovered underwater explosive hazards in Gravesend... published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay...

  9. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2017-12-13

    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels. The model shows an excellent agreement with the measured data under all channel conditions.

  10. Sunlight Intensity Based Global Positioning System for Near-Surface Underwater Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Fernández

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Water monitoring is important in domains including documenting climate change, weather prediction and fishing. This paper presents a simple and energy efficient localization strategy for near surface buoy based sensors. Sensors can be dropped randomly in the ocean and thus self-calibrate in terms of geographic location such that geo-tagged observations of water quality can be made without the need for costly and energy consuming GPS-hardware. The strategy is based on nodes with an accurate clock and light sensors that can regularly sample the level of light intensity. The measurements are fitted into a celestial model of the earth motion around the sun. By identifying the trajectory of the sun across the skies one can accurately determine sunrise and sunset times, and thus extract the longitude and latitude of the sensor. Unlike previous localization techniques for underwater sensors, the current approach does not rely on stationary or mobile reference points.

  11. Sunlight intensity based global positioning system for near-surface underwater sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Javier V; Sandnes, Frode E; Fernández, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Water monitoring is important in domains including documenting climate change, weather prediction and fishing. This paper presents a simple and energy efficient localization strategy for near surface buoy based sensors. Sensors can be dropped randomly in the ocean and thus self-calibrate in terms of geographic location such that geo-tagged observations of water quality can be made without the need for costly and energy consuming GPS-hardware. The strategy is based on nodes with an accurate clock and light sensors that can regularly sample the level of light intensity. The measurements are fitted into a celestial model of the earth motion around the sun. By identifying the trajectory of the sun across the skies one can accurately determine sunrise and sunset times, and thus extract the longitude and latitude of the sensor. Unlike previous localization techniques for underwater sensors, the current approach does not rely on stationary or mobile reference points.

  12. Vortex re-capturing and kinematics in human underwater undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    To maximize swimming speed athletes copy fish undulatory swimming during the underwater period after start and turn. The anatomical limitations may lead to deviations and may enforce compensating strategies. This has been investigated by analyzing the kinematics of two national female swimmers while swimming in a still water pool. Additionally, the flow around and behind the swimmers was measured with the aid of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-2D-PIV). As compared to fish, the swimmers used undulatory waves characterized by much higher Strouhal numbers but very similar amplitude distributions along the body and Froude efficiencies. Vortices generated in the region of strongly flexing joints are suitable to be used pedally to enhance propulsion (vortex re-capturing). Complementing studies using numerical and technical modeling will help us to probe the efficiency of observed mechanisms and further improvements of the human strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chaos-Based Underwater Communication With Arbitrary Transducers and Bandwidth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Bai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an enhanced differential chaos shift keying (DCSK, based on a first order hybrid chaotic system, is being proposed for a high reliability underwater acoustic communication system. It can be integrated into systems that use standard existing transducers. We show that a coherent operation between the received signal and the time reversal of the basis function in a first order hybrid chaotic system maximizes the signal to noise ratio at the receiver. Concurrently, DCSK configuration is used to resist the distortion caused by the complex underwater acoustic channel. Our simulation results show that the proposed method has lower bit error rate (BER. In addition, it shows higher communication reliability over underwater acoustic channel as compared to the conventional DCSK using logistic map and its variant forms such as Correlation Delay Shift Keying (CDSK, Phase-Separate DCSK (PS-DCSK, High Efficiency DCSK (HE-DCSK, and Reference Modulated DCSK (RM-DCSK.

  14. Underwater video enhancement using multi-camera super-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, E.; Delory, E.; Callicó, G. M.; Tobajas, F.; Sarmiento, R.

    2017-12-01

    Image spatial resolution is critical in several fields such as medicine, communications or satellite, and underwater applications. While a large variety of techniques for image restoration and enhancement has been proposed in the literature, this paper focuses on a novel Super-Resolution fusion algorithm based on a Multi-Camera environment that permits to enhance the quality of underwater video sequences without significantly increasing computation. In order to compare the quality enhancement, two objective quality metrics have been used: PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and the SSIM (Structural SIMilarity) index. Results have shown that the proposed method enhances the objective quality of several underwater sequences, avoiding the appearance of undesirable artifacts, with respect to basic fusion Super-Resolution algorithms.

  15. The Research of Optical Turbulence Model in Underwater Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the effect of turbulence on underwater imaging system and image restoration, the underwater turbulence model is simulated by computer fluid dynamics. This model is obtained in different underwater turbulence intensity, which contains the pressure data that influences refractive index distribution. When the pressure value is conversed to refractive index, the refractive index distribution can be received with the refraction formula. In the condition of same turbulent intensity, the distribution of refractive index presents gradient in the whole region, with disorder and mutations in the local region. With the turbulence intensity increase, the holistic variation of the refractive index in the image is larger, and the refractive index change more tempestuously in the local region. All the above are illustrated by the simulation results with he ray tracing method and turbulent refractive index model. According to different turbulence intensity analysis, it is proved that turbulence causes image distortion and increases noise.

  16. Underwater Imaging Using a 1 × 16 CMUT Linear Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wendong; He, Changde; Zhang, Yongmei; Song, Jinlong; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-03-01

    A 1 × 16 capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer linear array was designed, fabricated, and tested for underwater imaging in the low frequency range. The linear array was fabricated using Si-SOI bonding techniques. Underwater transmission performance was tested in a water tank, and the array has a resonant frequency of 700 kHz, with pressure amplitude 182 dB (μPa·m/V) at 1 m. The -3 dB main beam width of the designed dense linear array is approximately 5 degrees. Synthetic aperture focusing technique was applied to improve the resolution of reconstructed images, with promising results. Thus, the proposed array was shown to be suitable for underwater imaging applications.

  17. Underwater Imaging Using a 1 × 16 CMUT Linear Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 1 × 16 capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer linear array was designed, fabricated, and tested for underwater imaging in the low frequency range. The linear array was fabricated using Si-SOI bonding techniques. Underwater transmission performance was tested in a water tank, and the array has a resonant frequency of 700 kHz, with pressure amplitude 182 dB (μPa·m/V at 1 m. The −3 dB main beam width of the designed dense linear array is approximately 5 degrees. Synthetic aperture focusing technique was applied to improve the resolution of reconstructed images, with promising results. Thus, the proposed array was shown to be suitable for underwater imaging applications.

  18. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  19. A simple inexpensive method for estimating underwater weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T. R.; Cook, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of a simple, inexpensive and versatile method for estimating underwater weight. The use of a portable stock tank allows the determination of % Fat by underwater weighing without requiring a swimming pool, built-in tank, or special facility. Twenty-eight college students were weighed on two separate testing sessions 24-48 hours apart. Ten trials were performed at each session. The mean of the last five trials was used in determining underwater weight. The test-retest reliability coefficient was high, r = 0.98, and most of the successive trial correlations were above 0.99. The mean % Fat for the women (N = 9) was 22.2 +/- 5.9 and for the men (N = 19) was 13.7 +/- 5.1. Images Figure 1 PMID:630178

  20. An underwater optical wireless communication system based on LED source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jionghui; Wei, Wei; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2011-11-01

    Compared with other communication methods, optical wireless communication (OWC) holds the merits of higher transmitting rate and sufficient secrecy. So it is an efficacious communicating measure for data transmitting between underwater carriers. However, due to the water attenuation and the transmitter & the receiver (TX/RX) collimation, this application is restrained in underwater mobile carriers. A prototype for underwater OWC was developed, in which a high-powered green LED array was used as the light source which partly raveled the TX/RX collimation out. A small pumped-multiple-tube (PMT) was used as the detector to increase the communicating range, and FPGA chips were employed to code and decode the communicating data. The data rate of the prototype approached to 4 Mb/s at 8.4m and 1 Mb/s at 22m where voice and Morse communications were achieved in a scope of 30 degree TX/RX angle.

  1. Broadband focusing of underwater sound using a transparent pentamode lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoshi; Norris, Andrew N; Cushing, Colby W; Haberman, Michael R; Wilson, Preston S

    2017-06-01

    An inhomogeneous acoustic metamaterial lens based on spatial variation of refractive index for broadband focusing of underwater sound is reported. The index gradient follows a modified hyperbolic secant profile designed to reduce aberration and suppress side lobes. The gradient index (GRIN) lens is comprised of transversely isotropic hexagonal microstructures with tunable quasi-static bulk modulus and mass density. In addition, the unit cells are impedance-matched to water and have in-plane shear modulus negligible compared to the effective bulk modulus. The flat GRIN lens is fabricated by cutting hexagonal centimeter scale hollow microstructures in aluminum plates, which are then stacked and sealed from the exterior water. Broadband focusing effects are observed within the homogenization regime of the lattice in both finite element simulations and underwater measurements (20-40 kHz). This design approach has potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging and underwater acoustic communications.

  2. Underwater Acoustic Communication Quality Evaluation Model Based on USV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The unmanned surface vehicle (USV integrated with acoustic modems has some advantages such as easy integration, rapid placement, and low cost, which becomes a kind of selective novel node in the underwater acoustic (UWA communication network and a kind of underwater or overwater communication relay as well. However, it is difficult to ensure the communication quality among the nodes on the network due to the random underwater acoustic channel, the severe marine environment, and the complex mobile node system. Aiming to model the communication characteristics of the USV, the multipath effect and Doppler effect are main concerns for the UWA communication in this paper, so that the ray beam method is utilized, the channel transmission function and the channel gain are obtained, and the mobile communication quality evaluation model is built. The simulation and lake experiments verify that the built mobile UWA communication quality evaluation model on USV can provide preference and technique support for USV applications.

  3. Course Outline for a SCUBA Diving Speciality "UNDERWATER Survey DIVER"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, K.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a course for the training of divers with a special interest in underwater surveying (e.g. surveyors, archaeologists, biologists, geologists, photographers/videographers). This outline presents: i) the Courses' Standards ii) the Learning Objectives for the related Knowledge Development, iii) the Skills that have to be conducted, iv) the Performance Requirements for the students and v) the Open Water Considerations for the Training Dives. It is expected that the resulting course outline will be used as a reference for the training of certified divers who want to become underwater surveyors, providing them basic knowledge and skills to survey adequate data for the detailed documentation of submerged features. Moreover the combination of knowledge (what) and the skills (how) that are presented during the proposed course attempt to define a protocol for the recording of underwater features in favor of mapping and 3D modeling.

  4. Underwater Time Service and Synchronization Based on Time Reversal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Wang, Hai-bin; Aissa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Pyndiah, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    Real time service and synchronization are very important to many underwater systems. But the time service and synchronization in existence cannot work well due to the multi-path propagation and random phase fluctuation of signals in the ocean channel. The time reversal mirror technique can realize energy concentration through self-matching of the ocean channel and has very good spatial and temporal focusing properties. Based on the TRM technique, we present the Time Reversal Mirror Real Time service and synchronization (TRMRT) method which can bypass the processing of multi-path on the server side and reduce multi-path contamination on the client side. So TRMRT can improve the accuracy of time service. Furthermore, as an efficient and precise method of time service, TRMRT could be widely used in underwater exploration activities and underwater navigation and positioning systems.

  5. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Felamban, M.

    2013-03-25

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are expected to play a vital role in the exploration and monitoring of underwater areas which are not easily reachable by humans. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations that are very different from those used for terresstrial networks. In this paper, we investigate node placement for building an initial underwater WSN infrastructure. We formulate this problem as a nonlinear mathematical program with the objective of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted coverage volume. The obtained solution is the location of each node represented via a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. Experiments are conducted to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. Simulation is also conducted using an ns-3 simulator, and the simulation results are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  6. A potential flow based flight simulator for an underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemsapthawee, Surasak; Le Boulluec, Marc; Laurens, Jean-Marc; Deniset, François

    2013-03-01

    Underwater gliders are recent innovative types of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) used in ocean exploration and observation. They adjust their buoyancy to dive and to return to the ocean surface. During the change of altitude, they use the hydrodynamic forces developed by their wings to move forward. Their flights are controlled by changing the position of their centers of gravity and their buoyancy to adjust their trim and heel angles. For better flight control, the understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior and the flight mechanics of the underwater glider is necessary. A 6-DOF motion simulator is coupled with an unsteady potential flow model for this purpose. In some specific cases, the numerical study demonstrates that an inappropriate stabilizer dimension can cause counter-steering behavior. The simulator can be used to improve the automatic flight control. It can also be used for the hydrodynamic design optimization of the devices.

  7. Development and experiments of the Sea-Wing underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Jin, Wen-Ming; Chen, Qi; Tian, Yu; Liu, Chong-Jie

    2011-12-01

    Underwater gliders, which glide through water columns by use of a pair of wings, are efficient long-distance, long-duration marine environment observatory platforms. The Sea-Wing underwater glider, developed by the Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, is designed for the application of deep-sea environment variables observation. The system components, the mechanical design, and the control system design of the Sea-Wing underwater glider are described in this paper. The pitch and roll adjusting models are derived based on the mechanical design, and the adjusting capabilities for the pitch and roll are analyzed according to the models. Field experiments have been carried out for validating the gliding motion and the ability of measuring ocean environment variables. Experimental results of the motion performances of the glider are presented.

  8. Underwater Visual Computing: The Grand Challenge Just around the Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lukas, Uwe Freiherr

    2016-01-01

    Visual computing technologies have traditionally been developed for conventional setups where air is the surrounding medium for the user, the display, and/or the camera. However, given mankind's increasingly need to rely on the oceans to solve the problems of future generations (such as offshore oil and gas, renewable energies, and marine mineral resources), there is a growing need for mixed-reality applications for use in water. This article highlights the various research challenges when changing the medium from air to water, introduces the concept of underwater mixed environments, and presents recent developments in underwater visual computing applications.

  9. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -1 Migration & Diffusion, Vol. 6, Issue Number 21, 2005 ANCIENT DWARKA: STUDY BASED ON RECENT UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS by A.S. Gaur, Sundaresh and Sila Tripati Summary Dwarka, one of the best-studied underwater sites in India, has...). Dwarka has been the attraction for historians since the beginning of the 20th century. The ancient town Dwarka has been described as 56 Migration & Diffusion, Vol 6, Issue Number 21, 2005 Fig.l: Dwarka is headquarter of the Okhamandal taluka in Jamnagar...

  10. Underwater Shock Response Analysis of a Floating Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. van Aanhold

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a surface vessel to underwater shock has been calculated using an explicit finite element analysis. The analysis model is two-dimensional and contains the floating steel structure, a large surrounding water volume and the free surface. The underwater shock is applied in the form of a plane shock wave and cavitation is considered in the analysis. Advanced computer graphics, in particular video animations, provide a powerful and indispensable means for the presentation and evaluation of the analysis results.

  11. Directly modulated green-light diode-pumped solid-state laser for underwater wireless optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Aobo; Song, Yuhang; Han, Jun; Xu, Zhiwei; Wu, Bo; Gao, Shiming; Deng, Ning

    2017-05-01

    It is widely known that a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) has very limited modulation bandwidth. Recently, we directed our attention toward the opportunities for directly modulating a DPSSL to generate high-speed green-light signals, with high power and superior beam quality, which are highly desirable in underwater wireless optical communication. The constraint imposed by the limited modulation bandwidth of a DPSSL is circumvented with the strategy of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and power loading. With a compact DPSSL dismantled from a low-cost laser pointer, we achieve net bit rates of 108.55 Mb/s for the 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal at a bit error rate (BER) of 6.42×10-4 and 89.55 Mb/s for the 32 QAM signal at a BER of 4.81×10-4, respectively, over a 2 m underwater channel. When the underwater transmission distance is increased to 6 m, the BERs are still below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8×10-3.

  12. Modelling, Design and Robust Control of a Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Govinda García-Valdovinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs play an important role in a number of shallow and deep-water missions for marine science, oil and gas extraction, exploration and salvage. In these applications, the motions of the ROV are guided either by a human pilot on a surface support vessel through an umbilical cord providing power and telemetry, or by an automatic pilot. In the case of automatic control, ROV state feedback is provided by acoustic and inertial sensors and this state information, along with a controller strategy, is used to perform several tasks such as station-keeping and auto-immersion/heading, among others. In this paper, the modelling, design and control of the Kaxan ROV is presented: i The complete six degrees of freedom, non linear hydrodynamic model with its parameters, ii the Kaxan hardware/software architecture, iii numerical simulations in Matlab/Simulink platform of a model-free second order sliding mode control along with ocean currents as disturbances and thruster dynamics, iv a virtual environment to visualize the motion of the Kaxan ROV and v experimental results of a one degree of freedom underwater system.

