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Sample records for understorey herb electronic

  1. Restoration of three forest herbs in the Liliaceae family by manipulating deer herbivory and overstorey and understorey vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose

    2010-01-01

    Research on herbaceous vegetation restoration in forests characterised by overstorey tree harvests, excessive deer herbivory, and a dominant fern understorey is lacking. Most of the plant diversity found in Eastern hardwood forests in the United States is found in the herbaceous understorey layer. Loss of forest herbaceous species is an indicator of declining forest...

  2. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    Science.gov (United States)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  3. UNDERSTOREY OF PINE-PLANTATIONS ON DEGRADED SITES IN THE REGION OF DECIDUOUS FORESTS OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz H. Andrae

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State understoreys of 12 stands of Pinus sp. and one of Araucaria angustifolia O.Ktze were studied, all growing on soils, degraded by agriculture. One pine stand, 10 years old, originated from a natural renovation, the others had been planted 25 to 30 years ago, Araucaria was seeded directly. A total of 575 plots were sampled, 25 m² each, distributed systematically within the stands. Measurements included pines overstorey, and all understorey woody species, separeted into layers of more than 1,3 m high and 1,3 to 0,3 m; the layer lower than 0,3 m included only natural renovation of pines. Understoreys were composed by 121 species, ocurring common and high value timber species, ornamental trees, native and exotic fruit tree species. A higher number of species was present with a very few individuals only. The presence of non woody species like grasses, herbs, ferns and lians also was quantified. The number of tree species and the presence of non woody species did not correlat with density of overstorey pines. Abundance and frequency of species showed no significant diferences, when samples were grouped according to their location in the center or close to stands edge. Distribution pattern of understorey trees within stands was quantified, using Cox’ index, species diversity was compared by means of Shannon-index. Similarity of stands was compared by Sörensen-Index. It was concluded, that exotic species planted on poor agricultural soil may not only be of farmers interest because of their high potential for wood production. These plantations also may be considered from conservationist point of view, since they show an unexpected high diversity, so contributing in a longer run to landscape improvement, possibly due to the small extension of stands.

  4. The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewald, Joerg

    2000-01-01

    Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

  5. Understorey bird abundance and diversity before and after a forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The understorey bird species diversity before the forest was burned was substantially higher than ..... Conservation interventions are necessary and measures against forest fires are ... I would like to thank the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania for permission ... package for education and data analysis.

  6. Seasonal variation in diversity and abundance of understorey birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings suggest that in a situation where there is no natural forest, an exotic plantation with suitable indigenous understorey cover can help in protection of birds, including endemic and near-endemic species. Keywords: birds, conservation, Eastern Arc Mountains, plantation, seasonal altitudinal migration, seasons, ...

  7. Comparing Effects Of GAMMA And Electron Beam Irradiation On Microbiological And Biochemical Characters Of Selected Egyptian Aromatic Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, S.A.; YUSSEF, B.M.; SHAMS EL DIEEN, N.M.; ABDALLA, M.

    2009-01-01

    Selected Egyptian aromatic herbs (AH) which face demand for exporting abroad, such as spearmint (Mentha viridis Linn.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), were exposed to gamma and electron beam (EB) irradiation at different doses (5 and 10 kGy). The evaluation of irradiation efficiency was based on microbiological and biochemical studies including changes in volatile compounds and antioxidative activity. The microbiological assay revealed presence of high load levels in raw AH with log of total bacteria of rosemary (6.862 cfu.g-1) and spearmint (6.762 cfu.g -1 ) while marjoram was the lowest one (5.771 cfu.g -1 ). The highest levels of the log of total molds and yeast counts were observed in marjoram (5.097 cfu.g -1 ) while the less levels were observed in rosemary and spearmint. Using gamma irradiation was more effective than EB in decontamination of microbes either in reducing numbers to safe levels at 5 kGy or completely elimination at high dose (10 kGy) in all tested samples. Some specific bacteria were present in AH such as Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens at different levels whereas the log of E. faecalis was detected only in marjoram and spearmint with heavy load as 4.554 and 3.427 cfu.g -1 , respectively, while rosemary was less than 2 cfu.g -1 . Irradiation with both sources at 5 kGy reduced the count by about 2 log cycles in marjoram and 1 log cycle in spearmint. No colonies of the same microbe were detected at high dose (10 kGy) in all herbs with exception of marjoram. The log of B. cereus contamination was higher in spearmint than marjoram then rosemary. Irradiation of AH at 5 kGy reduced these values whereas high dose (10 kGy) caused complete elimination of B. cereus.GLC analysis of AH volatile oils showed presence of 22 compounds in spearmint included mainly carvon specific smells of spearmint besides monoterpens as α- -pinen (1.6%), Β-pinen (2.06%), limonene (4.75%). Also

  8. New opportunities of the application of natural herb and spice extracts in plant oils: application of electron paramagnetic resonance in examining the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the applicability of natural water-ethanol extracts of herbs and spices in increasing the oxidative stability of plant oils and in the production of novel food. Different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm) of spice extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (100 ppm) were added to the studied oils. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts was determined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The study showed that the extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of the examined oils when compared to one of the strongest synthetic antioxidants--BHA. The applied simple production technology and addition of herb and spice extracts to plant oils enabled enhancement of their oxidative stability. The extracts are an alternative to the oils aromatized with an addition of fresh herbs, spices, and vegetables because it did not generate additional flavors thus enabling the maintenance of the characteristic ones. Moreover, it will increase the intake of natural substances in human diet, which are known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Compositional stability of boreal understorey vegetation after overstorey harvesting across a riparian ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. MacDonald; Han Y.H. Chen; Samuel F. Bartels; Brian J. Palik; Ellie E. Prepas; Frank Gilliam

    2015-01-01

    Questions: Understanding factors that contribute to the stability of an ecosystem following harvesting is central to predicting responses of boreal ecosystems to increasing human disturbances.While the response of understorey vegetation to harvesting is well understood for upland sites, little is known about compositional stability of riparian understorey vegetation....

  10. Climbing plants in a temperate rainforest understorey: searching for high light or coping with deep shade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Gianoli, Ernesto; Saldaña, Alfredo

    2011-08-01

    While the climbing habit allows vines to reach well-lit canopy areas with a minimum investment in support biomass, many of them have to survive under the dim understorey light during certain stages of their life cycle. But, if the growth/survival trade-off widely reported for trees hold for climbing plants, they cannot maximize both light-interception efficiency and shade avoidance (i.e. escaping from the understorey). The seven most important woody climbers occurring in a Chilean temperate evergreen rainforest were studied with the hypothesis that light-capture efficiency of climbers would be positively associated with their abundance in the understorey. Species abundance in the understorey was quantified from their relative frequency and density in field plots, the light environment was quantified by hemispherical photography, the photosynthetic response to light was measured with portable gas-exchange analyser, and the whole shoot light-interception efficiency and carbon gain was estimated with the 3-D computer model Y-plant. Species differed in specific leaf area, leaf mass fraction, above ground leaf area ratio, light-interception efficiency and potential carbon gain. Abundance of species in the understorey was related to whole shoot features but not to leaf level features such as specific leaf area. Potential carbon gain was inversely related to light-interception efficiency. Mutual shading among leaves within a shoot was very low (<20 %). The abundance of climbing plants in this southern rainforest understorey was directly related to their capacity to intercept light efficiently but not to their potential carbon gain. The most abundant climbers in this ecosystem match well with a shade-tolerance syndrome in contrast to the pioneer-like nature of climbers observed in tropical studies. The climbers studied seem to sacrifice high-light searching for coping with the dim understorey light.

  11. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  12. DYNAMICS STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY VEGETATION INFLUENCED BY LOGGING IN A SOLID GROUND FOREST, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOJU, PARÁ STATE

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    Fernanda da Silva Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989283The structure dynamics of an understorey vegetation influenced by gaps caused by reduced impact logging was analyzed during 12 years in a solid ground rain forest in the municipality of Moju, Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon forest. Angiosperm individuals from 10 cm height up to 5 cm DBH were surveyed in a 468 m² sample area in six occasions (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 and 2010, they were analyzed considering their life-forms (trees, shrub, lianas, herbs and palms, abundance, frequency, size classes (CT1 = 10 cm ≤ HT < 50 cm; CT2 = 50 cm ≤ HT < 130 cm; CT3 = 130 cm < HT and DAP < 2 cm; and CT4 = 2 cm ≤ DAP < 5 cm and relative natural regeneration Burseraceae, Marantaceae, Violaceae and Lecythidaceae were the most important families in the study area in every occasions, while the most representative species were Monotagma sp1., Monotagma sp2., Rinorea guianensis, Lecythis idatimon e Protium pilosum. The most frequent life forms were trees, herbs and lianas in all occasions. The dynamics of life forms depended on light intensity. The establishment of commercial and potentially commercial species was favored by gaps, suggesting that natural regeneration of those species do not need to be assisted for guaranteeing timber stocks for future harvests.

  13. Severe dry winter affects plant phenology and carbon balance of a cork oak woodland understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A. C.; Costa-e-Silva, F.; Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Pereira, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Mediterranean climates are prone to a great variation in yearly precipitation. The effects on ecosystem will depend on the severity and timing of droughts. In this study we questioned how an extreme dry winter affects the carbon flux in the understorey of a cork oak woodland? What is the seasonal contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem productivity? We used closed-system portable chambers to measure CO2 exchange of the dominant shrub species (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus crispus and Ulex airensis), of the herbaceous layer and on bare soil in a cork oak woodland in central Portugal during the dry winter year of 2012. Shoot growth, leaf shedding, flower and fruit setting, above and belowground plant biomass were measured as well as seasonal leaf water potential. Eddy-covariance and micrometeorological data together with CO2 exchange measurements were used to access the understorey species contribution to ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). The herbaceous layer productivity was severely affected by the dry winter, with half of the yearly maximum aboveground biomass in comparison with the 6 years site average. The semi-deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed desynchronized phenophases and lagged carbon uptake maxima. Whereas shallow-root shrubs exhibited opportunistic characteristics in exploiting the understorey light and water resources, deep rooted shrubs showed better water status but considerably lower assimilation rates. The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP was lower during summer with 14% and maximum during late spring, concomitantly with the lowest tree productivity due to tree canopy renewal. The herbaceous vegetation contribution to ecosystem GPP never exceeded 6% during this dry year stressing its sensitivity to winter and spring precipitation. Although shrubs are more resilient to precipitation variability when compared with the herbaceous vegetation, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP can

  14. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

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    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  16. Reproductive isolation of sympatric forms of the understorey palm Geonoma macrostachys in western Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchsenius, Finn; Lozada, Tannya; Knudsen, Jette T.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a mechanism for attaining reproductive isolation between two diverging populations is a key step in the speciation process. We studied phenotypic variation, genetic differentiation, spatial distribution and reproductive ecology in two sympatric forms of the understorey palm Geonoma...

  17. The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the eutrophication signal in understorey plant communities of European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Vries, de W.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and

  18. Understorey fire propagation and tree mortality on adjacent areas to an Amazonian deforestation fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Carvalho; C.A. Gurgel Veras; E.C. Alvarado; D.V. Sandberg; S.J. Leite; R. Gielow; E.R.C. Rabelo; J.C. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Fire characteristics in tropical ecosystems are poorly documented quantitatively in the literature. This paper describes an understorey fire propagating across the edges of a biomass burn of a cleared primary forest. The experiment was carried out in 2001 in the Amazon forest near Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as part of biomass burning experiments...

  19. Avian distribution in treefall gaps and understorey of terra firme forest in the lowland Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR WUNDERLE; MICHAEL R. WILLIG; LUIZA MAGALLI PINTO HENRIQUES

    2005-01-01

    We compared the bird distributions in the understorey of treefall gaps and sites with intact canopy in Amazonian terra firme forest in Brazil. We compiled 2216 mist-net captures (116 species) in 32 gap and 32 forest sites over 22.3 months. Gap habitats differed from forest habitats in having higher capture rates, total captures, species richness and diversity....

  20. Improved understorey bamboo cover mapping using a novel hybrid neural network and expert system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    The giant panda is an obligate bamboo grazer. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo determines the quantity and quality of panda habitat. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to

  1. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  2. Germination of native understorey species for revegetation of New South Wales coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.J.; Bellairs, S.M.; Mulligan, D.R. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Agriculture and Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1997-06-01

    This project investigates the suitability of a range of native understorey species for rehabilitation at several coal mines in New South Wales. The germination of seeds from 69 species representing 12 families was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Germination occurred in all but two of the species tested and 50% germination was exceeded by 29 species. Species of the Mimosaceae, Fabaceae and Proteaceae tended to have above average germination; however species representing other families had variable germination results. A pre-germination heat treatment applied to all of the Acacia species increased germination in some but not all species. Seeds of these understorey species which were used in this trial, are native to the New South Wales coal fields and available commercially or are relatively easy to collect. Glasshouse and field trials are now being undertaken to assess establishment and growth on mine soil, spoil and coal reject materials. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Manhães

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  4. TALL-HERB BOREAL FORESTS ON NORTH URAL

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    A. A. Aleinikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the pressing aims of today’s natural resource management is its re-orientation to preserving and restoring ecological functions of ecosystems, among which the function of biodiversity maintenance plays an indicator role. The majority of today’s forests have not retained their natural appearance as the result of long-standing human impact. In this connection, refugia studies are becoming particularly interesting, as they give us an insight into the natural appearance of forests. Materials and methods. Studies were performed in dark conifer forests of the Pechora–Ilych reserve, in the lower reaches of the Bol’shaya Porozhnyaya River in 2013 yr. Vegetation data sampling was done at 50 temporary square plots of a fixed size (100 m2 randomly placed within a forest type. A list of plant species with species abundance was made for each forest layer. The overstorey (or tree canopy layer was denoted by the Latin letter A. The understorey layer (indicated by the letter B included tree undergrowth and tall shrubs. Ground vegetation was subdivided into the layers C and D. Layer C (field layer comprised the herbaceous species (herbs, grasses, sedges and dwarf shrubs together with low shrubs, tree and shrub seedlings. The height of the field layer was defined by the maximal height of the herbaceous species, ferns, and dwarf shrubs; the height varied from several cm to more than 200 cm in the ‘tall-herb’ forest types. Layer D (bottom layer included cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens. Species abundance in the each layer was usually assessed using the Braun-Blanquet cover scale (Braun-Blanquet 1928. The nomenclature used follows Cherepanov’s (1995 for vascular plants, and Ignatov & Afonina’s (1992. Results. The present article contains descriptions of unique tall-herb boreal forests of European Russia preserved in certain refugia which did not experience prolonged anthropogenic impact or any other catastrophes

  5. Herbs in exercise and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  6. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  7. About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products

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    ... in Pediatrics Follow-Up & Survivorship Care Our Location Inpatient Care Outpatient Care & Day Hospital Directions Parking & Transportation ... can be opened and closed. Overview Individual Therapies Exercise & Mind-Body Classes Mind-Body Workshops About Herbs, ...

  8. Radioprotective effect of edible herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Genbo; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1992-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

  9. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

  10. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  11. Understorey productivity in temperate grassy woodland responds to soil water availability but not to elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke; Bradstock, Ross A; Resco de Dios, Victor; Duursma, Remko A; Velasco, Sabrina; Boer, Matthias M

    2018-06-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and associated climate change are expected to modify primary productivity across a range of ecosystems globally. Increasing aridity is predicted to reduce grassland productivity, although rising [CO 2 ] and associated increases in plant water use efficiency may partially offset the effect of drying on growth. Difficulties arise in predicting the direction and magnitude of future changes in ecosystem productivity, due to limited field experimentation investigating climate and CO 2 interactions. We use repeat near-surface digital photography to quantify the effects of water availability and experimentally manipulated elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) on understorey live foliage cover and biomass over three growing seasons in a temperate grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. We hypothesised that (i) understorey herbaceous productivity is dependent upon soil water availability, and (ii) that eCO 2 will increase productivity, with greatest stimulation occurring under conditions of low water availability. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) determined foliage cover and growth rates over the length of the growing season (August to March), with low VWC (productivity. However, eCO 2 did not increase herbaceous cover and biomass over the duration of the experiment, or mitigate the effects of low water availability on understorey growth rates and cover. Our findings suggest that projected increases in aridity in temperate woodlands are likely to lead to reduced understorey productivity, with little scope for eCO 2 to offset these changes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Su; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control

  13. Transfer equations for cesium-137 for coniferous forest understorey plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Hiersche, L.; Kammerer, L.; Krajewska, G.; Krestel, R.; Mahler, S.; Roemmelt, R.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer of cesium-137 from organic soil horizons to understorey vegetation has been studied on two coniferous tree sites. In total, 14 different plants preferably taking up their nutrients from organic soil layers were taken into account. A relatively good correlation was found to exist between the transfer factor (Bq/kg plant dry wt./Bq/kg O-horizons dry wt.) for dicotyledons (r=0.51) and berry plants (r=0.63), but there was no correlation for monocotyledons (r= 0 .15). The correlations could not be improved by additionally taking potassium in plant and soil into account. These results are discussed in respect to different parameters influencing the amount of cesium-137 uptake, including plants supported by mycorrhizal fungi

  14. Primary forest dynamics in lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, and the role of the understorey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbery, D M; Kennedy, D N; Petol, G H; Madani, L; Ridsdale, C E

    1999-11-29

    Changes in species composition in two 4-ha plots of lowland dipterocarp rainforest at Danum, Sabah, were measured over ten years (1986-1996) for trees > or = 10 cm girth at breast height (gbh). Each included a lower-slope to ridge gradient. The period lay between two drought events of moderate intensity but the forest showed no large lasting responses, suggesting that its species were well adapted to this regime. Mortality and recruitment rates were not unusual in global or regional comparisons. The forest continued to aggrade from its relatively (for Sabah) low basal area in 1986 and, together with the very open upper canopy structure and an abundance of lianas, this suggests a forest in a late stage of recovery from a major disturbance, yet one continually affected by smaller recent setbacks. Mortality and recruitment rates were not related to population size in 1986, but across subplots recruitment was positively correlated with the density and basal area of small trees (10-change in mortality with increasing gbh: in the former it increased, in the latter it decreased. Forest processes are centred on this understorey quasi-stratum. The two replicate plots showed a high correspondence in the mortality, recruitment, population changes and growth rates of small trees for the 49 most abundant species in common to both. Overstorey species had higher rgrs than understorey ones, but both showed considerable ranges in mortality and recruitment rates. The supposed trade-off in traits, viz slower rgr, shade tolerance and lower population turnover in the understorey group versus faster potential growth rate, high light responsiveness and high turnover in the overstorey group, was only partly met, as some understorey species were also very dynamic. The forest at Danum, under such a disturbance-recovery regime, can be viewed as having a dynamic equilibrium in functional and structural terms. A second trade-off in shade-tolerance versus drought-tolerance is suggested for

  15. HERBE final safety report; HERBE Finalni sigurnosni izvestaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material.

  16. Role of herbs in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Tewari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and herbs have attracted a lot of attention since the past few years. The market for drugs extracted from these plants and made from herbal extracts has seen a significant rise. India is known for its rich stock of medicinal plants. Among many, some herbs are rich in phytochemical content. These phytochemicals are useful in generating phytomedicines which have effects on the human body. In the field of endodontics, phytomedicines are a boon. They have been popularly used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedatives, and antibiotics. They are most significantly used as endodontic irrigants. Phytotherapy has been a grand entrant in the drug market. The reason why herbal extracts have the potential to be highly popular is due to the side effects of synthetic medicines which alter microbiota.

  17. Experimental restoration of coppice-with-standards: Response of understorey vegetation from the conservation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vild, Ondřej; Roleček, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Kopecký, Martin; Utinek, Dušan

    2013-12-15

    A substantial part of European lowland woodlands was managed as coppices or wood pastures for millennia. However, traditional management forms were almost completely abandoned in Central Europe by the middle of the 20th century. Combined with the effects of nitrogen deposition and herbivore pressure, shifts in management resulted in biodiversity loss affecting particularly light-demanding oligotrophic plant species. Experimental thinning was applied in a former oak coppice-with-standards in an attempt to restore vanishing understorey plant communities. Two levels of thinning intensity and zero management as control were used on 90 plots. Ten years after the treatment, significant changes in species composition and diversity were observed in heavily thinned plots, while moderate thinning had mostly insignificant effects. Light-demanding oligotrophic species significantly increased, indicating positive consequences of restoration. However, heavy thinning also brought about the expansion of native ruderal species. Alien species remained unchanged. We conclude that the restoration of coppice-with-standards can be an efficient tool to support vanishing light-demanding woodland species. Combined with biodiversity benefits, the increasing demand for biofuel may contribute to the renaissance of traditional management forms in forestry.

  18. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  19. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  20. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  1. Effects of high-frequency understorey fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Massad, Tara J.; Brando, Paulo M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic understorey fires affect large areas of tropical forest, yet their effects on woody plant regeneration post-fire remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of repeated experimental fires on woody stem (less than 1 cm at base) mortality, recruitment, species diversity, community similarity and regeneration mode (seed versus sprout) in Mato Grosso, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, forest plots (50 ha) were burned twice (B2) or five times (B5), and compared with an unburned control (B0). Stem density recovered within a year after the first burn (initial density: 12.4–13.2 stems m−2), but after 6 years, increased mortality and decreased regeneration—primarily of seedlings—led to a 63 per cent and 85 per cent reduction in stem density in B2 and B5, respectively. Seedlings and sprouts across plots in 2010 displayed remarkable community similarity owing to shared abundant species. Although the dominant surviving species were similar across plots, a major increase in sprouting occurred—almost three- and fourfold greater in B2 and B5 than in B0. In B5, 29 species disappeared and were replaced by 11 new species often present along fragmented forest edges. By 2010, the annual burn regime created substantial divergence between the seedling community and the initial adult tree community (greater than or equal to 20 cm dbh). Increased droughts and continued anthropogenic ignitions associated with frontier land uses may promote high-frequency fire regimes that may substantially alter regeneration and therefore successional processes. PMID:23610167

  2. Feeding resource partitioning between two understorey insectivorous birds in a fragment of Neotropical cloud forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Manhães

    Full Text Available Abstract The food habits and niche overlap based on diet composition and prey size of two species of understorey insectivorous birds were investigated in an area of montane rain forest in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. A total of 43 birds were captured: 33 individuals of Conopophaga lineata (Conopophagidae with 13 recaptures, and 10 individuals of Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Parulidae with 12 recaptures, from which were obtained respectively 33 and 10 fecal samples. Fragments of 16 groups of arthropods, plus insect eggs, were identified in these samples. Conopophaga lineata predominantly consumed Formicidae (32% and Isoptera (23.6%. However, the index of alimentary importance (AI of Isoptera (3.53 was lower than other groups such as Formicidae (AI = 61.88, Coleoptera (AI = 16.17, insect larvae (AI = 6.95 and Araneae (AI = 6.6. Myiothlypis leucoblephara predominantly consumed Formicidae (28.2% and Coleoptera (24.4%, although Coleoptera and Hymenoptera non-Formicidae had the highest values of AI (38.71 and 22.98 respectively. Differences in the proportions of the types of arthropods consumed by birds were not enough to reveal their separation into feeding niches (overlap = 0.618, p observed ≤ expected = 0.934, whereas differences in the use of resources was mainly due to the size of the prey (p<0.001, where C lineata, the species with the highest body mass (p<0.001 consumed larger prey. It is plausible that prey size is an axis of niche dimension that allows the coexistence of these species.

  3. Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9...... dispersal and a strong literature record as ancient-forest species, were still concentrated in areas that were high forest in 1805. Among the younger forests, there were clear floristic differences between those on reclaimed bogs and those not. Apparently remnant populations of wet-soil plants were still...

  4. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  5. HERBE- Analysis of test operation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M. et.al.

    1991-01-01

    This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding

  6. Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

    2012-02-15

    The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

  7. An integrated analysis of the effects of past land use on forest herb colonization at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, K.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Biesbrouck, B.; Hermy, M.

    2003-01-01

    A framework that summarizes the direct and indirect effects of past land use on forest herb recolonization is proposed, and used to analyse the colonization patterns of forest understorey herbaceous species in a 360-ha mixed forest, grassland and arable landscape in the Dijle river valley (central Belgium).Fine-scale distribution maps were constructed for 14 species. The species were mapped in 15 946 forest plots and outside forests (along parcel margins) in 5188 plots. Forest stands varied in age between 1 and more than 224 years. Detailed land-use history data were combined with the species distribution maps to identify species-specific colonization sources and to calculate colonization distances.The six most frequent species were selected for more detailed statistical analysis.Logistic regression models indicated that species frequency in forest parcels was a function of secondary forest age, distance from the nearest colonization source and their interaction. Similar age and distance effects were found within hedgerows.In 199 forest stands, data about soils, canopy structure and the cover of competitive species were collected. The relative importance of habitat quality and spatio-temporal isolation for the colonization of the forest herb species was quantified using structural equation modelling (SEM), within the framework proposed for the effects of past land use.The results of the SEM indicate that, except for the better colonizing species, the measured habitat quality variables are of minor importance in explaining colonization patterns, compared with the combination of secondary forest age and distance from colonization sources.Our results suggest the existence of a two-stage colonization process in which diaspore availability determines the initial pattern, which is affected by environmental sorting at later stages.

  8. [Brief introduction of geo-authentic herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2013-05-01

    The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs.

  9. Report on analysis of HERBE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this report is the choice of HERBE system configuration and detailed analysis of neutronic characteristics of the chosen configuration. The system is planned to be built at the RB reactor. Neutronic parameters were calculated by computer code VESNA based on transmission probability method using 44 group nuclear data for 28 nuclides. In the first phase, it has been proposed to achieve HERBE system by using fuel elements existing at the RB reactor. It is suggested to build new hybrid system in the RB reactor using new fuel elements that would be produced

  10. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [de

  11. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  12. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  13. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research: Advanced Search ... either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; ... African Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of ...

  14. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ziqian; Yang Xizhang; Shen Junjie; Wang Shudong; Zheng Xiaogang; Cao Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

  15. HERBE- Analysis of test operation results; HERBE - Analiza rezultata probnog rada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M et al [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1991-01-15

    This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding.

  16. Using of the herb in space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The astronaut must do much work in a short time. The astronaut is exposed to much stress. For examples; Break of the hormone balance, Inappetence, Sleep shortage. Therefore the role that the meal serves as becomes big. It greatly participates in not only the health maintenance but also the mental health to consume a meal. Most of space foods are freeze dry, and the mineral is abundant, but it is necessary for the vitamins to add it particularly. When I think about it, the cultivation of the fresh vegetables with the spaceship is necessary. The Asian project team suggested cultivation of the herb in the space. The herbs were sweet basil, Dukung Abak, Hempedu Bumi and Chinese holly basil. Each herb has a fragrance ingredient. The fragrance ingredient stimulates human sense of smell. The fragrance ingredient increases an appetite. The good fragrance derives a good sleep. I can feel passage of time by observing a plant being brought up. It helps mental health to bring up a plant. We try that we bring up herb under a condition of the space. Because an experiment on the ground was over, we report it. The sweet basil which a germination rate has good is the first candidate when we think about temperature and light quantity in the space. Three kinds of other herbs are slow-growing and germination-rate is lower than sweet basil. We think that probably we will send a sweet basil to the spaceship in space. After a sweet basil grew up in a spaceship, we analyze a fragrance ingredient. We will cook the sweeter basil and want to eat.

  17. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-05-01

    A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components.

  18. Isometric scaling of above- and below-ground biomass at the individual and community levels in the understorey of a sub-tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dongliang; Zhong, Quanlin; Niklas, Karl J; Ma, Yuzhu; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-02-01

    Empirical studies and allometric partitioning (AP) theory indicate that plant above-ground biomass (MA) scales, on average, one-to-one (isometrically) with below-ground biomass (MR) at the level of individual trees and at the level of entire forest communities. However, the ability of the AP theory to predict the biomass allocation patterns of understorey plants has not been established because most previous empirical tests have focused on canopy tree species or very large shrubs. In order to test the AP theory further, 1586 understorey sub-tropical forest plants from 30 sites in south-east China were harvested and examined. The numerical values of the scaling exponents and normalization constants (i.e. slopes and y-intercepts, respectively) of log-log linear MA vs. MR relationships were determined for all individual plants, for each site, across the entire data set, and for data sorted into a total of 19 sub-sets of forest types and successional stages. Similar comparisons of MA/MR were also made. The data revealed that the mean MA/MR of understorey plants was 2·44 and 1·57 across all 1586 plants and for all communities, respectively, and MA scaled nearly isometrically with respect to MR, with scaling exponents of 1·01 for all individual plants and 0·99 for all communities. The scaling exponents did not differ significantly among different forest types or successional stages, but the normalization constants did, and were positively correlated with MA/MR and negatively correlated with scaling exponents across all 1586 plants. The results support the AP theory's prediction that MA scales nearly one-to-one with MR (i.e. MA ∝ MR (≈1·0)) and that plant biomass partitioning for individual plants and at the community level share a strikingly similar pattern, at least for the understorey plants examined in this study. Furthermore, variation in environmental conditions appears to affect the numerical values of normalization constants, but not the scaling exponents

  19. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beikang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John’s wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I, three were estimated as probable (level II, and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III and doubtful (level IV, respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  1. Herbs drying using a heat pump dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Metwally, M.N.; Helali, A.B.; Shedid, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at El Mattaria, Helwan University, P.O. Box 11718, Masaken El-Helmia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    In the present work, a heat pump assisted dryer is designed and constructed to investigate the drying characteristics of various herbs experimentally. R134a is used as a working fluid in the heat pump circuit during the experimental work. Experiments have been conducted on Jew's mallow, spearmint and parsley. The effects of herb size, stem presence, surface load, drying air temperature and air velocity on the drying characteristics of Jew's mallow have been predicted. Experimental results show that a high surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2} yields the smallest drying rate, while the drying air with temperature of 55{sup o}C and velocity of 2.7m/s achieves the largest drying rate. A maximum dryer productivity of about 5.4kg/m{sup 2}h is obtained at the air temperature of 55{sup o}C, air velocity of 2.7m/s and dryer surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2}. It was found that small size herbs without stem need low specific energy consumption and low drying time. Comparison of the drying characteristics of different herbs revealed that parsley requires the lowest specific energy consumption (3684kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) followed by spearmint (3982kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) and Jew's mallow (4029kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}). Finally, dryer productivity has been correlated in terms of surface load, drying air velocity and drying air temperature. (author)

  2. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-06-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs for the Treatment of Hyperuricemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chinese medicinal herbs may be useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia, but there has been no systematic assessment of their efficacy and safety. Objectives. To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Methods. Six electronic databases were searched from their inception to December 2015. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs were included. Cochrane criteria were applied to assess the risk of bias. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5.2. Results. Eleven RCTs with 838 patients were included. There was no significant difference in serum uric acid between Chinese medicinal herbs and traditional Western medicine (SME: 0.19, 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.43; p=0.10. In terms of overall efficacy, the Chinese medicinal herbs were significantly superior to Western medicine (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17; p=0.0007. The Chinese medicinal herbs were better than Western medicine in reducing the adverse reactions (RR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.62; p=0.001. And all these funnel plots showed unlikelihood of publishing bias. Conclusions. The results indicate that Chinese medicinal herbs may have greater overall efficacy with fewer adverse drug reactions, although the evidence is weak owing to the low methodological quality and the small number of the included trials.

  5. Identification of gamma-irradiated Chinese herbs by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bai; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun; Jilin Medical College, Jilin; WenYue Jiang; Zhongying Liu; He Lin; Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun; Zhiqiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) to differentiate irradiated Chinese medicinal herbs from non-irradiated was investigated. Thirty different dried Chinese herbs were tested, including root, flower, ramulus, rhizome, cortex, and whole plant samples. Irradiation of Chinese herbs was associated with strong TL peaks at ∼150-250 deg C, while TL curves of non-irradiated herbs had very low intensities above 250 deg C, which was also confirmed by the TL ratio (non-irradiated, TL 1 /TL 2 1 /TL 2 > 0.1) except for sterculia lychnophora, semen cassia, flos inulae, and anemone root. TL ratios of some herbs indicated irradiation (TL 1 /TL 2 > 0.1) even if the irradiated components were as low as 0.1 %. Thus we demonstrated that TL analysis had excellent sensitivity and reliability for the identification of irradiated Chinese herbs. (author)

  6. Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

    2010-09-13

    Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m(-2) dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation.

  7. Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Hauri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m(-2 dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading. The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation.

