Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.
Todorović Milorad R.
Full Text Available In psychology, the process of socialization often gets the meaning it does not actually have and it also gets attached to things that are related to other processes. Here, socialization is understood only as the entering of a subject into a socio-symbolic order where he acquires his own identity. This entering into a separating order places the good on one side, and the bad on the other, and it is essentially a process that strongly designates the world by giving a man's instinctive nature the social contours obtained through imposed standards. Every form of anti-social behaviour, as well as every great psychological deviation, shows the lack of proper integration into the symbolic. Psychology, as a general theory of the psyche, and social psychology especially, indicates the social and cultural conditions that influence the mental construction. Without the dynamics of psychology, which depicts the psychological life through mental dynamics, psychological etiologies especially of those forms of behaviour that have no social verification would be neglected. Starting from the social and cultural conditions that build the 'psychological', it explains how the motives for suppression of all impulsive tendencies, aggression and libido are built. Mastering the impulses involves the construction of a moral instance (super-ego that differentiates and exists as a constant threat to the ego who tries to smuggle certain instinctive tendencies. Given that it is known, ever since Freud, that - from the standpoint of limiting the impulses, from the standpoint of morality - a man has a completely immoral part (instinctive, id; a part that is struggling to be moral (ego; and a super-ego that can be hyper-moral, and then become utterly cruel (Freud 2006a: 120, it can be observed that socialization is involved in the good part and in the bad part of a man. Success in a man's defense from Eros and Thanatos, on the one hand, and in his defense from the impulses of
Full Text Available Christian Enichlmayr beantwortet Fragen über seinen Start ins Berufsleben in der Verlagsbranche, seine Zeit an der Universitätsbibliothek Linz und seinen Wechsel an die Oberösterreichische Landesbibliothek. 1999 bis 2015 war er als deren Leiter auch in führender Position für die Transformation der Bundesstaatlichen Studienbibliothek zur Landesbibliothek sowie die Sanierung und Erweiterung des Bibliotheksgebäudes verantwortlich. Weitere Themen, die in den vergangenen 17 Jahren an der Landesbibliothek stark forciert wurden, erstrecken sich von der NS-Provenienzforschung über die Entwicklung der digitalen Landesbibliothek bis zur Stärkung der Rolle der Landesbibliothek im oberösterreichischen Kulturleben. Zuletzt spricht Enichlmayr über die Bedeutung von Kooperationen im Bibliothekswesen, die Ausrichtung des Bibliothekartages der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare 2004 in Linz sowie die Perspektive für Bibliotheken.
Nguyen, Huong Thi Thu; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Sukigara, Masune; Thai, Anh Lan
This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then examined for reliability and validity. We used the revised exhaustion +1 burnout classification to access burnout state. We performed path analysis to develop a Vietnamese causal model based on the original model by Leiter and Maslach's theory. We found that both scales were reliable and valid for assessing burnout. Among nurse participants, the percentage of severe burnout was 0.7% and burnout was 15.8%, and 17.2% of nurses were exhausted. The best predictor of burnout was "on-duty work schedule" that clinical nurses have to work for 24 hours. In the causal model, we also found similarity and difference pathways in comparison with the original model. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were applicable to research on occupational stress. Nearly one-fifth of Vietnamese clinical nurses were working in burnout state. The causal model suggested a range of factors resulting in burnout, and it is necessary to consider the specific solution to prevent burnout problem. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Huong Thi Thu Nguyen, RN, MPH
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. Methods: We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then examined for reliability and validity. We used the revised exhaustion +1 burnout classification to access burnout state. We performed path analysis to develop a Vietnamese causal model based on the original model by Leiter and Maslach's theory. Results: We found that both scales were reliable and valid for assessing burnout. Among nurse participants, the percentage of severe burnout was 0.7% and burnout was 15.8%, and 17.2% of nurses were exhausted. The best predictor of burnout was “on-duty work schedule” that clinical nurses have to work for 24 hours. In the causal model, we also found similarity and difference pathways in comparison with the original model. Conclusion: Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were applicable to research on occupational stress. Nearly one-fifth of Vietnamese clinical nurses were working in burnout state. The causal model suggested a range of factors resulting in burnout, and it is necessary to consider the specific solution to prevent burnout problem. Keywords: burnout, nurses, Vietnam
Shelton, Nicole; Douglass, Sara; Garcia, Randi L; Yip, Tiffany; Trail, Thomas E
The present research investigated whether having out-group friends serves as a buffer for feeling misunderstood in interracial interactions. Across three experience sampling studies, we found that among ethnic minorities who have few White friends or are not interacting with White friends, daily interracial interactions are associated with feeling less understood. By contrast, we found that among ethnic minorities who have more White friends or are interacting with White friends, the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood is not significant. We did not find similar results for Whites; that is, having ethnic minority friends did not play a role in the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood. Together, these studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of intergroup friendships for ethnic minorities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 45-year-old man was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and pollakisuria. A soft mass was palpable under his navel. TC-scan revealed a 11 × 6 cm tumor, which was composed of a cystic lesion arising from the urachus and a solid mass component at the urinary bladder dome. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination detected poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which had invaded the urinary bladder. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 6 months. Conclusion The urachus is the embryological remnant of urogenital sinus and allantois. Involution usually happens before birth and urachus is present as a median umbilical ligament. The pathogenesis of urachal tumours is not fully understood. Surgery is the treatment of choice and role of adjuvant treatment is not clearly understood.