  13. Lagrangian coherent structure assisted path planning for transoceanic autonomous underwater vehicle missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A G; García-Garrido, V J; Mancho, A M; Wiggins, S; Coca, J; Glenn, S; Schofield, O; Kohut, J; Aragon, D; Kerfoot, J; Haskins, T; Miles, T; Haldeman, C; Strandskov, N; Allsup, B; Jones, C; Shapiro, J

    2018-03-15

    Transoceanic Gliders are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for which there is a developing and expanding range of applications in open-seas research, technology and underwater clean transport. Mature glider autonomy, operating depth (0-1000 meters) and low energy consumption without a CO 2 footprint enable evolutionary access across ocean basins. Pursuant to the first successful transatlantic glider crossing in December 2009, the Challenger Mission has opened the door to long-term, long-distance routine transoceanic AUV missions. These vehicles, which glide through the water column between 0 and 1000 meters depth, are highly sensitive to the ocean current field. Consequently, it is essential to exploit the complex space-time structure of the ocean current field in order to plan a path that optimizes scientific payoff and navigation efficiency. This letter demonstrates the capability of dynamical system theory for achieving this goal by realizing the real-time navigation strategy for the transoceanic AUV named Silbo, which is a Slocum deep-glider (0-1000 m), that crossed the North Atlantic from April 2016 to March 2017. Path planning in real time based on this approach has facilitated an impressive speed up of the AUV to unprecedented velocities resulting in major battery savings on the mission, offering the potential for routine transoceanic long duration missions.

  14. Nonlinear multiple-input-multiple-output adaptive backstepping control of underwater glider systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an adaptive backstepping control is proposed for multi-input and multi-output nonlinear underwater glider systems. The developed method is established on the basis of the state-space equations, which are simplified from the full glider dynamics through reasonable assumptions. The roll angle, pitch angle, and velocity of the vehicle are considered as control objects, a Lyapunov function consisting of the tracking error of the state vectors is established. According to Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control laws are derived to ensure the tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero. The proposed nonlinear MIMO adaptive backstepping control (ABC scheme is tested to control an underwater glider in saw-tooth motion, spiral motion, and multimode motion. The linear quadratic regular (LQR control scheme is described and evaluated with the ABC for the motion control problems. The results demonstrate that both control strategies provide similar levels of robustness while using the proposed ABC scheme leads to the more smooth control efforts with less oscillatory behavior.

  15. Underwater maintenance guide: A guide to diving and remotely operated vehicle operations for nuclear maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenco, J.

    1990-12-01

    This Underwater Maintenance Guide has been developed to provide utility plant personnel with a single-source reference to underwater services. These services, which include both manned diving and remotely-operated vehicle operations, are required to perform certain underwater maintenance functions at nuclear power generating stations. This Guide provides an introduction to those underwater services and their general operations, as well as overviews of specific work tasks which have been identified thus far. This information is intended to familiarize utility maintenance personnel with the general scope and capabilities of underwater services, without encroaching upon the contractor's flexibility to develop responses to individual maintenance tasks

  16. Protective coatings based on 2D-materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten

    Corrosion has a major impact on the world economy. Barrier coatings is one of the most widely applied strategies to reduce the degradation of materials, however, every coating technology has its drawbacks. Graphene has the potential of creating the ideal coating, being atomically thin and, when i...

  17. The Improved Kriging Interpolation Algorithm for Local Underwater Terrain Based on Fractal Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpolation-reconstruction of local underwater terrain using the underwater digital terrain map (UDTM is an important step for building an underwater terrain matching unit and directly affects the accuracy of underwater terrain matching navigation. The Kriging method is often used in terrain interpolation, but, with this method, the local terrain features are often lost. Therefore, the accuracy cannot meet the requirements of practical application. Analysis of the geographical features is performed on the basis of the randomness and self-similarity of underwater terrain. We extract the fractal features of local underwater terrain with the fractal Brownian motion model, compensating for the possible errors of the Kriging method with fractal theory. We then put forward an improved Kriging interpolation method based on this fractal compensation. Interpolation-reconstruction tests show that the method can simulate the real underwater terrain features well and that it has good usability.

  18. Single underwater image enhancement based on color cast removal and visibility restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongyi; Guo, Jichang; Wang, Bo; Cong, Runmin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Images taken under underwater condition usually have color cast and serious loss of contrast and visibility. Degraded underwater images are inconvenient for observation and analysis. In order to address these problems, an underwater image-enhancement method is proposed. A simple yet effective underwater image color cast removal algorithm is first presented based on the optimization theory. Then, based on the minimum information loss principle and inherent relationship of medium transmission maps of three color channels in an underwater image, an effective visibility restoration algorithm is proposed to recover visibility, contrast, and natural appearance of degraded underwater images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, qualitative comparison, quantitative comparison, and color accuracy test are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively remove color cast, improve contrast and visibility, and recover natural appearance of degraded underwater images. Additionally, the proposed method is comparable to and even better than several state-of-the-art methods.

  19. An Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithm for Environment Recognition and Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that require clear and easily recognizable images in the field of underwater robotics and marine science, such as underwater target detection and identification of robot navigation and obstacle avoidance. However, water turbidity makes the underwater image quality too low to recognize. This paper proposes the use of the dark channel prior model for underwater environment recognition, in which underwater reflection models are used to obtain enhanced images. The proposed approach achieves very good performance and multi-scene robustness by combining the dark channel prior model with the underwater diffuse model. The experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of the dark channel prior model in underwater scenarios.

  20. Strategy; Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-15

    Francois Loos, Minister of Industry, explains the French energy policy in the frame of Europe. ONERC is a French public body in charge of defining a national strategy against climate changes. It submits its first strategic elements to the Government. (authors)

  1. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2016-09-20

    This paper presents a self-powered underwater acoustic transmitter using a piezoelectric beam to harvest the mechanical energy from fish swimming. This transmitter does not require a battery and is demonstrated in live fish. It transmits an acoustic waveform as the implanted fish swims. It enables long-term monitoring of aquatic animals.

  2. Optimal BRUVs (baited remote underwater video system) survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) play an important role in coastal conservation, but there is presently no uniformly applied methodology for monitoring the efficacy of coastal fish protection. Whereas underwater visual census and controlled angling surveys have been used, their skilled-labour requirements and environmental ...

  3. Moving in extreme environments: inert gas narcosis and underwater activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the underwater environment for pleasure or work poses many challenges on the human body including thermal stress, barotraumas, decompression sickness as well as the acute effects of breathing gases under pressure. With the popularity of recreational self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving on the increase and deep inland dive sites becoming more accessible, it is important that we understand the effects of breathing pressurised gas at depth can have on the body. One of the common consequences of hyperbaric gas is the narcotic effect of inert gas. Nitrogen (a major component of air) under pressure can impede mental function and physical performance at depths of as little as 10 m underwater. With increased depth, symptoms can worsen to include confusion, disturbed coordination, lack of concentration, hallucinations and unconsciousness. Narcosis has been shown to contribute directly to up to 6% of deaths in divers and is likely to be indirectly associated with other diving incidents at depth. This article explores inert gas narcosis, the effect on divers' movement and function underwater and the proposed physiological mechanisms. Also discussed are some of the factors that affect the susceptibility of divers to the condition. In conclusion, understanding the cause of this potentially debilitating problem is important to ensure that safe diving practices continue.

  4. QFD-based conceptual design of an autonomous underwater robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thip Pasawang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater robots in the past few years have been designed according to the individual concepts and experiences of the researchers. To design a robot, which meets all the requirements of potential users, is an advanced work. Hence, a systematic design method that could include users’ preferences and requirements is needed. This paper presents the quality function deployment (QFD technique to design an autonomous underwater robot focusing on the Thai Navy military mission. Important user requirements extracted from the QFD method are the ability to record videos, operating at depth up to 10 meters, the ability to operate remotely with cable and safety concerns related to water leakages. Less important user requirements include beauty, using renewable energy, operating remotely with radio and ability to work during night time. The important design parameters derived from the user requirements are a low cost-controller, an autonomous control algorithm, a compass sensor and vertical gyroscope, and a depth sensor. Of low-importance ranked design parameters include the module design, use clean energy, a low noise electric motor, remote surveillance design, a pressure hull, and a beautiful hull form design. The study results show the feasibility of using QFD techniques to systematically design the autonomous underwater robot to meet user requirements. Mapping between the design and expected parameters and a conceptual drafting design of an autonomous underwater robot are also presented.

  5. Evaluation of Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithms under Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Mangeruga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater images usually suffer from poor visibility, lack of contrast and colour casting, mainly due to light absorption and scattering. In literature, there are many algorithms aimed to enhance the quality of underwater images through different approaches. Our purpose was to identify an algorithm that performs well in different environmental conditions. We have selected some algorithms from the state of the art and we have employed them to enhance a dataset of images produced in various underwater sites, representing different environmental and illumination conditions. These enhanced images have been evaluated through some quantitative metrics. By analysing the results of these metrics, we tried to understand which of the selected algorithms performed better than the others. Another purpose of our research was to establish if a quantitative metric was enough to judge the behaviour of an underwater image enhancement algorithm. We aim to demonstrate that, even if the metrics can provide an indicative estimation of image quality, they could lead to inconsistent or erroneous evaluations.

  6. Biophysics of underwater hearing in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elepfandt, A

    1995-01-01

    Anesthetized clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were stimulated with underwater sound and the tympanic disk vibrations were studied using laser vibrometry. The tympanic disk velocities ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 mm/s (at a sound pressure of 2 Pa) in the frequency range of 0.4-4 kHz and were 20-40 dB higher...

  7. Estimate-Merge-Technique-based algorithms to track an underwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V A N Ravi Kumar

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... Abstract. Bearing-only passive target tracking is a well-known underwater defence issue dealt in the recent past with the conventional nonlinear estimators like extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter. (UKF). It is being treated now-a-days with the derivatives of EKF, UKF and a highly ...

  8. Netcentric underwater warfare; The Remedy for 'Silent Subs'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.M.; Beerens, S.P.; Theije, P.A.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Although in most recent crises around the world it would appear from a superficial glance that there was no imminent underwater threat, a closer look shows differently. In the War on Iraq, for instance, a large allied effort was spent on eliminating the very real mine threat that endangered the

  9. Interaction tools for underwater shock analysis in naval platform design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E.; Tuitman, J.T.; Trouwborst, W.; Vaders, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need for good quality UNDerwater EXplosion (UNDEX) response estimates of naval platforms, TNO developed two 3D simulation tools: the Simplified Interaction Tool (SIT) and the hydro/structural code 3DCAV. Both tools are an add-on to LS-DYNA. SIT is a module of user routines

  10. Network lifetime-aware data collection in Underwater Sensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of energy-efficient data collection and routing schemes for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) is a challenging issue due to the peculiarities of the underlying physical layer technology. Since the recharging or replacement of sensor nodes is almost impossible after deployment, the critical issue of ...

  11. The effect of floating deck structures on underwater radiated noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, C.; Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Basten, T.

    2017-01-01

    A concept for underwater machinery noise mitigation of future civil and military ships is the application of a common deck structure, supporting multiple machines, which is installed on resilient mounts on the ship's foundation structure. TNO is addressing the availability and testing of tools to be

  12. Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Crum, L. A.; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1989-01-01

    ; the second occurs for some impacts but not others. A range of conditions is described in which a bubble is produced for every drop impact, and it is shown that these conditions are likely to be met by a significant fraction of the raindrops in a typical shower. Underwater sound produced by artificial as well...

  13. Student-Built Underwater Video and Data Capturing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, F.

    2016-12-01

    Students from Stockbridge High School Robotics Team invention is a low cost underwater video and data capturing device. This system is capable of shooting time-lapse photography and/or video for up to 3 days of video at a time. It can be used in remote locations without having to change batteries or adding additional external hard drives for data storage. The video capturing device has a unique base and mounting system which houses a pi drive and a programmable raspberry pi with a camera module. This system is powered by two 12 volt batteries, which makes it easier for users to recharge after use. Our data capturing device has the same unique base and mounting system as the underwater camera. The data capturing device consists of an Arduino and SD card shield that is capable of collecting continuous temperature and pH readings underwater. This data will then be logged onto the SD card for easy access and recording. The low cost underwater video and data capturing device can reach depths up to 100 meters while recording 36 hours of video on 1 terabyte of storage. It also features night vision infrared light capabilities. The cost to build our invention is $500. The goal of this was to provide a device that can easily be accessed by marine biologists, teachers, researchers and citizen scientists to capture photographic and water quality data in marine environments over extended periods of time.

  14. ULTRA: Underwater Localization for Transit and Reconnaissance Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    This software addresses the issue of underwater localization of unmanned vehicles and the inherent drift in their onboard sensors. The software gives a 2 to 3 factor of improvement over the state-of-the-art underwater localization algorithms. The software determines the localization (position, heading) of an AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) in environments where there is no GPS signal. It accomplishes this using only the commanded position, onboard gyros/accelerometers, and the bathymetry of the bottom provided by an onboard sonar system. The software does not rely on an onboard bathymetry dataset, but instead incrementally determines the position of the AUV while mapping the bottom. In order to enable long-distance underwater navigation by AUVs, a localization method called ULTRA uses registration of the bathymetry data products produced by the onboard forward-looking sonar system for hazard avoidance during a transit to derive the motion and pose of the AUV in order to correct the DR (dead reckoning) estimates. The registration algorithm uses iterative point matching (IPM) combined with surface interpolation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. This method was used previously at JPL for onboard unmanned ground vehicle localization, and has been optimized for efficient computational and memory use.

  15. A highly versatile autonomous underwater vehicle with biomechanical propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, D.G.; Bergers, M.M.C.; Henrion, S.; Hulzenga, J.I.J.; Jutte, R.W.; Pas, W.M.G.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Vercruyssen, T.G.A.; Wilken, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle with a biomechanical propulsion system is a possible answer to the demand for small, silent sensor platforms in many fields. The design of Galatea, a bio-mimetic AUV, involves four aspects: hydrodynamic shape, the propulsion, the motion control systems and payload.

  16. Sources of underwater sound and their characterisation (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2013-01-01

    After centuries of speculation, punctuated by occasional theoretical or experimental advances, the first intensive research into underwater sound took place 100 years ago, applied initially to provide advance warning of icebergs after the loss of RMS Titanic in 1912, and later to counter the U-boat

  17. Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System Using Blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aobo; Tong, Zheng; Song, Yuhang; Kong, Meiwei; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a self-designed underwater wireless optical communication system using blue LEDs. The performance of the transmitter and receiver was experimentally investigated. Four different square wave signals (10 KHz, 100 KHz, 500 KHz and 1 MHz) were successfully transmitted via a short water channel at the first phase.

  18. BER evaluations for multimode beams in underwater turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay Arpali, Serap; Baykal, Yahya; Arpali, Çağlar

    2016-07-01

    In underwater optical communication links, bit error rate (BER) is an important performance criterion. For this purpose, the effects of oceanic turbulence on multimode laser beam incidences are studied and compared in terms of average BER (), which is related to the scintillation index. Based on the log-normal distribution, is analysed for underwater turbulence parameters, including the rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, the parameter that determines the relative strength of temperature and salinity in driving index fluctuations, the Kolmogorov microscale length and other link parameters such as link length, wavelength and laser source size. It is shown that use of multimode improves the system performance of optical wireless communication systems operating in an underwater medium. For all the investigated multimode beams, decreasing link length, source size, the relative strength of temperature and salinity in driving the index fluctuations, the rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature and Kolmogorov microscale length improve the . Moreover, lower values are obtained for the increasing wavelength of operation and the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy in underwater turbulence.

  19. Experimental Assessment of Underwater Radiated Sound of Different Ship Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SONIC project is to develop tools to investigate and mitigate the effects of underwater noise generated by shipping. One way to study the contribution of shipping noise to the background noise in the seas is to produce shipping noise maps. The SONIC project delivers the required

  20. AEKF-SLAM: A New Algorithm for Robotic Underwater Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán; Fernández, José Antonio Sánchez; Eckert, Martina

    2017-05-21

    In this work, we focus on key topics related to underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) applications. Moreover, a detailed review of major studies in the literature and our proposed solutions for addressing the problem are presented. The main goal of this paper is the enhancement of the accuracy and robustness of the SLAM-based navigation problem for underwater robotics with low computational costs. Therefore, we present a new method called AEKF-SLAM that employs an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-based SLAM approach stores the robot poses and map landmarks in a single state vector, while estimating the state parameters via a recursive and iterative estimation-update process. Hereby, the prediction and update state (which exist as well in the conventional EKF) are complemented by a newly proposed augmentation stage. Applied to underwater robot navigation, the AEKF-SLAM has been compared with the classic and popular FastSLAM 2.0 algorithm. Concerning the dense loop mapping and line mapping experiments, it shows much better performances in map management with respect to landmark addition and removal, which avoid the long-term accumulation of errors and clutters in the created map. Additionally, the underwater robot achieves more precise and efficient self-localization and a mapping of the surrounding landmarks with much lower processing times. Altogether, the presented AEKF-SLAM method achieves reliably map revisiting, and consistent map upgrading on loop closure.