  8. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of

  9. Transpiration and stomatal conductance in a young secondary tropical montane forest: contrasts between native trees and invasive understorey shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Chandra Prasad; Bruijnzeel, L Adrian; Lubczynski, Maciek W; Zwartendijk, Bob W; Odongo, Vincent Omondi; Ravelona, Maafaka; van Meerveld, H J Ilja

    2018-04-21

    It has been suggested that vigorous secondary tropical forests can have very high transpiration rates, but sap flow and stomatal conductance dynamics of trees and shrubs in these forests are understudied. In an effort to address this knowledge gap, sap flow (thermal dissipation method, 12 trees) and stomatal conductance (porometry, six trees) were measured for young (5-7 years) Psiadia altissima (DC.) Drake trees, a widely occurring species dominating young regrowth following abandonment of swidden agriculture in upland eastern Madagascar. In addition, stomatal conductance (gs) was determined for three individuals of two locally common invasive shrubs (Lantana camara L. and Rubus moluccanus L.) during three periods with contrasting soil moisture conditions. Values of gs for the three investigated species were significantly higher and more sensitive to climatic conditions during the wet period compared with the dry period. Further, gs of the understorey shrubs was much more sensitive to soil moisture content than that of the trees. Tree transpiration rates (Ec) were relatively stable during the dry season and were only affected somewhat by soil water content at the end of the dry season, suggesting the trees had continued access to soil water despite drying out of the topsoil. The Ec exhibited a plateau-shaped relation with vapour pressure deficit (VPD), which was attributed to stomatal closure at high VPD. Vapour pressure deficit was the major driver of variation in Ec, during both the wet and the dry season. Overall water use of the trees was modest, possibly reflecting low site fertility after three swidden cultivation cycles. The observed contrast in gs response to soil water and climatic conditions for the trees and shrubs underscores the need to take root distributions into account when modelling transpiration from regenerating tropical forests.

  10. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Bowker, Matthew A; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2011-11-20

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of

  11. Micropropagation of Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Shivanee; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    For conservation and genetic transformation, a successful in vitro micropropagation protocol for Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb has been established for the first time. MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/L) and BA (5 mg/L) induced 100 % shoot regeneration with an average of 41.4 shoots of 8.4 cm per culture. Excised in vitro shoots when transferred to MS + IBA (0.5 mg/L) produced 20 roots/shoot of 20.2 cm average length in 100 % cultures. Of the three explants, leaf, petiole and root, l...

  12. Herbs-are they safe enough? an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya; Gupta, Rajiv; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2012-01-01

    Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many compounds in common use not only have a significant effect on the body but may also interact with pharmaceuticals and also with other alternative products. Concurrent use of herbs with drugs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs leading to herb-drug interactions. Currently, there is very little information published on herb-herb or herb-drug interactions as compared to the use of herbs which is progressively growing across the world. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs. The article reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of herbal remedies including the most widely sold herbal medicinal products, like liquorice, garlic, ginger, green tea, and turmeric, etc., and reinforce the safety aspect of herbal products, which are considered to be relatively safe by common people.

  13. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  14. Use of lipid-lowering medicinal herbs during pregnancy: A systematic review on safety and dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Rouhi-Boroujeni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia is one of the important diseases in pregnancy that causes fetal abnormalities during pregnancy and after the birth. Unfortunately, the usual anti-fat drugs are associated with high morbidity in fetus and due to people's inclination towards taking herbs, it is required to identify side effects of medicinal herbs in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to present hypolipidemic herbs that would not any complications for mother and fetus. METHODS: In this review article, the major electronic databases such as EBSCO, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Cochrane, Google scholar, MEDLINE, SciVerse, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched using the key words “herbal” and “hyperlipidemia”, “herbal” and “pregnancy” matched by MeSH from their respective inceptions till September, 2016. Total of 1723 publications (145 review articles, 855 original research articles, and 723 abstracts about the effect of herbals on hyperlipidemia and 682 publications (200 abstracts, 423 original research articles, and 59 review articles about the effect of herbals in pregnancy were retrieved. At the end, a list of medicinal plants effective on hyperlipidemia alongside their effects on pregnancy was developed. Finally, the plants effective on hyperlipidemia and safe during pregnancy were determined and their dosage, complications, mechanism of action, and side effects were reported. RESULTS: A total of 110 effective herbs on hyperlipidemia were identified and complications of 95 plants in pregnancy were studied. At last, among the 55 selected plants effective on hyperlipidemia and examined for pregnancy, we reported 12 herbs with their dosage and special considerations that can be used to treat hyperlipidemia during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Some medicinal plants can be used to treat hyperlipidemia during pregnancy without any significant side effects both on mother or fetus. 

  15. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Paula M; Rela, Paulo R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical

  16. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Salvia miltiorrhiza is an economically important floral herb. However, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this herb. In this study, a representative set of germplasm of. S. miltiorrhiza populations was used to analyze genetic diversity using amplified fragment length.

  17. Erectile Dysfunction Herbs: A Natural Treatment for ED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dysfunction herbs or supplements to "increase your sexual performance." Could they work for you? Erectile dysfunction supplements and other natural ... results, generally safe Herb or supplement Does it work? Safety ... increases libido in women and helps erectile dysfunction in men. DHEA appears ...

  18. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2011-01-01

    there is limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional...

  19. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an economically important floral herb. However, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this herb. In this study, a representative set of germplasm of. S. miltiorrhiza populations was used to analyze genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  20. Assessment of metals pollution in some herbs from Kano metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of metals pollution in some herbs from Kano metropolis. M.I. Mohammed, Y Inuwa. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Herbs, metals, Kano, Nigeria. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  1. Chinese and related North American herbs: phytopharmacology and therapeutic values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Thomas S. C

    2002-01-01

    ..., most particularly Chinese herbs. Unfortunately, while there is an incredible wealth of knowledge about Chinese herbs, most of this information has been unavailable to Western society, and even the accessible information has often been in obscure sources. The famous 15th century physician Paracelsus taught that the only difference between a medi...

  2. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  3. Micropropagation of Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Shivanee; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, P S

    2013-04-01

    For conservation and genetic transformation, a successful in vitro micropropagation protocol for Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb has been established for the first time. MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/L) and BA (5 mg/L) induced 100 % shoot regeneration with an average of 41.4 shoots of 8.4 cm per culture. Excised in vitro shoots when transferred to MS + IBA (0.5 mg/L) produced 20 roots/shoot of 20.2 cm average length in 100 % cultures. Of the three explants, leaf, petiole and root, leaf displayed quickest response followed by petiole while root was the slowest. Hardening of plantlets was achieved with 82 % survival. The hardened plants were maintained in pots with garden soil under controlled (Temp. 25 ± 2 °C) conditions. RAPD exhibited genetic fidelity with 100 % monomorphism in regenerants.

  4. Medicinal herbs and phytochitodeztherapy in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskunov, Karp; Treskunova, Olga; Komarov, Boris; Goroshetchenko, Alex; Glebov, Vlad

    2003-01-01

    Application of clinical phytology in treatment of oncology diseases was limited by intensive development of chemical pharmaceuticals and surgery. The authors had set the task to develop the computer database for phytotherapy application. The database included full information on patient's clinical status (identified diseases, symptoms, syndromes) and applied phytotherapy treatment. Special attention was paid to the application of phyto preparations containing chitosan. The computer database contains information on 2335 patients. It supports reliable data on efficiency of phytotherapy in general and allows to evaluate the efficiency of some particular medicinal herbs and to develop efficient complex phyto preparations for treatment of specific diseases. The application of phytotherapy in treatment of oncology patients confirmed the positive effect on patient's quality of life. In conclusion it should be emphasized that the present situation of practical application of phytotherapy could be considered as unacceptable because of absence of necessary knowledge and practical experience in using phytotherapy in outpatient clinics, hospitals and medicinal centers.

  5. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 1: The potential medicinal value of pasture herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 Sibilla Laldi (MSc-student WUR) carried out the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’, a project of the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pastures herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms.

  6. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Yu Shenjing; Xiu Zhilong; Ren Chunsheng

    2012-01-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (σ bmax ) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  7. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activity is higher for fresh than that of frozen herbs. Lamiaceae family herbs: oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and Greek oregano (Origanum heracleoticum L. were planted and analyzed. Herb samples were extracted by hot demineralised water. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method was used for antioxidant activity assessment. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Steam distillation of essential oils was carried out via Clevenger Apparatus. The obtained essential oils were analysed by GC-MS technique. Results of tested fresh, dried and frozen herbs showed a considerable potential for quenching the free DPPH radical. Significantly higher antioxidant activity was found in dried herbs comparing to fresh and frozen, but only in case of values calculated per 100 g of the sample. However, the differences were not statistically significant after recalculation when expressed on dry matter content. There was no difference between fresh and frozen samples. The content of total phenols was significantly higher in dried than in frozen herbs in values recalculated per 100 g of sample. A strong correlation between the results of DPPH and TPC was found again only for values expressed per 100 g of the sample. Post-harvest treatment of herbs affects the composition of their essential oils. The dominant essential oil component of Greek oregano is carvacrol with a proportion of 60% or more. On the contrary

  8. Identification of dehydrated spices and herbs subjected to the irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, Dulcila Maria Lessa

    1996-01-01

    This research shows the possibility of determining through a combination of analytical methods whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated. The methods used were the following: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Viscosimetry was applied in suspensions of dehydrated and irradiated spices and herbs which had been gellified by heat. It was observed that the viscosity of the samples decreases when the radiation dose increases. It was also observed that the temperature of the gelification is linked to the viscosity. The variation of the capability of gelification of the samples in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) does not have any consequence on the viscosity. Thermoluminescence is based on the transference of electrons to an excited state by ionizing radiation with emission of light when the electrons thermally stimulated. The thermoluminescent signals of the spices can be explained by the presence of mineral grains adhering to the surface of the samples. The thermoluminescent signal increased in intensity with the amplification of the radiation dose. The study of the signal in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) showed that it weakened and decreased. Free radicals produced by irradiation of spices were analyzed by the electron spin resonance method (ESR). It was checked that increasing the radiation dose meant an intensification of the ESR signal. Within a 30 day storage time, a fading of the signal was observed. The results of this study lead us to the following conclusion: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance are methods of analysis which are proper to detect whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated, especially when these different methods were used in combination. (author)

  9. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T.; Bergman, R.; Bunzl, K.; Jaakkola, T.

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg -1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg -1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137 Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240 Pu and least for 90 Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90

  10. Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to Contribute Financially to Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Ibadan, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The earlier version of this paper had some errors.

  11. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  12. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denev, P.; Kratchanova, M.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Vašíček, Ondřej; Blazheva, D.; Nedelcheva, P.; Vojtek, L.; Hyršl, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2014), s. 359-367 ISSN 0001-527X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : herbs * polyphenols * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.153, year: 2014

  13. Do changes in grazing pressure and the degree of shrub encroachment alter the effects of individual shrubs on understorey plant communities and soil function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J

    2014-04-01

    Shrub canopies in semi-arid environments often produce positive effects on soil fertility, and on the richness and biomass of understorey plant communities. However, both positive and negative effects of shrub encroachment on plant and soil attributes have been reported at the landscape-level. The contrasting results between patch- and landscape-level effects in shrublands could be caused by differences in the degree of shrub encroachment or grazing pressure, both of which are likely to reduce the ability of individual shrubs to ameliorate their understorey environment.We examined how grazing and shrub encroachment (measured as landscape-level shrub cover) influence patch-level effects of shrubs on plant density, biomass and similarity in species composition between shrub understories and open areas, and on soil stability, nutrient cycling, and infiltration in two semi-arid Australian woodlands.Individual shrubs had consistently positive effects on all plant and soil variables (average increase of 23% for all variables). These positive patch-level effects persisted with increasing shrub cover up to our maximum of 50% cover. Heavy grazing negatively affected most of the variables studied (average decline of 11%). It also altered, for some variables, how individual shrubs affected their sub-canopy environment with increasing shrub cover. Thus for species density, biomass and soil infiltration, the positive effect of individual shrubs with increasing shrub cover diminished under heavy grazing. Our study refines predictions of the effects of woody encroachment on ecosystem structure and functioning by showing that heavy grazing, rather than differences in shrub cover, explains the contrasting effects on ecosystem structure and function between individual shrubs and those in dense aggregations. We also discuss how species-specific traits of the encroaching species, such as their height or its ability to fix N, might influence the relationship between their patch

  14. MEDICINAL HERBS USED BY HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE IN LESOTHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Chatanga, Peter; Chakane, Ntema

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal herbs whose efficacy and toxicities are not known by HIV-positive people in Lesotho is a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. This study explored some medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho and the reasons for their use. This was a cross sectional study based on a questionnaire distributed to purposively-sampled HIV-positive people in Leribe and Maseru districts of Lesotho. The participants' socio-demographic and clinical variables were summarized using frequency tables in Stata version 13 statistical software. Data variables for medicinal herbs used, frequency of use, uses by the participants and in the literature, parts of plants used and the method of preparation were also explored. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed to the participants, 389 were returned with data acceptable for analysis. Ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 75 years (Mean=43 + 11.6). Out of the 272 (69.9%) participants who conceded that they had used medicinal herbs at least once, 30 (7.7%) participants used medicinal herbs frequently while 242 (62.2 %) rarely used the herbs. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. Asteraceae was the most common plant family reportedly used by the participants. Allium sativum and Dicoma anomala , reportedly used by 21.0% and 14.3% respectively, were the most commonly used medicinal herbs in this population. In addition, boosting the immune system and treating gastrointestinal ailments, apparently cited by 32% and 28% participants respectively, were the most commonly reported reasons for using medicinal herbs. A considerable proportion (69.9%) of HIV-positive people use medicinal herbs in this population, and 7.7% use them frequently. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. HIV counselling protocols in Lesotho should emphasize the dangers of using medicinal herbs whose safety and

  15. Irradiation on spices, dried herbs and condiments preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1996-01-01

    Among food irradiation applications, radiation decontamination of spices, condiments and dried herbs has the most immediate application potential in many countries. The article is intended to provide justification for the radiation decontamination of spices, herbs and others vegetables seasonings, compared to conventional methods used today by industry, namely the technique of fumigation with ethylene oxide (ETO). The article provides also information both to industrial users and governmental officers for the necessary authorization of the process [it

  16. HERB RECOVERY IN DEGRADED CAATINGA SITES ENRICHED WITH NATIVE TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Matos Figueiredo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb recovery was evaluated in degraded Caatinga sites protected from grazing and enriched with native trees, in Patos-PB state, Brazil . Treatments were randomized according to a block design with five treatments (no tree planting –T 0 – or tree planting of three tree species in pure –T 1 = Poincianella pyramidalis , T 2 = Mimosa tenuiflora and T 3 = Cnidoscolus quercifolius – or mixed balanced stands –T 4 and five replications of squared-144-m 2 plots with 36 seedlings developing in planting holes enriched with manure and chemical fertilizers, arranged in a 2 m x 2 m grid. Data were collected from September 2008 to October 2009. After this period, natural tree regeneration was still not observed, and tree canopy covered 15 to 49% of the soil and did not affect herb growth and species composition. Initial and final herb cover were 16% and 100%, respectively. The number of dicot herbs increased from five, mainly two Sida species, to 13 species, monocots were represented by one species only (Aristida sp ., and quantity of herb forage reached 3 ton/ha (2:1, dicot:monocot. Adjacent overgrazed plots kept the initial low level of herb cover and species composition. Animal deferment during one year allowed the increase in soil cover and plant diversity in degraded Caatinga sites into which planted tree seedlings established successfully. This management practice could be implemented to avoid further environmental degradation and recover degraded areas.

  17. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

  18. An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Thermoluminescence analysis was used in an interlaboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures in the dose range used for the reduction of microbial counts. About 3 and 9 months after irradiation, 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants that had been isolated from coded samples. A total of 18 different products (6 spices, 6 herbs, and 6 spice-herb mixtures) were examined. The method gave correct identifications as irradiated or nonirradiated in 99.1% of 317 samples. Only 3 irradiated samples were not correctly identified. This result was achieved by integration of whole glow curves. By glow curve analysis, a temperature range could be determined in which differentiation between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was even better than on the basis of the total integral values

  19. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    , coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin......Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives......, and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify...

  20. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety.

  1. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution

  2. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pnettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL

  3. Kynurenic acid content in anti-rheumatic herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgrajka, Wojciech; Turska, Monika; Rajtar, Grażyna; Majdan, Maria; Parada-Turska, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines is common among people living in rural areas and increasingly popular in urbanized countries. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a metabolite of kynurenine possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and pain reliving properties. Previous data indicated that the content of KYNA in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is lower than in patients with osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting about 1% of the world's population. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the content of KYNA in 11 herbal preparations used in rheumatic diseases. The following herbs were studied: bean pericarp, birch leaf, dandelion root, elder flower, horsetail herb, nettle leaf, peppermint leaf and willow bark. An anti-rheumatic mixture of the herbs Reumatefix and Reumaflos tea were also investigated. The herbs were prepared according to producers' directions. In addition, the herbal supplement Devil's Claw containing root of Harpagophytum was used. KYNA content was measured using the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and KYNA was detected fluorometrically. KYNA was found in all studied herbal preparations. The highest content of KYNA was found in peppermint, nettle, birch leaf and the horsetail herb. The lowest content of KYNA was found in willow bark, dandelion root and in the extract from the root of Harpagophytum. These findings indicate that the use of herbal preparations containing a high level of KYNA can be considered as a supplementary measure in rheumatoid arthritis therapy, as well as in rheumatic diseases prevention.

  4. Determination of superoxide dismutase mimetic activity in common culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously determined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these herbs. SODm activity was significantly increased following (C) and (C&D) for rosemary and sage only. The impact of (C) and (C&D) on the SODm for thyme may have been influenced by its transition metal ion content. SODm activity may contribute to the herbs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities however the source and significance of this activity need to be established.

  5. PXR as a mediator of herb-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Brett C; Guan, Xiudong; Folan, M Maggie; Xie, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Medicinal herbs have been a part of human medicine for thousands of years. The herb-drug interaction is an extension of drug-drug interaction, in which the consumptions of herbs cause alterations in the metabolism of drugs the patients happen to take at the same time. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been established as one of the most important transcriptional factors that regulate the expression of phase I enzymes, phase II enzymes, and drug transporters in the xenobiotic responses. Since its initial discovery, PXR has been implicated in multiple herb-drug interactions that can lead to alterations of the drug's pharmacokinetic properties and cause fluctuating therapeutic efficacies, possibly leading to complications. Regions of the world that heavily incorporate herbalism into their primary health care and people turning to alternative medicines as a personal choice could be at risk for adverse reactions or unintended results from these interactions. This article is intended to highlight our understanding of the PXR-mediated herb-drug interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Compatibility art of traditional Chinese medicine: from the perspective of herb pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengpeng; Hu, Yangyang; Tan, Wen; Wu, Xu; Chen, Ruie; Cao, Jiliang; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2012-09-28

    Over the past decades, research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mainly focused on developing potential candidates from Chinese medicinal herbs, while the wisdom of applying these traditional herbs has not been paid as much attention as it deserves. As is well-known, multi-herb therapy is one of the most important characteristics of TCM, but the modernization drive of this conventional wisdom has faced many obstacles due to its unimaginable complexity. Herb pairs, the most fundamental and the simplest form of multi-herb formulae, are a centralized representative of Chinese herbal compatibility. In light of their simplicity and the basic characteristics of complex formulae, herb pairs are of great importance in the studies of herb compatibility. A systematic search of herb pair related research was carried out using multiple online literature databases, books and monographs published in the past 20 years. A comprehensive introduction to the compatibility of TCM, the position of herb pairs in TCM and the progresses of several famous herb pairs were provided in this review. Furthermore, the clinical study and the future research trends of herb pairs were also discussed. Herb pairs have played, and may continue to play a key role in full investigation of general herb compatibility for their indispensable position in TCM. Much more research is needed for the standardization, safety evaluation, and mechanism exploration of herb pairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensory Evaluation of Irradiated Herbs for Insect Disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongratarpon, Titima; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Pransopon, Prapon; Sutantawong; Manoon

    2006-01-01

    Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated herbs: Glyeyrrhiza glabra I. Zingiber officinale Roseoe., Cartharmus tinctorius L., Pandanus amaryllifolius Rox. b and Chrysanthemum moriifoloum Ramat. The herbs were irradiated at the doses of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 Gy (Dose rate 2.1 Gy/min), followed by storage at 30 o C, 70% RH for 7, 60 or 120 days. The nine point hedonic scale method was applied for evaluation. No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non irradiated samples in their colour, odour, flavour and overall quality after irradiation and the mean scores showed the tester s acceptance. The experiment could be summarized that the tester s accepted the irradiated herbs at the dose of 1,000 Gy with 120 days of storage after irradiation

  8. [Combining herbs with medication--risks vs. chances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nir

    2013-07-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs. This allows the marketing of many plants without a prescription requirement or professional advice. Another limitation relates to therapists, some of whom have not undergone proper training and may recommend the improper use of plants, resulting in a problematic combination with drugs in some cases. Regulation is necessary in order to better serve both the public and doctors. Regulation will define who is allowed to work with herbs and this will create a secure integration of herbs into the formal medical world.

  9. Monoterpenoids from the whole herb of Veronicastrum axillare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xue-Hong; Fang, Fan-Fu; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Wu, Yu; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Veronicastrum axillare (Sieb. et Zucc.) Yamazaki (Scrophulariaceae) embraces varieties of bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-pyresis and detoxification activity, while little is known of the phytochemical components of this medicinal plant. To isolate and identify bioactive constituents from the whole herb of V. axillare. Ethanol extract of the whole herb of V. axillare was subjected to successive column chromatography. Chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses on the basis of NMR, IR and HR-MS data. A new monoterpenoid, axillacetal A (1) and a known analogue, tarumal (2), were isolated from the whole herb of V. axillare. The structure of tarumal (2) was also revised according to our NMR data. This is the first report on the isolation and authentication of novel chemical constituents from V. axillare.

  10. Detection of Poisonous Herbs by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Li, Z.; Chen, T.; Liu, J.-J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques to distinguish poisonous and non-poisonous herbs which both have a similar appearance. Spectra of one poisonous and two non-poisonous herbs (Gelsemium elegans, Lonicera japonica Thunb, and Ficus Hirta Vahl) were obtained in the range 0.2-1.4 THz by using a THz time-domain spectroscopy system. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for feature extraction. The prediction accuracy of classification is between 97.78 to 100%. The results demonstrate an efficient and applicative method to distinguish poisonous herbs, and it may be implemented by using THz spectroscopy combined with chemometric algorithms.

  11. Study on quality control of Chinese herb medicine irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dongqing; En Lihua; Deng Wenmin

    2010-01-01

    6-8 kGy γ-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by γ-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)

  12. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary`s thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Eignung von Chemilumineszenz-, ESR-, Thermolumineszenz- und Viskositaetsmessungen als Nachweismethode fuer die Behandlung von Arzneidrogen mit ionisierenden Strahlen wurde an Anis, Baldrianwurzel, Baerentraubenblaettern, Birkenblaettern, Bockshornsamen, Cayennepfeffer, Faulbaumrinde, Fenchel, Hagebuttenschalen, Huflattichblaettern

  13. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)

  14. The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

  15. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M; Villavicencio, A L.C.H.; Brito, M S; Nahme, Ligia C; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C D

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  16. Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Scott J; Argikar, Aneesh A; Lin, Yvonne S; Nagar, Swati; Paine, Mary F

    2014-03-01

    Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that "natural" ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb-drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb-drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens.

  17. Protection of Chinese herbs against Adenine-induced chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three ...

  18. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  19. Dosimetry Characteristics of Coupled Fast-Thermal Core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Milovanovic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The 'HERBE' is new coupled fast-thermal core, designed in 1991, at the 'RB' reactor in the 'Vinca' Institute. It is used for verification of designed oriented computer codes developed in the Institute, training and sample irradiation in fast neutron field. For the last purpose a vertical experimental channel (VCH) is placed in the central axis of the fast core. Neutron spectrum in the centre of the VCR is calculated in 44 energy groups. Space distributions of two energy group neutron flux in the 'HERBE' are measured using gold foils and converted into the neutron absorbed dose (in air and tissue) using group flux-dose conversion factors. Gamma absorption doses in the air in the centre of the VCH are measured using calibrated small ionisation chamber filled with air. Determined dose rates are related to the reactor power. The first preliminary irradiations of silicon diodes (designed for production of the neutron dosemeters) in the centre of the VCH of the 'HERBE' fast core are carried out in 1994 and 1995. This paper describes calculation methods and measurement techniques applied to determination of the irradiation performance and dosimetry characteristics of the 'HERBE' system. (author)

  20. Rosemary, the beneficial chemistry of a garden herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James R

    2016-01-01

    The major natural products that are present in the garden herb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) including the mono di- and triterpenoid, flavonoid and phenolic constituents together with their biological activity as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, memory-enhancing and tumour-inhibitory agents, are reviewed.

  1. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  2. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C.D.

    2002-01-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography

  3. Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with ...

  4. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 1Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030032, China. 2Modern ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with ..... saponins that are capable of activating immune system.

  5. Medicinal herbs in Iranian traditional medicine for learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Most of the studies on TIM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Also, for some of the herbal medicine used in TIM, there are no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical ...

  6. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly ...

  7. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  8. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...

  9. Effects Of Chinese Herbs On The Hemagglutination And Adhesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese herbs' efficacy on adhesive properties of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of Chinese herbal solution on the hemagglutination and adhesion by E. coli strain were studied. E. coli C16 was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The MIC value of herbal solution for the ...

  10. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  11. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  12. Medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho | Mugomeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of medicinal herbs whose efficacy and toxicities are not known by HIV-positive people in Lesotho is a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. This study ... need to be explored. Key words: Allium sativum; Anti-retroviral treatment; Dicoma anomala; Herb-drug interaction; HIV; Medicinal herb ...

  13. Effect of essential oils against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer awareness of fresh herbs and demand has increased in recent years due to health benefits and distinct aroma in prepared food. There are specific markets for local growers, especially for organically grown herbs. Fresh herbs have been implicated in illnesses associated with Salmonella, E. co...

  14. Greater therapeutic efficacy of prednisolone plus medicinal herbs than prednisolone or medicinal herbs alone in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ta Chiu

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that treatment consisting of prednisolone plus traditional medicinal herbs can improve OLP symptoms, relieve pain, reduce recurrent severity, and increase the disease-free period. The benefits of combined therapy for OLP should be investigated by conducting a prospective randomized clinical trial in the future.

  15. Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor; Dokumentacija za dobijanje dozvole za rad sistema HERBE na reaktoru RB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M et al [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1989-10-15

    Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system.

  16. Role of antioxidants in phytomedicine with special reference to antidiabetic herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Mitra Mazumder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a severe health problem with continuously increasing rates of incidence and mortality and it may rise tremendously by 2025. This disease is characterized by elevated plasma glucose concentrations resulting from insufficient insulin and insulin resistance, or both, leading to metabolic abnormalities in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Free radicals are well known for their dual role as beneficial and toxic components, higher levels of free radicals causing damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids leads to cell death. Antioxidants are effective against free radicals by donating their own electrons. There is an increasing evidence confirmed that free radicals plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Herbs are the well known source of non toxic antioxidants. The aim of the present review is to establish the role of free radicals in pathogenesis of various diseases with special consideration to diabetes mellitus. Further more recently reported herbs with antidiabetic action having antioxidant capacity is also with in the scope of this article..

  17. Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A.; Beh, C.W.; Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B.; Liow, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

  18. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  19. The industrial potential of herbs and spices - a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Katarzyna B; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used for food and medicinal purposes for centuries - the first recorded evidence of their use dates back to 1500BC and the Ebers Papyrus, which mentioned spices such as anise, mustard, saffron, cinnamon, and cassia. Now, in the 21st century, a variety of secondary compounds produced by plants are used in many fields of industry, such as food production (to improve taste, to provide vitamins and macro- and microelements, and also to inhibit food spoilage caused by foodborne bacteria), in medicine (in the treatment of various diseases; in chemoprevention and cancer therapy; as a source of natural antimicrobials for the treatment of infectious disease), and in pharmacology and cosmetology (in dietary supplements, and as a result of the demand for preservative-free cosmetics, to reduce the risk of methylparaben allergies). The aim of this review is to present the major active compounds in herbs and spices and explore their potential applications in industry.

  20. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  1. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  2. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was...

  3. Tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stela Bezerra da Silva

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho pretende-se contribuir para a divulgação dos tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC. Um levantamento realizado no acervo do Herbário revelou o registro de dez tipos. Sete deles pertencentes à família Leguminosae distribuídas entre as subfamilias Caesalpinioideae: Peltogyne crenulata, Sentia dardanoi, Moldenhawera acuminata, Chamaecrista duckeana, Papilionoideae: Aeschynomene monteiroi, Cranocarpus gracilis e Mimosoideae: Mimosa niomarlei; dois, pertencentes à família Erythroxylaceae. As espécies Erythroxylum tianguanum e Erythroxylum bezerrae e um à família Euphorbiaceae: Dalechampia fernandesii recentemente descrita por G. Webster. Os tipos são apresentados na seqüência das indicações: nome das famílias, seguido do epíteto específico, habitat, com a transferência de todas as informações mencionadas na ficha de exsicata do material, bem como, a fotografia correspondente. Citam-se também alguns aspectos característicos das espécies, para melhor visualização dos detalhes fotográficos.The present paper repasts the type specimens in the Herbário Prisco Bezerra (University of Ceará. The Herbário has ten type, of which seven are Leguminosae: Peltoqyne crenulata, Senna dardanoi, Moldenhawera acuminata Chamaecrista duckeana, Aeschynomene monteiroi, Cranocarpus gracilis, Mimosa niomarlei, two the Erythroxylaceae: Erythroxylum tianquanum and Erythroxylum bezerrae and one Euphorbiaceae: Dalechampia fernandesii. Additional informations for these exsicata is presented.

  4. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum.

  5. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  6. Emerging Trends in Microwave Processing of Spices and Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahath Kubra, Ismail; Kumar, Devender; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu

    2016-10-02

    Today, spices are integral part of our food as they provide sensory attributes such as aroma, color, flavour and taste to food. Further their antimicrobial, antioxidant, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties are also well known. Since spices are seasonal so their availability can be extended year round by adopting different preservation techniques. Drying and extraction are most important methods for preservation and value addition to spices. There are different techniques for drying of spices with their own advantages and limitations. A novel, non-conventional technique for drying of spices is use of microwave radiation. This technique proved to be very rapid, and also provide a good quality product. Similarly, there are a number of non-conventional extraction methods in use that are all, in principle, solid-liquid extractions but which introduce some form of additional energy to the process in order to facilitate the transfer of analytes from sample to solvent. This paper reviews latest advances in the use of microwave energy for drying of spices and herbs. Also, the review describes the potential application of microwave energy for extraction of essential oil/bioactive components from spices and herbs and the advantages of microwave-assisted process over the other extraction processes generally employed for extraction. It also showcases some recent research results on microwave drying/extraction from spices and herbs.

  7. Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Shihab, A.; Farrag, H.A.; El-Sayed, Z.G.; Mahmoud, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D 15 v alue of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D 10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

  8. Photoluminescence study of carbon dots from ginger and galangal herbs using microwave technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnaeni; Rahmawati, I.; Intan, R.; Zakaria, M.

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dots are new type of fluorescent nanoparticle that can be synthesis easily from natural sources. We have synthesized carbon dots from ginger and galangal herbs using microwave technique and studied their optical properties. We synthesized colloidal carbon dots in water solvent by varying microwave processing time. UV-Vis absorbance, photoluminescence, time-resolved photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscope were utilized to study properties of carbon dots. We found that microwave processing time significantly affect optical properties of synthesized carbon dots. UV-Vis absorbance spectra and time-resolved photoluminescence results show that luminescent of carbon dots is dominated by recombination process from n-π* surface energy level. With further development, these carbon dots are potential for several applications.