Dmochowski, Janusz E
The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering
Although non-barrier contraceptive use has become a global norm, unprotected sex in relation to sexually transmitted infections remains the norm almost everywhere. Dual protection is protection from unwanted pregnancy, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and is a form of safer sex for heterosexual couples that is more needed than practised or understood. This paper draws on a review of the literature in family planning, obstetrics and gynaecology, and AIDS-related journals from 1998 to early 2005. Definitions of dual protection, found mainly in family planning literature, are very narrow. Condoms remain the mainstay of dual protection, but the aim of this paper is to provide an expanded list of dual protection methods to show that there is a range of options. These include non-penetrative sex and the increasing use of condoms with the back-up of emergency contraception on the part of young people. The fact that people may fail to use dual protection consistently and correctly is not a valid reason not to promote it. It is never too late for those providing family planning and STI/HIV prevention services to start promoting condoms and dual protection. In the long-term, the development of highly efficacious and highly acceptable methods of dual protection is an urgent research priority, starting with a wider range of condoms that will appeal to more people.
Tatiana Pontrelli Mecca
Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo verificou os parâmetros psicométricos da escala não-verbal de inteligência Leiter-R. Esta foi administrada em 213 crianças com idade entre 6 e 8 anos. Análise fatorial exploratória e índices de ajustes confirmatórios mostraram adequação da estrutura interna para dois fatores conforme a versão original do instrumento. Foi verificada estabilidade temporal, com correlações de magnitude moderada a alta entre teste e re-teste. Coeficientes de Kuder-Richardson e Spearman-Brown variaram entre os subtestes em função das diferentes idades. Maiores valores foram observados nos subtestes Sequências e Padrões Repetidos para todas as idades. Aumento significativo dos escores ocorreu apenas dos 6 para os 7 e 8 anos. Foram verificadas evidências de validade convergente com a WISC-III e as Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven.
Nonverbal cognitive development in children with cochlear implants: relationship between the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and later performance on the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised.
Caudle, Susan E; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Oghalai, John S; Lin, Jerry; Caudle, Donald D
Methodologically, longitudinal assessment of cognitive development in young children has proven difficult because few measures span infancy through school age. This matter is further complicated when the child presents with a sensory deficit such as hearing loss. Few measures are validated in this population, and children who are evaluated for cochlear implantation are often reevaluated annually. The authors sought to evaluate the predictive validity of subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) on Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised (LIPS-R) Full-Scale IQ scores. To further elucidate the relationship of these two measures, comparisons were also made with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Second Edition (VABS), which provides a measure of adaptive functioning across the life span. Participants included 35 children (14 female, 21 male) who were evaluated both as part of the precandidacy process for cochlear implantation using the MSEL and VABS and following implantation with the LIPS-R and VABS. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that the MSEL Visual Reception subdomain score significantly predicted 52% of the variance in LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores at follow-up, F(1, 34) = 35.80, p < .0001, R (2) = .52, β = .72. This result suggests that the Visual Reception subscale offers predictive validity of later LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores. The VABS was also significantly correlated with cognitive variables at each time point.
The end Ordovician extinction has become arguably the best-understood major extinction event in Earth History. A plethora of workers have established the pattern of faunal change and causes of the extinction with remarkably little disagreement. The first indication of increased extinction at the end of the Ordovician was a graph of global diversity patterns by Norman Newell in 1967, although he did not recognize it as a major event. The presence of a major extinction event became clear as William Berry and Art Boucot assembled data for Silurian correlation charts in the late 1960s. The first reports of North African glaciation in the late 1960s provided a cause for the extinction and study of the event snowballed. It was no accident that recognition of the extinction began in North America, because it was there that the extinction completely overturned faunas in the epicontinental seas. Glacio-eustatic regression of shallow seaway coincided with the disappearance of endemic Laurentian faunas and replacement by a highly cosmopolitan fauna in the Silurian. Once the event was established in North America, paleontologists soon found evidence of the event around the globe. The well-documented Hirnantia Fauna was found to correspond to the glacial interval, and Pat Brenchley soon recognized that there were two pulses of extinction, at the beginning and end of the glaciation. At the same time that the faunal changes were being documented geologic studies of the glaciation provided information on the environmental changes associated with the extinction. The timing of the glacial maximum was established in Africa and by the presence of dropstones in high latitude marine rocks. The 1990s saw geochemical techniques employed that allowed examination of atmospheric CO2 and temperature changes. In many places carbonate deposition declined. Glacio-eustatic regression was obvious in many areas, and a sea-level decline in the range of 50-100 m was established. Shallow
İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A
Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1
Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F
The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?
Teusink, B.; Passarge, J.R.; Reijenga, C.A.; Esgalhado, M.E.L.M.; van der Weijden, C.C.; Schepper, M.; Walsh, M.C.; Bakker, B.M.; van Dam, K.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.