  1. Synthesis and Development of Gold Polypyrrole Actuator for Underwater Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S. K.; Bandopadhya, D.

    2018-02-01

    Electro-active polymer (EAP) such as Polypyrrole has gained much attention in the category of functional materials for fabrication of both active actuator and sensor. Particularly, PPy actuator has shown potential in fluid medium application because of high strain, large bending displacement and work density. This paper focuses on developing a low cost active actuator promising in delivering high performance in underwater environment. The proposed Au-pyrrole actuator is synthesized by adopting the layer-by-layer electrochemical polymerization technique and is fabricated as strip actuator from aqueous solution of Pyrrole and NaDBS in room temperature. In the follow-up, topographical analysis has been carried out using SEM and FESEM instruments showing surface morphology and surface integrity of chemical components of the structure. Several experiments have been conducted under DC input voltage evaluating performance effectiveness such as underwater bending displacement and tip force etc. This is observed that the actuator exhibits quite similar stress profile as of natural muscle, endowed with high modulus makes them effective in working nearly 10,000 cycles underwater environment. In addition, the bending displacement up to 5.4 mm with a low input voltage 1.3 V makes the actuator suitable for underwater micro-robotics applications.

  2. Swimming, swarming and sensing. Bio-inspired underwater robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrion, S.; Vercruyssen, T.; Müller, U.K.

    2014-01-01

    For operations in complex underwater environments, bio-inspired robots offer manoeuvrability, stealth and autonomy. They integrate propulsion and control systems into one multi-purpose undulatory propeller. By generating large counteracting forces, undulating fins generate a wide range of net

  3. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available Scallop vehicle 1 , but has been modified by the Department of Energys Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a ''head-to-head fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations

  4. MA-23-6000: underwater bilateral servo master slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, Jean

    The different types of manipulators, recent data on their dexterity and the underwater work possible with servo master slave manipulators are reviewed. The general specifications of the manipulator MA 23-6000 designed for the machine ERIC II are given [fr

  5. A network coding based routing protocol for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayang; Chen, Min; Guan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime.

  6. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a

  7. Network lifetime-aware data collection in Underwater Sensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jalaja Janardanan Kartha

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... We model the problem as a constrained optimization prob- lem, considering the peculiarities of the underwater environ- ment, resource limitations and application requirements. In particular, we formulate an optimization problem that maxi- mizes the lifetime of the UWSN, subject to node energy con- straints ...

  8. Real-time underwater image enhancement: An improved approach ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fers extensively from visual image processing, primarily due to three major underwater channel impairments, i.e. ... visual quality of the image by mitigating color cast with subsequent contrast enhancement. In the proposed method, ...... sincere thanks to all Robotics & Automation Group mem- bers for their help and support.

  9. Enrichment of colloidal solutions by nanoparticles in underwater spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopat'ko, K.; Aftandiliants, Y.; Veklich, A.; Boretskij, V.; Taran, N.; Batsmanova, L.; Trach, V.; Tugai, T.

    2015-01-01

    The underwater spark discharge between manganese granules was studied. Optical emission spectroscopy methods were used for diagnostics of such discharge plasma. The colloidal solution with manganese nanoparticles was produced by this discharge. The biological applications of this colloid were analyzed. The mechanism of metallic nanoparticle action and their transformation at interacting with biological objects were studied in Alternaria alternata culture

  10. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  11. “Diving for dope” : Controlling underwater drug trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eski, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will offer an ethnographic account of the everyday reality of controlling illegal underwater drug trafficking in the global Port of Rotterdam (PoR). In so doing, it will explore what it means for customs diving officers to do drug inspections under challenging circumstances in order to

  12. Underwater Optical Wireless Communications, Networking, and Localization: A Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir

    2018-02-28

    Underwater wireless communications can be carried out through acoustic, radio frequency (RF), and optical waves. Compared to its bandwidth limited acoustic and RF counterparts, underwater optical wireless communications (UOWCs) can support higher data rates at low latency levels. However, severe aquatic channel conditions (e.g., absorption, scattering, turbulence, etc.) pose great challenges for UOWCs and significantly reduce the attainable communication ranges, which necessitates efficient networking and localization solutions. Therefore, we provide a comprehensive survey on the challenges, advances, and prospects of underwater optical wireless networks (UOWNs) from a layer by layer perspective which includes: 1) Potential network architectures; 2) Physical layer issues including propagation characteristics, channel modeling, and modulation techniques 3) Data link layer problems covering link configurations, link budgets, performance metrics, and multiple access schemes; 4) Network layer topics containing relaying techniques and potential routing algorithms; 5) Transport layer subjects such as connectivity, reliability, flow and congestion control; 6) Application layer goals and state-of-the-art UOWN applications, and 7) Localization and its impacts on UOWN layers. Finally, we outline the open research challenges and point out the future directions for underwater optical wireless communications, networking, and localization research.

  13. Network lifetime-aware data collection in Underwater Sensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jalaja Janardanan Kartha

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... ditions and providing useful performance indicators prior to network deployment. Keywords. Underwater Sensor Networks .... There exists the possibility of controlling the extent of multi-hop routing that is feasible for ... standard tools; (iii) investigating the performance metrics of the proposed framework; (iv) ...

  14. AEKF-SLAM: A New Algorithm for Robotic Underwater Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we focus on key topics related to underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM applications. Moreover, a detailed review of major studies in the literature and our proposed solutions for addressing the problem are presented. The main goal of this paper is the enhancement of the accuracy and robustness of the SLAM-based navigation problem for underwater robotics with low computational costs. Therefore, we present a new method called AEKF-SLAM that employs an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-based SLAM approach stores the robot poses and map landmarks in a single state vector, while estimating the state parameters via a recursive and iterative estimation-update process. Hereby, the prediction and update state (which exist as well in the conventional EKF are complemented by a newly proposed augmentation stage. Applied to underwater robot navigation, the AEKF-SLAM has been compared with the classic and popular FastSLAM 2.0 algorithm. Concerning the dense loop mapping and line mapping experiments, it shows much better performances in map management with respect to landmark addition and removal, which avoid the long-term accumulation of errors and clutters in the created map. Additionally, the underwater robot achieves more precise and efficient self-localization and a mapping of the surrounding landmarks with much lower processing times. Altogether, the presented AEKF-SLAM method achieves reliably map revisiting, and consistent map upgrading on loop closure.

  15. Underwater sound due to a subsea high speed turbo compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnerts, B.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    In the oil & gas industry there is a trend towards more subsea activities. To improve gas recovery from existing and new fields at greater depths, the produced gas will be compressed, processed and transported via subsea templates and underwater networks (pipelines, flexible risers, etc.). Besides

  16. Non-line-of-sight underwater optical wireless communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie

    2009-03-01

    The growing need for ocean observation systems has stimulated considerable interest within the research community in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. Sensors and ad hoc sensor networks are the emerging tools for performing extensive data-gathering operations on land, and solutions in the subsea setting are being sought. Efficient communication from the sensors and within the network is critical, but the underwater environment is extremely challenging. Addressing the special features of underwater wireless communication in sensor networks, we propose a novel non-line-of-sight network concept in which the link is implemented by means of back-reflection of the propagating optic signal at the ocean-air interface and derive a mathematical model of the channel. Point-to-multipoint links can be achieved in an energy efficient manner and broadcast broadband communications, such as video transmissions, can be executed. We show achievable bit error rates as a function of sensor node separation and demonstrate the feasibility of this concept using state-of-the-art silicon photomultiplier detectors.

  17. Baited remote underwater video system (BRUVs) survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first baited remote underwater video system (BRUVs) survey of the relative abundance, diversity and seasonal distribution of chondrichthyans in False Bay. Nineteen species from 11 families were recorded across 185 sites at between 4 and 49 m depth. Diversity was greatest in summer, on reefs and in shallow ...

  18. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metal vapour from the cut kerf is spread in air. In cutting of irradiated material, debris and metal vapour creates airborne activity, which may be harmful for people working nearby, whereas, underwater cutting is advantageous in terms of a narrow. HAZ adjacent to the laser cut surface providing better samples for the analysis.

  19. HullBUG Technology Development for Underwater Hull Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    period an effort was also made to estimate the cost of a reasonably simple test device that consists of a motor, bearing support and underwater...planned for use at that facility. FIT Test Vehicle Successful operation of the HullBUG system on the sailing vessel Adele was performed in

  20. Comparison of the atmospheric- and reduced-pressure HS-SPME strategies for analysis of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics using a steel fiber coated with a multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Nouriasl, Kolsoum; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    A low-cost, sensitive and reliable reduced-pressure headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) setup was developed and evaluated for direct extraction of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics, followed by determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). A stainless steel narrow wire was made porous and adhesive by platinization by a modified electrophoretic deposition method and coated with a polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite. All experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated for both atmospheric-pressure and reduced-pressure conditions. Comparison of the optimal experimental conditions and the results demonstrated that the reduced-pressure strategy leads to a remarkable increase in the extraction efficiency and reduction of the extraction time and temperature (10 min, 25 °Ϲ vs 20 min, 40 °Ϲ). Additionally, the reduced-pressure strategy showed better analytical performances compared with those obtained by the conventional HS-SPME-GC-FID method. Limit of detections, linear dynamic ranges, and relative standard deviations of the reduced-pressure HS-SPME procedure for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in injectable solid drugs were obtained over the ranges of 20-100 pg g -1 , 0.02-40 μg g -1 , and 2.8-10.2%, respectively. The procedure developed was successful for the analysis of BTEX in commercial containers of penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefazolin. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the developed RP-HS-SPME setup.

  1. OceanVideoLab: A Tool for Exploring Underwater Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, V. L.; Morton, J. J.; Wiener, C.

    2016-02-01

    Video imagery acquired with underwater vehicles is an essential tool for characterizing seafloor ecosystems and seafloor geology. It is a fundamental component of ocean exploration that facilitates real-time operations, augments multidisciplinary scientific research, and holds tremendous potential for public outreach and engagement. Acquiring, documenting, managing, preserving and providing access to large volumes of video acquired with underwater vehicles presents a variety of data stewardship challenges to the oceanographic community. As a result, only a fraction of underwater video content collected with research submersibles is documented, discoverable and/or viewable online. With more than 1 billion users, YouTube offers infrastructure that can be leveraged to help address some of the challenges associated with sharing underwater video with a broad global audience. Anyone can post content to YouTube, and some oceanographic organizations, such as the Schmidt Ocean Institute, have begun live-streaming video directly from underwater vehicles. OceanVideoLab (oceanvideolab.org) was developed to help improve access to underwater video through simple annotation, browse functionality, and integration with related environmental data. Any underwater video that is publicly accessible on YouTube can be registered with OceanVideoLab by simply providing a URL. It is strongly recommended that a navigational file also be supplied to enable geo-referencing of observations. Once a video is registered, it can be viewed and annotated using a simple user interface that integrates observations with vehicle navigation data if provided. This interface includes an interactive map and a list of previous annotations that allows users to jump to times of specific observations in the video. Future enhancements to OceanVideoLab will include the deployment of a search interface, the development of an application program interface (API) that will drive the search and enable querying of

  2. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Planar maneuvering control of underwater snake robots using virtual holonomic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Anna M; Kelasidi, Eleni; Mohammadi, Alireza; Maggiore, Manfredi; Pettersen, Kristin Y

    2016-11-24

    This paper investigates the problem of planar maneuvering control for bio-inspired underwater snake robots that are exposed to unknown ocean currents. The control objective is to make a neutrally buoyant snake robot which is subject to hydrodynamic forces and ocean currents converge to a desired planar path and traverse the path with a desired velocity. The proposed feedback control strategy enforces virtual constraints which encode biologically inspired gaits on the snake robot configuration. The virtual constraints, parametrized by states of dynamic compensators, are used to regulate the orientation and forward speed of the snake robot. A two-state ocean current observer based on relative velocity sensors is proposed. It enables the robot to follow the path in the presence of unknown constant ocean currents. The efficacy of the proposed control algorithm for several biologically inspired gaits is verified both in simulations for different path geometries and in experiments.

  4. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  5. Towards Enhanced Underwater Lidar Detection via Source Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illig, David W.

    Interest in underwater optical sensors has grown as technologies enabling autonomous underwater vehicles have been developed. Propagation of light through water is complicated by the dual challenges of absorption and scattering. While absorption can be reduced by operating in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum, reducing scattering is a more significant challenge. Collection of scattered light negatively impacts underwater optical ranging, imaging, and communications applications. This thesis concentrates on the ranging application, where scattering reduces operating range as well as range accuracy. The focus of this thesis is on the problem of backscatter, which can create a "clutter" return that may obscure submerged target(s) of interest. The main contributions of this thesis are explorations of signal processing approaches to increase the separation between the target and backscatter returns. Increasing this separation allows detection of weak targets in the presence of strong scatter, increasing both operating range and range accuracy. Simulation and experimental results will be presented for a variety of approaches as functions of water clarity and target position. This work provides several novel contributions to the underwater lidar field: 1. Quantification of temporal separation approaches: While temporal separation has been studied extensively, this work provides a quantitative assessment of the extent to which both high frequency modulation and spatial filter approaches improve the separation between target and backscatter. 2. Development and assessment of frequency separation: This work includes the first frequency-based separation approach for underwater lidar, in which the channel frequency response is measured with a wideband waveform. Transforming to the time-domain gives a channel impulse response, in which target and backscatter returns may appear in unique range bins and thus be separated. 3. Development and assessment of statistical

  6. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  7. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  9. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)].

  10. Tribological properties of fish scale inspired underwater superoleophobic hierarchical structure in aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Qimeng; Yu, Huadong

    2017-10-01

    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces are becoming increasingly important in regard to self-cleaning, anti-fouling, oil droplet transportation and water/oil separation. Although a great number of underwater superoleophobic surfaces have been demonstrated, their tribological properties remain impractical for the purposes of real-life applications. Herein, a two-step method of high speed wire electrical discharge machining and boiling water treatment was adopted to fabricate fish scale inspired underwater oil repellent hierarchical structure on an aluminum (Al) alloy 5083 surface. The hierarchical roughness and hydroxyl groups were obtained on the surface, and the surface exhibited the ability to prevent contact with organic fluids when submerged in water. Moreover, the tribological properties of underwater superoleophobic Al surfaces in aqueous environments were analyzed. The average friction coefficient of underwater superoleophobic surfaces was decreased compared with the polished Al surface. We believe that this research will contribute to the engineering application of underwater superoleophobic surfaces in the future.

  11. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  12. Sound absorption of a rib-stiffened plate covered by anechoic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinyi; Jin, Zhongkun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Bilong

    2015-03-01

    Underwater vehicles are often equipped with anechoic coatings to absorb the sound waves of active sonar and attenuate the noise emitted from the vessels. Rubber layers with periodically distributed air cavities are widely used as anechoic coatings. In this paper, the sound absorption of anechoic coatings embedded with doubly periodic cavities and backed with periodically rib-stiffened plates is investigated using a finite element method (FEM) with Bloch-periodic boundary conditions. Numerical results given by the FEM are compared with those of a simplified transfer impedance approach to explain the shifting of the main absorption peak. Further a simplified FEM approach, which reduces calculation time significantly and maintains the reasonable accuracy, is proposed for a comparison. The results indicate that the plate and the ribs can have significant impacts on the absorption performance of anechoic coatings, especially at low frequencies.