  9. Consumer acceptance of model soup system with varying levels of herbs and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-10-01

    Although herbs have been reported as one of the most common saltiness enhancers, few studies have focused on the effect of herbs on reducing added sodium as well as the impact of herbs on consumers' overall liking of foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of varying levels of herbs on reducing added sodium and consumers' overall liking of soups and identify the impact of salt levels on consumers' overall liking of soups. Overall liking of freshly prepared and retorted canned soups with varying levels of herbs was evaluated before and after adding salt by consumers ad libitum until the saltiness of the soup was just about right for them. The results of the study demonstrated that when the perceived herb flavor increased, the amount of salt consumers added to fresh soups decreased (P ≤ 0.006); however, consumers' overall liking decreased (P ≤ 0.013) as well for the highest level of herb tested in the study. Although overall liking of all canned soups was not significantly decreased by herbs, the amount of salt consumers added was also not significantly decreased when herbs were used. Overall liking of all soups significantly increased after more salt was added (P ≤ 0.001), which indicates that salt level was a dominant factor in affecting consumers' overall liking of soups with varying levels of herbs. These findings imply the role of herbs in decreasing salt intake, and the adequate amount of herbs to be added in soup systems. It is challenging for the food industry to reduce sodium in foods without fully understanding the impact of sodium reduction on sensory properties of foods. Herbs are recommended to use in reducing sodium; however, little has been reported regarding the effect of herbs on sodium reduction and how herbs influence consumers’ acceptance of foods. This study provides findings that herbs may aid in decreasing the amount of salt consumers need to add for freshly prepared soups. It was also found that high

  10. Chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kovalev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic fraction (LF of known medicinal plants are still less studied, despite the fact that they have a unique group of biological active compounds (BAC. The main active substances of LF are chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and other bioactive substances that exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological action. In this regard, a comprehensive study of advanced plant of flora of Ukraine to increase the assortments of herbal remedies is an urgent problem. The aim of this work was to obtain and chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs. The alfalfa herb harvested throughout the growing season in Kharkov and Poltava regions in 2011-2012. Lipophilic fraction was obtained by extraction with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus. Detection of carotenoids and chlorophylls by thin layer chromatography (TLC on plates of "Silufol" in one-dimensional and two-dimensional variants, the solvent system were: hexane: acetone (6:2 - I way, hexane-acetone (6:4 - II way. Assay of the lipophilic fraction by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DF-spectroscopy was used for the analysis of mixtures containing fluorescent components. 3DF-spectres, that have the appearance of the surface, are characterized by a functions I = f (λexc, λem, recorded in the ultraviolet and visible ranges. Assay of the carotenoids and chlorophylls carried out by spectrophotometry. The reference solution was chloroform. Assay of fatty acids was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC of methyl esters of fatty acids via chromatograph with flame ionization detector "Shimadzu GC-14B". 20.0 g crushed sickle alfalfa herbs were exhaustively extracted with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus for produce a lipophilic fractions. The chloroform extract was evaporated in order to remove the extractant. The percentage of lipophilic fraction in the herbs was 7.5%. Quantity of the carotenoids and chlorophylls

  11. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Scipioni,Griselda Patricia; Ferreyra,Darío Jorge; Schmalko,Miguel Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of ...

  12. TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH HERBS STORAGE USING HYDROGEL AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia PRISS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a stable consumer demand for fresh culinary herbs. Also, the greenery contains a large number of valuable phytonutrients. Despite high efficiency and increasing annual production of fresh herbs, the problem of preserving their quality in the post-harvest period remains unresolved. Because of the high specific surface area of evaporation, in the green crops droop quickly, they lose their marketable quality, and, as a result, the level of profitability of greenery production in general is being reduced. It is necessary to use new effective approaches to leafy greens storage in order to reduce product losses during transportation and storage. For example, agrarian hydrogel can be used for storage of greenery. Hydrogel is an acrylic potassium polymer that is non-toxic and has a high environmental standard. The hydrogel granules can absorb up to 250 times more moisture than their weight. We propose the following procedure as the method of greenery preservation: the greens are packed in bundles and put in sticks in polyethylene bags with a fastener, pre-filled with hydrogel solutions. The storage temperature is maintained optimally for each species of fresh herbs, the relative humidity is 95 ± 3%. Usage of the proposed method allows obtaining environment-friendly products, preserving their high biological value and increasing the shelf life. The accumulation of peroxide products, which cause physiological disorders, is inhibited as the result of such storage. The use of hydrogel reduces the natural loss of mass by 10% as compared with the control. Duration of greenery storage increases by 30 days.

  13. [Thought on several problems of clinical revaluation of post-marketing herb research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2010-06-01

    The revaluation of post-marketing herb is a complex research work, which concerns widely content and difficult to put it into practice. The starting of our country's revaluation post-marketing herb was comparatively late. It should profect it both in laws and regulations mechanism as well as technological specification. This article is try to focus on some attention problems in revaluation of postmarketing herb process. Such as the laws and regulations demand, the basement and the subject of revaluation of post-marketing herb.

  14. Detection of irradiated food: Thermoluminescence analysis of spices, herbs, and spice-and-herb products. Thermolumineszenz-Analyse an Gewuerzen, Kraeutern und Gewuerz- und Kraeutermischungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G A [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Helle, N [Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Boegl, K W

    1993-09-01

    About 3 and 9 months after irradiation 14 laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations which were isolated from different coded spice-and-herb products. In both study periods 99% of the 317 samples (total number) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated on the basis of normalized TL intensities. Only three irradiated samples were not identified as irradiated. The results show that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored, and that the method is suitable for routine analysis in food control laboratories. (orig.)

  15. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Phillips, Russell S

    2003-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy and safety of herbal therapies and vitamin/mineral supplements for glucose control in patients with diabetes. We conducted an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Cochrane Library Database, and HealthSTAR, from database inception to May 2002, in addition to performing hand searches and consulting with experts in the field. Available clinical studies published in the English language that used human participants and examined glycemic control were included. Data were extracted in a standardized manner, and two independent investigators assessed methodological quality of randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. A total of 108 trials examining 36 herbs (single or in combination) and 9 vitamin/mineral supplements, involving 4,565 patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 58 controlled clinical trials involving individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (42 randomized and 16 nonrandomized trials). Most studies involved patients with type 2 diabetes. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies per supplement precluded formal meta-analyses. Of these 58 trials, the direction of the evidence for improved glucose control was positive in 76% (44 of 58). Very few adverse effects were reported. There is still insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of individual herbs and supplements for diabetes; however, they appear to be generally safe. The available data suggest that several supplements may warrant further study. The best evidence for efficacy from adequately designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available for Coccinia indica and American ginseng. Chromium has been the most widely studied supplement. Other supplements with positive preliminary results include Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal.

  16. Systems Biology of Meridians, Acupoints, and Chinese Herbs in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies.

  17. Accelerated healing by composites containing herb epimedium for osteoinductive regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Tian, X F; Wu, S Y; Meng, X C; Wen, G W

    2014-01-01

    Porous composites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA), herb epimedium (EP), and chitosan (CS) were used to improve the repair of rabbit bone defects. The in vivo implantation of the HA/CS-EP showed that homogeneous bone formation occurred after 12 weeks' implantation and possessed good osteogenesis. The osteogenic process of the HA/CS-EP group was different from that of the HA/CS group. Direct bone formation of osteoblasts with HA/CS-EP as the matrix could be observed. Compared with the group filled with HA/CS, the group filled with HA/CS-EP showed significant increases in the number of osteoblasts and the bone formation area, and the areas of new bone formation in the HA/CS-EP group after 4 or 12 weeks' implantation reached 33% and 87%, respectively. The novel repair system of HA/CS-EP can induce bone formation, increase osteoblast quantity and improve osteogenesis, for EP can significantly promote the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts in the early stage and accelerate bone remodeling in the later stage. Composites containing EP could be a promising material with multifunctions of osteoinduction, osteoconduction and medication for bone repair, and herb medicine EP could be used as an osteoinduction material for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  18. Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

  19. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.: noxious weed or powerful medical herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in at least 37 countries and in at least 21 crops (cotton, maize, vineyards, orchards, etc.. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and grows on a wide variety of soil types. The management of T. terrestris can be achieved by herbicide application, mechanical (hand pulling, hoeing, mulching and biological control methods. Beside its invasive potential as a noxious and troublesome weed, T. terrestris is considered highly useful herb which is used for various purposes in folk and modern medicine and sport, as well.

  20. Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelapattranuruk, Paveena

    1999-01-01

    The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

  1. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ► Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ► The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  2. The effect of interspecific variation in photosynthetic plasticity on 4-year growth rate and 8-year survival of understorey tree seedlings in response to gap formations in a cool-temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Hiura, Tsutom; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2017-08-01

    Gap formation increases the light intensity in the forest understorey. The growth responses of seedlings to the increase in light availability show interspecific variation, which is considered to promote biodiversity in forests. At the leaf level, some species increase their photosynthetic capacity in response to gap formation, whereas others do not. Here we address the question of whether the interspecific difference in the photosynthetic response results in the interspecific variation in the growth response. If so, the interspecific difference in photosynthetic response would also contribute to species coexistence in forests. We also address the further relevant question of why some species do not increase their photosynthetic capacity. We assumed that some cost of photosynthetic plasticity may constrain acquisition of the plasticity in some species, and hypothesized that species with larger photosynthetic plasticity exhibit better growth after gap formation and lower survivorship in the shade understorey of a cool-temperate deciduous forest. We created gaps by felling canopy trees and studied the relationship between the photosynthetic response and the subsequent growth rate of seedlings. Naturally growing seedlings of six deciduous woody species were used and their mortality was examined for 8 years. The light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax) and the relative growth rate (RGR) of the seedlings of all study species increased at gap plots. The extent of these increases varied among the species. The stimulation of RGR over 4 years after gap formation was strongly correlated with change in photosynthetic capacity of newly expanded leaves. The increase in RGR and Pmax correlated with the 8-year mortality at control plots. These results suggest a trade-off between photosynthetic plasticity and the understorey shade tolerance. Gap-demanding species may acquire photosynthetic plasticity, sacrificing shade tolerances, whereas gap-independent species may acquire

  3. HERBE- Report on test operation from 15 Dec 1989 to 15 May 1990; HERBE - Izvestaj o probnom radu u periodu 15.XII 1989. - 15.V 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M et al [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1990-06-15

    This report describes the activities preformed during previous 6 months performed on the HERBE system at the RB reactor in order to fulfill the requirements of the safety Committee of the Institute with the aim to improve the operation safety and decrease of the total reactivity input during maximum hypothetical accident on the HERBE N system. The objective was to increase the possibility of RB reactor safety system timely and adequate response to the estimated accident.

  4. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewer

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Despite of this perception, a number of herbs have been reported to have ... The practice is also common across African and Asian countries. ... Health surveys in Bushenyi district in Uganda revealed that over. 80% of women .... use of herbs is likely to be affected by culture. In a study ...

  5. The inhibitory activity of the extracts of popular medicinal herbs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major clinical risks of such concomitant herb-drug use is pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction (HDI). ... (HLM) to monitor the phenacetin O-deethylation, diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation and testosterone 6 β-hydroxylation as respective probe reactions for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 ...

  6. HerDing: herb recommendation system to treat diseases using genes and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjun; Choi, Chan-Hun; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Seon-Jong; Na, Chang-Su; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, herbs have been researched for new drug candidates because they have a long empirical history of treating diseases and are relatively free from side effects. Studies to scientifically prove the medical efficacy of herbs for target diseases often spend a considerable amount of time and effort in choosing candidate herbs and in performing experiments to measure changes of marker genes when treating herbs. A computational approach to recommend herbs for treating diseases might be helpful to promote efficiency in the early stage of such studies. Although several databases related to traditional Chinese medicine have been already developed, there is no specialized Web tool yet recommending herbs to treat diseases based on disease-related genes. Therefore, we developed a novel search engine, HerDing, focused on retrieving candidate herb-related information with user search terms (a list of genes, a disease name, a chemical name or an herb name). HerDing was built by integrating public databases and by applying a text-mining method. The HerDing website is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. Database URL: http://combio.gist.ac.kr/herding. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. The Classification of Sri Lankan Medicinal Herbs: An Extensive Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduranga Y. Waisundara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups — ‘heating’ and ‘cooling’, based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the ‘cooling’ herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs — nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The ‘heating’ herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the ‘cooling’ herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the ‘cooling’ herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.

  8. Bioactive Compounds in Some Culinary Aromatic Herbs and Their Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Gonçalves, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Culinary herbs are herbaceous (leafy) plants that add flavour and colour to all types of meals. There is a wide variety of herbs that are used for culinary purposes worldwide, which are also recognized for their beneficial health effects, and thus have also been used in folk medicine. Besides their nutritional value herbs are rich in many phytochemical components with bioactive effects, thus improving human health. The aim of the present work was to make a general overview of some of these herbs, including their gastronomic usage, their chemical composition in bioactive components and their reported health effects. This work showed that the health effects are very diverse and differ according to the herb in question. However, some of the most frequently citted biological activities include antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects.

  9. Coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE', as the benchmark experiment at the RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    2003-10-01

    Validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP TM against measured criticality data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE. System at the RB research reactor is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of controlled flooding of the neutron converter zone by heavy water. Earlier calculations of these criticality parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using 2D geometry model are also compared to new calculations carried out by the MCNP code in 3D geometry, applying new detailed 3D model of the HEU fuel slug, developed recently. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are obtained and confirmed that HERBE core could be used as a criticality benchmark for coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

  10. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Chang Lai, Sheng-Pin

    2002-01-01

    For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 10 4 to 10 -3 μg/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

  12. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Różańska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Nargesh Khatun; Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-07-31

    The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents had low to moderate familiarity with consumption of medicinal herbs. However, about half of the respondents (47.5%) showed a high level of acceptance of medicinal herbs. Herbs like spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Damask rose (Rosa × damascena Herrm.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] had the highest consumption rate among the majority (over 75%) of citizens of Rasht. The highest rate of perceived usefulness of medicinal herbs was related to their perceived role in healing diseases. The variable of importance of use of medicinal herbs had the strongest direct effect and the variables of perceived usefulness and attitude towards use had the second and third strongest direct effect on the acceptance of medicinal herbs' use at p acceptance of medicinal herbs and may serve as a benchmark for future research and evaluation concerning the use of medicinal herbs over time. For plant producers, more effective and targeted crop development should be encouraged, whereas for retailers better marketing and delivery strategies should be sought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes of vitamin C content in celery and parsley herb after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Valšíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other primates have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C and therefore the only source is diet. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid has labile nature, it is removed or destroyed in specific degree immediately after harvest, but storage and post - harvest processing also contribute to its degradation. The aim of work was to determine the vitamin C content in the herb of selected celery and parsley varieties in dependence on chosen postharvest processing and to compare it with fresh herb. There were chosen five bulb forms varieties of celery (Apium graveolens - Makara, Ilonaa, Hegy Köi, Talar and Diamant. In case of parsley (Petroselinum crispum there were evaluated one variety of curly parsley, one variety of herb parsley - Petra, and five varieties of root parsley - Lenka, Eagle, Ginate D´Italia, Titana and Arat. Every variety was harvested in three terms, followed by vitamin C content estimation in fresh herb, after drying and after freezing. The content of vitamin C was estimated by HPLC method by the help of liquid chromatograph with UV detector. There was found the significant difference in content of vitamin C in parsley as well as in celery when comparing the fresh herb with herbs after post - harvest processes - drying (by air circulation in laboratory hall and freezing. After processing of herbs in both observed species the vitamin C content decreased, in case of freezing it was about 65% (celery and 61% (parsley, after drying about 86% (celery and 82% (parsley in comparison with fresh herb. The effect of processing played more important role in influencing of vitamin C content than variety in case of both selected species. For using of celery and parsley not only as culinary herb, but as a notable source of ascorbic acid it is the most important fresh herb intake.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP, and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG, respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency.

  16. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  17. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Albers, B.; Bergman, R.

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 , 240 Pu ) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  18. SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmboviţa County, and Secuieni, Neamţ County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

  19. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  20. Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel F

    2008-05-08

    People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies.

  1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  2. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  3. Development of an Automatic Dispensing System for Traditional Chinese Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ying Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gathering of ingredients for decoctions of traditional Chinese herbs still relies on manual dispensation, due to the irregular shape of many items and inconsistencies in weights. In this study, we developed an automatic dispensing system for Chinese herbal decoctions with the aim of reducing manpower costs and the risk of mistakes. We employed machine vision in conjunction with a robot manipulator to facilitate the grasping of ingredients. The name and formulation of the decoction are input via a human-computer interface, and the dispensing of multiple medicine packets is performed automatically. An off-line least-squared curve fitting method was used to calculate the amount of material grasped by the claws and thereby improve system efficiency as well as the accuracy of individual dosages. Experiments on the dispensing of actual ingredients demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  4. NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient levels (g kg-1 of macronutrients for S. amazonicum are: a suitable: 4 for P; 15 for K; 40 for Ca; 4 for Mg; and 3 for S; 33of B; 5 of Cu; 540 of Fe, 88 of Mn; and 71 of Zn; b critical: 1 for P; 4 for K; 8 for Ca; 1 for Mg; and 2 for S; 31 of B; 4 of Cu; 140 of Fe; 38 of Mn; and 24 of Zn

  5. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.com [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2014-07-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  6. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  7. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Danan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI and herb induced liver injury (HILI. Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality

  8. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  9. Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Wagner, U.; Leffke, A.; Helle, N.; Ammon, J.; Buchholtz, H.V.; Delincee, H.; Estendorfer, S.; Fuchs, K.; Grabowski, H.U. von; Kruspe, W.; Mainczyk, K.; Muenz, H.; Nootenboom, H.; Schleich, C.; Vreden, N.; Wiezorek, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

  10. THE USE OF THE MEDICINAL HERBS IN THE CITY OF VELENJE

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    Zalika Klemenc Ketiš

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data about the use of medicinal herbs for selftreatment in our population is sparse. Therefore the aim of our survey was to investigate the measures taken by patients with four most frequent symptoms, which medicinal herbs they used and where they got them.Methods. In the streets of the city of Velenje 184 randomly chosen adults were asked about the measures to cope with their four most common symptoms: abdominal pain, headache, diarrhoea and raised body temperature.Results. 72 percent of people surveyed use medicinal herbs. The use increases with advancing age. There are no differences regarding their education. It has been found that the pill is mostly used while the medicinal herbs take the third place. The most frequently used herb is camomile (Matricaria chamomilla. The herbs are mainly provided by the users themselves.Conclusions. Medicinal herbs are often used in combination with conventional therapy, without proper knowledge of their side effects and the harm of potentional misuse. The physicians are mainly not aware of their use among the patients. The importance of this problem for the public health service is thus essential.

  11. Assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs commercialized in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sospedra, Isabel; Soriano, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. Conventional production of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial quality of 53 samples of spices and dry herbs collected from Spanish markets detecting a contamination of samples of spices with mesophilic aerobic counts (10%) and Enterobacteriaceae (20%). The analysis from herbs showed that the percentage of contamination was 26% in both microbiological values. Pathogenic microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia intermedia, Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Hafni alvei were also isolated from spices and herbs. These unsatisfactory results showed a poor microbiological quality. Spices and dry herbs are used as ingredients in a variety of products prepared in different ways, this fact suggests the need to provide a control system to improve the quality of herbs and spices.

  12. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Shing; Tsai, Chiu-Lin; Tu, Ching-Yeh; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions. Methods Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient. Results During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ≤70 mg/dL). Conclusion Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. PMID:25733840

  13. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  14. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  15. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  17. [Present situation and prospects of special fertilizer for traditional Chinese medicine herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Ji-Yong; Wang, Wen-Quan

    2004-08-01

    To find out the present situation and the development trend special fertilizer of the traditional Chinese medicina plants. By consulting a great deal of literatures on special fertilizer and fertilization on traditional Chinese medicine herbs, and based on the scientific research and manufacture experience of the author, and the theoretic actuality of the researches on the fertilization of traditional Chinese medicine herbs, the present study of the special fertilizer inside and outside of our country was analyzed. The view points of developing special fertilizer for Chinese traditional medicine were put forward, and the development trend of special fertilizer for traditional Chinese medicine herbs was forecasted.

  18. A novel quantified bitterness evaluation model for traditional Chinese herbs based on an animal ethology principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Jiang, Hong; Han, Li; Xiong, Xi; He, Yanan; Fu, Chaomei; Xu, Runchun; Zhang, Dingkun; Lin, Junzhi; Yang, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbs (TCH) are currently gaining attention in disease prevention and health care plans. However, their general bitter taste hinders their use. Despite the development of a variety of taste evaluation methods, it is still a major challenge to establish a quantitative detection technique that is objective, authentic and sensitive. Based on the two-bottle preference test (TBP), we proposed a novel quantitative strategy using a standardized animal test and a unified quantitative benchmark. To reduce the difference of results, the methodology of TBP was optimized. The relationship between the concentration of quinine and animal preference index (PI) was obtained. Then the PI of TCH was measured through TBP, and bitterness results were converted into a unified numerical system using the relationship of concentration and PI. To verify the authenticity and sensitivity of quantified results, human sensory testing and electronic tongue testing were applied. The quantified results showed a good discrimination ability. For example, the bitterness of Coptidis Rhizoma was equal to 0.0579 mg/mL quinine, and Nelumbinis Folium was equal to 0.0001 mg/mL. The validation results proved that the new assessment method for TCH was objective and reliable. In conclusion, this study provides an option for the quantification of bitterness and the evaluation of taste masking effects.

  19. Heavy metals in chinese therapeutic foods and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.M.; Ning, H.M.; Wu, Y.X.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 15 samples of Chin ese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed, for the content of cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenic, cuprum and zinc, by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd(0.49 mg kg/sup -1/), Hg(0.34 mg kg/sup -1/), Pb(9.01 mg kg/sup -1/), As(3.26 mg kg/sup -1/), Cu(33.56 mg kg/sup -1) and Zn(38.32 mg kg/sup -1/) were found in Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Puerariae, Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Fructus Crataegi, Herba andrographis, respectively.The Cd levels of two samples and Cu levels of one sample were found to be higher than the recommended values of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. Mercury, lead, and arsenic levels of one sample were higher than the recommended limit of China Pharmacopoeia, but it were below the WHO and FDA. All other heavy metals in other medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  20. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 92-96

  1. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.

  2. Modern European monographs for quality control of Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rudolf; Franz, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    The actual concern about the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on observations that these medicinal plants may have a high risk potential due to insufficient definitions, problems with identity, purity and falsifications. No uniform legal status for these groups of herbal drugs currently exists in the European Union. For quality control, monographs for TCM herbs can mainly be found in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Based on these facts the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia decided in 2005 to establish TCM-herbal drug monographs for the most important medicinal plants imported from Far East. These new monographs had to be established and evaluated on the basis of existing monographs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP), English edition 2005. Due to important differences in the overall features of EP and ChP, a simple adapt/adopt procedure was not feasible. Therefore, specialist groups were mandated with a corresponding working programme. Some results and actual problems related to this working programme will be presented and discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  4. Pharmacokinetic Herb-Drug Interactions: Insight into Mechanisms and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, Enoche F; Sekine, Shuichi; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Horie, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are currently in high demand, and their popularity is steadily increasing. Because of their perceived effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost, they are being used for the management of numerous medical conditions. However, they are capable of affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of coadministered conventional drugs. These interactions are particularly of clinically relevance when metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters, which are responsible for the fate of many drugs, are induced or inhibited, sometimes resulting in unexpected outcomes. This article discusses the general use of herbal medicines in the management of several ailments, their concurrent use with conventional therapy, mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions (HDIs) as well as the drawbacks of herbal remedy use. The authors also suggest means of surveillance and safety monitoring of herbal medicines. Contrary to popular belief that "herbal medicines are totally safe," we are of the view that they are capable of causing significant toxic effects and altered pharmaceutical outcomes when coadministered with conventional medicines. Due to the paucity of information as well as sometimes conflicting reports on HDIs, much more research in this field is needed. The authors further suggest the need to standardize and better regulate herbal medicines in order to ensure their safety and efficacy when used alone or in combination with conventional drugs.

  5. Propagule pressure governs establishment of an invasive herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramula, Satu; Jauni, Miia; van Ooik, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    The success of plant invasions may be limited by the availability of propagules and/or of suitable microsites, with microsite availability being affected by, for example, disturbance and interspecific competition. A mechanistic understanding of the contributions of propagule pressure and microsite limitation to plant invasions is therefore required to minimise future invasions. Here, we investigated the relative roles of propagule pressure, the availability of microsites, and their interaction on the establishment of an invasive herb, Lupinus polyphyllus, in two geographic regions representing different climate and growth conditions in Finland (a more productive southern region and a harsher central region). We carried out a field experiment in 14 L. polyphyllus populations, in which we manipulated both propagule pressure and disturbance. In a complementary greenhouse experiment, we manipulated propagule pressure and interspecific competition. Seedling establishment of L. polyphyllus was higher in the more productive southern region than in the harsher central region. The number of L. polyphyllus seedlings increased with increasing propagule pressure regardless of disturbance or interspecific competition. However, the number of L. polyphyllus seedlings per sown seed (relative establishment) tended to decrease with increasing propagule pressure, indicating that the positive effect of propagule pressure on early invasion is partially counteracted by density-dependent mortality at high seed densities. Our results highlight the dominant role of propagule pressure over disturbance and interspecific competition in the establishment of L. polyphyllus, suggesting that the early stage of invasion is limited by the availability of propagules rather than the availability of suitable microsites.

  6. Online education about herbs and dietary supplements: margin or mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Patel, Sejal

    2015-01-01

    Online education is increasingly used to train health professionals, but little is known about how variations in cost affect use of elective training. We assessed whether offering registration for free increased the number of modules consumed in both absolute terms (# modules consumed per person, pp) and relative terms (# modules consumed per # modules registered). We analyzed results of the 'natural experiment' on learner's use of the OSU Center for Integrative Health and Wellness online elective curriculum, Introduction Herbs and Dietary Supplements Across the Lifespan, in which costs varied based on monthly discounts for students, faculty, staff, alumni, and members of selected professional associations. Over 7 months there were a total of 905 registrants for 8553 modules. Most (847/905, 94%) registered for free; they completed 1505 (18%) of 8344 modules for which they registered. Fewer (58/905, 6%) people paid for registration; they completed a significantly higher percentage 90/209 (43%, P online elective training addresses the institutional mission of increasing the number health professionals trained and the number of modules consumed compared with charging for training. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of pricing on educational outcomes and ultimately on patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciado, S.; Agundez A, Z.; Barboza F, M.; Cruz Z, E.

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a β ray source, 90 Sr/ 90 Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10 -4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of the Knowledge of Herb Sellers in the Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine ... This paper examined the manner in which sickle cell disease is diagnosed among herb sellers in Osun and Oyo states of Nigeria.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIKI NURTJAHJA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic microorganisms are studied. The leaves extract of kembu-kembu (Callicarpa candicans, rintih bulung (Piper muricatum, cep-cepan (Castanopsis costata, and sereh kayu (Eugenia grandis, has antimicrobial to bacteria (Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast (Candida albicans. Toxicity assay of these plants by brine shrimp method using Artemia salina indicates that cep-cepan dan sereh kayu have lethal concentration higher than kembu-kembu and rintih bulung.

  10. Measurement of βeff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.; Avdic, S.

    1994-01-01

    The delayed neutron parameters and methods used in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE. The HERBE system is strongly heterogeneous. Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of β eff measurement are described. The measured and calculated quantities and estimated uncertainties are presented. Agreement between the computation and measurement suggests the validity of the calculation method

  11. The Effects of Herbs on Milk Yield and Milk Quality of Mastitis Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin, E; Amelia, T; Makin, M

    2011-01-01

    This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...

  12. Functional assessments and histopathology of hepatorenal tissues of rats treated with raw and processed herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ukairo, Doris I.; Ibegbulem, Chiedozie O.; Nwaoguikpe, Reginald N.

    2017-01-01

    The present study ascertained the functional integrity of hepatic and renal tissues, concurrently with blood lipid patterns, of Wistar rats infused with CCl4 and treated with raw and hydrothermal processed herbs, namely, Monodora myristica, Chromolaena odorata, Buccholzia coriacea and Sphenostylis stenocarpa. Measurement of phytochemical contents of the herbs was according to standard methods. The rats were randomly designated on the bases of diets and treatments received for 28 consecutive d...

  13. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  14. HERBE- Report on test operation from 15 Dec 1989 to 15 May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M. et.al.

    1990-06-01

    This report describes the activities preformed during previous 6 months performed on the HERBE system at the RB reactor in order to fulfill the requirements of the safety Committee of the Institute with the aim to improve the operation safety and decrease of the total reactivity input during maximum hypothetical accident on the HERBE N system. The objective was to increase the possibility of RB reactor safety system timely and adequate response to the estimated accident

  15. Herb-drug interactions among commonly used psychoactive substances by healthcare students

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, André; Caetano, Liliana Aranha

    2014-01-01

    The concurrent use of herbs and/or nutritional supplements with psychoactive effect and prescription medications is common among college students. College students are a particularly vulnerable population, for they are under less social/familiar surveillance and seek greater independence, as well as under greater intellectual effort, stress, anxiety and depression, which predispose them to a higher consumption of psychoactive substances. Herbs, vitamins, and other dietary supplements may infl...

  16. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K.

    2004-01-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

  17. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, San San; Than, Mar lar; Thwe, Moe Moe

    2011-12-15

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  18. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

  19. An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.

  20. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  1. Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Jin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  2. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San Win; Mar lar Than; Moe Moe Thwe

    2011-12-01

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  3. Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Zavaljevski, N.; Marinkovic, P.; Stefanovis, D.; Nikolic, D.; Avdic, S.

    1992-01-01

    In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, dρ/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

  4. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality

  5. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  6. THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ferreira de Lima

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of shoots and roots. The symptoms ofdeficiency can be observed in new leaves and roots and the toxicity in older leaves. Bothboron deficiency and excess inhibits plants growth, but toxicity is more damaging. The Comportamento do paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. submetido ...193approximate dose of 0 Estimate of average equilibrium moisture content of wood for 26Brazilian states, by Hailwood and Harrobin one hydrate sorption theory equation.15mg/dm3 was the best for plants growth in MSPA and MSRA. The concentration of boronincreased in MSPA and MSRA with application of increasing concentration of B, with a smallreduction in concentration of MSRA from the concentration 1.9 mg/dm3. The toxicity of boronbegins when concentration reaches 36.06 mg/dm3 in shoots and 32.38 in roots. The contentsof all nutrients, except Mn and Fe in MSPA and Cu, Fe and B in MSRA, followed its own drymatter production curves.

  7. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.; Narayanan, M. M.; Joshi, R.; Gargari, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Datta, S. K.; Mehta, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given

  8. Intercomparisons to evaluate the suitability of gaschromatographic, electron-spin-resonance spectrometric and thermoluminescence methods to detect irradiated foods in routine control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Linke, B.; Wagner, U.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The results of four different intercomparisons to detect irradiated fish and chicken meat containing bones, chicken-, pork-, and beef-meat without bones, spices, herbs as well as spice- and herb mixtures, various fruit and vegetables as well as pistachio nuts using gas chromatographic methods, electron-spin resonance spectroscopy or thermoluminescence analyses are reported. (author)

  9. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-05-16

    Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

  10. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  11. Inhibition of urease by extracts derived from 15 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Da-Hua; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Gu, Zhi-Feng

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major causative factor in gastritis-like disorders, and urease plays a key role in Helicobacter pylori colonizing and persisting in the mucous layer of the human stomach. In China, a variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been prescribed to attenuate or eradicate gastritis-like disorders. However, little is known about the urease inhibition of Chinese medicinal herbs. The present study was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition activities of the ethanol and water extracts of 15 Chinese medicinal herbs. The ethanol and water extracts derived from 15 medicinal herbs, traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis-like disorders in China, were tested for urease-inhibition activity using the phenol red method. Screened at 10 µg/mL, 14 ethanol extracts and 10 water extracts showed urease inhibition. The ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliaceae) and Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae) possessed inhibition rates higher than 50% with IC₅₀ values of 6.5 and 12.3 µg/mL, respectively. After fractionating successively, the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis showed the best activity with 90.8% urease inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The bioautography of the petroleum ether fraction indicated the existence of the urease inhibitors in the herb. The present results indicated that some Chinese medicinal herbs might treat gastritis-like disorders via the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease and the further possibility for discovering useful novel urease inhibitors from the Chinese medicinal herbs.