This paper examines whether the in vivo behavior of yeast glycolysis can be understood in terms of the in vitro kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes. In nongrowing, anaerobic, compressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae the values of the kinetic parameters of most glycolytic enzymes were
Helle-Valle, Anna; Binder, Per-Einar; Anderssen, Norman; Stige, Brynjulf
ABSTRACT ADHD can be considered an internationally recognized framework for understanding children’s restlessness. In this context, children’s restlessness is understood as a symptom of neurodevelopmental disorder. However, there are other possible understandings of children’s restlessness. In this article, we explore four boys’ collaborative and creative process as it is described and understood by three adults. The process is framed by a community music therapy project in a Norwegian kindergarten, and we describe four interrelated phases of this process: Exploring musical vitality and cooperation, Consolidating positions, Performing together, and Discovering ripple effects. We discuss these results in relation to seven qualities central to a community music therapy approach: participation, resource orientation, ecology, performance, activism, reflexivity and ethics. We argue that in contrast to a diagnostic approach that entails a focus on individual problems, a community music therapy approach can shed light on adult and systemic contributions to children’s restlessness. PMID:28532331
Bhalla, Ashish; Mehrotra, Prerna; Amawi, Falah; Lund, Jonathan N
Risk-adjusted outcome data for general surgeons practicing in the United Kingdom were published for the first time in 2013 with the aim of increasing transparency, improving standards, and providing the public with information to aid decision making. Most specialties used funnel plots to present their data. We assess the ability of members of the public (MoP), medical students, nonsurgical doctors (NSD), and surgeons to understand risk-adjusted surgical outcome data. A fictitious outcome dataset was created and presented in the form of a funnel plot to 10 participants from each of the aforementioned group. Standard explanatory text was provided. Each participant was given 5 minutes to review the funnel plot and complete a questionnaire. For each question, there was only 1 correct answer. Completion rate was 100% (n = 40). No difference existed between NSD and surgeons. A significant difference for identification of the "worst performing surgeon" was noted between surgeons and MoP (p plot significantly "more difficult" to interpret than surgeons did (p < 0.01) and NSD (p < 0.01). MoP found these data significantly more "difficult to understand" and were less likely to both spot "outliers" and use this data to inform decisions than doctors. Surgeons should be aware that outcome data may require an alternative method of presentation to be understood by MoP. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott
The contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment is under-recognized and the pathogenesis is poorly understood. This information gap has multiple causes, including a lack of post-mortem validation of clinical diagnoses of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD), the exclusion of cases with concomitant neurodegenerative disease when diagnosing VCI/VaD, and a lack of standardization of neuropathological assessment protocols for vascular disease. Other contributors include a focus on end-stage destructive lesions to the exclusion of more subtle types of diffuse brain injury, on structural abnormalities of arteries and arterioles to the exclusion of non-structural abnormalities and capillary damage, and the use of post-mortem sampling strategies that are biased towards the identification of neurodegenerative pathologies. Recent studies have demonstrated the value of detailed neuropathology in characterizing vascular contributions to cognitive impairment (e.g. in diabetes), and highlight the importance of diffuse white matter changes, capillary damage and vasoregulatory abnormalities in VCI/VaD. The use of standardized, evidence-based post-mortem assessment protocols and the inclusion of biochemical as well as morphological methods in neuropathological studies should improve the accuracy of determination of the contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment and clarify the relative contribution of different pathogenic processes to the tissue damage. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Laura Ester Donadío
Full Text Available This article aims to explain from a theoretical conceptual approach the particularities that exist in Victoria, San Fernando, Buenos Aires, from its urban production. Through a series of field works, semi-structured interviews and observations, it was possible to perceive that in this locality, there are three logics of city production, market, state and necessity, according to Abramo, P. (2002. The post-development cities of Latin America, a space in which constant tensions are generated that alter the harmonious development of daily life and the interaction of those who inhabit the area. On the other hand, it is also perceived that the inhabitants naturalize that way of life, their spatial disposition, the progressive privatization of public areas and the proliferation of closed housing estates. Here is a quote that we have heard repeatedly in interviews with the neighbors: "No one in Victoria gives a ball to anyone." At the moment of understanding Victoria from the theory, we take into account such concepts as the "heterotopy" of Foucault M. (1967 - understood as the juxtaposition of spaces that would be incompatible -the term "com-fusa city" (Abramo P. - as an urban structure that interweaves two traditional models (the Mediterranean compact and the Anglo-Saxon diffused, the notion of "privatopia" by I.Rodriguez Chumillas (2005 and E. Mckenzie (1994 as private spatial consolidation, and finally the concepts: informative and dual cities of R Castells (1995 terms that emerge from the process of globalization, which may be useful to think about the reality of Victoria .
Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare
Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.
Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter
ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493
Buhl, Mie; Werner Hansen, Siv
, and involved artists with refugee status (mainly from Syria), a group of local volunteers, and members of the museum staff. The project derived from the annual theme “ON THE MOVE” and culminated in an art exhibition and event on June 4th 2016. Up until then the museum had invited the artists to create artworks...... for the exhibition, while including the volunteers in the process, facilitating the meeting of those who are at home and those who are on the run. In this sense, the MFSK situates themselves as a social-political activist; a contemporary institution dealing with contemporary societal issues. The migrant and refugee...... of engaging with themes of refuge, home and exile? What are the implications of volunteering in such project? The paper’s discussions are framed by the theories of gallery education (Bishop, 2006; Mörsch, 2009), co-creation in museums (Simon, 2010), community arts (Kester, 2013), and draws on fieldwork...
Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter
Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.
Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)
Describes a personal involvement with digital media and the origins of the conception of the "diagrammatic" poem. Reflects on what is considered to be a poem in tune with today's computerized society. (PA)
Ingersoll, Luke T; Saeed, Fahad; Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A; Anderson, Wendy; Alexander, Stewart C; Gramling, Robert
Maximizing value in palliative care requires continued development and standardization of communication quality indicators. To describe the basic epidemiology of a newly-adopted patient-centered communication quality indicator for hospitalized palliative care patie9nts with advanced cancer. Cross-sectional analysis of 207 advanced cancer patients who received palliative care consultation at two medical centers in the United States. Participants completed the Heard & Understood quality indicator immediately before and the day following the initial palliative care consultation: "Over the past two days ["24 hours" for the post-consultation version], how much have you felt heard and understood by the doctors, nurses and hospital staff? Completely/Quite a Bit/Moderately/Slightly/Not at All". We categorized "Completely" as indicating ideal quality. Approximately one-third indicated ideal Heard & Understood quality before palliative care consultation. Age, financial security, emotional distress, preferences for comfort-longevity tradeoffs at end-of-life, and prognosis expectations were associated with pre-consultation quality. Among those with less-than-ideal quality at baseline, 56% rated feeling more Heard & Understood the day following palliative care consultation. The greatest pre-post improvement was among people who had unformed end-of-life treatment preferences or who reported having "no idea" about their prognosis at baseline. Most patients felt incompletely heard and understood at the time of referral to palliative care consultation and more than half improved following consultation. Feeling heard and understood is an important quality indicator sensitive to interventions to improve care and key variations in the patient experience. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen
Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions.
Wallace, John P
Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.
Self-development is closely related to the idea of formation (or what is referred to as Bildung in German). But when speaking of formation, we have to address the question, ‘what are we formed by?’ Is the human being formed by him- or herself, or by resources originating from outside the self? Fr...
manner that gave him the time to pursue and destroy the retreating army. Centuries later, another great captain – Napoléon Bonaparte – employed...Jena-Auerstadt 1806 In 1806, Napoléon Bonaparte became the first operational artist in the history of modern war when he defeated the Prussian... Napoleon , Operational Art, and the Jena Campaign,” in Historical Perspectives of the Operational Art, ed. Michael D. Krause and R. Cody Phillips
Mahdieh-Sadat Khoshou'ei; Fakhri-Sadat Mirlohi
Objective: This research has been conducted with the aim of examining the performance of slow-learner first grade elementary students in Wechsler, Laiter and Goodenough Intelligence scales. Materials & Methods: The present study was a comparative study. The statistical population was consisted of slow-learner students who were studying in the 1st grade in elementary schools in Isfahan 50 students (25 girls, 25 boys) were selected randomly. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revi...
vision) for using Turnitin as a deterrent, in order to help learners to learn in the process. .... such as the American Psychological Association. (APA) ..... from other people. ..... and enduring concerns (2nd ed). ... Generations: The history of.
intervention makes it easy to see why there is less commitment to ... funding for countries where crisis' stretch government ability to respond ... National agencies such as DfID (UK), Norad (Norway), USAID (USA) and GIZ .... This case study uses a qualitative research design consistent with DiCicco- ..... Swedish International.
Gerritsen, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Gijsbers, I.
Dutch consumers are increasingly exposed to English in commercials on television. Advertising agencies appear to use English because of financial and image reasons. This article investigates how often commercials that contain English occur in the Netherlands and whether consumers comprehend the
Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.
Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.
Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352
Parkinson, Carolyn; Walker, Trent T; Memmi, Sarah; Wheatley, Thalia
Patterns of bodily movement can be used to signal a wide variety of information, including emotional states. Are these signals reliant on culturally learned cues or are they intelligible across individuals lacking exposure to a common culture? To find out, we traveled to a remote Kreung village in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. First, we recorded Kreung portrayals of 5 emotions through bodily movement. These videos were later shown to American participants, who matched the videos with appropriate emotional labels with above chance accuracy (Study 1). The Kreung also viewed Western point-light displays of emotions. After each display, they were asked to either freely describe what was being expressed (Study 2) or choose from 5 predetermined response options (Study 3). Across these studies, Kreung participants recognized Western point-light displays of anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and pride with above chance accuracy. Kreung raters were not above chance in deciphering an American point-light display depicting love, suggesting that recognizing love may rely, at least in part, on culturally specific cues or modalities other than bodily movement. In addition, multidimensional scaling of the patterns of nonverbal behavior associated with each emotion in each culture suggested that similar patterns of nonverbal behavior are used to convey the same emotions across cultures. The considerable cross-cultural intelligibility observed across these studies suggests that the communication of emotion through movement is largely shaped by aspects of physiology and the environment shared by all humans, irrespective of differences in cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani
Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Governance (CG is an overarching concept, using organizational capacity, safeguards high standards of the health services and provides a safe care for patients. The aim of this research was to study nurses’ perception about Clinical Governance. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was done with Focus Group Discussions (FGD. Purposeful Sampling was used to select the objectives including 65 participants. Actually 7 FGD’s were held. Content analysis was used to extract the meaningful themes. Results:Nurses believed that patient centeredness and evidence based practice is the core of the CG concept. Also they mentioned that cultural change, staffs training, adequate financial and human resources are required to successfully implementation of CG in hospitals. Conclusion: Spreading up a shared vision about CG and providing the required infrastructures in hospitals would be facilitate CG initiatives. Proper commitment of the managers and staff participation could lead an effective CG implementation.
Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges
The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…
Abdul Ghafar Ismail; Nurfaradilla Haron
The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, t...
Abdul Ghafar Ismail
Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.
Spaten, Ole Michael; Løkken, Lillith Olesen
The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding...
This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of t...
In the context of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' scheme, an explicit dynamical study of the triple bare pomeron mechanism which governs the interaction term in Gribov's Lagrangian is presented. Together with the previously established bare pomeron slope and intercept, controlling respectively, the kinetic and mass terms in Gribov's Lagrangian, this work demonstrates the viability of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' approach for a field theory of interaction bare pomerons. (author)
Nov 23, 2015 ... Can Turnitin come to the rescue: From teachers' reflections? Simon Bheki Khoza ... In South Africa, however, there are very few schools that expose teachers to Turnitin in order to ... Turnitin program by John M. Barrie, when he was a graduate ... Questions. This article intended to explore and explain teach-.
Gous, Jennifer Glenda; Eloff, Irma; Moen, Melanie Carmen
Inclusive education has become a practice that has been adopted by many schools across the globe and most usually in first-world countries. As a whole-school system, it occurs less frequently in developing countries including South Africa which unlike many developing countries has a sound infrastructure and many excellent schools in both the state…
Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Watkinson, E Jane
This study explored the perspectives of children with disabilities regarding the concept of inclusion in physical activity. Participants were children (two girls, nine boys, Mage = 10 years, five months, age range: 8-12 years) with disabilities, including cerebral palsy, fine and gross motor delays, developmental coordination disorder, muscular dystrophy, nemaline myopathy, brachial plexus injury, and severe asthma. Children's perspectives on inclusion in physical activity (e.g., sports, games, and play) were explored through semistructured interviews. Interviews were digitally audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: gaining entry to play, feeling like a legitimate participant, and having friends. These themes were associated with feeling included to varying degrees in sports, games, and play. In essence, it was the actions of others that were the prominent features identified by children that contributed to feeling more or less included in physical activity contexts. These results are discussed in relation to inclusion in physical education, recreation, and unstructured free play.
Strom, Daniel J; Watson, Charles R
While much of the language used to express the concepts of radiation protection works effectively, there are many ill-chosen names and phrases and much jargon that permeate our professional speech and writing. From the oxymoron "internal exposure" to the "snarl word" "decay," there is much room for improvement. This essay identifies many of the problems and suggests solutions. We examine the kinds of confusions that can result from using familiar words with unfamiliar meanings and the need for neology. We offer insights into specific and unambiguous naming of physical quantities and explore the seemingly unlimited kinds of "dose." We disaggregate exposure from irradiation following intakes, and unmask units like "gram rad per microcurie hour." We call for a definition of radiation weighting factor that doesn't result in a violation of the law of conservation of energy. We examine the subtleties of distinguishing between radiation and radioactive materials. Some words, such as "exposure," have multiple meanings, while at other times there are different words or phrases with the same meaning, such as "critical level" and "decision level" or "detection level" and "minimum detectable amount." Sometimes phrases are used whose meaning is unclear or not agreed upon, such as "lower limit of detection." Sometimes there are words that are simply not apt, such as "disintegration" applied to the emission of a subatomic particle from a nucleus.
Huong Thi Thu Nguyen, RN, MPH; Kazuyo Kitaoka, PhD; Masune Sukigara, PhD; Anh Lan Thai, PhD
Purpose: This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. Methods: We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then exam...
Gascón, Santiago; Olmedo Montes, Margarita; Ciccotelli, Héctor
El burnout, o síndrome de quemarse en el trabajo, ha alcanzado proporciones epidémicas en el mundo laboral. Dadas las graves consecuencias que este fenómeno tiene, tanto para la salud de los trabajadores, como para el buen funcionamiento de las organiz
Johansen, Martin Blok
In recent years, literacy problematics and different concepts (Cooperative Learning, Learning Styles) have taken up much of the school’s literature teaching. It has pushed discussions of the professional content into the background. This article takes up the content discussion for renewed debate......, but now also with the aim of discussing the literary texts one can present to children in school. The research questions posed are: Which texts can justifiably be presented to children as part of teaching in school? What will happen if 10 to 12-year-old Danish school pupils are presented with classical...... starting point in three concepts rooted in theory, i.e. unpredictability, defamiliarization and entitlement, which are subsequently used to get to grips with the empirical part of the study. The article does not attempt to depict a hard-and-fast picture of all children being equally enthusiastic about...