  13. Underwater inspection and maintenance programs within nuclear and non-nuclear related operating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallance, C.; Goulet, B.; Black, S.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing age of the nuclear and non-nuclear power generating facilities requires extended inspection, repair and maintenance (IRM) activities to prolong the operation of these facilities past their original design life. Commercial divers are often utilized to perform critical work at nuclear power plants, fuel reprocessing plants, waste storage facilities, and research institutions. These various tasks include inspection, welding, mechanical modifications and repairs, coating applications, and work associated with plant decommissioning. Programs may take place in areas such as the reactor vessel, equipment pool, spent fuel pool, and suppression chamber using manned intervention and remotely operated vehicles. Some of these tasks can also be conducted using remotely operated vehicles (ROV's). Although specialist robots are not uncommon to the nuclear industry, the use of free-swimming vehicle's and remote systems for the inspection of underwater assets has increased due to improvements of the supporting technologies and information requirements needed to extend the life of these facilities. This paper will provide an overview of the procedures and equipment necessary to perform unique work tasks using manned and unmanned techniques. (author)

  14. Dolphin Sounds-Inspired Covert Underwater Acoustic Communication and Micro-Modem

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Qiao; Yunjiang Zhao; Songzuo Liu; Muhammad Bilal

    2017-01-01

    A novel portable underwater acoustic modem is proposed in this paper for covert communication between divers or underwater unmanned vehicles (UUVs) and divers at a short distance. For the first time, real dolphin calls are used in the modem to realize biologically inspired Covert Underwater Acoustic Communication (CUAC). A variety of dolphin whistles and clicks stored in an SD card inside the modem helps to realize different biomimetic CUAC algorithms based on the specified covert scenario. I...

  15. A PROPOSAL FOR A SUSTAINABLE MODEL BASED UPON UNDERWATER TOURISM RESEARCH IN AYVALIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GÖKDENİZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater sports are the activities being done with the aims of witnessing the beauties, hunting, taking photos, the ecology and the archaeology of underwater analysing or finding out the human being’s boundaries by improving the physical and psychological skills of men. The initial aim of this project is to increase the underwater flora and the fauna heritage of Ayvalık and to bring them in tourism. Ayvalık is on the west coast of Turkey. It is getting more and more famous with its underwater richness. Also, to form a new underwater sports centre in order to contribute to the improvement of the region. By providing visual attractiveness, the tourists related to underwater sports will pay attention to Ayvalık and underwater tourism will contribute much to the economy of the region. The aim of this project is to improve the underwater sports which is now a hobby than a sport. In Ayvalık Underwater World study, we dealt with 247 divers and 4 underwater sports club. In this study, we analysed the expectation, satisfaction, demographic and economic level of 247 divers about the services in the region. Interview technique has been used in the study on the 4 underwater sports clubs which are hosting divers. As a conclusion, a report has been prepared in which detailed information and proposals are presented by developing a sustainable marketing model concerned with the underwater sports for those who want to possess information, shareholders of the sector and make analyse about tourism.

  16. Real-Time Dynamic Model Learning and Adaptation for Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    propeller on the vLBV300 SV Starboard, vertical propeller on the vLBV300 THAUS Tethered Hovering-Class Autonomous Underwater System UUV Unmanned...inhabitance of man and machine—the aim is to fundamentally enable the transformative capability of robots as underwater co-workers. The RDAS finds...be commanded via a high- or low-level computer interface, resulting in a tethered , hovering-class autonomous underwater system (THAUS). As

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Motion of an Underwater Robot Glider for Shallow-water Ocean Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Wang; Amir Anvar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling and simulation of an underwater robot glider used in the shallow-water environment. We followed the Equations of motion derived by [2] and simplified dynamic Equations of motion of an underwater glider according to our underwater glider. A simulation code is built and operated in the MATLAB Simulink environment so that we can make improvements to our testing glider design. It may be also used to validate a robot glider design.

  18. Evaluating underwater noise regulations for piling noise in Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Rumes, B.; Erkman, A.; Haelters, J.

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about possible effects on the marine ecosystem of high levels of underwater noise generated during pile driving for the construction of offshore wind farms. As a result, various national governments in Europe have identified limits of underwater sound levels, as such imposing in many cases the use of noise mitigation measures. In this paper we compare the regulations with regard to impulsive underwater noise in the Belgian wind farm zone with those in the Dutch wind energy zo...

  19. Target Localization in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Using RSS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the target localization problems based on received signal strength (RSS measurements in underwater acoustic wireless sensor network (UWSN. Firstly, the problems based on the maximum likelihood (ML criterion for estimating target localization in cases of both known and unknown transmit power are respectively derived, and fast implementation algorithms are proposed by transforming the non-convex problems into a generalized trust region subproblem (GTRS frameworks. A three-step procedure is also provided to enhance the estimation accuracy in the unknown target transmit power case. Furthermore, the Cramer–Rao lower bounds (CRLBs in both cases are derived. Computer simulation results show the superior performance of the proposed methods in the underwater environment.

  20. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  1. Underwater Environment SDAP Method Using Multi Single-Beam Sonars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new autopilot system for unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV using multi-single-beam sonars is proposed for environmental exploration. The proposed autopilot system is known as simultaneous detection and patrolling (SDAP, which addresses two fundamental challenges: autonomous guidance and control. Autonomous guidance, autonomous path planning, and target tracking are based on the desired reference path which is reconstructed from the sonar data collected from the environmental contour with the predefined safety distance. The reference path is first estimated by using a support vector clustering inertia method and then refined by Bézier curves in order to satisfy the inertia property of the UUV. Differential geometry feedback linearization method is used to guide the vehicle entering into the predefined path while finite predictive stable inversion control algorithm is employed for autonomous target approaching. The experimental results from sea trials have demonstrated that the proposed system can provide satisfactory performance implying its great potential for future underwater exploration tasks.

  2. A modified finite element procedure for underwater shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Using the regular finite element method for analyzing wave propagation problems presents difficulties: (a) The finite element mesh gives spurious reflection of the traveling wave and (b) Since a finite element model has to have a finite boundary, the wave is reflected by the outside boundary. However, for underwater shock problems, only the response of the structure is of major interest, not the behavior of the wave itself, and the shock wave can be assumed to be spherical. By taking advantage of the limited scope of the underwater shock problem, a finite element procedure can be developed that eliminates the above difficulties. This procedure not only can give very accurate solutions but it may also include structural nonlinearities and effect of cavitation

  3. Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Qunqun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hongyuan

    2012-06-01

    Pulse response of the underwater wireless optical channel is significant for the analysis of channel capacity and error probability. Traditional vector radiative transfer theory (VRT) is not able to deal with the effect of receiving aperture. On the other hand, general water tank experiments cannot acquire an accurate pulse response due to the limited time resolution of the photo-electronic detector. We present a Monte Carlo simulation model to extract the time-domain pulse response undersea. In comparison with the VRT model, a more accurate pulse response for practical ocean communications could be achieved through statistical analysis of the received photons. The proposed model is more reasonable for the study of the underwater optical channel.

  4. Effect of eddy diffusivity ratio on underwater optical scintillation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamassie, Mohammed; Uysal, Murat; Baykal, Yahya; Abdallah, Mohamed; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2017-11-01

    The performance of underwater optical wireless communication systems is severely affected by the turbulence that occurs due to the fluctuations in the index of refraction. Most previous studies assume a simplifying, yet inaccurate, assumption in the turbulence spectrum model that the eddy diffusivity ratio is equal to unity. It is, however, well known that the eddy diffusivities of temperature and salt are different from each other in most underwater environments. In this paper, we obtain a simplified spatial power spectrum model of turbulent fluctuations of the seawater refraction index as an explicit function of eddy diffusivity ratio. Using the derived model, we obtain the scintillation index of optical plane and spherical waves and investigate the effect of the eddy diffusivity ratio.

  5. In-air and underwater hearing of the cormorant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Numerous studies have mapped the hearing abilities of birds in air but currently there is little or no data on how diving birds hear or react to sound under water. Therefore, it is unknown whether the ears and auditory system of diving birds are adapted to underwater hearing. In the present study...... 10 cm under water in a large water filled-tank while being artificially ventilated. ABR-responses to calibrated tone bursts produced by a woofer and an underwater speaker, respectively, were measured at different intensities and frequencies to obtain hearing threshold values in air and under water......Hz) under water. Generally, the cormorant ear was not very sensitive to sound, neither in air nor under water. The hearing abilities in water, however, were better than what would have been expected for a purely in-air adapted ear. (Supported by the Carlsberg Foundation 2009_01_0292 and the Danish Council...

  6. The Development of a Hybrid Underwater Micro Biped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great demand, in the medical field and in industrial applications, for a novel micro biped robot with multiple degrees of freedom that can swim smoothly in water or in aqueous medium. The fish-like micro-robot studied is a type of miniature device that is installed with sensing and actuating elements. This article describes the new structure and motion mechanism of a hybrid type of underwater micro-robot using an ion-conducting polymer film (ICPF actuator, and discusses the swimming and floating characteristics of the micro-robot in water, measured by changing the voltage frequency and the amplitude of the input voltage. Results indicate that the swimming speed of the proposed underwater micro-robot can be controlled by changing the frequency of the input voltage, and the direction (upward or downward can be manipulated by changing the frequency of the electric current applied and the amplitude of the voltage.

  7. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  8. Development of underwater robot for taking off marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Harumi; Wakamatsu, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Ryohei; Edahiro, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Shunichi.

    1983-01-01

    Fouling by marine life growths in the cooling water system at seaside power generating stations is a major problem in the maintenance of a safe and efficient operation. Ingress of released growths into the condensers and coolers often jeopardizes their tube life and performance by clogging and/or tube corrosion. Many stations are obliged to remove periodically the growths manually after drying-out the system or by divers at considerable expenditure in time and money. A new remote-controlled underwater robot is developed for brushing marine life off cooling water intake channels of thermal and nuclear power generation plants. This robot consists of an underwater working unit, a power supply system, hydraulic hose take-up unit and controlling equipment. The full hydraulically powered robot, which can be used for both open and closed conduits, permits cleaning under water intake servicing condition. It drastically reduces both time and cost. (author)

  9. Nonlinear underwater robot controller design with adaptive disturbance prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Songa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid adaptive control algorithm is proposed for the nonlinear system controller design of underwater robot. Compared with the previous works in the controller design of underwater robot, the main advantages of this work are: (1 A new disturbance prediction and compensation model is proposed; (2 A new adaptive fuzzy smoother is proposed for the control input; (3 A time-varying flow disturbance is considered for the control design which is always neglected in many previous works and several practical experiments under different environment were implemented to verify the control performance. The Lyapunov stability theory proves the stability and convergence of this new control system. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate the performance and the effectiveness of this new algorithm.

  10. Development of a tentacle propulsion technique for underwater application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, T; Rashid, M M; Khan, M R

    2013-01-01

    As robotic technology matures and more platforms are fielded in unstructured real-world situations, the more new areas of applications are being thought for robotic deployment. After successes in industrial robots, researchers are now trying to explore new robots with biological features of different biological creatures like, snake, bird, and spider for their stunning advantages. Underwater exploration using robots is a new avenue. Research on the tentacle robot for underwater application is a new field of research besides the other research in this arena. There are few researches on this topic are explored and mostly are on biological robot. Besides those researches this paper aims to propose and demonstrate another technique to build a tentacle for propulsion purposes. Therefore, in this paper will discuss more on mathematical development for the propulsion technique and its software verification technique in considering the environmental constrains

  11. Lung physiology at play: Hemoptysis due to underwater hockey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Aversa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoptysis can be a very concerning symptom, and the workup of a patient with hemoptysis may be expensive and invasive. Over the past decade, there has been increasing recognition of hemoptysis that occurs in highly trained athletes under conditions of extreme physical exertion and is explained by “pulmonary capillary stress failure”. This report highlights the physiological mechanisms of pulmonary capillary stress failure in the highly trained athlete, with emphasis on the predisposition to develop this condition in underwater sports. We describe the case of an otherwise healthy 34 year-old competitive underwater hockey player who reported hemoptysis following particularly strenuous games. We postulate that the hemoptysis was a result of the pulmonary capillary stress failure caused by the cumulative hemodynamic effects of a markedly elevated cardiac output, the increased central blood volume caused by the hydrostatic effects of submersion in water, and the negative intrathoracic pressure produced by voluntary diaphragmatic contractions.

  12. Electrostatic images for underwater anisotropic conductive half spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flykt, M.; Lindell, I.; Eloranta, E.

    1998-01-01

    A static image principle makes it possible to derive analytical solutions to some basic geometries for DC fields. The underwater environment is especially difficult both from the theoretical and practical point of view. However, there are increasing demands that also the underwater geological formations should be studied in detail. The traditional image of a point source lies at the mirror point of the original. When anisotropic media is involved, however, the image location can change and the image source may be a continues, sector-like distribution. In this paper some theoretical considerations are carried out in the case where the lower half space can have a very general anisotropy in terms of electrical conductivity, while the upper half space is assumed isotropic. The reflection potential field is calculated for different values of electrical conductivity. (orig.)

  13. NBL Pistol Grip Tool for Underwater Training of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszka, Michael; Ashmore, Matthew; Behnke, Mark; Smith, Walter; Waterman, Tod

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a lightweight, functional mockup of the Pistol Grip Tool for use during underwater astronaut training. Previous training tools have caused shoulder injuries. This new version is more than 50 percent lighter [in water, weight is 2.4 lb (=1.1 kg)], and can operate for a six-hour training session after 30 minutes of prep for submersion. Innovations in the design include the use of lightweight materials (aluminum and Delrin(Registered TradeMark)), creating a thinner housing, and the optimization of internal space with the removal of as much excess material as possible. This reduces tool weight and maximizes buoyancy. Another innovation for this tool is the application of a vacuum that seats the Orings in place and has shown to be reliable in allowing underwater usage for up to six hours.

  14. SOUNET: Self-Organized Underwater Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Won; Cho, Ho-Shin

    2017-02-02

    In this paper, we propose an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) named SOUNET where sensor nodes form and maintain a tree-topological network for data gathering in a self-organized manner. After network topology discovery via packet flooding, the sensor nodes consistently update their parent node to ensure the best connectivity by referring to the timevarying neighbor tables. Such a persistent and self-adaptive method leads to high network connectivity without any centralized control, even when sensor nodes are added or unexpectedly lost. Furthermore, malfunctions that frequently happen in self-organized networks such as node isolation and closed loop are resolved in a simple way. Simulation results show that SOUNET outperforms other conventional schemes in terms of network connectivity, packet delivery ratio (PDR), and energy consumption throughout the network. In addition, we performed an experiment at the Gyeongcheon Lake in Korea using commercial underwater modems to verify that SOUNET works well in a real environment.

  15. SOUNET: Self-Organized Underwater Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-won Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN named SOUNET where sensor nodes form and maintain a tree-topological network for data gathering in a self-organized manner. After network topology discovery via packet flooding, the sensor nodes consistently update their parent node to ensure the best connectivity by referring to the timevarying neighbor tables. Such a persistent and self-adaptive method leads to high network connectivity without any centralized control, even when sensor nodes are added or unexpectedly lost. Furthermore, malfunctions that frequently happen in self-organized networks such as node isolation and closed loop are resolved in a simple way. Simulation results show that SOUNET outperforms other conventional schemes in terms of network connectivity, packet delivery ratio (PDR, and energy consumption throughout the network. In addition, we performed an experiment at the Gyeongcheon Lake in Korea using commercial underwater modems to verify that SOUNET works well in a real environment.

  16. Development of a tentacle propulsion technique for underwater application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, T.; Rashid, M. M.; Khan, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    As robotic technology matures and more platforms are fielded in unstructured real-world situations, the more new areas of applications are being thought for robotic deployment. After successes in industrial robots, researchers are now trying to explore new robots with biological features of different biological creatures like, snake, bird, and spider for their stunning advantages. Underwater exploration using robots is a new avenue. Research on the tentacle robot for underwater application is a new field of research besides the other research in this arena. There are few researches on this topic are explored and mostly are on biological robot. Besides those researches this paper aims to propose and demonstrate another technique to build a tentacle for propulsion purposes. Therefore, in this paper will discuss more on mathematical development for the propulsion technique and its software verification technique in considering the environmental constrains.

  17. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    leads to a wider spreading of the organic part of the sediment. Almost all material less than 2 μm, including surficial clay minerals and much organic material, was transported away from the construction site and its vicinity, which could imply mobilization and export of pollutants. Environmental...... impacts of suspended sediment from underwater blasting, which could include coverage of the benthos or increased turbidity, can be managed by timing the blast favourably relative to currents, waves and stratification. It is argued that the environmental impact of blasting can be minimized by decreasing...... out in connection with the construction of a new quay at the existing harbour of Sisimiut, Greenland. Subsequent to the largest of a series of underwater blasts, the distribution of suspended sediment in the water column at and around the construction site was observed using a CTD (Conductivity...

  18. Measure Guideline: Transitioning from Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco with EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.

    2012-04-01

    This Measure Guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The three-coat system uses a base layer, a fill layer, and a finish layer. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  19. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  20. Superheated Water-Cooled Small Modular Underwater Reactor Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Koroush Shirvan; Mujid Kazimi

    2016-01-01

    A novel fully passive small modular superheated water reactor (SWR) for underwater deployment is designed to produce 160 MWe with steam at 500ºC to increase the thermodynamic efficiency compared with standard light water reactors. The SWR design is based on a conceptual 400-MWe integral SWR using the internally and externally cooled annular fuel (IXAF). The coolant boils in the external channels throughout the core to approximately the same quality as a conventional boiling water reactor and ...