  12. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Sing Ch’ng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR, second-derivative IR (SD-IR, and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  13. Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir

    2010-01-01

    As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 μl CD 3 OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

  14. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Shing Lin,1,2 Chiu-Lin Tsai,3 Ching-Yeh Tu,3 Ching-Liang Hsieh2,4,5 1Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 2Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 3Division of Chinese Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 5Research Center for Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions.Methods: Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient.Results: During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ≤70 mg/dL.Conclusion: Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine, Western medicine, adverse reaction

  15. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this

  16. [Studies on chemical constituents from herbs of Taraxacum mongolicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhou, Chang-Xin; Xu, Yan; Tao, Qiao-Feng; Bai, Hua; Lu, Fu-Sheng; Lin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Hai-Yong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Li-Wei; Wu, Yi-Hang; Zeng, Su; Huang, Ke-Xin; Zhao, Yu; Li, Xiao-Kun; Qu, Jia

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the herbs of Taraxacum mongolicum. The chemical constituents were isolated by various column chromatographic methods and their structures elucidated mainly by NMR and MS evidences. Forty-four components were obtained and identified were as artemetin (1), quercetin (2), quercetin-3', 4', 7-trime-thyl ether (3), luteolin (4), luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), luteolin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (6), genkwanin (7), isoetin (8), hesperetin (9), genkwanin-4'-O-beta-D-lutinoside (10), hesperidin (11), quercetin-7-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), quercetin-3, 7-O-beta-D-diglucopyranoside (13), isoetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- 2'-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (14), isoetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (15), isoetin-7- O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-beta-D-xyloypyranoside (16), caffeic acid (17), furulic acid (18), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (19), 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (20), 3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (21), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (22), 1-hydroxymethyl-5-hydroxy-phenyl-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (24), p-coumaric acid (25), 3, 5-dihydroxylbenzoic acid (26), gallic acid (27), gallicin (28), syringic acid (29), 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (30), caffeic acid ethyl ester (31), esculetin (32), rufescidride (33), mongolicumin A [6, 9, 10-trihydroxy-benzoxanthene-1, 2-dicarboxylic acid] (34), mongolicumin B [1 l-hydroxy-2-oxo-guaia-1 (10), 3, 5-trien-8, 12-lactone] (35), isodonsesquitin A (36), taraxacin (37), sesquiterpene ketolactone (38), taraxasteryl acetate (39), phi-taraxasteryl acetate (40) and lupenol acetate (41), palmitic acid (42), beta-sitosterol (43), and stigmasterol (44). Four compounds (14, 15, 34 and 35) were new compounds, compounds 1, 3, 6-13, 20-22, 30 and 31 were isolated from this genus for the first time, while compounds 18, 23-29, 32 and 37-42 were obtained from this species for the first time.

  17. Microelement composition of the herbs with hypoglycemic and tonic actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, T.A.; Ibragimova, E.A.; Nazirova, E.R.; Samarkhodjaeva, N.R.; Nalbandyan, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus is a heavy disease with complex neuroendocrinal pathogenesis, which disturbs all stages of metabolism, including exchange of microelements. A significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is given to copper, zinc, chromium, manganese - microelements directly participating in carbohydrate exchange. Usage of microelements in medicine as inorganic salts has not found a wide application. It is known, that the majority of vitaminous-mineral complexes represent a mechanical mix of artificial vitamins and microelements. The available facts testify that such inorganic forms of minerals are poorly assimilated by an organism, and moreover can block the assimilation of organic forms, what results in a gradual increase of deficiency in these microelements in organism. Scientists know around 300 plants possessing hypoglycemising effect to a greater or lesser extent. Using the method of neutron-activation analysis we have investigated the microelement composition of some of herbs possessing hypoglycemising and tonic action. On the basis of these data our group has developed the structure of a phytocompound, which includes 15 components, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo containing the balanced amount of easily assimilated organically connected minerals. The analysis of received data shows, that the developed phytocompound contains significant amount of Mn, Cu, Zn and in smaller amounts Co. Calculations show, that the daily need of an organism for copper, manganese, zinc and iodine is completely satisfied by the phytocompound. The data on analysis of element structure of Spirulina platensis and mumiyo evidence the presence of a wide spectrum of the majority of microelements in these preparations, and the content of copper and manganese in Spirulina platensis exceeds their content in mumiyo 1,5-2 times, and the presence of chromium is almost 20 times higher. The complex of the developed phytocompound, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo is suggested

  18. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.com [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2013-10-15

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this

  19. Microelement composition of the herbs with hypoglycemic and tonic actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaev, T A; Ibragimova, E A; Nazirova, E R; Samarkhodjaeva, N R; Nalbandyan, A A [Institute of Biochemistry, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2004-10-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus is a heavy disease with complex neuroendocrinal pathogenesis, which disturbs all stages of metabolism, including exchange of microelements. A significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is given to copper, zinc, chromium, manganese - microelements directly participating in carbohydrate exchange. Usage of microelements in medicine as inorganic salts has not found a wide application. It is known, that the majority of vitaminous-mineral complexes represent a mechanical mix of artificial vitamins and microelements. The available facts testify that such inorganic forms of minerals are poorly assimilated by an organism, and moreover can block the assimilation of organic forms, what results in a gradual increase of deficiency in these microelements in organism. Scientists know around 300 plants possessing hypoglycemising effect to a greater or lesser extent. Using the method of neutron-activation analysis we have investigated the microelement composition of some of herbs possessing hypoglycemising and tonic action. On the basis of these data our group has developed the structure of a phytocompound, which includes 15 components, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo containing the balanced amount of easily assimilated organically connected minerals. The analysis of received data shows, that the developed phytocompound contains significant amount of Mn, Cu, Zn and in smaller amounts Co. Calculations show, that the daily need of an organism for copper, manganese, zinc and iodine is completely satisfied by the phytocompound. The data on analysis of element structure of Spirulina platensis and mumiyo evidence the presence of a wide spectrum of the majority of microelements in these preparations, and the content of copper and manganese in Spirulina platensis exceeds their content in mumiyo 1,5-2 times, and the presence of chromium is almost 20 times higher. The complex of the developed phytocompound, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo is suggested

  20. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

    2013-01-01

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method

  1. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016).

  2. Evaluation of Parasitic Pollution in Fresh Unwashed Herbs Sold in Izeh City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fresh herbs are a crucial part of a good diet. However, they can easily become contaminated with food-borne pathogens. Eating fresh unwashed or improperly washed herbs has a major role in transmission of some important parasitic diseases. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate parasitic pollution in fresh unwashed herbs sold in Izeh city, Iran. Materials and Methods Four hundred samples of fresh unwashed herbs were purchased from a distributor in Izeh city during January 2014 to April 2015. Detergent solution was added to 240 g of each sample. The mixture was shaken and washed solution was filtered through 0.2 µm bottle-top filter. The filtrate was discarded and filter was placed in a 50 mL conical screw cap tube. Then, the detergent solution was added. Following vortex, filter was discarded. The sediment was examined by light microscope after centrifuge. Finally, data descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Parasitic pollution was detected in 3.5% of the examined samples, including Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst (1.5%, Giardia spp. cyst (1%, Blastocystis spp. cyst (0.5% and Taenia spp. egg (0.5%. Conclusions Parasitic contamination of fresh herbs sold in Izeh may pose a health risk to consumers if eaten as unwashed or improperly washed.

  3. Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Yi [Chung Shan Medical Univ., Inst. of Biochemistry, Taiwan (China); Chang Lai, Sheng-Pin [Chung Shan Medical Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Chief, Taiwan (China)

    2002-04-01

    For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup -3} {mu}g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

  4. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. New insights into the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Bo; Chen, Mei-Hui; Lin, Ding-Kun

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an increasing osseous fragility and fracture resulting from the low mass and deteriorated microarchitecture in the bone tissue. The hormone replacement therapy and alendronate were frequently used to treat osteoporosis as the primary therapeutic strategy, but their adverse effects have severely limited their extensive clinical application, therefore, it is urgent to develop alternative or complementary therapeutic agents for anti-osteoporosis. Interestingly, with more people focusing on the complementary and alternative medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and formulas are being gradually recognized as safe and effective agents in the treatment of osteoporosis. In particular, a notable trend is that increasing studies are making efforts to clarify the anti-osteoporotic effects and mechanism of the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas, a category of agents identified as effective therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to comprehensively review the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas that have been reported in the treatment of osteoporosis as well as how the agents play their roles in detail. This current study not only will advance our understanding of the actions of tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas, but also provide new evidence for the clinic use of the tonifying kidney-yin herbs and formulas in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  6. Uncaria rhynchophylla, a Chinese medicinal herb, has potent antiaggregation effects on Alzheimer's beta-amyloid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironori; Iwasaki, Koh; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Seki, Takashi; He, Mei; Maruyama, Masahiro; Tomita, Naoki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Higuchi, Makoto; Saido, Takaomi C; Maeda, Sumihiro; Takashima, Akihiko; Hara, Masahiko; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2006-08-01

    Because the deposition of beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) is a consistent pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, inhibition of Abeta generation, prevention of Abeta fibril formation, or destabilization of preformed Abeta fibrils would be attractive therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AD. We examined the effects of several medicinal herbs used in traditional Chinese medical formulae on the formation and destabilization of Abeta fibrils by using the thioflavin T binding assay, atomic force microscopic imaging, and electrophoresis. Our study demonstrates that several of these herbs have potent inhibitory effects on fibril formation of both Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) in concentration-dependent manners; in particular, Uncaria rhynchophylla inhibited Abeta aggregation most intensively. Significant destabilization of preformed Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) fibrils was also induced by Uncaria rhynchophylla as well as some other herb extracts. Three-dimensional HPLC analysis indicated that the water extract of this herb contains several different chemical compounds, including oxindole and indol alkaloids, which have been regarded as neuroprotective. Our results suggest that Uncaria rhynchophylla has remarkably inhibitory effects on the regulation of Abeta fibrils, and we conclude that this medicinal herb could have the potency to be a novel therapeutic agent to prevent and/or cure AD.

  7. Characterisation of phenolics in Flor-Essence--a compound herbal product and its contributing herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ammar; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Harris, Cory; Asim, Muhammad; Tamayo, Carmen; Sit, Summer; Arnason, John Thor

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available herbal mixture FE, a proprietary natural health product manufactured by Flora Manufacturing and Distributing Ltd (Flora), is a unique North American traditional herbal product. FE is a chemically complex mixture of eight herbs and has not been subjected to phytochemical analysis. To develop analytical methods to undertake detailed phytochemical analyses of FE, and its eight contributing herbs, including burdock (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), Turkish rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), slippery elm Muhl. (Ulmus rubra), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) and kelp (Laminaria digitata Lmx.). The identification was undertaken by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass selective detection (RP-HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSD) analysis and phenolics metabolomic library matching. New separation methods facilitated the identification of 43 markers in the individual herbs which constitute FE. Sixteen markers could be identified in FE originating from four contributing herbs including four caffeoyl quinic acids, three dicaffeoyl quinic acids and two caffeic acid derivatives from A. lappa, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, five apigenin glycosides and apigenin from R. acetocella and N. officinale and sissostrin from T. pretense. A validated method for quantitative determination of three markers is reported with good intraday, interday and interoperator repeatability using a reliable alcohol based extraction technique. FE and its contributing herbs predominantly contain phenolics. This methodology can be applied to further develop full-scale validation of this product.

  8. Drug-Herb Interactions in the Elderly Patient with IBD: a Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Haider; Kim, Marina; Leung, Galen; Green, Jesse A; Katz, Seymour

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions. CAM includes herbal products, diet, dietary supplements, acupuncture, and prayer. In this paper, we will review common CAM, specifically herbs, that are used in patients with IBD including the herb background, suggested use, evidence in IBD, and most importantly, potential interactions with IBD medications used in elderly patients. Most important evidence-based adverse events and drug-herb interactions are summarized. The herbs discussed include Triticum aestivum (wheat grass), Andrographis paniculata (chiretta), Boswellia serrata, tormentil, bilberry, curcumin (turmeric), Plantago ovata (blond psyllium), Oenothera biennis (evening primrose oil), germinated barley foodstuff, an herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee extract, chios mastic gum, wormwood (absinthe, thujone), Cannabis sativa (marijuana, THC), tripterygium wilfordii (thunder god vine), Ulmus rubra (slippery elm bark), trigonella foenugraecum (fenugreek), Dioscorea mexicana (wild yam), Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), ginger, cinnamon, licorice, and peppermint.

  9. Novel temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system powered by a photovoltaic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Shafy A Nafeh; Hanaa M Fargali; Faten H Fahmy; Mohamed A Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Each plant has its own optimal drying temperature, especially for the medicinal herbs, because they are sensitive to heat. If the drying temperature becomes more than the optimal value, some chemical reactions will occur and influence the quality of the dried herb, such as color, taste, and aroma. While if the drying temperature becomes lower than the optimal value, the drying process will slow down; and consequently an expected degradation in the quality of the herb may occur, due to insects and fungi infestation which increase in moist conditions. This paper presents a new temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medicinal herbs at 40 degree C, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using the proportional integral (PI) controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and the electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using the solar energy and bio-gas fuel. Whereas, the electrical system, which contains a photovoltaic (PV) modules and a battery, is designed to supply the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions

  10. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Dghaim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, basil (Ocimum basilicum, sage (Salvia officinalis, oregano (Origanum vulgare, mint (Mentha spicata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1–1.11 mg·kg−1 for cadmium, less than 1.0–23.52 mg·kg−1 for lead, 1.44–156.24 mg·kg−1 for copper, 12.65–146.67 mg·kg−1 for zinc, and 81.25–1101.22 mg·kg−1 for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO permissible limits (PL.

  11. Exotic Invasive Shrub Glossy Buckthorn Reduces Restoration Potential for Native Forest Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hamelin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive glossy buckthorn could reduce restoration potential for understory native forest herbs by compromising their growth and biodiversity. Few studies of glossy buckthorn’s effects on forest herbs exist, and none were done in early-successional, partially open hardwood forests. This study was conducted in a mature hybrid poplar plantation invaded by buckthorn, located in southeastern Québec. We tested the effect of buckthorn removal on the growth of three forest herb species, whether this effect varied among species, and if canopy type (two poplar clones influenced this effect. Forest herbs were planted in herbicide (buckthorn removed and control treatments in the plantation understory, an environment similar to that of early-successional hardwood forests. Over the first two growing seasons, species showed specific reactions to buckthorn cover. Mean relative growth rate (RGR for Asarum canadense and Polygonatum pubescens was increased in the herbicide treatment (48% and 33%, respectively and decreased in the control treatment (−35% and −33%, respectively. Sanguinaria canadensis growth was the highest among species, with no difference between treatments. No effects of canopy type were detected. Results suggest that planting forest herbs for restoration purposes may be unsuccessful if buckthorn is present. Important changes in understory flora biodiversity are likely to occur over the long term in forests invaded by buckthorn.

  12. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.; Kazi, G.H.; Kazi, T.; Hafeez-u-Raman Shaikh; Memon, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  13. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahito, S; Kazi, G H; Kazi, T [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry; Shar, G Q [Liaquat Univ. of Health and Sciences, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Shaikh, Hafeez-u-Raman [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Inst. of Biochemistry; Memon, A N [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2003-06-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  14. Heavy metals in spices and herbs from wholesale markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N; Selamat, J

    2013-01-01

    As, Cd, Pb and Hg were analysed in commonly consumed spices and herbs in Malaysia. The range of As, Cd, Pb and Hg content was 0.24-2.54, 0.23-8.07, 1.54-8.94 and 0.06-0.52 µg g(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of Cd, Pb and Hg in spices and herbs exceeded the maximum permitted proportion, which are 1, 2 and 0.05 µg g(-1), respectively. This study suggests further monitoring of Cd, Pb and Hg on daily consumption of spices and herbs and its toxicological implication for consumers since only the amount of As was lower than the permitted concentration.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  16. Bromine and iodine in Chinese medical herbs determined via epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien-Yi Chen; Yuan-Yaw Wei; Sheng-Pin ChangLai; Lung-Kwang Pan

    2003-01-01

    Nineteen natural herbs and two prescriptions prepared from mixed herbs were analyzed via epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) to evaluate their bromine and iodine concentration. Traditional medical doctors prescribed the samples presented in this work to most Taiwanese children for strengthening their immune systems. Empirical results indicated a wide diversity of bromine in the samples. Yet, the iodine concentration was only around one to tenth or twentieth of the bromine. The maximum daily intake (MDI) for various medical herbs was also widely diversified from one to tenfold on the basis of various criteria. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of bromine and iodine found was 0.42±0.14 ppm and 0.067±0.016 ppm, respectively. Compared to that from conventional thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) for a similar evaluation, the extremely low MDC obtained here was attributed to the large amount of thermal neutron absorption during sample irradiation. (author)

  17. Studies on medicinal herbs for cognitive enhancement based on the text mining of Dongeuibogam and preliminary evaluation of its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Malk Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Ahn, Sung Min; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-02-17

    In literature on Korean medicine, Dongeuibogam (Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine), published in 1613, represents the overall results of the traditional medicines of North-East Asia based on prior medicinal literature of this region. We utilized this medicinal literature by text mining to establish a list of candidate herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly and then performed an evaluation of their effects. Text mining was performed for selection of candidate herbs. Cell viability was determined in HT22 hippocampal cells and immunohistochemistry and behavioral analysis was performed in a kainic acid (KA) mice model in order to observe alterations of hippocampal cells and cognition. Twenty four herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly were selected by text mining of Dongeuibogam. In HT22 cells, pretreatment with 3 candidate herbs resulted in significantly reduced glutamate-induced cell death. Panax ginseng was the most neuroprotective herb against glutamate-induced cell death. In the hippocampus of a KA mice model, pretreatment with 11 candidate herbs resulted in suppression of caspase-3 expression. Treatment with 7 candidate herbs resulted in significantly enhanced expression levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein. Number of proliferated cells indicated by BrdU labeling was increased by treatment with 10 candidate herbs. Schisandra chinensis was the most effective herb against cell death and proliferation of progenitor cells and Rehmannia glutinosa in neuroprotection in the hippocampus of a KA mice model. In a KA mice model, we confirmed improved spatial and short memory by treatment with the 3 most effective candidate herbs and these recovered functions were involved in a higher number of newly formed neurons from progenitor cells in the hippocampus. These established herbs and their combinations identified by text-mining technique and evaluation for effectiveness may have value in further experimental and clinical

  18. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  19. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniglia, C. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: concetta.boniglia@iss.it; Aureli, P. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, E.; Onori, S. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  20. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  1. The Health Benefits of Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices Found in the Traditional Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson; Marquez, Susan; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-12-09

    The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. However, herbs and spices associated with these diets may also play an important role in the quality of this diet. This review summarizes the most recent research regarding the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypertensive properties of this collection of culinary species. Additionally, this review briefly summarizes studies performed on lesser known herbs from around the world, with the goal of identifying new culinary species that may be useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases.

  2. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.; Kedzia, B.

    2000-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

  3. The effect of ionizing radiation on microbiological decontamination of medical herbs and biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Segiet-Kujawa, E.

    1998-06-01

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the national program on the application of irradiation to the decontamination of medical herbs is in progress now. The purpose of the program is to elaborate, on the basis of research work, the facility standards and technological instructions indispensable for the practice of radiation technology.

  4. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  5. Screening for Anti-lipase Properties of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Dong Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: The results support the view that herbs represent a rich source of anti-lipase compounds. The screening of the methanolic extracts of 37 Chinese medicinal plants in vitro led to the identification of several extracts with potential activity against PPL, in particular, P. vulgaris and R. palmatum. We also found that several monomeric chemicals in these herbs exhibited good or moderate activity against PPL. To the best of our knowledge, these traditional Chinese herbal medicines or phytochemicals have not been previously screened for their lipase inhibitory activity.

  6. Chinese medicinal herbs for asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease.......About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease....

  7. Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ≤ 5 servings/day to ≥ 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ≥ 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet. Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide

  8. Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H.; Subhani, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

  9. Verification of kinetic parameters of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.; Milosevic, M.; Nikolic, D.; Zavaljevski, N.; Milovanovic, S.; Ljubenov, V.

    1997-03-01

    The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1989 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the VINCA Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews experiments for kinetic parameters verification carried out at HERBE system. Their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results are included. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in the calculations is presented too. (author)

  10. Forest Patch Size, Land Use, and Mesic Forest Herbs in the French Broad River Basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Pearson; Alan B. Smith; Monica G. Turner

    1998-01-01

    The effect of forest fragmentation on cove-forest herbs was studied in the Southern Blue Ridge Province. Patches of mesic forests were sampled with 4 ha study plots. The coverage and density of herb species were greater in large patches (>200 ha) than in small patches (

  11. Enterobacteriaceae rsistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, K.T.; Kant, A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Wit, B.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh herbs by plant essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer awareness of fresh herbs and its demand has increased in recent years due to health benefits and distinct aroma in prepared food. There are specific markets for local growers, especially for organically grown herbs. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have been detected and...

  13. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

  14. Herbal Prescriptions and Medicinal Herbs for Parkinson-Related Rigidity in Korean Medicine: Identification of Candidates Using Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyun; Hwang, Min Seob; Park, Hye Jin; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2018-03-27

    Dongeuibogam (DongYiBaoGian), one of the most important books in Korean medicine, comprises a comprehensive summary of all traditional medicines of North-East Asia before the 17th century. This medicinal literature was mined to establish a list of candidate herbs to treat Parkinson-related rigidity. A systematic search for terms describing Parkinson-related rigidity and candidate prescriptions for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity in the Dongeuibogam was performed. A high-frequency medicinal herb combination group and candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were also selected through an analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies. The existing literature pertaining to the potential effects of candidate herbs for Parkinson-related rigidity was reviewed. Ten medicinal herb candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were selected, and their respective precedent studies were analyzed.

  15. [Study on ethnic medicine quantitative reference herb,Tibetan medicine fruits of Capsicum frutescens as a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Ke; Cui, Gan; Guo, Li-Nong; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Zheng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    High price and difficult to get of reference substance have become obstacles to HPLC assay of ethnic medicine. A new method based on quantitative reference herb (QRH) was proposed. Specific chromatograms in fruits of Capsicum frutescens were employed to determine peak positions, and HPLC quantitative reference herb was prepared from fruits of C. frutescens. The content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the quantitative control herb was determined by HPLC. Eleven batches of fruits of C. frutescens were analyzed with quantitative reference herb and reference substance respectively. The results showed no difference. The present method is feasible for quality control of ethnic medicines and quantitative reference herb is suitable to replace reference substances in assay. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Phyto-metals screening of selected anti-diabetic herbs and infused concoctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju O. Olujimi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The study thus shows that the herbs and concoctions are safe from the heavy metals considered. However, right dosage of the anti-diabetic concoctions should always be considered to prevent possible chronic side effects from bio-accumulation of heavy metals.

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herb-induced Liver Injury: Comparison with Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Teschke, Rolf

    2018-03-28

    Cases of suspected herb-induced liver injury (HILI) caused by herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are commonly published in the scientific literature worldwide. As opposed to the multiplicity of botanical chemicals in herbal TCM products, which are often mixtures of several herbs, conventional Western drugs contain only a single synthetic chemical. It is therefore of interest to study how HILI by TCM and DILI compare with each other, and to what extent results from each liver injury type can be transferred to the other. China is among the few countries with a large population using synthetic Western drugs as well as herbal TCM. Therefore, China is well suited to studies of liver injury comparing drugs with TCM herbs. Despite some concordance, recent analyses of liver injury cases with verified causality, using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, revealed major differences in HILI caused by TCMs as compared to DILI with respect to the following features: HILI cases are less frequently observed as compared to DILI, have a smaller proportion of females and less unintentional rechallenge events, and present a higher rate of hepatocellular injury features. Since many results were obtained among Chinese residents who had access to and had used Western drugs and TCM herbs, such ethnic homogeneity supports the contention that the observed differences of HILI and DILI in the assessed population are well founded.

  18. Screening for anti-pancreatic lipase properties of 28 traditional Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Dechakhamphu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: From this result, it could be concluded that herbs represent a rich of anti-pancreatic lipase compounds, in particular, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl. It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from these plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia.

  19. Public and private standards for dried culinary herbs and spices—Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaarschmidt, Sara; Spradau, Franziska; Mank, Helmut; Banach, Jennifer L.; Fels, van der Ine; Hiller, Petra; Appel, Bernd; Bräunig, Juliane; Wichmann-Schauer, Heidi; Mader, Anneluise

    2016-01-01

    Dried culinary herbs and spices (DCHS) are minor food components with widespread use. Despite their low water activity, some microorganisms—including pathogenic and toxigenic ones—can survive in DCHS. The addition of microbial contaminated DCHS to ready-to-eat food in combination with improper

  20. Reclamation of Herb Residues Using Probiotics and Their Therapeutic Effect on Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjing Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residues from herbal medicine processing in pharmaceutical plants create a large amount of waste (herb residues, which consists mainly of environmental pollution and medicinal waste. In order to resolve this problem, probiotics of Bacillus (B. subtilis, Aspergillus (A. oryzae, and Lactobacillus (L. plantarum M3 are selected to reuse herb residue of Jianweixiaoshi tablets (JT, and an antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD mouse model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the herb residue fermentation supernatant. Our results indicated that the fermentation supernatant had scavenged 77.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 78% of O2•−, 36.7% of •OH, 39% of Fe2+ chelation, and 716 mg/L reducing power. The inhibition zones for Salmonella (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, Shigella (Sh. flexneri, Escherichia (E. coli, Listeria (L. monocytogenes, Sh. dysenteriae 301, and Staphylococcus (S. aureus were 17, 14, 19, 18, 20, 19, and 20 mm, respectively. The in vivo results indicated that the fermentation supernatant resulted in a high diarrhea inhibition rate (56%, p<0.05, greatly enhanced the disruption of bacterial diversity caused by antibiotics, and restored the dominant position of L. johnsonii in the treatment and recovery stages. Therefore, the combination of the herb residue and probiotics suggests a potential to explore conversion of these materials for the possible development of therapies for AAD.

  1. An overview of herbs, spices and plant extracts used as seasonings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonings include Spices such as pepper, herbs such as the leaves of cloves and bay, vegetable bulbs such as garlic and onions, sweeteners such as sugar and monosodium glutamate, and plant extracts such as that of Ocimum grattisimum or 'scent leaf'. Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries of plants, most ...

  2. Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as

  3. The species richness-productivity relationship in the herb layer of European deciduous forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axmanová, I.; Chytrý, M.; Zelený, D.; Ching-Feng, L.; Vymazalová, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Horsák, M.; Kočí, M.; Kubešová, S.; Lososová, Z.; Otýpková, Z.; Tichý, L.; Martynenko, V. B.; Baisheva, E. Z.; Schuster, B.; Diekmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2012), s. 657-667 ISSN 1466-822X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : broad-leaved woodland * diversity - productivity relationship * herb-layer biomass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.223, year: 2012

  4. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway...

  5. Effect of the Chinese herb Mesima Reishi UE-1 on invasion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of the Chinese herb Mesima Reishi UE-1 on invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro. J He, X He, HY Zhang, XF Yang, J He, LH Zhang, YL Li. Abstract. To study the effects of Mesima Reishi UE-1 on the metastatic phenotype of the human ovarian cancer cell line HO8910. HO8910 cells were pretreated with ...

  6. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-14

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms.

  7. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... and appearance of the products, the price and information level....

  8. Investigation of Elemental Concentrations of Some Medicinal Herbs Collected from Kachin State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tint Lwin; Soe Myint; Tun Khin

    2006-06-01

    Five medicinal herbs, which are traditionally used in the Kachin State for the treatment of tuberculosis, different types of cancers, malaria and indigestion problem, were analyzed by the EDXRF techinque to determine the relative concentrations of elements contained in them. The major elements and the trace elements were thoroughly investigated for a comparison purpose

  9. Resprouting of herbs in disturbed habitats: is it adequately described by Bellingham-Sparrow s model?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 103, - (2003), s. 225-229 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1039; GA ČR GA206/01/1037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : severe disturbance * sprouting * temperate herbs Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2003

  10. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  11. Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abahussain NA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5 years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

  12. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa produce nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects in GM - nephrotoxic rats. These herbs may be beneficial for patients who suffer from kidney diseases and those on GM therapy. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-8

  13. Conservation genetics and geographic patterns of genetic variation of the vulnerable officinal herb Fritillaria walujewii (Liliaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihao Su; Borong Pan; Stewart C. Sanderson; Xiaojun Shi; Xiaolong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herb Fritillaria walujewii Regel is an important officinal species that is vulnerable because of over-harvesting. Here, we examined the geographic pattern of genetic variation across the species entire range, to study its evolution process and give implication needed for the conservation. Nine haplotypes were detected on the basis of three chloroplast...

  14. First-order fire effects on herbs and Shrubs: present knowledge and process modeling needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Stephan; Melanie Miller; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Herbaceous plants and shrubs have received little attention in terms of fire effects modeling despite their critical role in ecosystem integrity and resilience after wildfires and prescribed burns. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge of direct effects of fire on herb and shrub (including cacti) vegetative tissues and seed banks, propose key components for...

  15. [Origin of lifting and lowering theory and its herb pair study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhao-Juan; Yuan, Yi-Ping; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Ning-Ning; Dai, Ying; Zhai, Hua-Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Lifting and lowering theory is one of the important basis for guiding clinical medication. Through the study of ancient books and literature, we learned that lifting and lowering theory was originated in Huangdi Neijing, practiced more in the Shanghan Zabing Lun, established in Yixue Qiyuan, and developed in Compendium of Materia Medica and now. However, lifting and lowering theory is now mostly stagnated in the theoretical stage, with few experimental research. In the clinical study, the guiding role of lifting and lowering theory to prescriptions?mainly includes opposite?role?of lift and lower medicine property, mutual promotion of lift and lower medicine property, main role of lift medicine property and main role of lower medicine property. Under the guidance of lifting and lowering theory, the herb pair compatibility include herb combination of lift medicine property, herb combination of lift and lower medicine property and herb combination of lower medicine property. Modern biological technology was used in this study to carry out experimental research on the lifting and lowering theory, revealing the scientific connotation of it, which will help to promote clinical rational drug use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Li, W.K.; Li, H.S.; Luo, J.Y.; Li, X.P.; Wei, Y.X.; Yan, Z.T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    1. This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler

  17. Herbs with potential nephrotoxic effects according to traditional Persian medicine: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolangi, Fatemeh; Memariani, Zahra; Bozorgi, Mahboubeh; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali; Mirzapour, Mohaddeseh

    2018-04-03

    The increased use of herbal remedies particularly in patients with kidney diseases indicated the importance of studies which focused on nephrotoxic plants. The present study aimed to review and assess the kidney-damaging herbs mentioned in the Persian medicine [PM] books. The main PM books were searched for nephrotoxic herbs and their relevant reformers traditionally proposed for preventing renal damage. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were investigated for evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the nephrotoxicity of herbs. A total of 64 plants with kidney damage potential and their reformer medicaments were recorded in 7 sources included in this review. Allium schoenoprasum and Marrubium vulgare were the most repeated and emphasized nephrotoxic plants in PM books, but there was not any relevant scientific evidence. Despite the lack of clinical studies, some evidence was found for 38% of plants that were related to renal damage. The most repeated reformers for reducing the renal side effects mainly consisted of gum tragacanth, gum Arabic, mastic gum, anise, jujube and honey and some evidence was found for their nephroprotective activities. The present study reviewed and assessed the herbs with adverse renal effects in the main PM books. Some evidence was in line with the potential nephrotoxicity of plants and their ‎reformers. Despite the lack of clinical research for evaluation of their renal damage, the herbs may be focused in term of their nephrotoxicity; and there is a need for further studies on the scientific basis of their nephrotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. [Preliminary attempt at the speciation of 25-elements in the Chinese medicinal herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Ouyang; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Huang, Zhuo; Tu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Xu-Lin; Liu, Hu-Sheng

    2004-08-01

    To make an attempt at the multi-element speciation in the Chinese medicinal herbs by determining the concentrations of 25 elements in different extraction solutions. Firstly, five Chinese medicinal herbs (Buddleja officinalis, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Myristica fragrans, Albizia judibrissin and Inula japonica) from the same region of China were treated to obtain water-soluble phase, lipid-soluble phase and non-soluble phase by water extraction, organic solvent extraction and acid digestion, respectively. Secondly, Phytolacca acinosa, a Chinese medicinal herb collected from 9 regions of China, was extracted by 0% EtOH, 50% EtOH, 75% EtOH, 95% EtOH, respectively, referring the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Finally, the concentrations of 25 elements, such as Be, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Tl, Pb and REEs, in the above three phases were determined by ICP-MS. Under the optimal conditions, all the 25 elements could be determined with detection limits ranged from 0.003 to 0.71 ng x g(-1). The average recoveries of the elements in P. acinosa were 88% approximately 119%, with the relative standard deviations 1.7% approximately 13.3%. It was observed that the determined 25 elements distributed in all the water-soluble, lipid-soluble and non-soluble phases, indicating that the inorganic species, organicspecies, as well as the protein bound species were coexisted in the herbs. Big differences of the element extraction rates could be found by using different ethanol solutions. With the aid of the obtained results, we may increase the extraction of necessary elements while decrease that of the toxic elements from the herbs by choosing a suitable solvent during the drug production.