De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Cristella, Arcangelo; Terenzio, Vanessa; Buttiglione, Maura; Margari, Lucia
Background: The assessment of the intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important to plan a detailed therapeutic-educative programme. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) to estimate the general cognitive development of children with ASD.…
Despite the number of articles devoted to the topic of content-based instruction (CBI), little attempt has been made to link the claims for CBI to research in cognitive science. In this article, I review the CBI model of foreign language (FL) instruction in the context of its close alignment with two emergent frameworks in cognitive science:…
Hou, Kun; Zhao, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yan; Li, Guichen
Simultaneous or early sequential rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIAs) is encountered rarely, with no more than 10 cases having been reported. As a result of its rarity, there are a lot of questions concerning this entity need to be answered. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University (Eastern Division) from a local hospital after a sudden onset of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Head computed tomography (CT) at the local hospital revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that was concentrated predominately in the suprasellar cistern and interhemispheric fissure. During her transfer to our hospital, she experienced another episode of sudden headache. CT on admission to our hospital revealed that the SAH was increased with 2 isolated hematomas both in the interhemispheric fissure and the left paramedian frontal lobe. Further CT angiography and intraoperative findings were in favor of early sequential rupture of 2 intracranial aneurysms. To further elucidate the characteristics, mechanism, management, and prognosis of this specific entity, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature. The mechanism of simultaneous or early sequential rupture of MIAs is still obscure. Transient elevation of blood pressure might play a role in the process, and preventing the sudden elevation of blood pressure might be beneficial for patients with aneurysmal SAH and MIAs. The management of simultaneously or early sequentially ruptured aneurysms is more complex for its difficulty in responsible aneurysm determination, urgency in treatment, toughness in intraoperative manipulation and poorness in prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mas, Philippe J; Hart, Darren J
Production of soluble, purifiable domains or multi-domain fragments of proteins is a prerequisite for structural biology and other applications. When target sequences are poorly annotated, or when there are few similar sequences available for alignments, identification of domains can be problematic. A method called expression of soluble proteins by random incremental truncation (ESPRIT) addresses this problem by high-throughput automated screening of tens of thousands of enzymatically truncated gene fragments. Rare soluble constructs are identified by experimental screening, and the boundaries revealed by DNA sequencing.
Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler. Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library. Vain tiivi...
Full Text Available A key sticking point of Bayesian analysis is the choice of prior distribution, and there is a vast literature on potential defaults including uniform priors, Jeffreys’ priors, reference priors, maximum entropy priors, and weakly informative priors. These methods, however, often manifest a key conceptual tension in prior modeling: a model encoding true prior information should be chosen without reference to the model of the measurement process, but almost all common prior modeling techniques are implicitly motivated by a reference likelihood. In this paper we resolve this apparent paradox by placing the choice of prior into the context of the entire Bayesian analysis, from inference to prediction to model evaluation.
Basel, Donald; Steiner, Robert D
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a systemic heritable disorder of connective tissue whose cardinal manifestation is bone fragility. In approximately 90% of individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta, mutations in either of the genes encoding the pro-alpha1 or pro-alpha2 chains of type I collagen (COL1A1 or COL1A2) can be identified. Of those without collagen mutations, a number of them will have mutations involving the enzyme complex responsible for posttranslational hydroxylation of the position 3 proline residue of COL1A1. Two of the genes encoding proteins involved in that enzyme complex, LEPRE1 and cartilage-associated protein, when mutated have been shown to cause autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, which has a moderate to severe clinical phenotype, often indistinguishable from osteogenesis imperfecta types II or III. Mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 which result in an abnormal protein still capable of forming a triple helix cause a more severe phenotype than mutations that lead to decreased collagen production as a result of the dominant negative effect mediated by continuous protein turnover. The current standard of care includes a multidisciplinary approach with surgical intervention when necessary, proactive physiotherapy, and consideration for the use of bisphosphonates all in attempts to improve quality of life.
.... Specifically, this thesis takes the position that a failure to appropriately understand what Germany's unique strategic culture has been a leading cause of the present uncomfortable relationship...
Simons, Michele; Harris, Roger
Ongoing reform in vocational education and training (VET) has placed significant pressure on leaders in private training organisations in terms of striking an 'appropriate' balance between educational and business imperatives. This paper draws on data from 34 interviews with leaders from 16 private registered training organisations in Australia to…
Fine, Philip A; Ginsborg, Jane
Singing is universal, and understanding sung words is thought to be important for many listeners' enjoyment of vocal and choral music. However, this is not a trivial task, and sung text intelligibility is probably affected by many factors. A survey of musicians was undertaken to identify the factors believed to have most impact on intelligibility, and to assess the importance of understanding sung words in familiar and unfamiliar languages. A total of 143 professional and amateur musicians, including singers, singing teachers, and regular listeners to vocal music, provided 394 statements yielding 851 references to one or more of 43 discrete factors in four categories: performer-related, listener-related, environment-related and words/music-related. The factors mentioned most frequently in each of the four categories were, respectively: diction; hearing ability; acoustic; and genre. In more than a third of references, the extent to which sung text is intelligible was attributed to the performer. Over 60% of respondents rated the ability to understand words in familiar languages as "very important," but only 17% when the text was in an unfamiliar language. Professional musicians (47% of the sample) rated the importance of understanding in both familiar and unfamiliar languages significantly higher than amateurs but listed fewer factors overall and fewer listener-related factors. The more important the respondents rated understanding, the more performer-related and environment-related factors they tended to list. There were no significant differences between the responses of those who teach singing and those who do not. Enhancing sung text intelligibility is thus perceived to be within the singer's control, at least to some extent, but there are also many factors outside their control. Empirical research is needed to explore some of these factors in greater depth, and has the potential to inform pedagogy for singers, composers, and choral directors.