  1. The control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flight control system of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV developed at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. A mathematical model of the vehicle is derived and discussed. The system is separated into lightly interacting subsystems and three autopilots are designed for steering, diving and speed control. The design of the separate controllers is based on PID techniques. Results from sea trials show robust performance and stability for the autopilot.

  2. A perspective on underwater photosynthesis in submerged terrestrial wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Winkel, Anders; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Wetland plants inhabit flood-prone areas and therefore can experience episodes of complete submergence. Submergence impedes exchange of O2 and CO2 between leaves and the environment, and light availability is also reduced. The present review examines limitations to underwater net photosynthesis (PN) by terrestrial (i.e. usually emergent) wetland plants, as compared with submerged aquatic plants, with focus on leaf traits for enhanced CO2 acquisition. Scope Floodwaters are variable in dissolved O2, CO2, light and temperature, and these parameters influence underwater PN and the growth and survival of submerged plants. Aquatic species possess morphological and anatomical leaf traits that reduce diffusion limitations to CO2 uptake and thus aid PN under water. Many aquatic plants also have carbon-concentrating mechanisms to increase CO2 at Rubisco. Terrestrial wetland plants generally lack the numerous beneficial leaf traits possessed by aquatic plants, so submergence markedly reduces PN. Some terrestrial species, however, produce new leaves with a thinner cuticle and higher specific leaf area, whereas others have leaves with hydrophobic surfaces so that gas films are retained when submerged; both improve CO2 entry. Conclusions Submergence inhibits PN by terrestrial wetland plants, but less so in species that produce new leaves under water or in those with leaf gas films. Leaves with a thinner cuticle, or those with gas films, have improved gas diffusion with floodwaters, so that underwater PN is enhanced. Underwater PN provides sugars and O2 to submerged plants. Floodwaters often contain dissolved CO2 above levels in equilibrium with air, enabling at least some PN by terrestrial species when submerged, although rates remain well below those in air. PMID:22476500

  3. An Underwater Robot for the Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung-Uk; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2007-01-01

    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants has become more important than in the past. Inspection and maintenance of a component should be achieved continuously. Two reactor types PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) are normally operated in Korea. In the case of a PWR, the presence of any loose part affects the safety of a nuclear power plant. A loose part, which could be from failed components or an item inadvertently left during a construction, refueling or maintenance like as metallic parts, bolts, nuts and washers, can damage any part by frequently impacting that part in the system. Therefore, work that detects a loose part and removes it from a the nuclear reactor vessel is very important. Moreover, the inspection of the RCS (reactor coolant system) of PWR is also important. The RCS has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. But human workers can't access the RCS easily because of the complexity of the path and the radiation level. So a robotic system is needed to inspect the RCS closely. Research on an underwater robot for an inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel began in the 1990s. Since then, many underwater robots for a nuclear power plant have been developed. But the developed underwater robots were so heavy and also they only had one function that is to inspect the nuclear reactor vessel. In this paper, an underwater robotic system is developed for inspecting the bottom of the nuclear reactor vessel, hot legs and cold legs of reactor coolant system and also for removing some particles in them

  4. Optical Sensors and Methods for Underwater 3D Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot-Campos, Miquel; Oliver-Codina, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on optical sensors and methods for 3D reconstruction in underwater environments. The techniques to obtain range data have been listed and explained, together with the different sensor hardware that makes them possible. The literature has been reviewed, and a classification has been proposed for the existing solutions. New developments, commercial solutions and previous reviews in this topic have also been gathered and considered. PMID:26694389

  5. An Underwater Robot for the Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Uk; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants has become more important than in the past. Inspection and maintenance of a component should be achieved continuously. Two reactor types PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) are normally operated in Korea. In the case of a PWR, the presence of any loose part affects the safety of a nuclear power plant. A loose part, which could be from failed components or an item inadvertently left during a construction, refueling or maintenance like as metallic parts, bolts, nuts and washers, can damage any part by frequently impacting that part in the system. Therefore, work that detects a loose part and removes it from a the nuclear reactor vessel is very important. Moreover, the inspection of the RCS (reactor coolant system) of PWR is also important. The RCS has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. But human workers can't access the RCS easily because of the complexity of the path and the radiation level. So a robotic system is needed to inspect the RCS closely. Research on an underwater robot for an inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel began in the 1990s. Since then, many underwater robots for a nuclear power plant have been developed. But the developed underwater robots were so heavy and also they only had one function that is to inspect the nuclear reactor vessel. In this paper, an underwater robotic system is developed for inspecting the bottom of the nuclear reactor vessel, hot legs and cold legs of reactor coolant system and also for removing some particles in them.

  6. Technology Selection for Offshore Underwater Small Modular Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirvan, Koroush; Ballinger, Ronald; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Forsberg, Charles; Kazimi, Mujid; Todreas, Neil

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the most viable nuclear technology options for future underwater designs that would meet high safety standards as well as good economic potential, for construction in the 2030–2040 timeframe. The top five concepts selected from a survey of 13 nuclear technologies were compared to a small modular pressurized water reactor (PWR) designed with a conventional layout. In order of smallest to largest primary system size where the reactor and all safety systems are contained, the ...

  7. Improvements in or relating to the inspection of underwater structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldecourt, L.R.; Evans, G.V.; Parsons, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector is described, for use in the inspection of underwater structures, which is capable of withstanding high pressures and arduous marine conditions. The ingress of water into the body of the radiation detector tube is prevented by the use of a resilient waterproof compound. Marine structures incorporating such radiation detectors are described, whereby the presence or density of flowing cement grout in the legs of an offshore platform may be determined. (U.K.)

  8. Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D. Tom; Dorocicz, John

    2012-01-01

    Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ∼ 10 7 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels v...

  9. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks is described comprising: a cylindrical tank; a hollow float member for supporting said tank in a substantially upright position; a skirt assembly secured to said hollow float member and extending in a direction away from said float member opposite said tank; means for removing oil from said tank; and means for removing gas from said tank

  10. A trajectory observer for camera-based underwater motion measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tor; Jouffroy, Jerome; Johansen, Vegar

    This work deals with the issue of estimating the trajectory of a vehicle or object moving underwater based on camera measurements. The proposed approach consists of a diffusion-based trajectory observer (Jouffroy and Opderbecke, 2004) processing whole segments of a trajectory at a time. Additiona....... Additionally, the observer contains a Tikhonov regularizer for smoothing the estimates. Then, a method for including the camera measurements in an appropriate manner is proposed....

  11. Assessment of underwater glider performance through viscous computational fluid dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lidtke, Artur Konrad; Turnock, Stephen; Downes, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The process of designing an apt hydrodynamic shape for a new underwater glider is discussed. Intermediate stages include selecting a suitable axi-symmetric hull shape, adding hydrofoils and appendages, and evaluating the performance of the final design. All of the hydrodynamic characteristics are obtained using computational fluid dynamics using the kT - kL - ω transition model. It is shown that drag reduction of the main glider hull is of crucial importance to the ultimate performance. Sugge...

  12. Optical Backscattering Measured by Airborne Lidar and Underwater Glider

    OpenAIRE

    James H. Churnside; Richard D. Marchbanks; Chad Lembke; Jordon Beckler

    2017-01-01

    The optical backscattering from particles in the ocean is an important quantity that has been measured by remote sensing techniques and in situ instruments. In this paper, we compare estimates of this quantity from airborne lidar with those from an in situ instrument on an underwater glider. Both of these technologies allow much denser sampling of backscatter profiles than traditional ship surveys. We found a moderate correlation (R = 0.28, p < 10−5), with differences that are partially ex...

  13. Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Shu, Lei; Xu, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes’ mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs. PMID:22438752

  14. Analysis of underwater decoupling properties of a locally resonant acoustic metamaterial coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ling-Zhi; Xiao Yong; Wen Ji-Hong; Yang Hai-Bin; Wen Xi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical solution for the vibration and sound radiation of a semi-infinite plate covered by a decoupling layer consisting of locally resonant acoustic metamaterial. Formulations are derived based on a combination use of effective medium theory and the theory of elasticity for the decoupling material. Theoretical results show good agreements between the method developed in this paper and the conventional finite element method (FEM), but the method of this paper is more efficient than FEM. Numerical results also show that system with acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer exhibits significant noise reduction performance at the local resonance frequency of the acoustic metamaterial, and such performance can be ascribed to the vibration suppression of the base plate. It is demonstrated that the effective density of acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer has a great influence on the mechanical impedance of the system. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of locally resonant structure can be effectively predicted by a simple model, and it can be significantly affected by the material properties of the locally resonant structure. (paper)

  15. Channel analysis for single photon underwater free space quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Zhao, Shi-Cheng; Gu, Yong-Jian; Li, Wen-Dong

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we obtain the attenuation of photons, the fidelity of the scattered photons, the quantum bit error rate, and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication. It can be observed from our simulations that the most secure single photon underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water.

  16. Restoration and Enhancement of Underwater Images Based on Bright Channel Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakun Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method of underwater images restoration and enhancement which was inspired by the dark channel prior in image dehazing field. Firstly, we proposed the bright channel prior of underwater environment. By estimating and rectifying the bright channel image, estimating the atmospheric light, and estimating and refining the transmittance image, eventually underwater images were restored. Secondly, in order to rectify the color distortion, the restoration images were equalized by using the deduced histogram equalization. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could enhance the quality of underwater images effectively.

  17. Synthesis of a Controller for Swarming Robots Performing Underwater Mine Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Yong

    2004-01-01

    This Trident Scholar project involved the synthesis of a swarm controller that is suitable for controlling movements of a group of autonomous robots performing underwater mine countermeasures (UMCM...

  18. Mapping Underwater Sound in the Dutch Part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertlek, H Özkan; Aarts, Geert; Brasseur, Sophie; Slabbekoorn, Hans; ten Cate, Carel; von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Ainslie, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The European Union requires member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status for their marine territorial waters and explicitly mentions potentially adverse effects of underwater sound. In this study, we focused on producing maps of underwater sound from various natural and anthropogenic origins in the Dutch North Sea. The source properties and sound propagation are simulated by mathematical methods. These maps could be used to assess and predict large-scale effects on behavior and distribution of underwater marine life and therefore become a valuable tool in assessing and managing the impact of underwater sound on marine life.

  19. On the Accuracy Potential in Underwater/Multimedia Photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Hans-Gerd

    2015-07-24

    Underwater applications of photogrammetric measurement techniques usually need to deal with multimedia photogrammetry aspects, which are characterized by the necessity of handling optical rays that are refracted at interfaces between optical media with different refractive indices according to Snell's Law. This so-called multimedia geometry has to be incorporated into geometric models in order to achieve correct measurement results. The paper shows a flexible yet strict geometric model for the handling of refraction effects on the optical path, which can be implemented as a module into photogrammetric standard tools such as spatial resection, spatial intersection, bundle adjustment or epipolar line computation. The module is especially well suited for applications, where an object in water is observed by cameras in air through one or more planar glass interfaces, as it allows for some simplifications here. In the second part of the paper, several aspects, which are relevant for an assessment of the accuracy potential in underwater/multimedia photogrammetry, are discussed. These aspects include network geometry and interface planarity issues as well as effects caused by refractive index variations and dispersion and diffusion under water. All these factors contribute to a rather significant degradation of the geometric accuracy potential in underwater/multimedia photogrammetry. In practical experiments, a degradation of the quality of results by a factor two could be determined under relatively favorable conditions.

  20. An Autonomous Underwater Recorder Based on a Single Board Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas-Morgan, Manuel; Alvarez-Rosario, Alexander; Rodrigues Padovese, Linilson

    2015-01-01

    As industrial activities continue to grow on the Brazilian coast, underwater sound measurements are becoming of great scientific importance as they are essential to evaluate the impact of these activities on local ecosystems. In this context, the use of commercial underwater recorders is not always the most feasible alternative, due to their high cost and lack of flexibility. Design and construction of more affordable alternatives from scratch can become complex because it requires profound knowledge in areas such as electronics and low-level programming. With the aim of providing a solution; a well succeeded model of a highly flexible, low-cost alternative to commercial recorders was built based on a Raspberry Pi single board computer. A properly working prototype was assembled and it demonstrated adequate performance levels in all tested situations. The prototype was equipped with a power management module which was thoroughly evaluated. It is estimated that it will allow for great battery savings on long-term scheduled recordings. The underwater recording device was successfully deployed at selected locations along the Brazilian coast, where it adequately recorded animal and manmade acoustic events, among others. Although power consumption may not be as efficient as that of commercial and/or micro-processed solutions, the advantage offered by the proposed device is its high customizability, lower development time and inherently, its cost. PMID:26076479

  1. Multiuser chirp modulation for underwater acoustic channel based on VTRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ascheme is proposed for multiuser underwater acoustic communication by using the multi-chirp rate signals. It differs from the well known TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access, FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access or CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access, by assigning each users with different chirp-rate carriers instead of the time, frequency or PN code. Multi-chirp rate signals can be separated from each other by FrFT (Fractional Fourier Transform, which can be regarded as the chirp-based decomposing, and superior to the match filter in the underwater acoustic channel. VTRM (Virtual Time Reverse Mirror is applied into the system to alleviate the ISI caused by the multipatch and make the equalization more simple. Results of computer simulations and pool experiments prove that the proposed multiuser underwater acoustic communication based on the multi-chirp rate exhibit well performance. Outfield experments carrie out in Xiamen Port show that using about 10 kHz bandwidth, four users could communicate at the same time with 425 bps with low BER and can match the UAC application.

  2. Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Francisco J.; López-Fernández, Jesús; García-Corrales, Celia; Sánchez, Antonio; Robles, Encarnación; Rodrigo, Francisco J.; Paris, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these frequencies, the fading phenomena has a significant presence in the channel behavior, and the design of a reliable communication link between the network sensors will require a precise characterization of it. Fading in underwater channels has been previously measured and modeled in the audio band. However, there have been few attempts to study it at ultrasonic frequencies. In this paper, a campaign of measurements of ultrasonic underwater acoustic channels in Mediterranean shallow waters conducted by the authors is presented. These measurements are used to determine the parameters of the so-called κ-μ shadowed distribution, a fading model with a direct connection to the underlying physical mechanisms. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of the measured channels with a closed-form expression. PMID:26907281

  3. Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cañete

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these frequencies, the fading phenomena has a significant presence in the channel behavior, and the design of a reliable communication link between the network sensors will require a precise characterization of it. Fading in underwater channels has been previously measured and modeled in the audio band. However, there have been few attempts to study it at ultrasonic frequencies. In this paper, a campaign of measurements of ultrasonic underwater acoustic channels in Mediterranean shallow waters conducted by the authors is presented. These measurements are used to determine the parameters of the so-called κ-μ shadowed distribution, a fading model with a direct connection to the underlying physical mechanisms. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of the measured channels with a closed-form expression.

  4. An Autonomous Underwater Recorder Based on a Single Board Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas-Morgan, Manuel; Alvarez-Rosario, Alexander; Rodrigues Padovese, Linilson

    2015-01-01

    As industrial activities continue to grow on the Brazilian coast, underwater sound measurements are becoming of great scientific importance as they are essential to evaluate the impact of these activities on local ecosystems. In this context, the use of commercial underwater recorders is not always the most feasible alternative, due to their high cost and lack of flexibility. Design and construction of more affordable alternatives from scratch can become complex because it requires profound knowledge in areas such as electronics and low-level programming. With the aim of providing a solution; a well succeeded model of a highly flexible, low-cost alternative to commercial recorders was built based on a Raspberry Pi single board computer. A properly working prototype was assembled and it demonstrated adequate performance levels in all tested situations. The prototype was equipped with a power management module which was thoroughly evaluated. It is estimated that it will allow for great battery savings on long-term scheduled recordings. The underwater recording device was successfully deployed at selected locations along the Brazilian coast, where it adequately recorded animal and manmade acoustic events, among others. Although power consumption may not be as efficient as that of commercial and/or micro-processed solutions, the advantage offered by the proposed device is its high customizability, lower development time and inherently, its cost.

  5. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Meseguer, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel; Pistonesi, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging. PMID:27355950

  6. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills, oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging.