  19. Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

  20. Heart Toxicity Related to Herbs and Dietary Supplements: Online Table of Case Reports. Part 4 of 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of heart toxicity case reports related to dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs). Documented PubMed case reports of DS appearing to contribute to heart-related problems were used to create a "Toxic Table" that summarized the research (1966 to April, 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb," "dietary supplement," and cardiac terms. Case reports were excluded if they were herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm (e.g. suicide), excess dose (except vitamins/minerals), drugs or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. The spectrum of heart toxicities included hypertension, hypotension, hypokalemia, bradycardia, tachycardia, arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, heart attack, cardiac arrest, heart failure, and death. Heart related problems were associated with approximately seven herbs: Four traditional Chinese medicine herbs - Don quai (Angelica sinensis), Jin bu huan (Lycopodium serratum), Thundergod vine or lei gong teng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F), and Ting kung teng (Erycibe henryi prain); one an Ayruvedic herb - Aswagandha, (Withania somnifera); and two North American herbs - blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), and Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe). Aconitum and Ephedra species are no longer sold in the United States. The DS included, but are not limited to five DS - bitter orange, caffeine, certain energy drinks, nitric oxide products, and a calming product. Six additional DS are no longer sold. Licorice was the food related to heart problems. The online "Toxic Table" forewarns clinicians, consumers and the DS industry by listing DS with case reports related to heart toxicity. It may also contribute to Phase IV post marketing surveillance to diminish adverse events that Government officials use to regulate DS.

  1. Preparation of molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for trapping of ligustrazine from the traditional Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Guo Tingting; Guo Mufan

    2008-01-01

    A highly selective molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for ligustrazine was prepared by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) gel. In the experiments, two pieces of MUF gel were synthesized firstly; one was added ligustrazine hydrochloride as the template molecule in it to prepare the imprinted adsorptive resin, and the other was not. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that both resins were the porous with a network structure whether or not it was added template molecule. The imprinted adsorptive resin had an absorbability of 85.22% measured by a 200 mg L -1 solution of ligustrazine hydrochloride at room temperature. The resin of MUF without template, on the other hand, displayed an adsorption capacity of almost zero. It illuminated the imprinted adsorptive resin formed ligustrazine recognition sites when the template molecule had been eluted. In the present paper, ligustrazine was effectively separated and enriched from herbs by using a solid-phase adsorptive column filled with the imprinted adsorptive resin. Its eluate, obtained from three kinds of solvents, was analyzed by GC-MS, and the results indicated that the imprinted adsorptive resin showed a high selectivity for ligustrazine. This is believed to be beneficial for extracting natural and highly purified ligustrazine

  2. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, In-Sook

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  3. Effects of feeding the herb Borreria latifolia on the meat quality of village chickens in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbood, Ali A; Kassim, Azhar Bin; Jawad, Hasan S A; Manap, Yazid Abdul; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to estimate the meat quality characteristics of village chickens (Gallus gallus) fed diets supplemented with dry leaves of Borreria latifolia (BL) used as a potential antioxidant source in chicken feed. In this study, 252 sexed 9-week-old village chickens with mean live body weight of 1,525.4 g for males and 1,254.1 g for females were divided into 7 groups (each group 18 birds) for each sex represented in 2 experiments. The first experiment was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of BL and the effect on meat quality through a comparison with Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); hence, 3 groups were conducted and included: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1% of BL; T3, basal diet with 1% of RO. T2 and T3 significantly affect pH value, lipid oxidation, cooking loss, and overall acceptability compared to T1, while no significant difference was observed between the dietary groups in respect of drip loss, color, tenderness, fatty acid profile, and meat composition. Furthermore, a significant effect of sex on lipid oxidation, pH, yellowness, and fatty acid profile was observed. There was no significant effect of sex on WHC, tenderness, lightness, redness, and sensory evaluation. A significant influence of postmortem aging period was detected on lipid oxidation, pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and redness. The obtained result in this study revealed a significance in the interaction of herb by sex in pH parameter and between herb and sex, herb by aging period, sex by aging period, and the herb by sex by aging period interactions with regard to lipid oxidation test. The second experiment was to estimate the effect of 3 different levels of BL on meat quality. Four groups were provided and involved: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1.5% of BL; T3, basal diet with 2% of BL; and T4, basal diet with 2.5% of BL. The result of this study showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of the

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romika Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  6. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  7. [Discussion on development of four diagnostic information scale for clinical re-evaluation of postmarketing herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-12-01

    Post-marketing re-evaluation of Chinese herbs can well reflect Chinese medicine characteristics, which is the most easily overlooked the clinical re-evaluation content. Since little attention has been paid to this, study on the clinical trial design method was lost. It is difficult to improving the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, more attention should be paid on re-evaluation of the clinical trial design method point about tcm syndrome such as the type of research program design, the study of Chinese medical information collection scale and statistical analysis methods, so as to improve the clinical trial design method study about tcm syndrome of Chinese herbs postmarketing re-evalutation status.

  8. Total antioxidant capacity of commonly used fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad Junaid Hassan; Rauf, Khalid; Mahmood, Wajahat; Khan, Ikarmullah; Abbas, Ghulam

    2017-11-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic). In conclusion, the guava, spinach and clove provide the best natural dietary option for treatment / prevention of oxidative stress and thus could alleviate several associated ailments.

  9. Study on the cold and hot properties of medicinal herbs by thermotropism in mice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhou, Can-ping; Zhang, Xue-ru; Ren, Yong-shen; Jia, Lei

    2011-02-16

    It is a common sense that chewing a mint leaf causes a cold feeling, while masticating a piece of ginger root is associated with a hot sensation. The Traditional Chinese Medicine has termed this phenomenon as cold and hot properties of herbs and applied them in treating certain human diseases successfully for thousands of years. Here, we have developed an Animal Thermotropism Behavior Surveillance System, and by using this device and other approaches, we not only verified the existence of, but also characterized and quantitated the cold and hot properties of medicinal herbs in animal behavioral experiments. The results suggested that the hot and cold properties of herbal drugs indeed correlated with the alteration of animal behavior in search for residence temperature. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Acute Hepatitis Induced by Chinese Hepatoprotective Herb, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Hsu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-chai-hu-tang (syo-saiko-to in Japanese is a herbal remedy that has been widely used in China for treatment of respiratory, hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal diseases, particularly among patients with chronic liver disease. However, its safety has recently been challenged. We, herein, report a Chinese patient with acute hepatitis induced by this herb. A 52-year-old woman presented with weakness, fatigue, and tea-colored urine after continual consumption of the decoction of xiao-chai-hu-tang for 1.5 months. Laboratory studies disclosed acute hepatitis even though all of the viral hepatitis markers were negative. Liver biopsy also revealed a picture of acute hepatocellular hepatitis. The symptoms improved after discontinuing the drug, and liver biochemical tests normalized 2 months later. The case report reminds us of the probable adverse drug reaction of herbs, even in some that are claimed to have hepatoprotective effects.

  11. Fanconi's syndrome, interstitial fibrosis and renal failure by aristolochic acid in Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yin-Tai; Fu, Lin-Shien; Chung, Lin-Huei; Hung, Shien-Chung; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chi, Chin-Shiang

    2006-04-01

    Aristolochic acid-associated nephropathy (AAN) has been identified as a separate entity of progressive tubulo-interstitial nephropathy. Its characteristic pathological findings, including hypocellular interstitial fibrosis, intimal thickening of interlobular and afferent arterioles with glomeruli sparing or mild sclerosis, have been identified. Many cases of AAN in adults have been reported in Taiwan as well as throughout the world, but it has seldom been described in children. We report on a 10-year-old boy who presented with severe anemia, Fanconi's syndrome, and progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy revealed typical findings of AAN. Aristolochic acids I and II were identified from a Chinese herb mixture ingested by the boy. AAN was diagnosed after other etiologies had been excluded. The case demonstrates the hazards of Chinese herbs with regard to children's health in Taiwan and suggests that more attention should be paid to this issue.

  12. Development of models for classification of action between heat-clearing herbs and blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs based on theory of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Cao, Yanfeng; He, Shuaibing; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Action (" gongxiao " in Chinese) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the high recapitulation for therapeutic and health-preserving effects under the guidance of TCM theory. TCM-defined herbal properties (" yaoxing " in Chinese) had been used in this research. TCM herbal property (TCM-HP) is the high generalization and summary for actions, both of which come from long-term effective clinical practice in two thousands of years in China. However, the specific relationship between TCM-HP and action of TCM is complex and unclear from a scientific perspective. The research about this is conducive to expound the connotation of TCM-HP theory and is of important significance for the development of the TCM-HP theory. One hundred and thirty-three herbs including 88 heat-clearing herbs (HCHs) and 45 blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs (BAHRHs) were collected from reputable TCM literatures, and their corresponding TCM-HPs/actions information were collected from Chinese pharmacopoeia (2015 edition). The Kennard-Stone (K-S) algorithm was used to split 133 herbs into 100 calibration samples and 33 validation samples. Then, machine learning methods including supported vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and deep learning methods including deep belief network (DBN), convolutional neutral network (CNN) were adopted to develop action classification models based on TCM-HP theory, respectively. In order to ensure robustness, these four classification methods were evaluated by using the method of tenfold cross validation and 20 external validation samples for prediction. As results, 72.7-100% of 33 validation samples including 17 HCHs and 16 BASRHs were correctly predicted by these four types of methods. Both of the DBN and CNN methods gave out the best results and their sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy were all 100.00%. Especially, the predicted results of external validation set showed that the performance of deep learning methods (DBN, CNN) were better

  13. Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.

    OpenAIRE

    Abahussain NA; Abahussain EA; Al-Oumi FM

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal informati...

  14. Detection of Parasitic Contamination in Ready to Eat Fresh Packaged Herbs Sold in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-09-01

    Results: In the current study, 8.5% of samples were reported to have parasitic contamination. Cyst and oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp (4%, Giardia spp (3% and Entamoeba spp (1.5% were identified in the present study. Conclusion: The study findings highlighted the potentiality of fresh ready-to-eat packaged herbs to serve as a transmission vehicle for parasites. In addition, this study demonstrated the washing method used by manufacturer of this product was not appropriate.

  15. Noncorrelated effects of seed predation and pollination on the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora remain spatially consistent

    OpenAIRE

    Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Salinas-Peba, Luis; Herrera, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    By simultaneously manipulating both seed predator and pollinator effects on the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora at two sites in Yucatan (Mexico), the present study evaluated (1) whether a correlation (interaction) existed between seed predator and pollinator effects on R. nudiflora seed production and (2) whether such an interaction varied geographically. We used three populations per site, and a total of 20 plants per population (N = 120). Groups of five plants wer...

  16. diversite floristique et degre d'infestation par les mauvaises herbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    installer des cultures. Or, il est reconnu que là où l'homme crée un environnement artificiel pour les cultures, les mauvaises herbes s'installent inévitablement ..... nord-cameroun. Weed Reseach 35 ;. 89 - 98. Lebreton G. et T. Le Bourgeois. 2005. Analyse comparée de la flore en culture d'ananas et de canne à sucre à la ...

  17. 18C. Chinese Herbs Cured a Kidney Calculus—A Retrospective Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is referred to as holistic or complementary and alternative medicine. Herbal remedy plays the main role of TCM. It has been widely used in preventive measures and treatment modalities for all stages of illness. Here is a retrospective case report about herb healing the kidney stone and improving type II diabetes and hypertension. Patient, Method and Result: A male, 46 years old, chief complaint: intermit...

  18. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  19. Potential herb-drug interactions found in a community pharmacy patients

    OpenAIRE

    C. Batista; C. Pinho; M. Castel-Branco; M. Caramona; I. Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Phytotherapy has always played a leading role in therapeutics. However, a strong knowledge of the risk-benefit relationship of herbal products by patients and health professionals is necessary. The goals of this study were to characterize the consumption pattern of medicinal plants in patients in a community pharmacy, identify potential herb-drug interactions, and establish a list of recommendations for health professionals and/or patients in order to prevent/minimize negative outcomes arisin...

  20. Nutrient Management in Aquaponics: Comparison of Three Approaches for Cultivating Lettuce, Mint and Mushroom Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Nozzi; Andreas Graber; Zala Schmautz; Alex Mathis; Ranka Junge

    2018-01-01

    Nutrients that are contained in aquaculture effluent may not supply sufficient levels of nutrients for proper plant development and growth in hydroponics; therefore, they need to be supplemented. To determine the required level of supplementation, three identical aquaponic systems (A, B, and C) and one hydroponic system (D) were stocked with lettuce, mint, and mushroom herbs. The aquaponic systems were stocked with Nile tilapia. System A only received nutrients derived from fish feed; system ...

  1. Comparison of the protective effects of seven selected herbs against oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Wen Chang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the protective effects of the water extracts of seven herbs, including Solanum indicum L., Mallotus repandus (Wild Muell-Arg. (MRM, Bombax malabarica DC (BMDC, Tadehagi triquetrum (L. Ohashi (TTLO, Clinacanthus nutans (Burm f. Lindau, Salvia plebeia R. Br (SPRB, Ixeris chinensis Mak (ICM, against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in Clone 9 cells. Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of water extracts from seven herbs, reducing ability, metal-chelating activity and radical-scavenging activity such as 2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were determined. In cellular systems, t-BHP was used as a model oxidant to induce oxidative stress. 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate and chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate were used as fluorescence probe to determine reactive oxygen species generation and glutathione level in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells, respectively. In addition, total tannins, total anthocyanins, total polyphenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results: According to the data obtained from the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method, DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing ability determination, MRM, SPRB, and BMDC showed relatively high antioxidant properties while TTLO and ICM were in the middle and Solanum indicum and Clinacanthus nutans had relatively low activity. In cellular model systems, SPRB, BMDC, and TTLO showed higher protective effects against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. BMDC, ICM, and TTLO displayed higher inhibitory effects on reactive oxygen species generation in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells. In addition, SPRB, MRM, and BMDC showed significantly positive modulated glutathione levels. Tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids and polyphenolics were present in the herbs, which may in part contribute to regulating the oxidative stress. Conclusions: These results indicated that the seven

  2. Essential oils from herbs against foodborne pathogens in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella Silva; Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Bérgamo Alves, Fernanda Cristina; Albano, Mariana; Mores Rall, Vera Lucia; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat and its products, especially sausage, have increased in recent years. However, this product is susceptible to microbial contamination during manufacturing, which compromises its shelf life. The flavoring and preservative activities of essential oils (EO) have been recognized and the application of these antimicrobial agents as natural active compounds in food preservation has shown promise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare EO on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis strains in artificially inoculated samples of fresh chicken sausage. First, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO in vitro was determined. The sausage was prepared and kept at ± 4°C; then, the inoculation of individual bacteria was carried out. EO were added at 0.3%, 1.0% and 1.5%v/w. After 0, 5, and 24 hours, the most probable number method (MPN) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to view the damage caused by these EO on bacterial morphology and/or structure. Only the 1.5% concentration was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes. 0.3% of O. vulgare EO was able to reduce the MPN/g of Salmonella Enteritidis (2 log) after 5 hours trials. O. basilicum EO showed no effect on Salmonella after 5 hours, but decreased by 2 log after 24 hours. O. vulgare EO at 1% gave a greater reduction of S. Enteritidis at 5 hours, increasing or maintaining this effect after 24 hours. The results confirmed the potential benefits of use EO in control of foodborne pathogens.

  3. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  4. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been

  5. Performance Evaluation of the Naval Research Laboratory COAMPS on the Forecast of Typhoon Herb in the Western Pacific in 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Melinda

    1997-01-01

    ... Herb that hit Taiwan island and caused severe damage. Performance of the COAMPS on the track forecast, wind and precipitation forecast, and interaction of the typhoon with topography is evaluated and analyzed.

  6. Accumulation of some heavy metals in spice herbs in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalachyan, L.M.; Kocharyan, K.A.; Aristakesyan, A.A.; Asatryan, A.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Peculiarities of some heavy metals (HM), (Mn, Ni, Ti, V, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, Cr, Zr) accumulation have been studied in spice herbs (basil, dill, coriander, savory) grown in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat Valley. It turned out that the amount of HM content in spice herbs grown in open-air hydroponic conditions was less than in the ones grown in soil conditions. The content of Pb and Ni in spice herbs exceeded the allowed concentration limits (ACL), especially in soil plants. Practical recommendations on obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been prepared. The biotechnological hydroponics method of producing spice herbs in the Ararat Valley is ecologically more beneficial than the soil method. Practical proposals of obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been developed

  7. Changes in the species composition and structure of the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest subject to clear cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronim Andrzejewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest (Potentillo albae-Quercetum, subject to clear cutting and artificial reforestation with Scotch pine monoculture, were analysed by a comparative method. It was found that cutting of a tree stand and underbrush did not destroy phytocoenose totally. Floristically-rich clearance communities resembled in their composition and structure the ground layer of an natural form of an oak forest. The regress of the herb layer took place several years later in a young pine stand. Then, a compact tree canopy highly restricted light inflow to the bottom of a forest. Later, thinning of a forest stand enabled the herb layer to regenerate. Nevertheless, even 60 years after clear cutting it significantly differed from the herb layer of a natural oak forest.

  8. Nutrient Management in Aquaponics: Comparison of Three Approaches for Cultivating Lettuce, Mint and Mushroom Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nozzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients that are contained in aquaculture effluent may not supply sufficient levels of nutrients for proper plant development and growth in hydroponics; therefore, they need to be supplemented. To determine the required level of supplementation, three identical aquaponic systems (A, B, and C and one hydroponic system (D were stocked with lettuce, mint, and mushroom herbs. The aquaponic systems were stocked with Nile tilapia. System A only received nutrients derived from fish feed; system B received nutrients from fish feed as well as weekly supplements of micronutrients and Fe; system C received the same nutrients as B, with weekly supplements of the macronutrients, P and K; in system D, a hydroponic inorganic solution containing N, Ca, and the same nutrients as system C was added weekly. Lettuce achieved the highest yields in system C, mint in system B, and mushroom herb in systems A and B. The present study demonstrated that the nutritional requirements of the mint and mushroom herb make them suitable for aquaponic farming because they require low levels of supplement addition, and hence little management effort, resulting in minimal cost increases. While the addition of supplements accelerated the lettuce growth (Systems B, C, and even surpassed the growth in hydroponic (System C vs. D, the nutritional quality (polyphenols, nitrate content was better without supplementation.

  9. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Tsao, Sai-Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li KaShing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Yibin, E-mail: yfeng@hku.hk [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-24

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.

  10. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; 甘菊花 gān jú huā, Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; 山楂 shān zhā, and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; 洛神 luò shén showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  11. In vitro antioxidation activity and genoprotective effect of selected Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Shirley Ching Yee; Wong, Julia Wai Ming; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2011-01-01

    Some traditional Chinese medicinal seeds and fruits are well known for their antioxidant properties. This research aims to investigate whether Fructus Lycii, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Semen Cuscutae protect DNA from oxidant challenge by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The standard comet assay was used to assess the genoprotective effect of these medicinal herbs. Blood was taken from three healthy adults, aged from 36 to 42. Lymphocytes were isolated and treated with different concentrations of aqueous herbal extracts, while controls were treated with phosphate buffered saline. The lymphocytes were stressed with 50 μM H(2)O(2). Treated cells were embedded in agarose and layered on slides. These sandwiched lymphocytes were lysed and afterwards subjected to an electric field in an alkaline environment. Damaged DNA was pulled out from the nucleus towards the positive electrode as a comet tail; its density was related to the degree of DNA damage. Finally, the slides were stained with fluorescence dye and tails were visually scored for 100 cells. The experiment was repeated three times and DNA damage in treated cells was compared to the controls. There was no statistical difference in DNA damage among the herb treated cells and untreated cells in the comet assay. Our data demonstrated that the selected medicinal herbs did not show in vitro DNA protection in the comet assay against oxidant challenge.

  12. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  13. Analysis of the Detection Characteristics of Irradiated Dried Spices and Herbs by Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E.R.; Kang, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; An, K.A.; Cho, S.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, D.H.; Kang, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to determine whether Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL) is applicable for the detection of post-irradiated foods by measuring the PSL photon counts of unirradiated and irradiated dried spices and herbs. A total of 19 dried spices and herbs was irradiated with a ∨60Co γ-ray source at 1, 5 and 10 kGy followed by measurement of PSL photon. The photon counts of unirradiated samples below 700 correspond to negative. Fifteen samples irradiated over 1 kGy showed photon counts of more than 5,000, indicating irradiation treatment. Intermediate counts (photon count 700-5,000) were observed in irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark at 10 kGy. These results suggest that it is possible to detect whether dried spices and herbs were irradiated by analyzing PSL, with the exception of white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark. Irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark containing low levels of minerals were not sensitive to PSL. Therefore, further investigation is suggested to be performed by Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis or another validated or standardized method

  14. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  15. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Moser, C; Høiby, N

    1996-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of two kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs, Isatis tinctoria L (ITL) and Daphne giraldii Nitsche (DGN), on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF). Compared to the control group, both drugs were able to reduce the incidence of lung abscess (p < 0.05) and to decrease the severity of the macroscopic pathology in lungs (p < 0.05). In the great majority of the rats, the herbs altered the inflammatory response in the lungs from an acute type inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), to a chronic type inflammation, dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (MN). DGN also improved the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs (p < 0.03) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the two herbal groups with regard to serum IgG and IgA anti-P. aeruginosa sonicate antibodies. However, the IgM concentration in the ITL group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.03). These results suggest that the two medicinal herbs might be helpful to CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection, DGN being the most favorable.

  16. Natural Compounds from Herbs that can Potentially Execute as Autophagy Inducers for Cancer Therapy

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    Shian-Ren Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence indicates that autophagy is a response of cancer cells to various anti-cancer therapies. Autophagy is designated as programmed cell death type II, and is characterized by the formation of autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Numerous herbs, including Chinese herbs, have been applied to cancer treatments as complementary and alternative medicines, supplements, or nutraceuticals to dampen the side or adverse effects of chemotherapy drugs. Moreover, the tumor suppressive actions of herbs and natural products induced autophagy that may lead to cell senescence, increase apoptosis-independent cell death or complement apoptotic processes. Hereby, the underlying mechanisms of natural autophagy inducers are cautiously reviewed in this article. Additionally, three natural compounds—curcumin, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide, and prodigiosin—are presented as candidates for autophagy inducers that can trigger cell death in a supplement or alternative medicine for cancer therapy. Despite recent advancements in therapeutic drugs or agents of natural products in several cancers, it warrants further investigation in preclinical and clinical studies.

  17. Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Rozanova (Torshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic therapy (CT is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo. In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G2/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20–40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer.

  18. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products

  19. Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R.H. Whittaker revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman

    2011-01-01

    In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.

  20. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrin, E.; Winarno, H.; Yulianti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 10 9 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 10 8 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC 50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 10 8 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

  1. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Yui Kau Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%. Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n=17, followed by food (n=10, dietary supplements (n=3, and other herbs/botanicals (n=3. Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients’ therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.

  2. Data-driven analysis of biomedical literature suggests broad-spectrum benevolence of culinary herbs and spices

    OpenAIRE

    K, Rakhi; Tuwani, Rudraksh; Mukherjee, Jagriti; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Spices and herbs are key dietary ingredients used across cultures worldwide. Beyond their use as flavoring and coloring agents, the popularity of these aromatic plant products in culinary preparations has been attributed to their antimicrobial properties. Last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of biomedical literature investigating the impact of spices and herbs on health, presenting an opportunity to mine for patterns from empirical evidence. Systematic investigation of empiri...

  3. Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Scollard, Johann

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a ...

  4. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  5. Liver toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 2 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No online current list of potentially life-threatening, hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements based on PubMed case reports exists in a summarized tabular form. Documented case reports of herbs or dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) appearing to contribute to liver injury were used to create an online "DS Toxic Table" of potentially hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements (PubMed, 1966 to June, 2016, and cross-referencing). The spectrum of DS induced liver injuries (DSILI) included elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis, steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis, veno-occlusive disease, acute liver failure requiring a liver transplant, and death. Over the past 50 years, approximately 21 herbs (minus germander and usnic acid that are no longer sold) and 12 dietary supplements (minus the nine no longer sold and vitamin A & niacin due to excess intake) posed a possible risk for liver injures in certain individuals. The herbs with the most number of reported publications (but not cases studies) in descending order, were germander, black cohosh, kava extract, and green tea extract. These online DS Toxic Tables will contribute to continued Phase IV post marketing surveillance to detect possible liver toxicity cases and serve to forewarn consumers, clinicians, and corporations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-tumorigenic activity of five culinary and medicinal herbs grown under greenhouse conditions and their combination effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weiguang; Wetzstein, Hazel Y

    2011-08-15

    Herbs and spices have been used as food preservatives, flavorings, and in traditional medicines for thousands of years. More and more scientific evidence supports the medicinal properties of culinary herbs. Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the USA, and the fourth most common form of cancer worldwide. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antitumor activity of five selected herbs grown under greenhouse conditions, and to study the potential synergistic effects among different herbal extract combinations. Thyme, rosemary, sage, spearmint, and peppermint extracts significantly inhibited SW-480 colon cancer cell growth, with sage extracts exhibiting the highest bioactivity, with 50% inhibition at 35.9 µg mL⁻¹, which was equivalent to 93.9 µg dried leaves mL⁻¹ of culture medium. Some mixtures of different herbal extracts had combination effects on cancer cell growth. The inhibitory effects of peppermint + sage combinations at a 1:1 ratio were significantly higher than rosemary + sage combinations at 1:1 ratio, although peppermint extracts showed lower inhibition than rosemary extracts. Extracts from herb species (thyme, rosemary, sage, spearmint and peppermint) can significantly inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Mixtures of herb extracts can have combination effects on cancer cell growth. The study suggests that these five herbs may have potential health benefits to suppress colon cancer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10 2 to l.4 x 10 8 per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10 2 to 4.3 x 10 6 per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10 1 to 1.9 x 10 5 per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

  8. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setuko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10{sup 2} to l.4 x 10{sup 8} per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10{sup 2} to 4.3 x 10{sup 6} per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10{sup 1} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 k

  9. Comparative analysis of main bio-active components in the herb pair Danshen-Honghua and its single herbs by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cheng; Pu, Zong-Jin; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Yue, Shi-Jun; Li, Jian-Ping; Shang, Li-Li; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Xu-Qin; Liu, Pei; Guo, Jian-Ming; Sun, Jing; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-09-01

    A sensitive, reliable, and powerful ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous quantification of the 15 main bio-active components including phenolic acids and flavonoids within 13 min for the first time. The proposed method was first reported and validated by good linearity (r 2  > 0.9975), limit of detection (1.12-7.01 ng/mL), limit of quantification (3.73-23.37 ng/mL), intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD ≤ 1.92%, RSD ≤ 2.45%), stability (RSD ≤ 5.63%), repeatability (RSD ≤ 4.34%), recovery (96.84-102.12%), and matrix effects (0.92-1.02). The established analytical methodology was successfully applied to comparative analysis of main bio-active components in the herb pair Danshen-Honghua and its single herbs. Compared to the single herb, the content of most flavonoid glycosides was remarkably increased in their herb pair, and main phenolic acids were decreased, conversely. The content changes of the main components in the herb pair supported the synergistic effects on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. The results provide a scientific basis and reference for the quality control of Danshen-Honghua herb pair and the drug interactions based on variation of bio-active components in herb pairs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-02

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria

  11. The amino acid composition of Polygonum hydropiper L. and Polygonum persicaria L. herbs of Ukrainian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lukina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids belong to the primary synthesis substances that are found in above-ground and underground organs of almost all flowering plants, are synthesized from simple inorganic compounds and are involved in the synthesis of proteins, coenzymes, flavonoids, steroidal compounds, polyphenols, complex carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and pigments. They are present in plants in easily digestible complexes and biologically available concentrations for a human body, and therefore have higher physiological activity comparing with synthetic analogues. Plant amino acids play an important role in the functioning of various systems and organs of the human body and are characterized by distinct pharmacological properties, as well as contribute to more rapid absorption and potentiate the effect of other biologically active compounds present in plants. Thisdetermines the relevance of selecting most valuable species of plants that contain amino acids complex. The aim of research is to study the qualitative composition and quantitative content of free and bound amino acids in the protein in Polygonum hydropiper L. and Polygonum persicaria L. herbs of Ukrainian flora. Materials and methods. Polygonum hydropiper L. and Polygonum persicaria L. herbs were collected in the summer during the phase of mass flowering (July - August 2013,VolodymyrivkaVillage, Zaporozhye Region. To confirm the qualitative composition and to detect the quantitative content of free and bound amino an acid in protein a methodology proposed by Stein and Moore, has been used; a high-performance liquid chromatograph, Model AAA 881 (Czech Republic has been used. Results. In conducting the research the content of free and bound 15 amino acids, of which 9 are essentialhas been established. Qualitative composition of the substances in both studied species was fully identified. During the experiment the content of the total amount of free and bound amino acids was established. In Polygonum hydropiper

  12. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate composta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina

  13. The phenomenon of microscale flow and mass transfer in medicinal herb materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H.; Di, Q.Q.; Sun, M.D. [Tianjin Univ., Tianjin (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Zhang, T.J.; Gong, S.X. [Tianjin Inst. of Pharmaceutical Research, Tianjin (China)

    2008-07-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is a combination of a microwave technique and conventional solvent extraction used in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. The effective component of medicinal herbs is mostly cellular material which can be released via solvent extraction. The material is diffused to solvents via the porous membrane wall. The structure of herb morphology and characteristics of the solute's molecular weight play an important role in the extraction process of target compounds. Astragalus pieces were chosen for this study in which an ultra-filtration membrane method was used to determine the molecular weight distribution characteristics of Astragalus water extraction liquid in the process of MAE. The fine structure of matrix materials was also characterized by scanning election microscopy (SEM). The phenomenon of mass flow and mass transfer in the plant porous media was discussed along with the enhancement mechanism of microwave field on medicinal plant solvent extraction. The results showed that the water-soluble components in the parenchyma cells of Astragalus pieces pass through the plasmodesma with a diameter of 10 nm to adjacent cell, then through an aperture with a diameter of 0.1 {mu}m to 1 {mu}m into a trachea with a diameter of about 10 {mu}m. The water-soluble components then come onto the surface of matrix material and the main solution via the trachea. The main mass transfer occurs by the trachea and its aperture. It was concluded that in order to promote the dissolution of effective components in medicinal herb in the extraction process, a suitable extraction technology is needed to maintain the permeability of transportation tissue and parenchyma in materials. 11 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Angelova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by МТТ cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 μg/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

  15. Topical symphytum herb concentrate cream against myalgia: a randomized controlled double-blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horàcek, Ondrej; Kàlal, Jan; Kucera, Alexander; Hladìkova, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness and tolerability of the topical Symphytum product Traumaplant (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested against a 1% reference product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n=111). The primary efficacy parameter in this double-blind, reference- controlled, randomized, multicenter study of 215 patients with pain in the lower and upper back was pain in motion, assessed with the aid of a visual analogue scale. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain at rest, pain on palpation, and functional impairment. With high concentrations of the treatment product, amelioration of pain on active motion (P<5 x 10 -9 ), pain at rest (P<.001), and pain on palpation (P=5 x 10 -5 ) was significantly more pronounced than that attained with the reference product and was clinically highly relevant. A number needed to treat of 3.2 was calculated from the study results. Global efficacy was significantly better (P=1 x 10 -8 ) and onset of effects was faster (P=4 x 10 -7 ) with the high-concentration product. Tolerability of the highly concentrated study product was good to excellent in all patients. Study results confirm the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical (Symphytum cream. As a new finding, applicability in certain forms of back pain can be concluded.

  16. Preliminary design characteristics of the RB fast-thermal core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 'RB' is zero power heavy water critical assembly designed in 1958 in Yugoslavia. The reactor operated using natural metal uranium, 2% enriched metal uranium, and 80% enriched UO 2 fuel of Soviet origin. A study of design of fast neutron fields began in 1976 and three fast neutron fields were designed up to 1983: the external neutron converter, the experimental fuel channel and the internal neutron converter, as the first step to fast-thermal coupled system. The preliminary design characteristics of the HERBE - a new fast - thermal core at the RB reactor are shown in this paper. (author)

  17. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod K

    2012-03-01

    Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.

  18. Acupuncture combined with Chinese herbs for the treatment in hemivertebral French bulldogs with emergent paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Ming Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study follows the treatment of six French bulldogs with paraparesis caused by congenital hemivertebra which were structurally mild but clinically severe. A standardized acupuncture (針灸 zhēn jiǔ treatment using Hua-Tuo-Jiaji (HTJJ as local points and other distant points combined with Chinese herbs improved the clinical signs. Few, if any, published papers mention Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM for treatment of hemivertebral paraparesis in French bulldogs. Based on the rapid treatment outcome, we encourage practitioners to integrate this form of conservative management into emergency treatment.