Matarese, Vera [The University of Hong Kong (China)
This paper aims to interpret the problem of the quantum-classical divide following Bohm's holographic model and to reformulate it as an indication of a new physical order. First of all I briefly outline the differences between the classical world and the quantum one (such as locality against nonlocality, determinism against indeterminism and continuity against discontinuity); then I claim that in order to understand the divide between the two domains we should start from what is common, and regard them as two abstractions and limiting cases of a general theory. In particular, following Bohm, I show that the central notion of this new theory is an undivided whole characterized by a general order consisting of a holomovement from an implicate order - the quantum domain - to an explicate order - in the classical domain. This part is explained with the aid of the structure of the hologram and is supported by a reflection on some key terms such as 'order', 'structure', 'implicate' and 'explicate'. Finally I propose that this movement of unfoldment and enfoldment can explain the apparent incompatibility of the two physical domains and the passage from one to the other.
Sikorskaia, L. E.
In 2006 the author and her colleagues carried out the sociological survey "Tolerance in Volunteer Social Work." They sought to determine the attitudes that young Russian and German volunteers of social work have when it comes to tolerance as a concept, a trait of personality, a principle of life and activity. They studied the various…
Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard
Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in regulating immunity. This comprehensive review updates the current understanding regarding ways in which we believe that vitamin D regulates responsiveness of the immune system and how serum status modulates the host defense against pathogens. The literature was searched by using PubMed and Scopus with the following key words: vitamin D, immunity, innate and adaptive immunity, infectious disease, and vaccine response. Vitamin D deficiency remains a major public health concern worldwide. The overall body of evidence confirms that vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Epidemiologic studies suggest a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to various pathogens. However, translation of vitamin D use into the clinic as a means of controlling infections is fraught with methodologic and epidemiologic challenges. The recent discovery of alternative activation pathways, different active forms of vitamin D, and possible interaction with non-vitamin D receptors provide further complications to an already complex interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. Moreover, it has become apparent that the individual responsiveness to supplementation is more dynamic than presumed from the static assessment of 25-hydroxy vitamin D status. Furthermore, the epigenetic response at the level of the individual to environmental changes and lifestyle or health conditions provides greater variation than those resulting from vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. To understand the future of vitamin D with respect to clinical applications in the prevention and better control of infectious diseases, it is necessary to determine all aspects of vitamin D metabolism, as well as the mechanisms by which active forms interact with the immune system globally. For the most part, we are unable to identify tissue-specific applications of supplementation except for those subjects at high risk of osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruinessen, M.M. van
This article surveys various attempts to make sociological sense of the diverse Muslim movements often lumped together under the label of fundamentalism. Explanations of fundamentalism as a form of resistance to modernization or those reducing it to social and economic discontent may have some
Hedges, Helen; Lee, Debora
"Partnership between parents and teachers" is a taken-for-granted feature of the philosophy and practice of early childhood education. Yet, the literature suggests this rhetoric belies a more complex and problematic reality for teachers. Making connections with the families and communities they will serve may help teacher education…
The purpose of the present study is to explore the role of static media in textbooks, as defined by Mayer (2001) in the form of printed images and text, and how these media are viewed and used by high school science teachers. Textbooks appeared in the United States in the late 1800s, and since then pictorial aids have been used extensively in them to support the teacher's work in the classroom (Giordano, 2003). According to Woodward, Elliott, and Nagel (1988/2013) the research on textbooks prior to the 1970s doesn't present relevant work related to the curricular role and the quality and instructional design of textbooks. Since then there has been abundant research, specially on the use of visual images in textbooks that has been approached from: (a) the text/image ratio (Evans, Watson, & Willows, 1987; Levin & Mayer, 1993; Mayer, 1993; Woodward, 1993), and (b) the instructional effectiveness of images (Woodward, 1993). The theoretical framework for this study comes from multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), information design (Pettersson, 2002), and visual literacy (Moore & Dwyer, 1994). Data was collected through in-depth interviews of three high school science teachers and the graphic analyses of three textbooks used by the interviewed teachers. The interview data were compared through an analytic model developed from the literature, and the graphic analyses were performed using Mayer's multimedia learning principles (Mayer, 2001) and the Graphic Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough & McTigue, 2013). The conclusions of this study are: (1) pictures are specially useful for teaching science because science is a difficult subject to teach, (2) due this difficulty, pictures are very important to make the class dynamic and avoid students distraction, (3) static and dynamic media when used together can be more effective, (4) some specific type of graphics were found in the science textbooks used by the participants, in this case they were naturalistic drawings, stylized drawings, scale diagram, flow chart - cycle, flow chart - sequence, and hybrids, no photographs were found, (5) graphics can be related not only to the general text but specifically to the captions, (6) the textbooks analyzed had a balanced proportion of text and graphics, and (7) to facilitate the text-graphics relationship the spatial contiguity of both elements is key to their semantic integration.