  7. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks—Part I: Link Characterization †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Díaz, Gara; Mena-Rodríguez, Pablo; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Dorta-Naranjo, Blas-Pablo; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Quevedo, Eduardo; Cardona, Laura; Hernández, J. Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) using electromagnetic (EM) technology in marine shallow waters are examined, not just for environmental monitoring but for further interesting applications. Particularly, the use of EM waves is reconsidered in shallow waters due to the benefits offered in this context, where acoustic and optical technologies have serious disadvantages. Sea water scenario is a harsh environment for radiocommunications, and there is no standard model for the underwater EM channel. The high conductivity of sea water, the effect of seabed and the surface make the behaviour of the channel hard to predict. This justifies the need of link characterization as the first step to approach the development of EM underwater sensor networks. To obtain a reliable link model, measurements and simulations are required. The measuring setup for this purpose is explained and described, as well as the procedures used. Several antennas have been designed and tested in low frequency bands. Agreement between attenuation measurements and simulations at different distances was analysed and made possible the validation of simulation setups and the design of different communications layers of the system. This leads to the second step of this work, where data and routing protocols for the sensor network are examined. PMID:28106843

  8. Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plesiosaurians are an extinct group of highly derived Mesozoic marine reptiles with a global distribution that spans 135 million years from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. During their long evolutionary history they maintained a unique body plan with two pairs of large wing-like flippers, but their locomotion has been a topic of debate for almost 200 years. Key areas of controversy have concerned the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke, e.g. whether it consisted of rowing, underwater flight, or modified underwater flight, and how the four limbs moved in relation to each other: did they move in or out of phase? Previous studies have investigated plesiosaur swimming using a variety of methods, including skeletal analysis, human swimmers, and robotics. We adopt a novel approach using a digital, three-dimensional, articulated, free-swimming plesiosaur in a simulated fluid. We generated a large number of simulations under various joint degrees of freedom to investigate how the locomotory repertoire changes under different parameters. Within the biologically possible range of limb motion, the simulated plesiosaur swims primarily with its forelimbs using an unmodified underwater flight stroke, essentially the same as turtles and penguins. In contrast, the hindlimbs provide relatively weak thrust in all simulations. We conclude that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability.

  9. Underwater Remote Handling Equipment for Reactor Internals Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohiko Kimura; Mitsuaki Shimamura; Tomoyuki Itoh; Nobuhiko Tanaka; Yasuhiro Yuguchi; Katsuhiko Naruse

    2002-01-01

    More than fifty nuclear reactors generate about thirty-five percent of electricity in Japan. The need to operate these reactors safely and in a stable manner constitutes a very important issue. On the other hand, aged reactors are increasing and they are not necessarily designed and constructed using the latest technology. Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) on reactor internal components has become a major concern regarding aged reactors in recent years. Usually maintenance work such as inspection, repair, and preventive maintenance for core components is done by using underwater remote handling and robotic technology. It becomes very important to develop not only new efficient technology for inspection, repair, and preventive maintenance for all suspect components and but also the associated application technology for execution in a reactor. We have been developing several kind of remote handling equipment for underwater maintenance work. This paper describes some results obtained in the area of underwater remote handling that can contribute to the progress of plant reliability. (authors)

  10. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  11. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  12. Status on underwater plasma arc cutting in KHI, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tadashi; Aota, Toshiichi; Nishizaki, Tadashi; Nakayama, Shigeru; Yamashita, Seiji

    1983-01-01

    In Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., the development of a remote dismantling system by underwater plasma arc cutting process has been advanced, expecting its application to the dismantling and removal of nuclear reactor facilities. In the previous two reports, the fundamental experimental results such as the comparison of the cutting capability in air and in water were shown, but this time, the remote automatic cutting of wedge-shaped specimens was carried out, using a newly installed manipulator for underwater works, therefore its outline is reported. Also the cutting experiment by overhead position and vertical position was performed by using the same equipment, and comparison was made with the cutting capability by downhand and horizontal positions. It is important to grasp the cutting characteristics in the case of upward advancing and downward advancing cuttings by overhead and vertical positions when the cutting of pressure vessels and horizontal pipes into rings is supposed. The experimental apparatus, the cutting conditions, the testing method and the test results of the cutting capability test, the test of changing direction during cutting, and the remote cutting of pipes into rings are described. The underwater plasma arc cutting can cut all metals, the cutting speed is relatively high, and the apparatus is simple and compact. (Kako, I.)

  13. Cardiovascular changes during SCUBA diving: an underwater Doppler echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, C; Scalzini, A; Menicucci, D; Passera, M; Bedini, R; L'Abbate, A

    2013-09-01

    Body immersion induces blood redistribution (from peripheral to intrathoracic vessels) and is a powerful autonomic stimulus (activating both parasympathetic and sympathetic systems). For these reasons, concerns have been raised about the safety of diving for subjects with previous heart disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular changes occurring during recreational SCUBA diving, as assessed by underwater Doppler echocardiography. Eighteen healthy experienced divers underwent a 2D Doppler echocardiography basally, during two 15' steps of still SCUBA diving at different depths (10 m followed by 5 m) and shortly after the end of immersion. During dive, left ventricular (LV) diastolic volume and early left ventricular filling significantly increased (5 m vs. basal: P dive vs. basal: P dive). This study documents that shallow-depth SCUBA diving induces LV enlargement and diastolic dysfunction. Direct underwater evaluation by Doppler echocardiography could be an appropriate tool for unmasking subjects at risk for underwater-related accidents. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Measurement of Naval Ship Responses to Underwater Explosion Shock Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The shock-resistance capability of battle ships against a non-contact underwater explosion (UNDEX is a very critical factor of survivability. In July 1987 and April 2000, we successfully conducted UNDEX shock tests for a coastal mine hunter (MHC and a mine sweeper/hunter (MSH of Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN, at the Chinhae bay, Korea. Test planning for conducting these shock tests included responsibilities, methods, and procedures. Test instruments were developed and tested on a drop shock machine to confirm availability in the actual shock tests with emphasis on shock resistance, remote control and reliability. All vital systems of the ships were confirmed to be capable of normal operational condition without significant damages during the explosion shot. By analyzing the test results, the tactical operational safety zone of the ships in underwater explosion environments was estimated. In this paper, we described the results of measurement of naval ship responses to underwater explosion shock loadings including test planning, sensor locations, data reduction, explosive devices, instrumentation and damage assessments of MSH.

  15. Event localization in underwater wireless sensor networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew John Robert

    2012-08-01

    We propose m-courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consists of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can then distribute their locations through the network using acoustic modems. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static, but these untethered nodes may drift due to water currents, resulting in disruption of communication links. We develop a novel underwater alarm system using a cyclic graph model. In the event of link failure, a series of alarm packets are broadcast in the network. These alarms are then captured by the underwater m-courses, which can also be used to assure network connectivity and identify node failures. M-courses also allow the network to localize events and identify network issues locally before forwarding results upwards to a Surface Gateway node. This reduces communication overhead and allows for efficient management of nodes in a mobile network. Our results show that m-course routing reduces the number of sends required to report an event to a Surface Gateway by up to 80% when compared to a naïve routing implementation.

  16. Localization of Energy Harvesting Empowered Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is developed for energy harvesting underwater optical wireless sensor networks (EH-UOWSNs), where the optical noise sources and channel impairments of seawater pose significant challenges for range estimation. Energy limitation is another major problem due to the limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of an underwater sensor node. In the proposed framework, sensor nodes with insufficient battery, harvest the energy and starts communicating once it has sufficient energy storage. Network localization is carried out by measuring the RSSs of active nodes, which are modeled based on the underwater optical communication channel characteristics. Thereafter, block kernel matrices are computed for the RSS based range measurements. Unlike the traditional shortest-path approach, the proposed technique reduces the shortest path estimation for each block kernel matrix. Once the complete block kernel matrices are available, a closed form localization technique is developed to find the location of every optical sensor node in the network. Furthermore, an analytical expression for Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived as a benchmark to compare the localization performance of the proposed technique. Finally, extensive simulations show that the proposed technique outperforms the well-known network localization techniques.

  17. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Zazo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference, radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power, hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  18. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package.

  19. Multibeam 3D Underwater SLAM with Probabilistic Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pose-based underwater 3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM using a multibeam echosounder to produce high consistency underwater maps. The proposed algorithm compounds swath profiles of the seafloor with dead reckoning localization to build surface patches (i.e., point clouds. An Iterative Closest Point (ICP with a probabilistic implementation is then used to register the point clouds, taking into account their uncertainties. The registration process is divided in two steps: (1 point-to-point association for coarse registration and (2 point-to-plane association for fine registration. The point clouds of the surfaces to be registered are sub-sampled in order to decrease both the computation time and also the potential of falling into local minima during the registration. In addition, a heuristic is used to decrease the complexity of the association step of the ICP from O ( n 2 to O ( n . The performance of the SLAM framework is tested using two real world datasets: First, a 2.5D bathymetric dataset obtained with the usual down-looking multibeam sonar configuration, and second, a full 3D underwater dataset acquired with a multibeam sonar mounted on a pan and tilt unit.

  20. Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.

  1. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-03-17

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package.

  2. Distributed Underwater Sensing: A Paradigm Change for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.

    Distributed netted underwater sensors (DNUS) present a paradigm change that has generated high interest all over the world. It utilizes many small spatially distributed, inexpensive sensors, and a certain number of mobile nodes, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), forming a wireless acoustic network to relate data and provide real time monitoring of the ocean. Distributed underwater sensors can be used for oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation and tactical surveillance applications over wide areas. These functions were traditionally accomplished by a cabled system, such as an array of sensors deployed from a platform, or a large number of sensors moored on the ocean bottom, connected by a cable. The cabled systems are not only expensive but often require heavy ocean engineering (e.g., equipment to deploy heavy armored cables). In the future, as fabrication technology advances making low cost sensors a reality, DNUS is expected to be affordable and will become the undersea "OceanNet" for the marine industry like the current "internet" on land. This paper gives a layman view of the system concept, the state of the art, and future challenges. One of challenges, of particular interest to this conference, is to develop technologies for miniature-size sensors that are energy efficient, allowing long time deployment in the ocean.

  3. Power characterization of THUNDER actuators as underwater propulsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Balakrishnan, Sivakumar

    2001-08-01

    Piezoelectric actuators have been used for active vibration control, noise suppression, health monitoring, etc. The large appeal in using smart material actuators stems from their high mechanical energy density. A relatively new actuator (THUNDER) has overcome the displacement hurdles that have plagued traditional piezoelectric based actuators. It is capable of providing a displacement on order of 0.5 cm. This allows the actuator to be used in some underwater applications, such as propulsion. To date the electrical power consumption and electromechanical efficiency of these actuators has not been quantified; specifically, applied as underwater propulsors. Some of the challenges in obtaining this information stems from the actuator's non traditional actuating architecture, high voltage requirements, and its electrical non-linearity. The work presented experimentally determines the electrical power consumption and mechanical displacement of THUNDER actuators used as underwater propulsors. It is found that the electrical power consumption of the clamshell actuator investigated is significantly less than that consumed by other autonomous under water vehicles. The potential thrust generated by such a device remains to be quantified.

  4. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks—Part I: Link Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara Quintana-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs using electromagnetic (EM technology in marine shallow waters are examined, not just for environmental monitoring but for further interesting applications. Particularly, the use of EM waves is reconsidered in shallow waters due to the benefits offered in this context, where acoustic and optical technologies have serious disadvantages. Sea water scenario is a harsh environment for radiocommunications, and there is no standard model for the underwater EM channel. The high conductivity of sea water, the effect of seabed and the surface make the behaviour of the channel hard to predict. This justifies the need of link characterization as the first step to approach the development of EM underwater sensor networks. To obtain a reliable link model, measurements and simulations are required. The measuring setup for this purpose is explained and described, as well as the procedures used. Several antennas have been designed and tested in low frequency bands. Agreement between attenuation measurements and simulations at different distances was analysed and made possible the validation of simulation setups and the design of different communications layers of the system. This leads to the second step of this work, where data and routing protocols for the sensor network are examined.

  5. Development of underwater YAG laser repair welding robots for tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Syuichi; Ito, Kosuke; Kochi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Toshio; Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    A remote-controlled repair welding robot which uses YAG laser welding technology in underwater environment was developed. This is an underwater robot technology combined with a laser welding technology. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot, and the welding test results. The repair welding robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is welding unit. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the welding area. After that it starts YAG laser repair welding. The target of this technology is inner surface repair of some tanks made of austenitic stainless steel, for example RW (Radioactive Waste) tanks. A degradation by General Corrosion and so on might be occurred at inner surface of these tanks in BWR type nuclear power plants. If the damaged area is wide, repair welding works are done. Some workers go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage. In many cases it spends too much time for draining water and repair welding preparation. If the repair welding works can be done in underwater environment, the outage period will be reduced. This is a great advantage. (author)

  6. Multibeam 3D Underwater SLAM with Probabilistic Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2016-04-20

    This paper describes a pose-based underwater 3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using a multibeam echosounder to produce high consistency underwater maps. The proposed algorithm compounds swath profiles of the seafloor with dead reckoning localization to build surface patches (i.e., point clouds). An Iterative Closest Point (ICP) with a probabilistic implementation is then used to register the point clouds, taking into account their uncertainties. The registration process is divided in two steps: (1) point-to-point association for coarse registration and (2) point-to-plane association for fine registration. The point clouds of the surfaces to be registered are sub-sampled in order to decrease both the computation time and also the potential of falling into local minima during the registration. In addition, a heuristic is used to decrease the complexity of the association step of the ICP from O(n2) to O(n) . The performance of the SLAM framework is tested using two real world datasets: First, a 2.5D bathymetric dataset obtained with the usual down-looking multibeam sonar configuration, and second, a full 3D underwater dataset acquired with a multibeam sonar mounted on a pan and tilt unit.

  7. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package. PMID:26999142

  8. Remote high-definition rotating video enables fast spatial survey of marine underwater macrofauna and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Dominique; Leleu, Kévin; Mallet, Delphine; Mou-Tham, Gérard; Hervé, Gilles; Boureau, Matthieu; Guilpart, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Observing spatial and temporal variations of marine biodiversity from non-destructive techniques is central for understanding ecosystem resilience, and for monitoring and assessing conservation strategies, e.g. Marine Protected Areas. Observations are generally obtained through Underwater Visual Censuses (UVC) conducted by divers. The problems inherent to the presence of divers have been discussed in several papers. Video techniques are increasingly used for observing underwater macrofauna and habitat. Most video techniques that do not need the presence of a diver use baited remote systems. In this paper, we present an original video technique which relies on a remote unbaited rotating remote system including a high definition camera. The system is set on the sea floor to record images. These are then analysed at the office to quantify biotic and abiotic sea bottom cover, and to identify and count fish species and other species like marine turtles. The technique was extensively tested in a highly diversified coral reef ecosystem in the South Lagoon of New Caledonia, based on a protocol covering both protected and unprotected areas in major lagoon habitats. The technique enabled to detect and identify a large number of species, and in particular fished species, which were not disturbed by the system. Habitat could easily be investigated through the images. A large number of observations could be carried out per day at sea. This study showed the strong potential of this non obtrusive technique for observing both macrofauna and habitat. It offers a unique spatial coverage and can be implemented at sea at a reasonable cost by non-expert staff. As such, this technique is particularly interesting for investigating and monitoring coastal biodiversity in the light of current conservation challenges and increasing monitoring needs.

  9. Remote high-definition rotating video enables fast spatial survey of marine underwater macrofauna and habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Pelletier

    Full Text Available Observing spatial and temporal variations of marine biodiversity from non-destructive techniques is central for understanding ecosystem resilience, and for monitoring and assessing conservation strategies, e.g. Marine Protected Areas. Observations are generally obtained through Underwater Visual Censuses (UVC conducted by divers. The problems inherent to the presence of divers have been discussed in several papers. Video techniques are increasingly used for observing underwater macrofauna and habitat. Most video techniques that do not need the presence of a diver use baited remote systems. In this paper, we present an original video technique which relies on a remote unbaited rotating remote system including a high definition camera. The system is set on the sea floor to record images. These are then analysed at the office to quantify biotic and abiotic sea bottom cover, and to identify and count fish species and other species like marine turtles. The technique was extensively tested in a highly diversified coral reef ecosystem in the South Lagoon of New Caledonia, based on a protocol covering both protected and unprotected areas in major lagoon habitats. The technique enabled to detect and identify a large number of species, and in particular fished species, which were not disturbed by the system. Habitat could easily be investigated through the images. A large number of observations could be carried out per day at sea. This study showed the strong potential of this non obtrusive technique for observing both macrofauna and habitat. It offers a unique spatial coverage and can be implemented at sea at a reasonable cost by non-expert staff. As such, this technique is particularly interesting for investigating and monitoring coastal biodiversity in the light of current conservation challenges and increasing monitoring needs.