  19. Vasodilatory Effects of Combined Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Optimized Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yean Chun; Tan, Chu Shan; Ch'ng, Yung Sing; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yam, Mun Fei

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a new syndromic disease combination theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for hypertensive treatment has been introduced. In the wake of this new concept, a new science-based TCM formula that counteracts various syndromes is needed. The objective of this study was to develop such a formula. Five of the most clinically prescribed TCM herbs that work on different syndromes, namely Gastrodia elata, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Pueraria thomsonii, Panax notoginseng, and Alisma orientale, were selected for this study. The fingerprints of these five herbs were analyzed by tri-step Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Three different solvents, 95% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and distilled water, were used for the maceration of the herbs and their vasodilatory effects were studied using in vitro precontracted aortic ring model. Among these, the 50% ethanolic extracts of G. elata (GE50) and A. orientale (AO50), and 95% ethanolic extracts of U. rhynchophylla (UR95), P. thomsonii (PT95), and P. notoginseng (PN95) were found to be the most effective for eliciting vasodilation. Thus, these five extracts were used for orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group studies by using L 25 (5 5 ) formula. The best combination ratio for GE50, UR95, PT95, PN95, and AO50, which was assigned as Formula 1 (F1), was found at EC 0 , EC 25 , EC 20 , EC 20 , and EC 10 , respectively. The vasodilatory effect of the extracts prepared from different extraction methods using F1 ratio was also studied. From the results, the EC 50 and R max of total 50% ethanolic extract of five herbs using F1 ratio (F1-2) were 0.028 ± 0.005 mg/mL and 101.71% ± 3.64%, with better values than F1 (0.104 ± 0.014 mg/mL and 97.80% ± 3.12%, respectively). In conclusion, the optimum ratio and appropriate extraction method (F1-2) for the new TCM formula were revealed.

  20. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan; Walker, Emer A.

    2013-01-01

    on invaded soil, in Poa trivialis with H. mantegazzianum seed extract, and negative effects of the essential oil bergapten were found in three species. In P. trivialis the results of the seed extract were not supported by the experiment with added seeds of the invasive plant. Thus, there is limited evidence...... mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica...

  1. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schröder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan, Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto, Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto, and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto. The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN.

  2. [Effects of ingredients from Chinese herbs with nature of cold or hot on expression of TRPV1 and TRPM8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Feng; Yang, Na; Zhang, Changbin; Du, Xinliang; Li, Lanfang; Weng, Xiaogang; Guo, Shuying; Huo, Hairu; Jiang, Tingliang

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of the ingredients from Chinese herbs with the nature of cold or hot on the expression of TRPV1 and TRPM8. The effects of ingredients from herbs on primary culture DRG neurons are observed in vitro. The expression quantity of gene is detected by the method of real time PCR. the 2 (-deltadeltaCT) method is applied to analyze the data. Ingredients from herbs with the nature of cold up-regulate the expression level of TRPV1 and down-regulate that of TRPM8, especially under the temperature condition of 39 degrees C; while ingredients from herbs with the nature of hot up-regulate the expression level of TRPM8 and down-regulated that of TRPV1, which is more significant under the temperature condition of 19 degrees C. The regulatory changes of TRPV1 and TRPM8 mRNA expression induced by the chemical ingredients might be related to the cold and hot natures of the herbs from which the ingredients are extracted. And this could be one of the therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of Chinese herbal medicines to cold- and heat-related diseases.

  3. Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

    2012-03-01

    A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 μg kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens.

  4. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimoelja, A

    2000-01-01

    Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action to the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscine to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component Protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent results found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc.

  5. [Immune mechanisms of the active ingredients of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu-chun; Xue, Jian-guo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis is a common male disease, and its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Most scholars believe that oxidative stress and immune imbalance are the keys to the occurrence and progression of chronic prostatitis. Currently immunotherapy of chronic prostatitis remains in the exploratory stage. This article relates the active ingredients of 5 Chinese medicinal herbs (total glucosides of paeony, tripterigium wilfordii polglycosidium, curcumin, geniposide, and quercetin) for the treatment of chronic prostatitis and their possible action mechanisms as follows: 1) inhibiting the immune response and activation and proliferation of T-cells, and adjusting the proportion of Th1/Th2 cells; 2) upregulating the expression of Treg and enhancing the patient's tolerability; 3) suppressing the activation of the NF-kB factor, reducing the release of iNOS, and further decreasing the release of NO, IL-2 and other inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to the suppression of the immune response; 4) inhibiting the production of such chemokines as MCP-1 and MIP-1α in order to reduce their induction of inflammatory response. Studies on the immune mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs in the treatment of chronic prostatitis are clinically valuable for the development of new drugs for this disease.

  6. Who invented the dichotomous key? Richard Waller's watercolors of the herbs of Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Lawrence R

    2011-12-01

    On 27 March 1689, Richard Waller, Fellow and Secretary of the Royal Society presented his "Tables of the English Herbs reduced to such an order, as to find the name of them by their external figures and shapes" to his assembled colleagues at a meeting of the Royal Society. These tables were developed for the novice by being color images, composed in pencil and watercolor, of selected plants and their distinguishing characteristics. The botanical watercolors for the tables are now a Turning-the-Pages document online on the website of the Royal Society. However, for the past 320 years, the scientific context for the creation of these outstanding botanical watercolors has remained obscure. These tables were developed by Waller as an image-based dichotomous key, pre-dating by almost 100 years the text-based dichotomous keys in the first edition of Flora Française (1778) by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, who is generally given priority for the development of the dichotomous key. How these large folio images were arranged to illustrate a dichotomous key is unknown, but an arrangement based on Waller's description is illustrated here as leaf-ordering for the separate hierarchical clusters (tables). Although only 24 species of watercolored dicot herbs out of a total of 65 in the set of watercolors (the others being monocots) are used in these tables, they are a "proof of concept", serving as models upon which a method is based, that of using a key composed of dichotomous choices for aiding identification.

  7. Functional and chemical stability of a medicinal herb, Artemisia capillaris, following gamma sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Bae, Mun Hyoung; Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The stability of functional and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated (10 kGy) Artemisia capillaris, a widely used herb in the traditional Oriental medicine, was investigated. Functional properties of the extracts of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris were compared in antioxidant activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and protection of lymphocyte and plasmid DNA. Their chemical properties were assessed by HPLC analysis, comparing with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, which were isolated from ethylacetate fraction as major compounds with strong antioxidant activities. No significant difference in functional properties between irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris was found in all antioxidant assays. Also HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris revealed the preservation of chlorogenic acid ({sub t}R=3.124 min) and caffeic acid ({sub t}R=3.672 min), and showed almost the same pattern in the general peaks. These results suggest that the chemical components and antioxidant properties of A. capillaris are not affected largely by gamma-ray irradiation. Therefore, this study may provide evidence that the irradiated herbs retain their potential functional properties.

  8. Use of Plant and Herb Derived Medicine for Therapeutic Usage in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ye Eun; Song, Jiwon; Bae, Soochan

    2018-04-22

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become prominent in mortality and morbidity rates. Prevalent cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and oxidative stress, are increasing at an alarming rate. Conventional drugs have been associated with adverse effects, suggesting a need for an alternative measure to ameliorate CVD. A number of plant- and herb-derived preventative food and therapeutic drugs for cardiovascular conditions are progressively used for their various benefits. Naturally derived food and drugs have fewer side effects because they come from natural elements; preventative food, such as grape seed, inhibits changes of histopathology and biomarkers in vital organs whereas therapeutic drugs, for instance Xanthone, improve heart functions by suppressing oxidative stress of myocyte. This review closely examines the various plant- and herb-derived drugs that have assumed an essential role in treating inflammation and oxidative stress for prevalent cardiovascular conditions. Furthermore, the use of plant-derived medicine with other synthetic particles, such as nanoparticles, for targeted therapy is investigated for its effective clinical use in the future.

  9. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    Longo Vital® herbal tablets have been shown to have a protective effect against periodontal bone loss in rats. This may be ascribed either to a previously demonstrated immuno-stimulatory effect of the tablets, to an antimicrobial effect of the herbs or to a combination of both. In the present study...... the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per...... cent, 1.6-25 per cent and 12.5-100 per cent of the recommended daily dose, respectively. A combination of paprika and rosemary leaves tested towards five susceptible bacteria revealed a decreased inhibitory effect on two of these bacteria, especially of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to paprika...

  10. Availability of essential trace elements in medicinal herbs used for diabetes mellitus and their possible correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, R.P.; Garg, A.N.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2008-01-01

    Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Further, Ni, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Elemental data were validated by simultaneously analyzing reference material (RM), MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs. Several elements such as Cr and V (1-2 μg/g), Rb (10-40 μg/g), Cs (80-300 ng/g), Se (∼100 ng/g) and Zn (25-60 μg/g) play an important role in diabetes mellitus. Interelemental linear correlations have been observed for Cu vs. Zn (r = 0.89) and Rb vs. Cs (r 0.87). K/P ratio varies in a narrow range with a mean value of 6.2±1.4. Toxic elements As and Hg were found in <1 μg/g whereas Cd and Pb were in ∼5 μg/g and <10 μg/g, respectively. (author)

  11. Determination of elemental composition of some aphrodisiac herbs by Nuclear Analytical Technique (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, L.; Okunade, I.O.; Balogun, G.I.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties were collected in the form of leaves, stem bark, nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots, between 25th September 2009 and 15 October 2009. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of thirteen aphrodisiac herbs used to treat the problem of Sexual dysfunction. Concentrations of twenty two elements AI, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, and Zn have been determined by short and long irradiation times with a thermal neutron flux of 5* 1011ncm-2s-1. Quality control and quality assurance of the method was tested by analyzing IAEA-359 and SRM-1573 together with the samples. The INAA spectra were analyzed using WINSPAN 2004 software package. Our result shows that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn (669±34 g g-1) which is more than the amount (95.0 g g-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The level of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, is 599 g g-1 and 702 g g-1 respectively. These values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng and Radix codonopsis. For all the species of the same family the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. The present study can be use to some extent to assess the safety intake of aphrodisiac herbs in the final formulation.

  12. Influence of void effects on reactivity of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Milovanovic, S.; Milovanovic, T.; Cuknic, O.

    1997-01-01

    Coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at the experimental zero power heavy water reactor RB is a system with the significant effects of the neutron leakage and neutron absorption. Presence of a coolant void introduces a new structure in an extremely heterogeneous core. In those conditions satisfactory results of the calculation are acquired only using specified space-energy homogenization procedure. In order to analyze transient appearances and accidental cases of the reactor systems, a procedure for modeling of influence of moderator and coolant loss on reactivity ('void effect') is developed. Reduction of the moderator volume fraction in some fuel channels due to air gaps or steam generation during the accidental moderator boiling, restricts validity of the diffusion approximation in the reactor calculations. In cases of high neutron flux gradients, which are consequence of high neutron absorption, application of diffusion approximation is questionable too. The problem may be solved using transport or Monte Carlo methods, but they are not acceptable in the routine applications. Applying new techniques based on space-energy core homogenization, such as the SPH method or the discontinuity factor method, diffusion calculations become acceptable. Calculations based on the described model show that loss of part of moderator medium introduce negative reactivity in the HERBE system. Calculated local void reactivity coefficients are used in safety analysis of hypothetical accidents

  13. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality control aspects of herbs and botanicals in developing countries: Coleus forskohlii Briq a case study

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    Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current trend of commercialization of herbal medicines draw a huge need of maintaining their quality. The declaration of quality, safety and efficacy of medicinal plants as well as poly-herbal formulations has become an important issue. Hence, qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbal drugs and formulations viz., fingerprint profiles and quantification of the various markers become key factors of quality control. Materials and Methods: Present investigation is a detailed report for quality control of well-known herb Coleus forskohlii Briq, which includes physicochemical parameter determination, safety evaluation, microscropical evaluation, and chromatographic fingerprinting as well. Results: Physico-chemical characters were evaluated according to Indian Pharmacopoeia, further microscopic evaluation of transverse section of Coleus reveals that periderm, secondary phloem, and wide secondary xylem cylinder, which occupies major portion of the root fragmentary. Chromatographic fingerprint profiles of Coleus have been generated, and a marker based standardization strategy was adopted; using different analytical technique like high-performance thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to maintain quality and ensure safety as well as efficacy. Conclusion: These advancements in modern techniques of analysis can lead to effective quality control of Coleus as well as other herbs. Present report can act as pioneer for quality control of modern herbal medicine.

  15. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

    2007-01-01

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications

  16. The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

    2014-08-01

    Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P spices to reduced fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The economic possibilities and perspectives of aromatic and medicinal herbs (Satureja kitaibelii

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    Jelenković Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy in Serbia has not been working at its full capacity for a long time, which had left a great mark in economic stability of the country. The good side is that the environment pollution is less than in case of its full capacity. Therefore there shouldn't try to achieve the developed technologies at all costs, but it should orient to the utmost to agriculture and food production. Economically high developed countries pay a lot of attention to the healthy way of life and nutrition, and therefore the market, on which would sell the food products from Serbia, are with characteristic brand and undoubtable quality. Owing to the expressed trend for the healthy way of living, more and more people in high developed countries turn to aromatic and medicinal herbs which they use as spices, for therapeutic or medicinal purposes. Such trend shows also various industry branches, and they increasingly base their production on natural products. Hereof the aromatic and medicinal herbs start being more and more important economic resource of those countries which have them.

  18. Extensive mass spectrometry proteomics data of Persicaria minor herb upon methyl jasmonate treatment

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    Wan Mohd Aizat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics is often hindered by the lack of protein sequence database particularly for non-model species such as Persicaria minor herbs. An integrative approach called proteomics informed by transcriptomics is possible [1], in which translated transcriptome sequence database is used as the protein sequence database. In this current study, the proteome profile were profiled using SWATH-MS technology complemented with documented transcriptome profiling [2], the first such report in this tropical herb. The plant was also elicited using a phytohormone, methyl jasmonate (MeJA and protein changes were elucidated using label-free quantification of SWATH-MS to understand the role of such signal molecule in this herbal species. The mass spectrometry proteomics data was deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD005749. This data article refers to the article entitled “Proteomics (SWATH-MS-informed by transcriptomics approach of Persicaria minor leaves upon methyl jasmonate elicitation” [3].

  19. Enxertia herbácea em Myrtaceae nativas do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Daiane Silva Lattuada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade da técnica de enxertia herbácea em frutíferas nativas da família Myrtaceae. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Horticultura e Silvicultura/ UFRGS, em Porto Alegre. Duas espécies de Myrtaceae nativas foram usadas, tanto como porta-enxerto quanto como enxerto, Eugenia uniflora (Pitangueira e E. involucrata (Cerejeira-do-rio-grande ou Cerejeira-do-mato, totalizando quatro combinações. O método de enxertia adotado foi por garfagem em fenda cheia, em ramos herbáceos, com diâmetro médio do porta-enxerto de 0,1cm, enquanto os ramos dos enxertos apresentavam diâmetro médio entre 0,08 a 0,1cm, para as duas espécies. As análises foram quinzenais e, após 70 dias, foram analisadas estatisticamente a pega e a altura média das brotações emitidas. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental composta de cinco enxertos. Os resultados indicaram pega de 60% na combinação Pitangueira-Pitangueira (porta enxerto - enxerto. As demais combinações mostraram-se ineficientes.

  20. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche.

  1. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Chansri, Kullakanya; Kijkuokul, Pisamai; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2006-10-11

    To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

  2. The study of mineral content in Thalictrum foetidum L. herb and roots

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    E. V. Savelieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The physiological role of mineral substances is extremely important for human’s organism. It is necessary to maintain constantly the required level of irreplaceable macro- and microelements in organism, which are part of food products, mineral or mineral-vitamin complexes, medical plants and drugs on their basis. Methods and results. With the purpose to expand information about chemical composition of raw material, the qualitative composition and quantitative content of macro- and microelements in Thalictrum foetidum L. herb and roots has been determined. The atomic emission spectroscopy method has been used for research. The content of 15 macro- and microelements has been determined in Thalictrum foetidum L. herb and roots. Conclusions. Analyzing the general content of elements in raw material of Thalictrum foetidum L., sufficiently high content of neurogenic macro- and microelements (in particular, manganese, magnesium, potassium, and molybdenum has been noted. This fact makes herbal material promising for subsequent phytochemical and pharmacological research, and it can be used for new neurogenic drugs creation.

  3. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  4. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  5. Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I. O.; Abunawael, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

  6. Identifying and assessing Spice and herbs resources for tourism attractions: A case study from Banyuwangi, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study was to analyze the potentiality of spices and herbs in agrofotestry garden in Banyuwangi, Indonesia, for further rural tourism development. Fields study was set up at villages in Banyuwangi. Floristic survey, ethnobitanical studies and focus group discussion were performed to evaluate the value of spices and herbs in agroforestry gardens an its potentiality to develop as tourism product. This study found that at least 60 species of spice and herbs with its special value, in which these species has opportunities to developed as tourism attraction in agroforestry garden. There are something to see, something to buy and something to do has been described by group discussion participant. It is raging from farm tourism product, culinary tourism product and heath-wellness tourism product.

  7. Herbs with anti-lipid effects and their interactions with statins as a chemical anti- hyperlipidemia group drugs: A systematic review

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    Hojjat Rouhi-Boroujeni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present systematic review aimed to express the clinical anti-lipid effects of different types of herbs, as well as described studied interactions between herbal remedies and prescribed drugs for hyperlipidemic patients which were based on in vitro experiments, animal studies, and empirical clinical experiences. METHODS: For this systematic review, we explored 2183 published papers about herbal drugs interactions from November 1967 to August 2014, fulfilling eligibility criteria by searching in some databases such as Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane database. The main keywords used for searching included: herbal medicine, herbs, statin, lipid, and herb-drug interaction. RESULTS: Among published articles about herb-drug interactions, 185 papers met the initial search criteria and among them, 92 papers were potentially retrievable including a description of 17 herbs and medicinal plants. In first step and by reviewing all published manuscripts on beneficial effects of herbs on serum lipids level, 17 herbs were described to be effective on lipid profile as lowering serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as increasing serum high-density lipoprotein level. Some herbs such as celery could even affect the hepatic triglyceride concentrations. The herbal reaction toward different types of statins is varied so that grapefruit or pomegranate was interacted with only some types of statins, but not with all statin types. In this context, administration of herbal materials can lead to decreased absorption of statins or decreased the plasma concentration of these drugs. CONCLUSION: Various types of herbs can potentially reduce serum lipid profile with the different pathways; however, the herb-drug interactions may decrease pharmacological therapeutic effects of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs that should be considered when approved herbs are prescribed. 

  8. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

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    Stef Ducu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast. Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence

  9. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

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    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  10. An investigation of the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activities of cooked and in vitro digested culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Jones, Lucy; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on how cooking and digestion affect the anti-inflammatory activity of culinary herbs. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate this activity following cooking and in vitro digestion of the common culinary herbs, rosemary, sage, and thyme, and the relationship between their anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity. The anti-inflammatory activity of uncooked (U), cooked (C), cooked and in vitro digested (C&D), and standardised (STD, 30 mg/mL) culinary herbs was assessed by measuring their effect on interleukin 8 (IL-8) release from stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and Caco-2 cells. The trolox equivalent capacity (TEAC) and estimated total phenolic content of the herbs were also determined. There was a significant decrease in IL-8 release from PBLs stimulated with H(2)O(2) incubated with (U), (C), (C&D), and (STD) herbs and from Caco-2 cells stimulated with TNFα incubated with (C&D) and (STD) herbs. PBLs pre-incubated with (C&D) herbs prior to stimulation (H(2)O(2) or TNFα) caused a significant inhibition in IL-8 release. The significant correlations between TEAC and estimated phenolic content and the anti-inflammatory activity suggest a possible contributory role of polyphenols to the anti-inflammatory activity of the culinary herbs investigated.

  11. Trend and Pattern of Herb and Supplement Use in the United States: Results from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys

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    Chung-Hsuen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1990s, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, including use of herbs and supplements, gained popularity in the United States. However, more recent surveys suggest that demand for herbs and supplements has stabilized. Objective. This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and changes in herb and supplement use among the US adults, using the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS. Methods. Weighted population estimates were derived from three complementary and alternative medicine supplements to the NHIS. Prevalence rates for herb and supplement use were compared, using Wald chi-square tests to measure changes between years. Results. An estimated 40.6 million US adults reported herb and supplement use in 2012. However, the rate of herb and supplement use dropped from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 and 2012 (P<0.05. This decline in use was more pronounced among women, racial or ethnic minorities, and adults with low incomes. Conclusion. Herb and supplements use remains common in the USA, but adult use rates are on the decline. It is still important for health care providers to ask patients about herb and supplement use.

  12. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-09-01

    Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) , cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) , sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) , kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) , black pepper (Piper nigrum) , peppermint (Mentha piperita) , and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei , respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect against the 24-hour pre-established S

  13. Estaquia caulinar herbácea e semilenhosa de Drimys brasiliensis1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis conhecida como cataia, é uma espécie arbórea nativa da Mata Atlântica. Tem importância fitoquímica, fitoterapêutica, aromática e econômica, utilizada na fabricação de licores, condimentos, dentre outros. É considerada uma espécie de difícil multiplicação via sementes, apresentando dormência por imaturidade embrionária. Assim, objetivou-se estudar a propagação vegetativa por meio da indução do enraizamento de estacas herbáceas e semilenhosas submetidas a diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, coletadas em duas épocas do ano (junho/2011 e dezembro/2011. Foram utilizados os tratamentos: testemunha (100% água, 0 (50% água e 50% álcool; 1.500; 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1IBA (em solução hidroalcoólica 50% para o inverno e, no verão, os mesmos tratamentos, exceto 0 mg L-1IBA. Foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial de 5 concentrações x 2 tipos de estacas em junho/2011; e outro experimento com 4 concentrações x 2 épocas de coleta (estacas de junho/2011 e estacas de dezembro/2011 Após 120 dias em casa de vegetação, avaliou-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes/estaca, comprimento médio de raízes/estaca, porcentagem estacas vivas, com calos, mortas, com novas brotações e que mantiveram as folhas iniciais. A aplicação de IBA não influenciou nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. Estacas herbáceas apresentaram melhor enraizamento (46,75% quando comparadas às semilenhosas (34,44%. A coleta realizada em dezembro/2011 apresentou maior número de raízes/estaca (5,47 porém maior mortalidade (29,05% que em junho/2011 (4,25 e 12,19%, respectivamente. Sendo assim, para o enraizamento de cataia é indicada a utilização de estacas caulinares herbáceas, coletadas em épocas frias.

  14. Formação do Herbário de Carajás - HCJS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Nepomuceno da Silva

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a formação e o conteúdo do Herbário de Carajás, sediado no Parque Botânico de Carajás, km 85 PA-275, com funcionamento a partir de fevereiro de 1987 e cuja área de abrangência é a Serra dos Carajás. A montagem do Herbário envolveu investimentos em reformas prediais, compra de material e climatização do espaço físico, recebendo-se doações de alguns equipamentos pelo PNUD. O treinamento de pessoal em coletas e preparo de exsicatas foi totalmente realizado em Carajás. A coleta de material fértil é realizada nos ecossistemas existentes: campos rupestres, área de transição e floresta. A identificação a nível de família Botânica é realizada no próprio laboratório do Parque e a metodologia em implantação é o envio de material botânico para especialistas de cada família de diferentes instituições, interessados no recebimento deste material. O Herbário vem atingindo seu objetivo principal que é coexistir, dentro de um programa de estudos ambientais, com a atividade mineradora, fomentado à área de Botânica.Carajás range, an iron ore area at southeast Pará, inside the Amazon forest had its botany's studies at first related with identification of the types of vegetation found in the area - tropical forest an a kind of shrub savana due to superficial iron ore. With the mine and beneffit path opperating, efforts turned to the research of recovering explored sites, with suitable native species what required the creatioan of an Herbarium avaiable. Also the Herbarium gives suport to research on other subjects and fit Herbarium establishment, february 1987. The Herbarium establishment, february 1987, began with a training program. The Botanic Material has it identification partialy done at Carajás Botanic Park where the Herbarium lays, being sent then to specialists inters ted in each botanic family. This work describes the creation of Carajás Herbarium, its aims and contents.

  15. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C 29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C 31 or C 33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Karg S., D.E. Robinson (2002): Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices. In: K. Viklund, R. Engelmark (eds.) Nordic Archaeobotany-NAG 2000 in Umeå.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices.......Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices....

  17. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un

  18. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

  19. Identification and characterization of multiple curcumin synthases from the herb Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-09-03

    Curcuminoids are pharmaceutically important compounds isolated from the herb Curcuma longa. Two additional type III polyketide synthases, named CURS2 and CURS3, that are capable of curcuminoid synthesis were identified and characterized. In vitro analysis revealed that CURS2 preferred feruloyl-CoA as a starter substrate and CURS3 preferred both feruloyl-CoA and p-coumaroyl-CoA. These results suggested that CURS2 synthesizes curcumin or demethoxycurcumin and CURS3 synthesizes curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin. The availability of the substrates and the expression levels of the three different enzymes capable of curcuminoid synthesis with different substrate specificities might influence the composition of curcuminoids in the turmeric and in different cultivars.

  20. The impact of size and shape of particles of undergrowth and herbs mixtures on aerodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Panasiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the size and shape of a selected group of herbs (dried juniper berries Juniperus communis, dry blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus, petals of cornflower Centaurea cyanus on the value of the volatility coefficient, the coefficient of sphericity and the critical speed was analysed in the presented research. A laboratory anemometer to measure the speed of air was used. The determination of the volatility coefficient of particular size fractions was conducted on the basis of critical speed values, calculated as an average established after five measurements. The established aerodynamic properties of particular mixtures allow the determination and the assessment of differences among fractions of valuable resources and different impurities. The presented data might constitute a basis to determine the scope of differences among them and establish interrelations which allow the application of proper parameters for the pneumatic separation process in practice.

  1. Herbs as new type of green inhibitors for acidic corrosion of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamis, E. [Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 426 Ibrahimia Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); AlAndis, N. [College of Science, Chemistry Department, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-09-01

    Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulphuric acid by six different herb plants has been studied using a.c and d.c electrochemical techniques. The environmentally friendly investigated compounds are namely: thyme, coriander, hibiscus, anis, black cumin and Garden cress. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been successfully used to evaluate the performance of these compounds. The ac measurements showed that the dissolution process is activation controlled. Bode and theta diagrams show only one time constant ({tau}). Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicate that the studied compounds are mixed-type inhibitors. The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the change of the constituent active materials of the compounds. Thyme, which contains the powerful antiseptic thymol as the active ingredient, offers excellent protection for steel surface. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Role of Some Medicinal Herbs Plants (Anise and Chamomile) in Male Rats Intoxicated with Metacide Pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.; Ali, S.E.; Hafez, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some medicinal herbs plants such as anise and chamomile (300 mg/kg b.wl) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administrated daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide metacide at level of 1.4 mg/kg b.wt for live weeks. The data showed that the metacide pesticides caused disturbance in liver and kidney function revealed as significant increased in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total free amino, biliburine, total cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decreased in total proteins. Also thyroxine hormone (T4) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3) was decreased. The results also revealed that both anise and chamomile exhibited an improvement and highly affective in attenuation of metacide pesticide caused oxidative damage, disturbance and injury induced in liver, kidney and thyroid hormone function

  3. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, U Hee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate.

  4. Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina M Petiwala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol are known to possess antioxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  5. Plant essential oils potency as natural antibiotic in Indonesian medicinal herb of “jamu”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetjipto, H.; Martono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to compile antibacterial activity data of essential oils from Indonesian’s plants in order which can be used as a natural antibiotic in “jamu” to increase potential Indonesian medicinal herb. By using Agar Diffusing method, Bioautography and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum, respectively, antibacterial activity and chemical compounds of 12 plants essential oils were studied in the Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga since 2007 until 2015. The results of this studies showed that all of the essential oils have a medium to a strong antibacterial activity which are in the range of 30 - 2,500 μg and 80-5,000 μg. Further on, the essential oils analyzed by GCMS showed that each essential oils have different dominant compounds. These data can be used as basic doses in the usage of essential oils as natural antibiotics.

  6. Local environment and density-dependent feedbacks determine population growth in a forest herb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Petter; Östergård, Hannah; Ehrlén, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult...... to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field study and investigated simultaneous effects of environmental factors and the intraspecific density of individuals on the demography of the herb Lathyrus vernus. In regression models of vital rates we identified effects associated with spring...... shade on survival and growth, while density was negatively correlated with these vital rates. Density was also negatively correlated with average individual size in the study plots, which is consistent with self-thinning. In addition, average plant sizes were larger than predicted by density in plots...

  7. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Veres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed, collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%, while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis

  8. Antioxidant activity and cholinesterase inhibition studies of four flavouring herbs from Alentejo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Sílvia; Piçarra, Andreia; Candeias, Fátima; Caldeira, A Teresa; Martins, M Rosário; Teixeira, Dora

    2017-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of four aromatic species, Calamintha nepeta, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Thymus mastichina, from southwest of Portugal were characterised chemically and analysed in order to evaluate their antioxidant potential and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The main components of EOs were oxygenated monoterpenes, and aqueous extracts were rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds. EOs and aqueous extracts presented a high antioxidant potential, with ability to protect the lipid substrate, free radical scavenging and iron reducing power. Furthermore, EOs and extracts showed AChE and BChE inhibitory activities higher than rivastigmine, the standard drug. Results suggested the potential use of EOs and aqueous extracts of these flavouring herbs as nutraceutical or pharmaceutical preparations to minimise the oxidative stress and the progression of degenerative diseases.

  9. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVINDRA ADE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combination of phytoharmone. The maximum number of shoots (18.3±0.8 was obtained on M.S. medium supplemented with BAP + KIN (1.5 + 0.5 mg/L. The highest rooting percentage (95.25 was observed with (IAA 0.1 mg/L. The rooted plants were successfully established firstly in soil with coco peat (1:1 and then directly in ordinary soil.

  10. A Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Commonly Used South Asian Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduranga Waisundara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS.

  11. [Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Chaĭkina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts.

  12. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Brkić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  13. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-10-27

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  14. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  15. Why have European herbs so successfully invaded the Chilean matorral? Effects of herbivory, soil nutrients, and fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Avilés, R.; Sierralta, L.; Segura, A.M.; Fuentes, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    We show field and experimental evidence that introduced herbivores and soil degradation strongly influence the distribution of introduced herbs in the Chilean matorral. In the field, the relative abundance of introduced species was higher on sites grazed by livestock and on very poor soils. Two

  16. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiyan Lam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  17. Data-driven analysis of biomedical literature suggests broad-spectrum benefits of culinary herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhi, N K; Tuwani, Rudraksh; Mukherjee, Jagriti; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Spices and herbs are key dietary ingredients used across cultures worldwide. Beyond their use as flavoring and coloring agents, the popularity of these aromatic plant products in culinary preparations has been attributed to their antimicrobial properties. Last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of biomedical literature investigating the impact of spices and herbs on health, presenting an opportunity to mine for patterns from empirical evidence. Systematic investigation of empirical evidence to enumerate the health consequences of culinary herbs and spices can provide valuable insights into their therapeutic utility. We implemented a text mining protocol to assess the health impact of spices by assimilating, both, their positive and negative effects. We conclude that spices show broad-spectrum benevolence across a range of disease categories in contrast to negative effects that are comparatively narrow-spectrum. We also implement a strategy for disease-specific culinary recommendations of spices based on their therapeutic tradeoff against adverse effects. Further by integrating spice-phytochemical-disease associations, we identify bioactive spice phytochemicals potentially involved in their therapeutic effects. Our study provides a systems perspective on health effects of culinary spices and herbs with applications for dietary recommendations as well as identification of phytochemicals potentially involved in underlying molecular mechanisms.

  18. Data-driven analysis of biomedical literature suggests broad-spectrum benefits of culinary herbs and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jagriti

    2018-01-01

    Spices and herbs are key dietary ingredients used across cultures worldwide. Beyond their use as flavoring and coloring agents, the popularity of these aromatic plant products in culinary preparations has been attributed to their antimicrobial properties. Last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of biomedical literature investigating the impact of spices and herbs on health, presenting an opportunity to mine for patterns from empirical evidence. Systematic investigation of empirical evidence to enumerate the health consequences of culinary herbs and spices can provide valuable insights into their therapeutic utility. We implemented a text mining protocol to assess the health impact of spices by assimilating, both, their positive and negative effects. We conclude that spices show broad-spectrum benevolence across a range of disease categories in contrast to negative effects that are comparatively narrow-spectrum. We also implement a strategy for disease-specific culinary recommendations of spices based on their therapeutic tradeoff against adverse effects. Further by integrating spice-phytochemical-disease associations, we identify bioactive spice phytochemicals potentially involved in their therapeutic effects. Our study provides a systems perspective on health effects of culinary spices and herbs with applications for dietary recommendations as well as identification of phytochemicals potentially involved in underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:29813110

  19. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ann Gunn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50 of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months. Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet, with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL. Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01 in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01 in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  2. In vitro fermentation characteristics of two mushroom species, an herb, and their polysaccharide fractions, using chicken cecal contents as inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Williams, B.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    In vitro fermentabilities of two mushrooms (Lentinus edodes - LenS; Tremella fuciformis - TreS), an herb (Astragalus membranaceus - AstS), and their polysaccharide fractions (LenE, TreE, and AstE) were investigated using microflora from chicken ceca. Polysaccharides were extracted using the hot

  3. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternative for an antibiotic, on the cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Williams, B.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Li, H.S.; Li, X.P.; Luo, J.Y.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the potential prebiotic effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharide extracts, Lentinus edodes extract (LenE), Tremella fuciformis extract, and Astragalus membranaceus Radix extract, on chicken growth and the cecal microbial ecosystem, as compared with the

  4. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  5. Coccidiosis Immunization: Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Eimeria Tenella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Suo, X.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracts (E) of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on the immune responses of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. A total of 180 broiler

  6. Plasticizers and BPA Residues in Tunisian and Italian Culinary Herbs and Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Ben Tekaya, Asma; Beltifa, Asma; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Saiya, Emanuele; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Turco, Vincenzo

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, 18 plasticizers and residues in 10 different Tunisian and Italian culinary herbs and spices (black pepper, mint, caraway, coriander, oregano, rosemary, thyme, fennel, verbena, and laurel) were determined by GC/MS. Di-methylphthalate, di-(2-methylpropyl)adipate, di-n-butyladipate, di-propylphthalate, benzylbenzoate, di-phenylphthalate, and bisphenol A were lower than their LOQ in all 118 samples. Among the Tunisian samples, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was found in all types of samples and di-butylphthalate in 50% of types; all other phthalates were rarely dectected. Among the adipates, only di-methyladipate was found in 90% of types; di-ethyladipate was seldom found and di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate only in samples of caraway. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate was found in all types of samples; di-(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate was detected rarely but with high values. Among the Sicilian samples, di-ethylphthalate and di-(2-methylpropyl)phthalate were detected only in samples of mint; di-methyladipate, di-butylphthalate, and benzylbutylphthalate were identified in oregano and laurel; di-(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate only in oregano. In any case, the results suggested that intake of these contaminants through spices and herbs is not a dangerous risk to the consumers. Probably, as already observed for the other food, these contaminants could result from pollution of the environment (air, water, and/or soil) and/or farming methods. Plasticizers and BPA in Tunisian and Italian spices were determined by GC/MS. Tunisian spices seem to contain more residues than Italian samples. Intake of these contaminants by spices is not a dangerous risk to the consumers. These pollutants could result from environmental pollution or agricultural practices. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Processes to Preserve Spice and Herb Quality and Sensory Integrity During Pathogen Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Moberg, Kayla; Amin, Kemia N; Wright, Melissa; Newkirk, Jordan J; Ponder, Monica A; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S

    2017-05-01

    Selected processing methods, demonstrated to be effective at reducing Salmonella, were assessed to determine if spice and herb quality was affected. Black peppercorn, cumin seed, oregano, and onion powder were irradiated to a target dose of 8 kGy. Two additional processes were examined for whole black peppercorns and cumin seeds: ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and vacuum assisted-steam (82.22 °C, 7.5 psia). Treated and untreated spices/herbs were compared (visual, odor) using sensory similarity testing protocols (α = 0.20; β = 0.05; proportion of discriminators: 20%) to determine if processing altered sensory quality. Analytical assessment of quality (color, water activity, and volatile chemistry) was completed. Irradiation did not alter visual or odor sensory quality of black peppercorn, cumin seed, or oregano but created differences in onion powder, which was lighter (higher L * ) and more red (higher a * ) in color, and resulted in nearly complete loss of measured volatile compounds. EtO processing did not create detectable odor or appearance differences in black peppercorn; however visual and odor sensory quality differences, supported by changes in color (higher b * ; lower L * ) and increased concentrations of most volatiles, were detected for cumin seeds. Steam processing of black peppercorn resulted in perceptible odor differences, supported by increased concentration of monoterpene volatiles and loss of all sesquiterpenes; only visual differences were noted for cumin seed. An important step in process validation is the verification that no effect is detectable from a sensory perspective. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  8. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salum, Debora Christina

    2008-01-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a 60 Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

  9. Genome sequencing of herb Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) unravels key genes behind its strong medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Atul K; Chacko, Anita R; Gandhimathi, A; Ghosh, Pritha; Harini, K; Joseph, Agnel P; Joshi, Adwait G; Karpe, Snehal D; Kaushik, Swati; Kuravadi, Nagesh; Lingu, Chandana S; Mahita, J; Malarini, Ramya; Malhotra, Sony; Malini, Manoharan; Mathew, Oommen K; Mutt, Eshita; Naika, Mahantesha; Nitish, Sathyanarayanan; Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shilpa, S; Shingate, Prashant N; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Sukhwal, Anshul; Sunitha, Margaret S; Sumathi, Manojkumar; Ramaswamy, S; Gowda, Malali; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2015-08-28

    Krishna Tulsi, a member of Lamiaceae family, is a herb well known for its spiritual, religious and medicinal importance in India. The common name of this plant is 'Tulsi' (or 'Tulasi' or 'Thulasi') and is considered sacred by Hindus. We present the draft genome of Ocimum tenuiflurum L (subtype Krishna Tulsi) in this report. The paired-end and mate-pair sequence libraries were generated for the whole genome sequenced with the Illumina Hiseq 1000, resulting in an assembled genome of 374 Mb, with a genome coverage of 61 % (612 Mb estimated genome size). We have also studied transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) of two subtypes of O. tenuiflorum, Krishna and Rama Tulsi and report the relative expression of genes in both the varieties. The pathways leading to the production of medicinally-important specialized metabolites have been studied in detail, in relation to similar pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes in leaf samples of Krishna Tulsi were observed to be relatively high, explaining the purple colouration of Krishna Tulsi leaves. The expression of six important genes identified from genome data were validated by performing q-RT-PCR in different tissues of five different species, which shows the high extent of urosolic acid-producing genes in young leaves of the Rama subtype. In addition, the presence of eugenol and ursolic acid, implied as potential drugs in the cure of many diseases including cancer was confirmed using mass spectrometry. The availability of the whole genome of O.tenuiflorum and our sequence analysis suggests that small amino acid changes at the functional sites of genes involved in metabolite synthesis pathways confer special medicinal properties to this herb.

  10. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  11. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of

  12. Microbial contamination of herbs marketed to HIV-infected people in Nairobi (Kenya

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    Lydia Kaume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products are used by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals regardless of safety or efficacy concerns. In this study, we examined the microbiological quality of herbal preparations marketed to HIV-infected individuals. A convenience sample (N = 24 of herbal products was obtained from retailers in Nairobi, Kenya in 2007. Petrifilm plate count methods were used to estimate total aerobic bacteria (APC, coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast and mould counts. APC counts ranged from an estimated 1.5 × 101 colony forming units (CFU/g to 7.1 × 108 CFU/g. Total and faecal coliform counts ranged from an estimated "less than"10 CFU/g to 3 × 106 CFU/g. E. coli load ranged from "less than"10 CFU/g to 5 × 101 CFU/g and S. aureus counts ranged from an estimated "less than"10 CFU/g to 2.5 × 103 CFU/g. Yeast and mould counts ranged from an estimated "less than"10 CFU/g to 9 × 104 CFU/g. An evaluation using the World Health Organization limits for medicinal herbs found a percentage of samples to contain microorganisms above allowable limits: 33% (APC, 50% (coliforms and 33% (yeast and moulds. A total of 67% of samples contained S. aureus loads above the United States Pharmacopeia standard. We suggest that the introduction of quality-control measures and safe handling practices for the selling of medicinal herbs and botanicals in Kenya would be beneficial in reducing the potential health risks for immunocompromised consumers of these products.

  13. The Chinese Herb Yi-Qi-Huo-Xue Protects Cardiomyocyte Function in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

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    Xiangsheng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To study the effect of the Chinese herb Yi-qi-huo-xue on cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats. Methods. Rats were fed a high fat and high glucose diet and injected with 50 ml/kg streptozotocin (STZ to induce diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM, followed by treatment with Yi-qi-huo-xue for 4 weeks. We measured the rats’ heart weight index, observed the myocardial morphology using hematoxylin eosin (HE staining, and determined the content of collagen types I and III in the myocardium using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. We determined Bcl-2, Bax, and P53 protein expression by Western blot analysis and the cardiomyocyte apoptosis rate via a flow cytometry assay. Results. Compared with the rats in the control group, the diabetic rats gained weight and had increased blood sugar levels, an enhanced heart weight index, and increased myocardial pathophysiological damage. There was a decrease in their Bcl-2 expression, and their Bax and P53 expression increased. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was enhanced, and there was an increase in the content of collagen types I and III in the myocardium. After treatment with Yi-qi-huo-xue, all levels listed above returned to normal. Conclusion. The Chinese herb Yi-qi-huo-xue degraded the myocardial interstitial collagen types I and III to protect the myocardium of the diabetic rats, thus delaying the role of myocardial fibrosis. Yi-qi-huo-xue could play an important role in protecting the myocardium of DCM rats by enhancing the expression of the Bcl-2 protein, inhibiting the expression of the Bax and P53 proteins, increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibiting the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of heavy metal elements in Chinese medicines and medical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Ishihara, Sachiko; Okumura, Ryou; Iinuma, Yuuto

    2014-01-01

    'Kanpo (Chinese method)' is a kind of traditional Chinese medical science, and 'Kanpo-yaku (Chinese medicines)' is the drugs on the basis of this medical science. The raw materials for Chinese medicines mainly use ingredients derived from nature, such as herbs, parts of living animal body, and ores, and these are collectively referred to as crude drugs. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis, this study performed the qualitative and quantitative analysis of metal elements contained in the Chinese medicines and crude drugs that were obtained from five routes of four countries. It divided totally 119 samples to each purchase root, and summarized the quantitative analytical results with a focus on Cr, Co, As, Sb, and Hg, and found variations in the contents between the natures of the samples. A large amount of As was detected in two samples of 'Oriental bezoar' and 'Liushen pill,' which were purchased from China under doctors' prescriptions. As a result of the analysis of 47 plant samples purchased from Vietnam as the raw materials for Chinese medicines, a higher percentage of Hg was found compared with other samples. This fact suggests that Chinese medicines using medical herbs derived from plants are liable to contains not a little Hg. Large variations in the content of each sample suggest that the contents are dependent on the country of origin, as well as types and parts of plants. As for the samples purchased in Japan, the detected percentages of five target elements were the smallest. (A.O.)

  15. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity study of fermented traditional herb formula Guibi-tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-10-28

    Guibi-tang (Guipi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-to in Japanese) is a multi-herb traditional medicine commonly prescribed to treat psychoneurosis in East Asia. Although this medicine has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity of Guibi-tang, especially on the fermented one. Guibi-tang, composed of 12 herbs, was fermented with bacteria and lyophilized. Single dose acute toxicity in rats was observed for 14 days after administration. Genetic toxicity of fermented Guibi-tang was evaluated on bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella and Escherichia spp., chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and micronucleus formation in mice. Ingredients in FGBT were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In acute oral toxicity study, behavior, clinical signs and body weight changes were normal observing in all experimental animals. No revertant colonies were found in any bacterial cultures examined. Morphological or numerical anomalies and significant increased number of aberrant metaphases were not observed. Micronucleus assay showed no significant increases in the frequency of inducing micronuclei in any dose examined. Decursinol, decursin, glycyrrhizin, and 6-gingerol in fermented Guibi-tang were identified and quantitated. As a whole, no acute and genotoxic effects were found in all the assays and parameters analyzed. Fermented Guibi-tang was recognized as safe and non-toxic, and therefore can be used for applications of traditional medicine in modern complementary and alternative therapeutics and health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Compatibility Effects on Invigorating Blood Circulation for Cyperi Rhizoma Series of Herb Pairs Using Untargeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mutual-assistance compatibility of Cyperi Rhizoma (Xiangfu, XF and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG, Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX, Paeoniae Radix Alba (Baishao, BS, or Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo, YH, found in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM named Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD, can produce synergistic and promoting blood effects. Nowadays, XFSWD has been proved to be effective in activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. However, the role of the herb pairs synergistic effects in the formula were poorly understood. In order to quantitatively assess the compatibility effects of herb pairs, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics studies were performed. The plasma and urine metabolic profiles of acute blood stasis rats induced by adrenaline hydrochloride and ice water and administered with Cyperi Rhizoma—Angelicae Sinensis Radix (XD, Cyperi Rhizoma—Chuanxiong Rhizoma (XC, Cyperi Rhizoma—Paeoniae Radix Alba (XB, Cyperi Rhizoma—Corydalis Rhizoma (XY were compared. Relative peak area of identified metabolites was calculated and principal component analysis (PCA score plot from the potential markers was used to visualize the overall differences. Then, the metabolites results were used with biochemistry indicators and genes expression values as parameters to quantitatively evaluate the compatibility effects of XF series of herb pairs by PCA and correlation analysis. The collective results indicated that the four XF herb pairs regulated glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. XD was more prominent in regulating the blood stasis during the four XF herb pairs. This study demonstrated that metabolomics was a useful tool to efficacy evaluation and compatibility effects of TCM elucidation.

  17. Exploring the interaction between Salvia miltiorrhiza and human serum albumin: Insights from herb-drug interaction reports, computational analysis and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xin; Ai, Ni; Xu, Donghang; Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) binding is one of important pharmacokinetic properties of drug, which is closely related to in vivo distribution and may ultimately influence its clinical efficacy. Compared to conventional drug, limited information on this transportation process is available for medicinal herbs, which significantly hampers our understanding on their pharmacological effects, particularly when herbs and drug are co-administrated as polytherapy to the ailment. Several lines of evidence suggest the existence of Salvia miltiorrhiza-Warfarin interaction. Since Warfarin is highly HSA bound in the plasma with selectivity to site I, it is critical to evaluate the possibility of HSA-related herb-drug interaction. Herein an integrated approach was employed to analyze the binding of chemicals identified in S. miltiorrhiza to HSA. Molecular docking simulations revealed filtering criteria for HSA site I compounds that include docking score and key molecular determinants for binding. For eight representative ingredients from the herb, their affinity and specificity to HSA site I was measured and confirmed fluorometrically, which helps to improve the knowledge of interaction mechanisms between this herb and HSA. Our results indicated that several compounds in S. miltiorrhiza were capable of decreasing the binding constant of Warfarin to HSA site I significantly, which may increase free drug concentration in vivo, contributing to the herb-drug interaction observed clinically. Furthermore, the significance of HSA mediated herb-drug interactions was further implied by manual mining on the published literatures on S. miltiorrhiza.

  18. Characterization and classification of seven citrus herbs by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Liu, Ke; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

    2014-04-25

    Citrus herbs have been widely used in traditional medicine and cuisine in China and other countries since the ancient time. However, the authentication and quality control of Citrus herbs has always been a challenging task due to their similar morphological characteristics and the diversity of the multi-components existed in the complicated matrix. In the present investigation, we developed a novel strategy to characterize and classify seven Citrus herbs based on chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods. Firstly, the chemical constituents in seven Citrus herbs were globally characterized by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Based on their retention time, UV spectra and MS fragmentation behavior, a total of 75 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized in these herbal medicines. Secondly, a segmental monitoring method based on LC-variable wavelength detection was developed for simultaneous quantification of ten marker compounds in these Citrus herbs. Thirdly, based on the contents of the ten analytes, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to differentiate and classify the 64 samples covering these seven herbs. The obtained classifier showed good prediction performance and the overall prediction accuracy reached 96.88%. The proposed strategy is expected to provide new insight for authentication and quality control of traditional herbs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Kidney toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 3 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables." Keywords included "herb" or "dietary supplement" combined with "kidney" to generate an overview list, and possibly "toxicity" to narrow the selection. Case reports were excluded if they involved herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm, excessive doses (except vitamins/minerals), legal or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. Since commercial DS often include a combination of ingredients, they were treated separately; so were foods. A few foods with kidney-toxic effects were listed in a fourth table. The spectrum of herbal or DS-induced kidney injuries included kidney stones, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, necrosis, acute kidney injury (AKI; previously known as acute renal failure [ARF]), chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant, and death. Approximately 7 herbs (minus 4 no longer for sale) and 10 dietary supplements (minus 3 excluded due to excessive doses + germanium that is no longer sold) have been related to kidney injury case reports published in PubMed (+crosslisting) in the last 50 + years (1966 to May 2016). The implicated herbs include Chinese yew (Taxus celbica) extract, impila (Callilepis laureola), morning cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), thundergod vine (Tripterygium wilfordii hook F), tribulus (Tribulus terrestris) and wormwood (Artemisia

  20. Study of the distribution patterns of the constituent herbs in classical Chinese medicine prescriptions treating respiratory disease by data mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-Jun; Song, Xu-Xia; Wei, Lin-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-08-01

    To provide the distribution pattern and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in prescriptions, for doctor's convenience to make decision in choosing correct herbs and prescriptions for treating respiratory disease. Classical prescriptions treating respiratory disease were selected from authoritative prescription books. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets and association rules) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. A total of 562 prescriptions were selected to be studied. The result exhibited that, Radix glycyrrhizae was the most frequently used in 47.2% prescriptions, other frequently used were Semen armeniacae amarum, Fructus schisandrae Chinese, Herba ephedrae, and Radix ginseng. Herbal ephedrae was always coupled with Semen armeniacae amarum with the confidence of 73.3%, and many herbs were always accompanied by Radix glycyrrhizae with high confidence. More over, Fructus schisandrae Chinese, Herba ephedrae and Rhizoma pinelliae was most commonly used to treat cough, dyspnoea and associated sputum respectively besides Radix glycyrrhizae and Semen armeniacae amarum. The prescriptions treating dyspnoea often used double herb group of Herba ephedrae & Radix glycyrrhizae, while prescriptions treating sputum often used double herb group of Rhizoma pinelliae & Radix glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma pinelliae & Semen armeniacae amarum, triple herb groups of Rhizoma pinelliae & Semen armeniacae amarum & Radix glycyrrhizae and Pericarpium citri reticulatae & Rhizoma pinelliae & Radix glycyrrhizae. The prescriptions treating respiratory disease showed common compatibility laws in using herbs and special compatibility laws for treating different respiratory symptoms. These principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful for doctors to choose correct herbs and prescriptions in treating respiratory disease.

  1. Effect of Huayu Tongluo Herbs on Reduction of Proteinuria via Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

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    Lu Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in diabetic rats and the intervention effect of Huayu Tongluo herbs (HTH. Ten rats were randomly selected as control group and the remaining rats were established as diabetic models. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into model group and HTH treatment group. The intervention was intragastric administration in all rats for 20 weeks. At the end of every 4 weeks, fasting blood glucose and 24 h urinary total protein quantitatively were measured. At the end of the 20th week, biochemical parameters and body weight were tested. The kidney tissues were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscopy. We examined Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway key proteins and renal interstitial fibrosis related molecular markers expression. The results showed that HTH could reduce urinary protein excretion and relieve renal pathological damage. Wnt4, p-GSK3β (S9, and β-catenin expression were decreased in the signaling pathway, but GSK3β level was not changed by HTH in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the expressions of TGF-β1 and ILK were decreased, but the level of E-cadherin was increased in diabetic rats after treatment with HTH. This study demonstrated that HTH could inhibit the high expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in kidney of diabetic rats. The effect might be one of the main ways to reduce urinary protein excretion.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

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    Yu-Tse Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs.

  3. Cellular models for the evaluation of the antiobesity effect of selected phytochemicals from food and herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chen Tung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytochemicals from food and herbs have been studied for their health benefits for a long time. The incidence of obesity has seen an incredible increase worldwide. Although dieting, along with increased physical activity, seems an easy method in theory to manage obesity, it is hard to apply in real life. Obesity treatment drugs and surgery are not successful or targeted for everyone and can have significant side effects. This low rate of success is the major reason that the overweight as well as the pharmaceutical industry seek alternative methods, including phytochemicals. Therefore, more and more research has focused on the role of phytochemicals to alleviate lipid accumulation or enhance energy expenditure in adipocytes. This review discusses selected phytochemicals from food and herbs and their effects on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, lipolysis, oxidation of fatty acids, and browning in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

  4. Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives

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    Marta E. Petenatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES. The products were obtained from regional markets, mainly in San Luis province (Argentina. The estimated daily intake was compared with current recommendations. All products and its infusions were included within the upper tolerable limits for minerals, in trace elements such as toxic elements present at low levels.

  5. Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta E. Petenatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES. The products were obtained from regional markets, mainly in San Luis province (Argentina. The estimated daily intake was compared with current recommendations. All products and its infusions were included within the upper tolerable limits for minerals, in trace elements such as toxic elements present at low levels.

  6. Transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various herbs to eggs and meat in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Patrick P J; de Witte, Susannah L; Stoopen, Geert M; van der Meulen, Jan; van Wikselaar, Piet G; Gruys, Erik; Groot, Maria J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the potential transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), laying hens were fed for 14 days with diets containing 0.5% of dried common ragwort, common groundsel, narrow-leaved ragwort or viper's bugloss, or 0.1% of common heliotrope. This resulted in total PA levels in feed of respectively 5.5, 11.1, 53.1, 5.9 and 21.7 mg kg - 1 , with varying composition. PAs were transferred to eggs, in particular yolk, with steady-state levels of respectively 12, 21, 216, 2 and 36 µg kg - 1 . Overall transfer rates for the sum of PAs were estimated between 0.02% and 0.23%, depending on the type of PAs in the feed. In animals slaughtered shortly after the last exposure, levels in meat were slightly lower than those in eggs, levels in livers somewhat higher. When switched to clean feed, levels in eggs gradually decreased, but after 14 days were still above detection limits in the hens exposed to higher PA levels. Similar was the case for meat and especially kidneys and livers. It is concluded that the intake of PA containing herbs by laying hens may result in levels in eggs and meat that could be of concern for consumers, and as such should be avoided.

  7. Antiparasitic herbs used in west regions ofIlam province located in west of Iran

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify antiparasitic medicinal plants used by people in southern regions of Ilam province in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out using questionnaire and interview method between February 2012 and April 2013 and also by means of public resources. Along with distributing questionnaires herbarium specimens of each plant were collected and then their genus and species were determined in the Natural Resources Research Center of Ilam province. Results: A total of 19 medicinal plants used as antiparasitic plants belonged to 14 families were identified in southern regions of Ilam province. Majority of antiparasite herbs were related to Compositeae (11%, Rosaceae (11%, Solanaceae (11%, Liliaceae (11%, and Asteraceae (11% families. Aerial parts with 28% were the most plant organs used for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Results of this study showed that infusion with 83% is the most popular form of herbal medications in southern regions of Ilam province. Conclusions: The report of medicinal plants belonged to northern regions of this province may provide necessary condition for researchers to identify effective substances and to study the clinical effects claimed for these plants and their effective substances on different parasitic diseases while traditional effects of these plants are documented.

  8. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.

  9. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Herrera

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae. Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.

  10. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

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    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  11. [Interpretation of the concept of 'medicinal product' in relation to herb- and cannabinoid-based products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsigmond, Ferge

    2014-11-30

    On 10th of July 2014 the European Court of Justice made in his decisions in relation to the cases D. (C-358/13) and G. (C-181/14) an interpretation, that the concept of 'medicinal product' according to the law of the European Union does not include the materials, which are - as not covering substances, such as those at issue in the main proceedings, which produce effects that merely modify physiological functions but which are not such as to have any beneficial effects, either immediately or in the long term, on human health, are consumed solely to induce a state of intoxication and are, as such, harmful to human health. The Court made his interpretation after the request for preliminary ruling from the Bundesgerichtshof (the High Court of Justice in Germany). The Court had to decide in two criminal procedures, whether for the retail of mixtures including syntetic canabinoids, such as complements of marihuana, due the fact that they are "unsafe medicinal products", a criminal proceeding can be initiated or not. The Ordinary Courts had two persons (D. and G.) for selling the unsafe medicinal products sentenced to one year and nine months imprisonment, and suspension (D.), and sentenced (G.) to four years and six months imprisonment and fined with a charge of two hundred thousand Euro. The retail of herb mixtures containing, inter alia, synthetic cannabinoids, did not fall under the German law on narcotic drugs at the material time, resulting that the German Authorities could not initiate a criminal procedure.

  12. A study on criticality of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE at RB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M; Zavaljevski, M; Milosevic, M; Stefanovic, D; Nikolic, D; Avdic, S [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Popovic, D; Marinkovic, P [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1991-07-01

    The coupled fast-thermal core HERBE at the RB zero power heavy water reactor in Vinca was designed with the aim of improving the experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields. The requirements for minimum modifications in the RB construction and the use available fuel, restricted design flexibility of the coupled system. The following core is considered optimal in the light of the foregoing constraints: the central fast core of natural uranium is surrounded by a neutron filter zone (cadmium and natural uranium) and a converter zone (enriched uranium fuel, without moderator). The coupling region is heavy water. The thermal core in the form of the RB heavy water 80% enriched uranium lattice with 12 cm pitch. The criticality of the system is obtained by adjusting the moderator level. The critical heavy water levels were measured for normal reactor operation and some simulated accidental conditions. These data were analyzed by a computer code for the design of thermal and coupled fast-thermal reactor recently developed in IBK Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Good agreement between the computations and experimental data was achieved. (author)

  13. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

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    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  14. Plasticity to canopy shade in a monocarpic herb: within- and between-generation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Laura F; Etterson, Julie R

    2009-06-01

    Plants exhibit plasticity in response to their current environment and, in some cases, to that of the previous generation (i.e. maternal effects). However, few studies have evaluated both within- and between-generation plasticities and the extent to which they interact to influence fitness, especially in natural environments. The plasticity of adult traits to two generations of natural differences in light was determined for Campanulastrum americanum, a forest-edge herb that expresses annual and biennial life histories. Plasticity was found to an individual's light environment (within generation) and the maternal light environment (between generations). Responses to ambient light for size traits and timing of flowering were probably passive, whereas apparently adaptive responses were found for light acquisition traits. Maternal light influenced the expression of most adult traits but had the strongest effect when plants were germinated in natural environments. The transgenerational effects of light were consistent with adaptive plasticity for several traits. Plastic within-generation changes in flowering time may also result in adaptive between-generation effects by altering the offspring life history schedule. Finally, the results underscore the importance of conducting studies of within- and between-generation plasticity in natural populations, where the environmental context is relevant to that in which the traits evolved.

  15. Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets.

  16. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Leonurus: The herb to benefit the mothers and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Han; Liu, Zhi-Ke; Yang, Da-Song; Zhang, Xing-Jie; Sun, Han-Dong; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2018-03-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Leonurus, also named motherwort, are traditionally used for anti-gynecological disorder in East Asia, and for sedative in Europe. Chemical investigation of the genus Leonurus not only enriched the natural products library, but also enlarged the pharmacological application of this traditional herb. In this review, we systematically summarized the structures of 259 compounds isolated from the genus Leonurus, featured with 147 labdane diterpenoids. The reported bioactivity studies up to 2017 are presented in the second part, with the main focus on the isolated compounds and also concerning the extracts. In addition to the traditional uterine contraction and sedative activity, recently the cardiovascular protection effect of leonurine has drawn most attention. Other than that, neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-platelet aggregation and many other activities have been assigned to various compounds from the genus Leonurus. Among 70 bioactivity references cited in this review, 57% of them were concentrated on two alkaloids (leonurine and stachydrine), whereas only 20% are about the 147 diterpenoids. Anti-inflammation is the major bioactivity discovered so far for the labdane diterpenoids from the genus Leonurus, whose further therapeutic potential still remains for exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro propagation of the aromatic herb Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau

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    Niyomsri Srikun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau is a rare aromatic herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae. Its plant extract has been confirmed as a major source of squalene. In this research, a protocol for micropropagation was developed that can support ex situ conservation and will benefit plant material production. Shoot explants were provided from plants grown in the greenhouse and trickle irrigated for 1 mth and then effectively sterilized by shaking in NaOCl at a concentration of 1.2% for 10 min, followed by 0.6% for 15 min, which produced 70% good-growing, healthy shoots. Increasing thidiazuron and N6-benzyladenine (BA concentrations did not promote shoot multiplication. Shoot multiplication was the best on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 16 μM BA. The highest shoot number (12 shoots/explant was obtained at 8 wk of culture. The highest shoot elongation was obtained on the medium added with 16 μM BA for 4 wk and subsequent subculturing to hormone-free MS medium for another 4 wk. High frequency rooting (21 roots/shoot was obtained on MS medium fortified with 7.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Complete plantlets that were transferred to pots under greenhouse conditions produced healthy plants with 100% survival after 5 wk.

  18. Use of Chinese Herb Medicine in Cancer Patients: A Survey in Southwestern China

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    Tai-Guo Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herb medicine (CHM is the most commonly reported traditional Chinese medicine (TCM modality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CHM use in cancer patients in southwestern China. Cancer patients from eleven comprehensive cancer centers were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. Of 587 available replies, 53.0% used CHM. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that educational level, stage of disease, duration of cancer since diagnosis, marital status, and previous use of CHM were strongly associated with CHM use after cancer diagnosis. The source of information about CHM was mainly from media and friends/family. CHM products were used without any consultation with a TCM practitioner by 67.5% of users. The majority used CHM to improve their physical and emotional well-beings and to reduce cancer therapy-induced toxicities. About 4.5% patients reported side effects of CHM. This survey revealed a high prevalence of CHM use among cancer patients. However, these patients did not get sufficient consultation about the indications and contradictions of these drugs. It is imperative for oncologists to communicate with their cancer patients about the usage of CHM so as to avoid the potential side effects.

  19. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

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    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role.Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized.Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS.Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  20. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

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    Eun Tae Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA, total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05 difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants.

  1. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters

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    Mrozikiewicz Przemyslaw M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette and SLC (solute carrier transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1. Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB

  2. A study on the 'Yin-tonic' component of the Chinese herb Zhimu sarsasapogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuansheng; Yi Ningyu; Wang Yongqing; Dai Xiangdong; Xia Zongqin

    1991-01-01

    Sarsasapogenin was extracted from the Chinese herb Zhimu(Anemerrhena Asphodeloides Bunge) and its pharmacological action was compared with ZM decoction (ZM) in 'Hyperthyroid' mice. 125 I-Pindolol binding assay revealed that the maximum binding capacity (RT) of brain beta-adrenoceptors of the models was significantly higher than normal and that repeated oral administrations of either ZM or SAR reduced the elevated RT to nearly normal. The peak value of plasma cAMP after a single dose of isoproterenol (ISO) was also significantly higher in the models than in control. Again oral administrations of either ZM or SAR reduced the response of plasma cAMP to ISO to nearly normal. However, in vitro competitive binding assay indicated that neither SAR nor its succinyl derivative had any direct binding reaction with beta adrenoceptors. It is therefore concluded that SAR is an important component of Zhimu and the mechanism of its 'Yin-tonic' action is probably a down-regulation of the beta-adrenoceptors rather than direct occupation of receptor binding sites

  3. Medicinal herbs as part of the development of sustainable tourism in Nature park 'Stara Planina'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratknić Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the concept of sustainable exploitation of medicinal plant resources facilitates the development of tourism offering and the related activities that would enhance the development of rural areas in this region. When managed in a sustainable manner, tourism can bring many advantages to protected areas, tourism industry and a local community. By using high-resolution satellite images and application of GIS technology, a method is developed for monitoring periodic changes in eco-systems. The collected data enable design of models that incorporate in themselves dynamics of changes taking place in natural ecosystems. By means of periodic imaging of characteristic areas, the spatial representation of eco-systems will be monitored, along with the changes in their composition and structure, which may seriously endanger the development of tourism potential in the region. The integral approach to the management of medicinal herb resources in the region of Mt. Stara Planina, based on the results of this study, necessitates the integration of these results with the results of the studies investigating views and needs of the local population, whose quality of life depends on sustainability of the process of collection and valorization of this resource.

  4. Anti-Bacterial Properties of Herbs against Helicobacter Pylori Infection: A Review

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    Hedieh Yousef-Nezhad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that lives in human stomach. This bacterium is the most important cause of chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The therapies include the use of antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor, but unfortunately, these therapeutic methods are not always responsive due to resistance to antibiotics. In recent years, use of alternative treatment, including medicinal herbs was shown to have anti-H. Pylori properties. So, in this review, anti-H. Pylori features of herbals were investigated including ginger, garlic, cranberry, curcumin, green tea and broccoli sprouts derived through the search in Google Scholar search engine, and PubMed scientific database using English keywords such as Helicobacter pylori, anti-H. pylori, ginger, garlic, cranberry, curcumin, broccoli and green tea, between 1984 -2016. Results showed that ginger, garlic, cranberry, curcumin, broccoli and green tea have antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential properties, and because of their role in protecting the stomach against H. pylori infection, it seems, they can be an appropriate treatment option for patients with this infection.