  10. Cognitive enrichment for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evaluation of a novel underwater maze device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Davies, Samuel L; Madigan, Andrew W; Warner, Abby J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enrichment is gaining popularity as a tool to enhance captive animal well-being, but research on captive cetaceans is lacking. Dolphin cognition has been studied intensively since the 1950s, and several hundred bottlenose dolphins are housed in major zoos and aquaria worldwide, but most dolphin enrichment consists of simple floating objects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel, underwater maze device (UMD) was cognitively enriching for one group of male and one group of female dolphins at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, CA. The dolphin's task was to navigate a rubber ball through a maze of pipes, towards an exit pipe. We also tested a modification where an edible gelatine ball fell into the pool once the UMD was solved. The UMD was provided to each group between 8 and 11 times over a 4-week period. Male dolphins used the UMD without prior training, whereas females did not use the UMD at all. Two male dolphins solved the UMD 17 times, using a variety of problem-solving strategies. The UMD had no significant effect on circular (repetitive) swimming patterns, but males spent significantly more time underwater when the UMD was present. Males used the UMD significantly more when it contained the rubber ball, but the gelatine ball stimulated social play. The UMD is a safe and practical device for captive dolphins. It now requires further testing on other dolphins, particularly females, to in order to examine whether the sex differences we observed are a general phenomenon. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Experiences from using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and Synthetic Aperture Sonar for Sediment and Habitat Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsnes, T.; Bjarnadóttir, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging platforms and tools like autonomous underwater vehicles and synthetic aperture sonars provide interesting opportunities for making seabed mapping more efficient and precise. Sediment grain-size maps are an important product in their own right and a key input for habitat and biotope maps. National and regional mapping programmes are tasked with mapping large areas, and survey efficiency, data quality, and resulting map confidence are important considerations when selecting the mapping strategy. Since 2005, c. 175,000 square kilometres of the Norwegian continental shelf and continental slope has been mapped with respect to sediments, habitats and biodiversity, and pollution under the MAREANO programme (www.mareano.no). At present the sediment mapping is based on a combination of ship-borne multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, visual documentation using a towed video platform, and grab sampling. We have now tested a new approach, using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) as the survey platform for the collection of acoustic data (Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS), EM2040 bathymetry and backscatter) and visual data (still images using a TFish colour photo system). This pilot project was conducted together the Norwegian Hydrographic Service, the Institute of Marine Research (biology observations) and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (operation of ship and AUV). The test site reported here is the Vesterdjupet area, offshore Lofoten, northern Norway. The water depth is between 170 and 300 metres, with sediments ranging from gravel, cobbles and boulders to sandy mud. A cold-water coral reef, associated with bioclastic sediments was also present in the study area. The presentation will give an overview of the main findings and experiences gained from this pilot project with a focus on geological mapping and will also discuss the relevance of AUV-based mapping to large-area mapping programmes like MAREANO.

  12. The tourism carrying capacity of underwater trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  13. The Tourism Carrying Capacity of Underwater Trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  14. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar Arctic distribution. In this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. Using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. Masked underwater thresholds were measured in the presence of octave-band noise to determine critical ratios. Results indicate that ringed seals possess hearing abilities comparable to those of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and considerably better than previously reported for ringed and harp seals. Best sensitivity was 49 dB re. 1 µPa (12.8 kHz) in water, and -12 dB re. 20 µPa (4.5 kHz) in air, rivaling the acute hearing abilities of some fully aquatic and terrestrial species in their respective media. Critical ratio measurements ranged from 14 dB at 0.1 kHz to 31 dB at 25.6 kHz, suggesting that ringed seals--like other true seals--can efficiently extract signals from background noise across a broad range of frequencies. The work described herein extends similar research on amphibious hearing in spotted seals recently published by the authors. These parallel studies enhance our knowledge of the auditory capabilities of ice-living seals, and inform effective management strategies for these and related species in a rapidly changing Arctic environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. A Dual Communication and Imaging Underwater Acoustic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tricia C.

    A dual communication and imaging underwater acoustic system is proposed and developed throughout this dissertation. Due to the wide variation in underwater channel characteristics, the research here focuses more on robustness to multipath in the shallow underwater acoustic environment, rather than high bit-rate applications and signaling schemes. Lower bit-rate (in the hundreds of bits per second (bps) to low kbps), applications such as the transfer of ecological telemetry data, e.g. conductivity or temperature data, are the primary focus of this dissertation. The parallels between direct sequence spread spectrum in digital communication and pulse-echo with pulse compression in imaging, and channel estimation in communication and range profile estimation in imaging are drawn, leading to a unified communications and imaging platform. A digital communication algorithm for channel order and channel coefficient estimation and symbol demodulation using Matching Pursuit (MP) with Generalized Multiple Hypothesis Testing (GMHT) is implemented in programmable DSP in real time with field experiment results in varying underwater environments for the single receiver (Rx), single transmitter (Tx) case. The custom and off-the-shelf hardware used in the single receiver, single transmitter set of experiments are detailed as well. This work is then extended to the single-input multiple-output (SIMO) case, and then to the full multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) case. The results of channel estimation are used for simple range profile imaging reconstructions. Successful simulated and experimental results for both transducer array configurations are presented and analyzed. Non-real-time symbol demodulation and channel estimation is performed using experimental data from a scaled testing environment. New hardware based on cost-effective fish-finder transducers for a 6 Rx--1 Tx and 6 Rx--4 Tx transducer array is detailed. Lastly, in an application that is neither communication nor

  16. Stability and economy analysis based on computational fluid dynamics and field testing of hybrid-driven underwater glider with the water quality sensor in Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid-driven underwater glider is a new kind of unmanned platform for water quality monitoring. It has advantages such as high controllability and maneuverability, low cost, easy operation, and ability to carry multiple sensors. This article develops a hybrid-driven underwater glider, PETRELII, and integrates a water quality monitoring sensor. Considering stability and economy, an optimal layout scheme is selected from four candidates by simulation using computational fluid dynamics method. Trials were carried out in Danjiangkou Reservoir—important headwaters of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. In the trials, a monitoring strategy with polygonal mixed-motion was adopted to make full use of the advantages of the unmanned platform. The measuring data, including temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, turbidity, chlorophyll, and ammonia nitrogen, are obtained. These data validate the practicability of the theoretical layout obtained using computational fluid dynamics method and the practical performance of PETRELII with sensor.

  17. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  18. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Mujtaba Qureshi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  19. Niobium pentoxide coating replacing zinc phosphate coating

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, P.R.P.; TERADA, M.; JUNIOR, O.R.A.; LOPES, A.C.; COSTA, I.; BANCZEK, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new coating made of niobium pentoxide, obtained through the sol-gel process, was developed for the carbon steel (SAE 1010). The corrosion protection provided by this coating was evaluated through electrochemical tests such as: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic potentiodynamic polarization in NaCl 0,5 mol L-1 solution. The morphology and composition of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X...

  20. Distributed flow estimation and closed-loop control of an underwater vehicle with a multi-modal artificial lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Levi; Lagor, Francis D; Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo; Paley, Derek A

    2015-03-25

    Bio-inspired sensing modalities enhance the ability of autonomous vehicles to characterize and respond to their environment. This paper concerns the lateral line of cartilaginous and bony fish, which is sensitive to fluid motion and allows fish to sense oncoming flow and the presence of walls or obstacles. The lateral line consists of two types of sensing modalities: canal neuromasts measure approximate pressure gradients, whereas superficial neuromasts measure local flow velocities. By employing an artificial lateral line, the performance of underwater sensing and navigation strategies is improved in dark, cluttered, or murky environments where traditional sensing modalities may be hindered. This paper presents estimation and control strategies enabling an airfoil-shaped unmanned underwater vehicle to assimilate measurements from a bio-inspired, multi-modal artificial lateral line and estimate flow properties for feedback control. We utilize potential flow theory to model the fluid flow past a foil in a uniform flow and in the presence of an upstream obstacle. We derive theoretically justified nonlinear estimation strategies to estimate the free stream flowspeed, angle of attack, and the relative position of an upstream obstacle. The feedback control strategy uses the estimated flow properties to execute bio-inspired behaviors including rheotaxis (the tendency of fish to orient upstream) and station-holding (the tendency of fish to position behind an upstream obstacle). A robotic prototype outfitted with a multi-modal artificial lateral line composed of ionic polymer metal composite and embedded pressure sensors experimentally demonstrates the distributed flow sensing and closed-loop control strategies.

  1. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... and durability of anticorrosive coatings have been included. The different types of anticorrosive coatings are presented, and the most widely applied generic types of binders and pigments in anticorrosive coatings are listed and described. Furthermore, the protective mechanisms of barrier, sacrificial...

  2. Practical problems of experimenting with an underwater wireless sensor node platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kui; Climent, Salvador; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although in recent years many research activities have been carried out on underwater communication, still many challenges need to be tackled to make the underwater communication suitable for real applications. To this end, availability of an open and well-designed platform and performing realworld

  3. 76 FR 4529 - Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of....T01-1126 is added as follows: Sec. 165.T01-1126 Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay...

  4. 76 FR 6728 - Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a permanent safety zone.... 165.171 to read as follows: Sec. 165.171 Safety Zone; Underwater Hazard, Gravesend Bay, Brooklyn, NY...

  5. A Data Link Layer in Support of Swarming of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabba Molinares, Daladier

    2009-01-01

    Communication underwater is challenging because of the inherent characteristics of the media. First, common radio frequency (RF) signals utilized in wireless communications cannot be used under water. RF signals are attenuated in such as way that RF communication underwater is restricted to very few meters. As a result, acoustic-based…

  6. A Combined Radio and Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System based on Buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuhang; Tong, Zheng; Cong, Bo; Yu, Xiangyu; Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Aobo

    2016-02-01

    We propose a system of combining radio and underwater wireless optical communication based on buoys for real-time image and video transmission between underwater vehicles and the base station on the shore. We analysis how the BER performance is affected by the link distance and the deflection angle of the light source using Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Design and Analysis of an Underwater White LED Fish-Attracting Lamp and its Light Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chih Shen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Light emitting diodes (LED are a new source for replacing traditional light sources including under water illumination. As traditional underwater light sources operate under a radiative transfer model, the luminous intensity is dispersed evenly at each emission angle, with the scattering factors included in the attenuation coefficient. By contrast, LED light sources are characterized by being highly directional, causing underwater luminous energy to vary with different emission angles. Thus, the traditional theory of underwater optical transfer becomes inapplicable when an underwater LED lighting module is designed. Therefore, to construct an underwater transfer model for LED light sources, this study employed the average cosine of the underwater light field, the method for light scattering probability, the LED luminous intensity distribution curve (LIDC and axial luminous intensity. Afterwards, an underwater LED fish-attracting lamp was designed. Experimental results showed that, compared with the simulation values, the luminous intensity of the underwater LED lighting module at all emission angles had a percentage error of less than 10%.

  8. Mapping underwater sound in the dutch part of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özkan Sertlek, H.; Aarts, Geert; Brasseur, Sophie; Slabbekoorn, Hans; Cate, ten Carel; Benda-Beckmann, von Alexander M.; Ainslie, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union requires member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status for their marine territorial waters and explicitly mentions potentially adverse effects of underwater sound. In this study, we focused on producing maps of underwater sound from various natural and

  9. Mapping underwater sound in the Dutch part of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.O.; Aarts, G.; Brasseur, S.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Cate, C. ten; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Ainslie, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union requires member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status for their marine territorial waters and explicitly mentions potentially adverse effects of underwater sound. In this study, we focused on producing maps of underwater sound from various natural and

  10. 77 FR 38236 - Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Underwater Music Festival, Carr Inlet, Cutts Island, WA AGENCY: Coast... ensure the safety of the maritime public during the Underwater Music Festival and would do so by... Music Festival is an event which includes musical performances from a barge. Spectators approach the...

  11. Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Brandt, Christian; Willis, K. L.

    2012-01-01

    Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater...

  12. Feature Extraction of Underwater Target Signal Using Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients Based on Acoustic Vector Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanyue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction method using Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC based on acoustic vector sensor is researched in the paper. Signals of pressure are simulated as well as particle velocity of underwater target, and the features of underwater target using MFCC are extracted to verify the feasibility of the method. The experiment of feature extraction of two kinds of underwater targets is carried out, and these underwater targets are classified and recognized by Backpropagation (BP neural network using fusion of multi-information. Results of the research show that MFCC, first-order differential MFCC, and second-order differential MFCC features could be used as effective features to recognize those underwater targets and the recognition rate, which using the particle velocity signal is higher than that using the pressure signal, could be improved by using fusion features.

  13. A novel underwater dam crack detection and classification approach based on sonar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengfei; Fan, Xinnan; Ni, Jianjun; Khan, Zubair; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Underwater dam crack detection and classification based on sonar images is a challenging task because underwater environments are complex and because cracks are quite random and diverse in nature. Furthermore, obtainable sonar images are of low resolution. To address these problems, a novel underwater dam crack detection and classification approach based on sonar imagery is proposed. First, the sonar images are divided into image blocks. Second, a clustering analysis of a 3-D feature space is used to obtain the crack fragments. Third, the crack fragments are connected using an improved tensor voting method. Fourth, a minimum spanning tree is used to obtain the crack curve. Finally, an improved evidence theory combined with fuzzy rule reasoning is proposed to classify the cracks. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to detect underwater dam cracks and classify them accurately and effectively under complex underwater environments. PMID:28640925

  14. Three-dimensional Path Planning for Underwater Vehicles Based on an Improved Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional path planning for underwater vehicles is an important problem that focuses on optimizing the route with consideration of various constraints in a complex underwater environment. In this paper, an improved ant colony optimization (IACO algorithm based on pheromone exclusion is proposed to solve the underwater vehicle 3D path planning problem. The IACO algorithm can balance the tasks of exploration and development in the ant search path, and enable the ants in the search process to explore initially and develop subsequently. Then, the underwater vehicle can find the safe path by connecting the chosen nodes of the 3D mesh while avoiding the threat area. This new approach can overcome common disadvantages of the basic ant colony algorithm, such as falling into local extremum, poor quality, and low accuracy. Experimental comparative results demonstrate that this proposed IACO method is more effective and feasible in underwater vehicle 3D path planning than the basic ACO model.

  15. The aquatic tympanic ear: convergent adaptations for underwater hearing in three tetrapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    pressure, low particle motion medium, and the consequence is that an efficient underwater ear is sensitive to sound pressure. It is often stated that underwater hearing can work efficiently without a middle ear apparatus by bone conduction, since sound is transmitted from water to inner ear tissue...... with little loss. However, the sensitivity of such an ear is limited by the very low particle motion in water. We report on underwater hearing in tetrapods ranging from totally aquatic (the clawed frog Xenopus laevis) and mostly aquatic (the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta) to mostly terrestrial (the...... is modified (cartilaginous or partly cartilaginous). In all three species, the lowest threshold to underwater sound is at this peak frequency and is around 80 dB re 1 µPa. The sensitivity to sound pressure is slightly lower in water than in air, making underwater hearing much more efficient in terms of sound...

  16. Design and flight performance of hybrid underwater glider with controllable wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid underwater glider combines motion modes of traditional autonomous underwater glider and those of autonomous underwater vehicles. Different motion modes need different flight performance, including flight efficiency, static stability, and maneuverability. Conventional hybrid underwater glider with fixed wings can’t achieve optimal flight performance in one flight mission demanding various motion modes. In this article, controllable wings for hybrid underwater glider Petrel II are designed. Angle of attack, sweep angle, and aspect ratio of controllable wings can be changed to adapt to different motion modes. Kinematics and dynamics models of Petrel II are established based on multibody theory. Motion simulations of Petrel II with different wing configurations are conducted in three motion modes, including glide motion, spiral motion, and horizontal turning motion. The simulation results show the impact of wing parameters on flight performance. Field trials demonstrate that the controllable wings can improve the flight performance.

  17. Parametric geometric model and shape optimization of an underwater glider with blended-wing-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunya; Song, Baowei; Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Underwater glider, as a new kind of autonomous underwater vehicles, has many merits such as long-range, extended-duration and low costs. The shape of underwater glider is an important factor in determining the hydrodynamic efficiency. In this paper, a high lift to drag ratio configuration, the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB), is used to design a small civilian under water glider. In the parametric geometric model of the BWB underwater glider, the planform is defined with Bezier curve and linear line, and the section is defined with symmetrical airfoil NACA 0012. Computational investigations are carried out to study the hydrodynamic performance of the glider using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent. The Kriging-based genetic algorithm, called Efficient Global Optimization (EGO), is applied to hydrodynamic design optimization. The result demonstrates that the BWB underwater glider has excellent hydrodynamic performance, and the lift to drag ratio of initial design is increased by 7% in the EGO process.