  5. A study on criticality of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE at RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Zavaljevski, M.; Milosevic, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Nikolic, D.; Avdic, S.; Popovic, D.; Marinkovic, P.

    1991-01-01

    The coupled fast-thermal core HERBE at the RB zero power heavy water reactor in Vinca was designed with the aim of improving the experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields. The requirements for minimum modifications in the RB construction and the use available fuel, restricted design flexibility of the coupled system. The following core is considered optimal in the light of the foregoing constraints: the central fast core of natural uranium is surrounded by a neutron filter zone (cadmium and natural uranium) and a converter zone (enriched uranium fuel, without moderator). The coupling region is heavy water. The thermal core in the form of the RB heavy water 80% enriched uranium lattice with 12 cm pitch. The criticality of the system is obtained by adjusting the moderator level. The critical heavy water levels were measured for normal reactor operation and some simulated accidental conditions. These data were analyzed by a computer code for the design of thermal and coupled fast-thermal reactor recently developed in IBK Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Good agreement between the computations and experimental data was achieved. (author)

  6. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs

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    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of microscopic structures of the fungus developing on plants, isolation of the fungus on artificial media and macro- and microscopic analysis on standard media are essential for the correct identification of P. exigua var. exigua. The polyphagous nature of the fungus is confirmed by the obtained results. The tested isolates were found to be occasional pathogens of thyme and lemon balm in the studied conditions. The harmfulness of the tested isolates pointed to inhibition of schizocarp germination, sprouting of plants and the ability to cause necrosis of germs, roots and epicotyl.

  7. The Genome of Dendrobium officinale Illuminates the Biology of the Important Traditional Chinese Orchid Herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Hui; Tian, Yang; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Ruijuan; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Yang, Shengchao; Li, Qiye; Qi, Shuai; Kui, Ling; Okpekum, Moses; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jiajin; Ding, Zhaoli; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Sheng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicine Herbs Decoction on Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

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    Nor Aziyah Mat-Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective and curative activities of aqueous extract of decoction containing 10 Chinese medicinal herbs (HPE-XA-08 were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley albino rats with liver damage induced by thioacetamide (TAA. These activities were assessed by investigating the liver enzymes level and also histopathology investigation. Increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT levels were observed in rats with cirrhotic liver. No significant alterations of the liver enzymes were observed following treatment with HPE-XA-08. Histopathology examination of rats treated with HPE-XA-08 at 250 mg/kg body weight, however, exhibited moderate liver protective effects. Reduced extracellular matrix (ECM proteins within the hepatocytes were noted in comparison to the cirrhotic liver. The curative effects of HPE-XA-08 were observed with marked decrease in the level of ALP (more than 3x and level of GGT (more than 2x in cirrhotic rat treated with 600 mg/kg body weight HPE-XA-08 in comparison to cirrhotic rat treated with just water diluent. Reversion of cirrhotic liver to normal liver condition in rats treated with HPE-XA-08 was observed. Results from the present study suggest that HPE-XA-08 treatment assisted in the protection from liver cirrhosis and improved the recovery of cirrhotic liver.

  9. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

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    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  10. In vivo screening and evaluation of four herbs against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Najma; Mehreen, Arifa; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Muhammad; Afrasiab, Humera

    2017-11-23

    Recently, we reported high in vitro antibacterial efficacy of Althaea officinalis, Ziziphus jujuba, Cordia latifolia and Thymus vulgaris out of a total 21 plants against wide range of bacteria including MRSA. This study was therefore, designed to confirm efficacy of these four herbs against MRSA in an animal model. A pilot study was conducted to establish the dose of S. aureus (KY698020) required to induce clinical infection. Afterword, in main trial, efficacy of aforementioned plant extracts on the course of sore throat was checked by evaluating general health, gross lesion score, bacterial load and hematology in mice. Pilot study revealed that 40 μl dose of 10 7  CFU/ml could induce infection which persist upto 08 days post infection. Mice treated with T. vulgaris and Z. jujuba showed reduction in gross lesion score of both heart and lungs. Treatment with only some plants could significantly decrease bacterial load of throat (T. vulgaris) heart, blood and joint (C. latifolia, and T. vulagris). Hematological indicators confirmed in vivo control of MRSA infection in all treatment groups except A. officinalis. This is first report confirming in vivo anti-MRSA potential of C. latifolia and T. vulgaris and highlight the need to explore bioactive constituents of these plants. Moreover, previously reported in vitro antibacterial efficiency of A. officinalis could not be validated in current study.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS, BLOOD PROFILE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP FED WITH CA-SAPONIFIED LEMURU OIL COATED BY HERBS

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    Dewi Apri Astuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the physiological status, blood profiles and body composition of sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs. Twenty fat-tailed sheep (av. BW 23±1.2 kg were used in this experiment by using Completely Randomized Design with five treatments ration and four replications of each. Sheep fed with concentrate containing 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil and king grass (1:1 ad libitum. Treatments were control diet without herbs (R1; Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by curcumae domestica (R2; coated by Zingiber officinale Rosc (R3; coated by Eugenia polyantha (R4 and coated by Pluchea indica Less (R5. Data of physiological parameters were measured three times a day, in the morning, at noon and afternoon. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment through jugular vein, together with zero sample for Urea Space measurement. The variables observed were physiological data (heart rate, respiration rate, and rectal temperature, blood profiles (erythrocyte, hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV, leucocytes and body composition (water, protein and fat measured using Urea Space technique. Results of the study showed that sheep fed with Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by herbs was not significantly different on heart rate, respiration rate and rectal temperature among treatments. Meanwhile, total leucocytes, neutrophil cell, and lymphocytes significantly increased (P<0.05 by the treatment. Body composition percentage (water, protein and fat were same in all treatments, except the total body fat and energy retained. In conclusion, supplementation of 3% Ca-saponified lemuru oil coated by Curcumae domestica, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Eugenia polyantha and Pluchea indica Less in fat-tailed sheep had no effect on physiological parameters, but improved the leucocyte and neutrophil cells. Total body fat and energy retained lower compared to control treatment. (Key words: Body composition, Ca-saponified, Herbs, Lemuru

  12. QUESTIONS OF REINTRODUCTION AND CULTURE OF CULTIVATION OF HERBS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

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    Tat’yana Yur’evna Petrishcheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to studying of an ecological condition of some rare herbs of the Lipetsk region on the example of the Thyme of a complex of actions, cretaceous for the purpose of development, for repatriation of a look in natural habitats and possibilities of introduction of the Thyme to culture. Look populations under natural conditions are found. The analysis of their biological and ecological state is carried out.

  13. Using the Chinese herb Scutellaria barbata against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Shiuan; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Chang, Chiu-Ming; Chang, I-Wei; Lin, Li-Wei; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jiun-Ling

    2018-03-20

    No animal model studies have been conducted in which the efficacy of herbal compounds has been tested against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Very few antibiotics are available for the treatment of pulmonary infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB). To find alternative treatments, traditional Chinese herbs were screened for their antimicrobial potential. The present study screened 30 herbs that are traditionally used in Taiwan and that are commonly prescribed for heat clearing and detoxification. The herbs with antibacterial activities were analysed by disc diffusion assays, time-kill assays and a murine lung infection model. Of the 30 herbs tested, only Scutellaria barbata demonstrated 100% in vitro activity against XDRAB. Furthermore, we compared the antibacterial effect of the S. barbata extract with that of colistin, and the S. barbata extract showed better antibacterial effect. In the XDRAB pneumonia murine model, we compared the antimicrobial effects of the orally administered S. barbata extract (200 mg/kg, every 24 h), the intratracheally administered colistin (75,000 U/kg, every 12 h), and the control group. The bacterial load in the lungs of the treatment group that received the oral S. barbata extract showed a significant decrease in comparison to that in the lungs of the control group. In addition, histopathological examinations also revealed better resolution of perivascular, peribronchial, and alveolar inflammation in the oral S. barbata extract-treated group. Our in vitro and in vivo data from the animal model support the use of S. barbata as an alternate drug to treat XDRAB pulmonary infections. However, detailed animal studies and clinical trials are necessary to establish the clinical utility of S. barbata in treating XDRAB pulmonary infections.

  14. Impact of Air Frying on Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Oxidation in Sardines: Protective Effects of Aromatic Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda S; Sampaio, Geni R; Keller, Laura M; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Chávez, Davy W H; Torres, Elizabeth A F S; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2017-12-01

    The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), and a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) were added in quantities of 0%, 2%, and 4%. Air frying significantly decreased the content of essential PUFAs, and increased the levels of COPs from 61.2 (raw) to 283 μg/g (P addition of 4% of cheiro-verde in air-fried sardines presented the best protective effect against lipid oxidation. Fish is an important source of essential lipids. However, oxidized cholesterol products, which are formed during thermal processing, are potential hazards to human health. Air fryers present an alternative thermal process for frying food without oil, and this method of cooking is considered to be more convenient and healthier This study shows that the air frying increased the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and decreased the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in sardine fillets. However, the lipid oxidation is significantly reduced by adding fresh herbs, such as parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), or a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) that are natural antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed t...

  16. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-02

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC₅₀=16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC₅₀=0.43±0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC₅₀=0.49±0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC₅₀=2.5±0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management.

  17. Quantitation of chlorophylls and 22 of their colored degradation products in culinary aromatic herbs by HPLC-DAD-MS and correlation with color changes during the dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Lebuhotel, Julie

    2014-02-26

    Chlorophylls and their green and olive-brown derivatives were successfully separated from culinary herb extracts by HPLC with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry detection. The method involved a ternary gradient elution and reverse-phase separation conditions capable of resolving 24 different pigments (2 chlorophylls and 22 of their derivatives) of different polarities within 28 min. The method was applied to monitor color changes in 50 samples of culinary aromatic herbs subjected to five different drying treatments. Of the 24 pigments, 14 were key to understanding the differences between the primary degradation pathways of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in culinary herbs during drying processes. A color degradation ladder based on the total molar percentage of all the remaining green pigments was also proposed as a tool to measure the impact of drying treatments on aromatic herb visual aspects.

  18. Assessment of endocrine disruption potential of essential oils of culinary herbs and spices involving glucocorticoid, androgen and vitamin D receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-04-25

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are consumed on a daily basis. They are multicomponent mixtures of compounds with already demonstrated biological activities. Taking into account regular dietary intake and the chemical composition of EOs, they may be considered as candidates for endocrine-disrupting entities. Therefore, we examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on transcriptional activities of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), androgen receptor (AR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Using reporter gene assays in stably transfected cell lines, weak anti-androgen and anti-glucocorticoid activity was observed for EO of vanilla and nutmeg, respectively. Moderate augmentation of calcitriol-dependent VDR activity was caused by EOs of ginger, thyme, coriander and lemongrass. Mixed anti-glucocorticoid and VDR-stimulatory activities were displayed by EOs of turmeric, oregano, dill, caraway, verveine and spearmint. The remaining 19 EOs were inactive against all receptors under investigation. Analyses of GR, AR and VDR target genes by means of RT-PCR confirmed the VDR-stimulatory effects, but could not confirm the anti-glucocorticoid and anti-androgen effects of EOs. In conclusion, although we observed minor effects of several EOs on transcriptional activities of GR, AR and VDR, the toxicological significance of these effects is very low. Hence, 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices may be considered safe, in terms of endocrine disruption involving receptors GR, AR and VDR.

  19. Bottom-up control of consumers leads to top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs in semiarid Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Jaime; Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L; Gutierrez, Julio R; Squeo, Francisco A

    2011-02-01

    The abundance of exotic plants is thought to be limited by competition with resident species (including plants and generalist herbivores). In contrast, observations in semiarid Chile suggest that a native generalist rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), may be facilitating the expansion of exotic annual plants. We tested this hypothesis with a 20-year data set from a World Biosphere Reserve in mediterranean Chile. In this semiarid environment, rainfall varies annually and dramatically influences cover by both native and exotic annual plants; degu population density affects the composition and cover of exotic and native annual plants. In low-rainfall years, cover of both native and exotic herbs is extremely low. Higher levels of precipitation result in proportional increases in cover of all annual plants (exotic and native species), leading in turn to increases in degu population densities, at which point they impact native herbs in proportion to their greater cover, indirectly favoring the expansion of exotic plants. We propose that bottom-up control of consumers at our site results in top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs, and that this pattern may be general to other semiarid ecosystems.

  20. Pleasantness, familiarity, and identification of spice odors are interrelated and enhanced by consumption of herbs and food neophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapila, Antti; Laaksonen, Oskar; Virtanen, Markus; Yang, Baoru; Lagström, Hanna; Sandell, Mari

    2017-02-01

    The primary dimension of odor is pleasantness, which is associated with a multitude of factors. We investigated how the pleasantness, familiarity, and identification of spice odors were associated with each other and with the use of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and level of food neophobia. A total of 126 adults (93 women, 33 men; age 25-61 years, mean 39 years) rated the odors from 12 spices (oregano, anise, rosemary, mint, caraway, sage, thyme, cinnamon, fennel, marjoram, garlic, and clove) for pleasantness and familiarity, and completed a multiple-choice odor identification. Data on the use of specific spices, overall use of herbs, and Food Neophobia Scale score were collected using an online questionnaire. Familiar odors were mostly rated as pleasant (except garlic), whereas unfamiliar odors were rated as neutral (r = 0.63). We observed consistent and often significant trends that suggested the odor pleasantness and familiarity were positively associated with the correct odor identification, consumption of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and food neophilia. Our results suggest that knowledge acquisition through repetitive exposure to spice odor with active attention may gradually increase the odor pleasantness within the framework set by the chemical characteristics of the aroma compound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Interactions Involving African Herbs Indicated for Common Noncommunicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Ondieki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are regularly used to complement conventional therapies in the treatment of various illnesses in Africa. This may be because they are relatively cheap and easily accessible and are believed by many to be safe, cause fewer side effects, and are less likely to cause dependency. On the contrary, many herbs have been shown to alter the pharmacokinetics of coadministered allopathic medicines and can either synergize or antagonize therapeutic effects as well as altering the toxicity profiles of these drugs. Current disease burden data point towards epidemiological transitions characterised by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyles, risk factors for chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and cancer which often present as multimorbidities. As a result, we highlight African herb-drug interactions (HDIs modulated via cytochrome P450 enzyme family (CYP and P-glycoprotein (P-gp and the consequences thereof in relation to antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and anticancer drugs. CYPs are enzymes which account for to up to 70% of drug metabolism while P-gp is an efflux pump that extrudes drug substrates out of cells. Consequently, regulation of the relative activity of both CYP and P-gp by African herbs influences the effective drug concentration at the site of action and modifies therapeutic outcomes.

  2. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity from Different Plant Parts of Senduduk Herb: Extraction Conditions Optimization of Selected Plant Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaludin Nor Helya Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on evaluation of antioxidant properties from flower of Senduduk herb. Natural occurring antioxidant was mostly preferred due to their little or no toxicity compared to the synthetic antioxidants which posses carcinogenic effects. Extraction was done on selected plant parts of Sendududk herb including leaves, stem, flower and berry parts to evaluate their antioxidant potentiality. Flower part of Sendudk herb extracted using acetonic solvent promotes highest antioxidant activity which is 93.97 ± 1.38 % as compared to leaves (92.20 ± 0.20 %, stem (47.94 ± 1.42% and berry (92.88 ± 0.63% using the same extracting solvent. Thus, Senduduk flower was chosen to be continued with screening and optimization process. Single factor experiment using the one factor at a time (OFAT method was done to study the effect of each extraction parameter that was solid to solvent ratio, temperature and solvent concentration. The extraction condition in each parametric study which results in highest antioxidant activity was used as the middle level of optimization process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM coupled with Central Composite Design (CCD. The optimum condition was at 1:20 solid to solvent ratio, 64.61°C temperature and 80.24% acetone concentration which result in antioxidant activity of 96.53%. The verification of RSM showed that the model used to predict the antioxidant activity was valid and adequate with the experimental parameters.

  4. Discovery of Dual ETA/ETB Receptor Antagonists from Traditional Chinese Herbs through in Silico and in Vitro Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endothelin-1 receptors (ETAR and ETBR act as a pivotal regulator in the biological effects of ET-1 and represent a potential drug target for the treatment of multiple cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the study is to discover dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonists from traditional Chinese herbs. Ligand- and structure-based virtual screening was performed to screen an in-house database of traditional Chinese herbs, followed by a series of in vitro bioassay evaluation. Aristolochic acid A (AAA was first confirmed to be a dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonist based intracellular calcium influx assay and impedance-based assay. Dose-response curves showed that AAA can block both ETAR and ETBR with IC50 of 7.91 and 7.40 μM, respectively. Target specificity and cytotoxicity bioassay proved that AAA is a selective dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonist and has no significant cytotoxicity on HEK293/ETAR and HEK293/ETBR cells within 24 h. It is a feasible and effective approach to discover bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese herbs using in silico screening combined with in vitro bioassay evaluation. The structural characteristic of AAA for its activity was especially interpreted, which could provide valuable reference for the further structural modification of AAA.

  5. Modulation of cell surface hydrophobicity and attachment of bacteria to abiotic surfaces and shrimp by Malaysian herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yew Woh; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-08-01

    The use of simple crude water extracts of common herbs to reduce bacterial attachment may be a cost-effective way to control bacterial foodborne pathogens, particularly in developing countries. The ability of water extracts of three common Malaysian herbs (Andrographis paniculata, Eurycoma longifolia, and Garcinia atroviridis) to modulate hydrophobicity and attachment to surfaces of five food-related bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus ATCC 14576, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were determined. The bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay was used to determine bacterial hydrophobicity. Staining and direct microscopic counts were used to determine attachment of bacteria to glass and stainless steel. Plating on selective media was used to determine attachment of bacteria to shrimp. All extracts were capable of either significantly ( P 0.05) to bacterial attachment. For specific combinations of bacteria, surface material, and plant extract, significant correlations (R > 0.80) between hydrophobicity and attachment were observed. The highest of these was observed for S. aureus attachment to stainless steel and glass after treatment with the E. longifolia extract (R = 0.99, P < 0.01). The crude water herb extracts in this study were shown to have the potential to modulate specific bacterial and surface interactions and may, with further work, be useful for the simple and practical control of foodborne pathogens.

  6. Changes in herb and dietary supplement use in the U.S. adult population: a comparison of the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsuen; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Kennedy, Jae

    2011-11-01

    Past national surveys indicate that use of herbs and dietary supplements rose rapidly in the United States during the 1990s and early 2000s. Additional research is needed to determine whether this growth rate and associated patterns of use have persisted over time. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess population and subpopulation changes in rates of herb and supplement use; and (2) to assess changes in rates of disclosure of herb and supplement use to conventional medical providers. This study used data from the 2002 (n = 30,427) and 2007 (n = 22,657) Adult Complementary and Alternative Medicine File to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Weighted group and subgroup comparisons used the Wald χ(2) tests to compare differences in herb and supplement use between 2002 and 2007. The number of adults in the United States that ever used herbs or supplements grew slightly, from 50.6 million in 2002 to 55.1 million in 2007. However, the proportion of adults who reported use of herbs or supplements in the past 12 months dropped significantly: from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 (P minorities also reported a significant decline in recent use. The proportion of respondents that disclosed herb or supplement use to their physician or another conventional medical professional rose, from 33.4% in 2002 to 45.4% in 2007. However, <1% of recent herb and supplement users disclosed this use to their pharmacist. Limitations of this research are that the 2 national data sets were not directly comparable and that questionnaires in the 2 surveys assessed were not identical. Herbal preparations and dietary supplements remain popular in the United States, but the user population and patterns of use are changing. Ongoing surveillance of this health behavior is a public health priority. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relaciones suelo-planta-herbívoro en un sistema pastoral de montaña

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    Alonso, I.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil characteristics of six communities with pastoral interest in León mountain (Spain and the Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, K and Na contents of soils and vegetation were analysed in relation with the nutritional characteristics of herbivores' diet. The communities were named after the most representative species: Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus. Genista florida. Erica australis. Genista occidentalis and Calluna vulgaris. Soils showed in general good conditions for vegetal growth. There were no relationships between soil and plants mineral contents. Ca and Cu were deficient in some moments during the stay of the animals in the mountain. Mineral concentrations in vegetation communities varied seasonally due to maturity processes and physiological changes in plants, depending on the kind of plant and the microenvironment where they grew.

    [es] Se analizaron las características edáficas de seis comunidades de interés pastoral.en la montaña de León denominadas en función de la especie más representativa (Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus, Genista florida. Erica australis, Genista occidentalis, Calluna vulgaris, así como las concentraciones minerales de Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, Ky Na en suelos y pastos por su influencia sobre las características nutritivas de la dieta de los herbívoros. Según los resultados obtenidos, los suelos presentaron en general unas buenas condiciones para el desarrollo vegetal. No se apreció ninguna relación entre la concentración de minerales en suelos y plantas. Las cantidades de Ca y Cu presentes en la vegetación fueron insuficientes para el mantenimiento de los herbívoros domésticos al menos durante parte de su estancia en el puerto. Las concentraciones minerales en la vegetación sufrieron variaciones estacionales debido a procesos de madurez y cambios fisiológicos, en mayor o menor medida según el tipo de planta y el ambiente en que se encuentre. [de] Die Bodeneigenschaften von sechs

  8. Use of medicinal herbs by patients with severe asthma managed at a Referral Center

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    Tacila Pires Mega

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that may lead to limitations in regular activities, to hospitalizations and a decrease in quality of life. Adherence to drug treatment is crucial for control of the disease. The use of medicinal herbs can reduce adherence to prescriptions, as the medication may be replaced by infusions or herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of use of traditional herbal medicine among severe asthmatics in Salvador. Information on use of homemade remedies was obtained through application of a questionnaire during patient visits to a referral center. We also collected data on economic and social aspects as well as disease control. One hundred and forty-four (91,1% out of one hundred and fifty-eight patients evaluated used herbal medicines, but only 26.5% attributed improvement of asthma symptoms to this alternative treatment and only 8 had substituted a prescribed medication by herbal medicines. There was a trend towards lower adherence to prescription drug treatment in this group of patients. Despite the high frequency of use of medicinal herbs in our sample, there was no improvement in the asthma treatment in this population compared to non-users. Adherence to conventional drug treatment was satisfactory and there was neither reduction in asthma control nor increase in hospitalizations among the users of medicinal plants.A asma é uma enfermidade inflamatória crônica das vias aéreas que pode resultar em limitações nas atividades diárias, internações e prejuízo da qualidade de vida. A adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso é fundamental para o controle da doença. O uso de plantas medicinais pode reduzir a adesão ao tratamento prescrito, à medida que os medicamentos são substituídos por chás ou ervas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de uso de plantas medicinais entre asmáticos graves em Salvador. As informações sobre uso de rem

  9. Mechanisms of Anorexia Cancer Cachexia Syndrome and Potential Benefits of Traditional Medicine and Natural Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Hua, Cong; Bao-Hua, Zou; Lei, Yu

    Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and is unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenicneurons located in the hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hypercatabolism. The treatment modality includes early nutritional intervention, physical activity and drug treatment. However, studies about drugs used to treat cachexia are always controversial or merely effective in stimulating appetite and increasing body weight, though not lean body mass. The main target of pharmaceutical treatment is to improve appetite, decrease systemic inflammation and promote anabolic metabolism. Nevertheless, the treatment effectiveness of chemical drugs are not reaching consensus by existing cachexia guidelines. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is recently known as a promising treatment to improve cachaxia status and quality of life of cancer patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of cancer for thousands of years worldwide, particularly in China. More and more research show that traditional Hanfang (Chinese medicines) and some natural herbs with less side reactions, have the effects of antagonizing pro-inflammatory cytokines, enhancing immune system, inhibiting protein catabolism, boosting the appetite and body weight, which maybe a promising treatment strategy and development tendency for anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome.

  10. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  11. Epigenetic variation predicts regional and local intraspecific functional diversity in a perennial herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The ecological significance of epigenetic variation has been generally inferred from studies on model plants under artificial conditions, but the importance of epigenetic differences between individuals as a source of intraspecific diversity in natural plant populations remains essentially unknown. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic variation and functional plant diversity by conducting epigenetic (methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms, MSAP) and genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) marker-trait association analyses for 20 whole-plant, leaf and regenerative functional traits in a large sample of wild-growing plants of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus from ten sampling sites in south-eastern Spain. Plants differed widely in functional characteristics, and exhibited greater epigenetic than genetic diversity, as shown by per cent polymorphism of MSAP fragments (92%) or markers (69%) greatly exceeding that for AFLP ones (41%). After controlling for genetic structuring and possible cryptic relatedness, every functional trait considered exhibited a significant association with at least one AFLP or MSAP marker. A total of 27 MSAP (13.0% of total) and 12 AFLP (4.4%) markers were involved in significant associations, which explained on average 8.2% and 8.0% of trait variance, respectively. Individual MSAP markers were more likely to be associated with functional traits than AFLP markers. Between-site differences in multivariate functional diversity were directly related to variation in multilocus epigenetic diversity after multilocus genetic diversity was statistically accounted for. Results suggest that epigenetic variation can be an important source of intraspecific functional diversity in H. foetidus, possibly endowing this species with the capacity to exploit a broad range of ecological conditions despite its modest genetic diversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as 'carbohydrate-like' type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months

  13. Effects of landscape composition and configuration on pollination in a native herb: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroos, Johan; Jakobsson, Anna; Wideen, Joel; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-10-01

    Bumble bee abundance in agricultural landscapes is known to decrease with increasing distance from seminatural grasslands, but whether the pollination of bumble-bee-pollinated wild plants shows a similar pattern is less well known. In addition, the relative effects of landscape composition (landscape heterogeneity) and landscape configuration (distance from seminatural grassland) on wild plant pollination, and the interaction between these landscape effects, have not been studied using landscape-level replication. We performed a field experiment to disentangle these landscape effects on the pollination of a native herb, the sticky catchfly (Lychnis viscaria), while accounting for the proportion of oilseed rape across landscapes and the local abundance of bee forage flowers. We measured pollen limitation (the degree to which seed set is pollen-limited), seed set, and seed set stability using potted plants placed in landscapes that differed in heterogeneity (composition) and distance from seminatural grassland (configuration). Pollen limitation and seed set in individual plants did not respond to landscape composition, landscape configuration, or proportion of oilseed rape. Instead, seed set increased with increasing local bee forage flower cover. However, we found within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to increase with increasing distance from seminatural pasture. Our results suggest that average within-plant levels of pollen limitation and seed set respond less swiftly than the within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to changes in landscape configuration. Although landscape effects on pollination were less important than predicted, we conclude that landscape configuration and local habitat characteristics play larger roles than landscape composition in the pollination of L. viscaria.

  14. Relationships between the floral neighborhood and individual pollen limitation in two self-incompatible herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Anna; Lázaro, Amparo; Totland, Orjan

    2009-07-01

    Local flower density can affect pollen limitation and plant reproductive success through changes in pollinator visitation and availability of compatible pollen. Many studies have investigated the relationship between conspecific density and pollen limitation among populations, but less is known about within-population relationships and the effect of heterospecific flower density. In addition, few studies have explicitly assessed how the spatial scales at which flowers are monitored affect relationships. We investigated the effect of floral neighborhood on pollen limitation at four spatial scales in the self-incompatible herbs Armeria maritima spp. maritima and Ranunculus acris spp. acris. Moreover, we measured pollen deposition in Armeria and pollinator visits to Ranunculus. There was substantial variation in pollen limitation among Armeria individuals, and 25% of this variation was explained by the density of compatible and heterospecific flowers within a 3 m circle. Deposition of compatible pollen was affected by the density of compatible and incompatible inflorescences within a 0.5 m circle, and deposition of heterospecific pollen was affected by the density of heterospecific flowers within a 2 m circle. In Ranunculus, the number of pollinator visits was affected by both conspecific and heterospecific flower densities. This did not, however, result in effects of the floral neighborhood on pollen limitation, probably due to an absence of pollen limitation at the population level. Our study shows that considerable variation in pollen limitation may occur among individuals of a population, and that this variation is partly explained by floral neighborhood density. Such individual-based measures provide an important link between pollen limitation theory, which predicts ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences for individual plants, and studies of the effects of landscape fragmentation on plant species persistence. Our study also highlights the importance

  15. The Most Common Herbs to Cure the Most Common Oral Disease: Stomatitis Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer (RAU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Shokouhsadat; Sadeghpour, Omid; Shamsardekani, Mohammad Reza; Amin, Gholamreza; Hajighasemali, Dawood; Feyzabadi, Zohreh

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is an oral disease and the most common oral lesion, with 2% to 66% of the world's population infected annually. Its prevalence is about 25% in Tehran and 27.6% in Mashhad. The etiology of RAU is multifactorial. Aphthous risk factors include: immunological factors, psychological factors, stress, trauma, sensitivity, family history, blood disorders, malnutrition, and use of certain medications, It should be noted that the best treatment for RAU is the topical application of drugs. The use of topical treatments is recommended not only because the drug can directly impact the source of the disease, but also systemic side effects of the drug are reduced. Treatment of RAU has been considered in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), and is covered in therapeutic books. The use of herbs in RAU has a centuries-old history; accordingly, extensive research should be conducted for this treatment of the disease. Iranian medical sources were reviewed and effective plants used in the traditional treatment of RAU were found and compared with new findings. Finally, we have created a table listing the plants that are part of the therapeutic protocol for RAU. Based on this article we can explain some of traditional pharmacological effects of plants and how these plants can be a source for a cure. The plants listed can be used as a prediction of RAU management. Of course, there are is no evidence for curing RAU by some of these plants in allopathic medicine, and the further investigations in this area could lead to the discovery of a new drug.

  16. Ontogenetic stage, plant vigor and sex mediate herbivory loads in a dioecious understory herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selaković, Sara; Vujić, Vukica; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Jovanović, Živko; Radović, Svetlana; Cvetković, Dragana

    2017-11-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions can be mediated by plant apparency, defensive and nutritional quality traits that change through plant ontogeny, resulting in age-specific herbivory. In dioecious species, opposing allocation patterns in defense may lead to sex-biased herbivory. Here, we examine how onto stage and plant sex determine levels of herbivore damage in understory herb Mercurialis perennis under field conditions. We analyzed variation in plant size (height, total leaf area), physical (specific leaf area) and chemical (total phenolic and condensed tannins contents) defense, and nutritional quality (total water, soluble protein and nonstructural carbohydrate contents) during the shift from reproductive to post-reproductive stage. Furthermore, we explored correlations between the analyzed traits and levels of foliar damage. Post-reproductive plants had lower levels of chemical defense, and larger leaf area removed, in spite of having lower nutritive quality. Opposing patterns of intersexual differences were detected in protein and phenolic contents during reproductive stage, while in post-reproductive stage total leaf area was sexually dimorphic. Female-biased herbivory was apparent only after reproduction. Plant size parameters combined with condensed tannins content determined levels of foliar damage during post-reproductive stage, while the only trait covarying with herbivory in reproductive stage was total nonstructural carbohydrate content. Our results support claims of optimal defense theory - sensitive stage of reproduction was better defended. We conclude that different combinations of plant traits mediated interactions with herbivores in mature stages. Differences in reproductive allocation between the sexes may not immediately translate into different levels of damage, stressing the need for considering different ontogenetic stages when exploring sex bias in herbivory.

  17. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process

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    Wenyan Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  18. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

  19. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

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    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%, black pepper (5.34% and fenugreek (4.51% seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91% and clove (6.9%. Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g, followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g, Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g. However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43% and erucic acid (29.81%, respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices.

  20. Luteinizing hormone reduction by the male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb.

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    S. Malaivijitnond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if Butea superba Roxb., a traditional Thai male potency herb, has androgenic activity in 60-day-old male Wistar rats, we measured its effects on the pituitary-testicular axis and sex organs. Intact and orchidectomized adult male rats were subdivided into five groups (10 rats/group: distilled water, Butea superba (BS-10, BS-50, BS-250, and testosterone propionate (TP. They received 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 BS in distilled water by gavage and 6 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 TP sc, respectively, during the 30-day treatment period. Blood was collected every 15 days and luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone were measured. Changes of weight and histological appearance of sex organs were determined at the end of the 30-day treatment and 15-day post-treatment periods. TP treatment reduced serum FSH and LH levels and significantly increased the weight of the seminal vesicles and epididymis, in accordance with histopathological changes, in both intact and orchidectomized rats. No changes in serum testosterone, LH, and FSH levels were observed in any of the intact rats treated with BS, but a significant increase in seminal vesicle weight was observed only in the BS-250 group. Although a significant reduction in serum LH was detected in the BS-50 and BS-250 groups of orchidectomized rats, no significant change in weight or histology of sex organs was observed. Thus, we conclude that B. superba needs endogenous testosterone to work synergistically to stimulate the accessory sex organ of intact animals and can potentially exhibit an LH reduction effect in orchidectomized animals.