  18. Polarization Calculation and Underwater Target Detection Inspired by Biological Visual Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In challenging underwater environments, the polarization parameter maps calculated by the Stokes model are characterized by the high noise and error, harassing the underwater target detection tasks. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel bionic polarization calculation and underwater target detection method by modeling the visual system of mantis shrimps. This system includes many operators including a polarization-opposition calculation, a factor optimization and a visual neural network model. A calibration learning method is proposed to search the optimal value of the factors in the linear subtraction model. Finally, a six-channel visual neural network model is proposed to detect the underwater targets. Experimental results proved that the maps produced by the polarization-opposition parameter is more accurate and have lower noise than that produced by the Stokes parameter, achieving better performance in underwater target detection tasks.

  19. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  20. Seal coat research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of seal coating as a method to protect bituminous pavements from oxidation, water infiltration, and raveling. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) applied seal coating to a roadway segment of Trunk Highway ...

  1. Evaluation of masonry coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-08-01

    This report describes the evaluation of five coating systems to replace the conventional Class 2 rubbed finish now required on concrete structures. The evaluation consisted of preparing test specimens with each of the five coatings and conducting abs...

  2. Effectiveness of an Automatic Tracking Software in Underwater Motion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício A. Magalhaes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracking of markers placed on anatomical landmarks is a common practice in sports science to perform the kinematic analysis that interests both athletes and coaches. Although different software programs have been developed to automatically track markers and/or features, none of them was specifically designed to analyze underwater motion. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a software developed for automatic tracking of underwater movements (DVP, based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracker. Twenty-one video recordings of different aquatic exercises (n = 2940 markers’ positions were manually tracked to determine the markers’ center coordinates. Then, the videos were automatically tracked using DVP and a commercially available software (COM. Since tracking techniques may produce false targets, an operator was instructed to stop the automatic procedure and to correct the position of the cursor when the distance between the calculated marker’s coordinate and the reference one was higher than 4 pixels. The proportion of manual interventions required by the software was used as a measure of the degree of automation. Overall, manual interventions were 10.4% lower for DVP (7.4% than for COM (17.8%. Moreover, when examining the different exercise modes separately, the percentage of manual interventions was 5.6% to 29.3% lower for DVP than for COM. Similar results were observed when analyzing the type of marker rather than the type of exercise, with 9.9% less manual interventions for DVP than for COM. In conclusion, based on these results, the developed automatic tracking software presented can be used as a valid and useful tool for underwater motion analysis.

  3. Vortex Ring Extremization for Low Speed Maneuvering of Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Kamran

    2004-11-01

    Most attempts in underwater locomotion have been focused on propeller thrust generation or recently on flapping locomotion. However, new developments in autonomous and tethered underwater vehicles motivated closer look at the biomimetics of sea animals. To this end, Cephalopoda and jelly fish utilize pulsatile jets and vortex formation for locomotion. To avoid further complications with background flows, we focus on the formation of the leading vortex ring rather than a train of vortices. It is shown that a pinched-off vortex ring characterizes the extremum impulse accumulated by the leading vortex ring in vortex formation process. An appropriate scaling for vortex ring impulse is found and the limiting values of the non-dimensionalized impulses are established. An estimate for the non-dimensional impulses is provided by equating their values from the slug model with their values from a vortex in the Norbury family of vortices. For a vortex ring generator with constant kinetic energy and circulation generation rate, the pinched-off vortex ring has a maximum impulse of I_nd^E ≈ 11 normalized by the circulation and energy. On the other hand, for a vortex ring generator with constant rate of circulation generation at a constant translational velocity, a pinched-off vortex ring produces a minimum impulse of I_nd^Γ ≈ 0.12 normalized by the circulation and translational velocity. Direct numerical simulations of vortex ring formation and vortex ring pinch-off process are performed and the estimated values of the non-dimensionalized impulses are confirmed. These ideas are employed in designing a vortex jet generator for low speed maneuvering of underwater robots. The presented vortex generators are simple and low cost, they consume little valuable payload space, and they have no moving external parts. Experimental data are presented in support of the optimal formation number of 4 for maximum thrust generation.

  4. Application of an Underwater Robot in Reactor Coolant System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min; Lee, Sung-Uk; Cho, Jai-Wan

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy is a major source of electric energy consumed in Korea. It has the advantage of other energy sources, nuclear energy is cost effective and little pollution. But the fearfulness of an accident and/or failure has scared us the utilization of nuclear energy extensively. So, the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants become more important. Inspection and maintenance of component should be achieved continuously. The RCS(reactor coolant system) of PWR(pressurized water reactor) has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. Cooling water is injected through the SI(safety injection) nozzle into the cold leg of the primary loop. Thermal sleeves are attached inside the cylindrical SI nozzle to reduce the thermal shock of the cooling water to the weld zone of the safety injection nozzle. The human workers are susceptible to radiation exposure and manual handling machine is hard to access because of the complexity of the path. So, we developed and applied free running, tele-operated underwater vehicle to inspect SI nozzle close to the place. Tele-operated robot is useful to inspect and maintain the component of nuclear power plants to reduce the radiation exposure of human operators and improve the reliability of the operation in nuclear power plants. Underwater robot is comprised of two parts; one is robot vehicle and the other is remote control module. Underwater robot vehicle has 4 DOF(degree of freedom) of mobility and 1 DOF of camera observation. The task to inspect the internal of RCS in nuclear power plant is achieved successfully. And the reliability for the maintenance is increased by the aid of tele-operated robot

  5. Application of an Underwater Robot in Reactor Coolant System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min; Lee, Sung-Uk; Cho, Jai-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear energy is a major source of electric energy consumed in Korea. It has the advantage of other energy sources, nuclear energy is cost effective and little pollution. But the fearfulness of an accident and/or failure has scared us the utilization of nuclear energy extensively. So, the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants become more important. Inspection and maintenance of component should be achieved continuously. The RCS(reactor coolant system) of PWR(pressurized water reactor) has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. Cooling water is injected through the SI(safety injection) nozzle into the cold leg of the primary loop. Thermal sleeves are attached inside the cylindrical SI nozzle to reduce the thermal shock of the cooling water to the weld zone of the safety injection nozzle. The human workers are susceptible to radiation exposure and manual handling machine is hard to access because of the complexity of the path. So, we developed and applied free running, tele-operated underwater vehicle to inspect SI nozzle close to the place. Tele-operated robot is useful to inspect and maintain the component of nuclear power plants to reduce the radiation exposure of human operators and improve the reliability of the operation in nuclear power plants. Underwater robot is comprised of two parts; one is robot vehicle and the other is remote control module. Underwater robot vehicle has 4 DOF(degree of freedom) of mobility and 1 DOF of camera observation. The task to inspect the internal of RCS in nuclear power plant is achieved successfully. And the reliability for the maintenance is increased by the aid of tele-operated robot.

  6. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  7. The system of underwater CCTV inspection for reactor internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rong

    1997-12-01

    During the operation of nuclear power plant, the reactor internal components are greatly scoured and vibrated by flowing water. So the structural integrity and surface sludge for reactor internal components are needed to be inspected during refuelling. Thus an inspection system is developed, in which the camera inspects underwater at different height and different direction by mechanical elevator and the image of closed-circuit television (CCTV) is mixed with digital coordinate of the camera position for re-inspection. It is the first system for inspection of reactor internal components in China. This system has been used 4 times in the inspection of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant successfully

  8. NEMD study for supercavitation mechanism with underwater object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Bozhi; Zhang Bingjian; Zhang Hui

    2008-01-01

    An open system model was introduced for Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation for studying flow phenomenon surrounding different underwater object. Cavitation number σ criterion was proved to be applicable in predicting local cavitation mechanism. An interesting phenomenon was found that low σ areas and actual cavities were spatially separated in molecular scale, and stable supercavitation would require a large enough low σ area to sustain. Effects of cavitator shape and flow velocity were compared with macro scale flow under similar σ, providing a new computational method to study the molecular scale mechanism of this phenomenon

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0938-1287 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Underwater shock wave focusing * multichannel * electrohydraulic discharge * conical shock wave reflection * medical application Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00193-016-0703-7

  10. Control of Open Contour Formations of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Zimmer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a distributed elastic behaviour for a deformable chain-like formation of small autonomous underwater vehicles with the task of forming special shapes which have been explicitly defined or are defined by some iso-contour of an environmental concentration field. In the latter case, the formation has to move in such a way as to meet certain formation parameters as well as adapt to the iso-line. We base our controller on our previous models (for manually controlled end points using general curve evolution theory but will also propose appropriate motions for the end robots of an open chain.

  11. Feasibility of X-ray laser by Underwater Spark Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The method of Underwater Spark Discharges(USD) is one of the most effective ways for generating extremely compressed atomic clusters (called itonic clusters or micro Ball Lightning(BL)). It is also associated with energetic X-rays, which are caused by the break up of the itonic electrons. Despite of low voltage discharges of about 50 V, the high energy X-rays up to 150 keV can be generated. This paper proposed two methods of generating X-ray laser by using micro BL: (1) micro BL on surfaces of regularly arrayed wire cathodes and (2) gas of micro BL generated by USD. (author)

  12. Swarm Underwater Acoustic 3D Localization: Kalman vs Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Taraglio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two three-dimensional localization algorithms for a swarm of underwater vehicles are presented. The first is grounded on an extended Kalman filter (EKF scheme used to fuse some proprioceptive data such as the vessel's speed and some exteroceptive measurements such as the time of flight (TOF sonar distance of the companion vessels. The second is a Monte Carlo particle filter localization processing the same sensory data suite. The results of several simulations using the two approaches are presented, with comparison. The case of a supporting surface vessel is also considered. An analysis of the robustness of the two approaches against some system parameters is given.

  13. ECS: Efficient Communication Scheduling for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available TDMA protocols have attracted a lot of attention for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSNs, because of the unique characteristics of acoustic signal propagation such as great energy consumption in transmission, long propagation delay and long communication range. Previous TDMA protocols all allocated transmission time to nodes based on discrete time slots. This paper proposes an efficient continuous time scheduling TDMA protocol (ECS for UWSNs, including the continuous time based and sender oriented conflict analysis model, the transmission moment allocation algorithm and the distributed topology maintenance algorithm. Simulation results confirm that ECS improves network throughput by 20% on average, compared to existing MAC protocols.

  14. Little salt spring, Florida: a unique underwater site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, C J; Cohen, A D; Emiliani, C; Holman, J A; Stipp, J J

    1979-02-16

    Little Salt Spring in southwest Florida, consisting of a shallow, water-filled basin above a deep, vertical underwater cavern, was a freshwater cenote in the peninsula's drier past. It collected and preserved perishable organic artifacts and other evidence of Paleo-Indian and Archaic Indian origin ranging in age from 12,000 to 9000 and from 6800 to 5200 years ago. An Archaic Period cemetery containing an estimated 1000 burials occupies an adjoining muck-filled slough and presently drowned portions of the basin of the spring. Artifacts and the nature of interment suggest a cultural link between the Archaic people and the much later Glades Tradition of southern Florida.

  15. Optical Communication System for an Underwater Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.; Khalighi, A.; Bourennane, S.; Léon, P.; Rigaud, V.

    2012-04-01

    Seventy percent of the Earth is covered with water. Yet, we know so little about what lies below the sea surface. One new emerging technology that can help in oceans exploration is underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN). In such a network, a number of sensors are connected to a set of nodes that collect the data from them. Then, each node communicate its retrieved data to the other parts of the network through wireless links. So, an important step in the implementation of an UWSN is the design of an adequate transmitter/receiver system that is reliable, easy to implement, energy efficient and adapted to the underwater environment. Thanks to its cost-effectiveness and low-energy consumption property, optical underwater communication turns to be the most adequate solution for medium range node connections in an UWSN. To evaluate the optical underwater channel, we have studied its impulse response using a Monte Carlo simulator that takes into consideration all the transmitter, receiver and medium characteristics. We have demonstrated through these simulations that the channel delay dispersion is negligible in most practical cases. Therefore, we do not need to perform computationally complex signal processing such as channel equalization at the receiver. After studying the channel characteristics, we have turned our attention onto the transmitter/receiver system design. For this, we have simulated a system composed by a high-power monochromatic 532 nm LED transmitter and a Silicon PIN photodiode receiver with a collimating lens for capturing the scattered light. After photo-detection, the photo-current is converted to a voltage and low-pass filtered to limit the thermal noise variance which is the dominant noise in the receiver. Note that, in our case, background noise can be neglected because we are working in deep waters were the sunlight cannot penetrate. Then, using on-off-keying (OOK) modulation, we have proceeded to signal detection based on optimum

  16. Underwater noise of small personal watercraft (jet skis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Personal watercraft (water scooters, jet skis) were recorded under water in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia. Underwater noise emissions consisted of broadband energy between 100 Hz and 10 kHz due to the vibrating bubble cloud generated by the jet stream, overlain with frequency-modulated tonals corresponding to impeller blade rates and harmonics. Broadband monopole source levels were 149, 137, and 122 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m (5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles). Even though these are lower than those of small propeller-driven boats, it is not necessarily the broadband source level that correlates with the bioacoustic impact on marine fauna.

  17. Radiation protection experience for divers working underwater in radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallance, Charles A.; Barritt, Scott W.; White, Mark; Martinson, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Divers work in areas where radiological exposures would be prohibitive or even fatal to workers in dry conditions. To perform such work safely, while minimizing exposure, requires special equipment and techniques. This paper will provide an overview of the latest procedures and equipment necessary to perform work underwater in high radiation areas while meeting ALARA goals. Recent projects performed in spent fuel storage pools and inside primary containment at commercial nuclear power plants will be described to demonstrate the use of procedures and techniques for ALARA planning, personnel dose minimization, project execution, dose tracking, and control of radioactive waste

  18. Calibration system of underwater robot sensor based on CID algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Sen; Gao, Lifu; Wu, Shan; Wei, Shuheng

    2017-06-01

    In the calibration of static characteristic of the sensor, the original measured data are usually a nonlinear distribution. Based on this situation, underwater robot sensor static calibration system is designed. The system consists of four parts: a sensor, I-V conversion with amplifying circuit, microcontroller STM32F107 and a PC. The lower computer and the upper computer communicate by USB. A kind of adaptive cyclic iterative denoising (CID) algorithm is presented for data processing. Finally the curve will be fitted with compensation processing.

  19. Underwater DVI: Simple fingerprint technique for positive identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Lay See; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Mahmood, Mohd Shah; Vanezis, Peter

    2016-09-01

    An underwater disaster can be declared when a maritime accident occurred or when an aircraft is plunged into water area, be it ocean, sea or river. Nevertheless, handling of human remains in an underwater recovery operation is often a difficult and demanding task as working conditions may be challenging with poor to no visibility, location of remains at considerable depths and associated hazards from surrounding water. A case of the recent helicopter crash, into a famous river in Sarawak, domiciled by huge crocodiles, is discussed in this paper. Search and recovery team as well as the combat divers from the Special Elite Troop Commando, known as VAT 69, were deployed to the scene to perform the underwater recovery to search for all the victims on board involving five Malaysians with a pilot of Philippines nationality. This paper highlights the limitations and challenges faced during the underwater search and recovery. All the bodies recovered were in moderate decomposition stage with crushed injuries and mutilated face and body. A simple and conventional fingerprint technique were used to record the fingerprint. The prints impressions were later photographed using a smartphone and transferred back to the RMP headquarters in Kuala Lumpur for fingerprint match by using WhatsApp Messenger, a phone application. All the first five victims were identified within an average of 10min. The last victim recovered was the pilot. For foreign nationals, the Immigration Department of Malaysia will record the prints of both index fingers only. The lifting of the fingerprint of the last victim was the most challenging in which only one index finger left that can be used for comparison. A few techniques were attempted using the black printer's ink, glass and tape techniques for the last victim. Subsequently, images of the prints impression were taken using the same smartphone with additional macro lens attached to it to enhance the resolution. The images were transferred to the RMP

  20. Interpreting underwater acoustic images of the upper ocean boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Marco J

    2007-01-01

    A challenging task in physical studies of the upper ocean using underwater sound is the interpretation of high-resolution acoustic images. This paper covers a number of basic concepts necessary for undergraduate and postgraduate students to identify the most distinctive features of the images, providing a link with the acoustic signatures of physical processes occurring simultaneously beneath the surface of the sea. Sonars are so sensitive that they detected a new acoustic signature at the breaking of surface gravity waves in deep water, which resembles oblique motion-like vortices