For decades Catalan, a language minoritized and endangered by the hegemony of other state languages, has been experimenting with a process of revitalization driven by social activism and political autonomy, which has been particularly strong in some of its historical regions. Recently, however, serious doubts about the success of this process have…
Full text: Part of my work involves tutoring trainee radiologists on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). I have observed that a full understanding of the physics involved with MRI, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be more specific, seems to be beyond the hopes of many people working in the field. All diagnostic radiology textbooks that I have read touch very superficially on the physics of NMR and sometimes the explanations and models used are quite inaccurate and misleading. After further investigation, I found some very good coverage on the subject in chemistry texts. The physics of NMR is based on some very difficult quantum mechanical concepts. What I have managed to understand has been tremendously satisfying and has shed light on several conceptual difficulties which I initially struggled with. The physics of MRI is based on the motion of the hydrogen proton when subjected to an external magnetic field. Protons, which are positively charged particles, have an intrinsic spin and as a result, a magnetic field. A proton, when placed in an external magnetic field, undergoes several changes in its motion. The laws of quantum mechanics govern these changes. Diagnostic radiology textbook models describing the motion of a proton tend to be poor and inaccurate leading to confusion. For example, subatomic particles are subject to laws of quantum mechanics and are forbidden to align exactly with an applied magnetic field thus creating precession. Some textbooks make no attempt to explain this phenomenon whereas others attempt a superficial but inadequate quantum mechanical explanation. I am interested to canvas opinions from others involved in MRI as to difficulties they have encountered with the understanding of the physics of MRI and how they have been overcome. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
book, see “Publisher Drops Nazi Porno Book,” Deutsche Welle World News, 5 February 2004, www.dw-world.de 20 Günzel who was fired for his outward...ed_inhalt_06.php “Publisher Drops Nazi Porno Book,” Deutsche Welle World News, 5 February 2004, www.dw-world.de Pye, Lucian W. and Sidney Verba
Lorenzo, Genevieve L; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Human, Lauren J
Beautiful people are seen more positively than others, but are they also seen more accurately? In a round-robin design in which previously unacquainted individuals met for 3 min, results were consistent with the "beautiful is good" stereotype: More physically attractive individuals were viewed with greater normative accuracy; that is, they were viewed more in line with the highly desirable normative profile. Notably, more physically attractive targets were viewed more in line with their unique self-reported personality traits, that is, with greater distinctive accuracy. Further analyses revealed that both positivity and accuracy were to some extent in the eye of the beholder: Perceivers' idiosyncratic impressions of a target's attractiveness were also positively related to the positivity and accuracy of impressions. Overall, people do judge a book by its cover, but a beautiful cover prompts a closer reading, leading more physically attractive people to be seen both more positively and more accurately.
Apperly, Ian. A.; Williams, Emily; Williams, Joelle
In 4 experiments 120 three-to four-year-old non readers were asked the identity of a symbolic representation as it appeared with different objects. Consistent with Bialystok (2000), many children judged the identity of written words to vary according to the object with which they appeared but few made such errors with recognizable pictures.…
Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P
Vaccination is an established intervention that reduces the burden and prevents the spread of infectious diseases. Investing in vaccination is known to offer a wide range of economic and intangible benefits that can potentiate gains for the individual and for society. The discipline of economics provides us with microeconomic and macroeconomic methods for evaluating the economic gains attributed to health status changes. However, the observed gap between micro and macro estimates attributed to health presents challenges to our understanding of health-related productivity changes and, consequently, economic benefits. The gap suggests that the manner in which health-related productive output is quantified in microeconomic models might not adequately reflect the broader economic benefit. We propose that there is a transitional domain that links the micro- and macroeconomic improvement attributed to health status changes. Currently available economic evaluation methods typically omit these consequences, however; they may be adjusted to integrate these transitional consequences. In practical terms, this may give rise to multipliers to apply toward indirect costs to account for the broader macroeconomic benefits linked to changes in health status. In addition, it is possible to consider that different medical conditions and health care interventions may pose different multiplying effects, suggesting that the manner in which resources are allocated within health services gives rise to variation in the amount of the micro-macro gap. An interesting way to move forward in integrating the micro- and macro-level assessment might be by integrating computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as part of the evaluation framework, as was recently performed for pandemic flu and malaria vaccination.
Meyer, Patrick Gerard
This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity are not adequate to determine the shape of a molecule---but some apply the VSEPR theory in incorrect ways. (9) Students do not reason significantly differently when working with various representations of molecules such as ball-and-stick models, molecular formulas, and Lewis structures. The study illuminated specific parts of the general chemistry curriculum that are particularly troublesome for students but necessary for their further achievement in chemistry. This information is important; it gives the discipline of chemistry education target areas to focus on for general chemistry pedagogical improvement efforts.
Personnel Psychology 46 (1993), 823–850; Campion, E.M. Papper , and Medsker, “Relations between Work Team Characteristics and Effectiveness: A Replication...Leadership Quarterly 12 (2001), 451–483. 115 Campion, Medsker, and Higgs, 823–850; Campion, Papper , and Medsker, 429–452. 116 Katzenbach and Smith, 49
CAZZO, Everton; GESTIC, Martinho Antonio; UTRINI, Murillo Pimentel; CHAIM, Felipe David Mendonça; GELONEZE, Bruno; PAREJA, José Carlos; CHAIM, Elinton Adami; MAGRO, Daniéla Oliveira
ABSTRACT Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected. Results: There is evidence demonstrating significant increase in the levels of GLP-2 following gastric bypass, Scopinaro operation, and sleeve gastrectomy. There are no differences between gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy in regards to the increase in the GLP-2 levels. There is no correlation between the postoperative levels of GLP-2 and the occurrence of adequate or insufficient postoperative weight loss. Conclusion: GLP-2 plays significant roles on the regulation of nutrient absorption, permeability of gut mucosa, control of bone resorption, and regulation of satiety. The overall impact of these effects potentially exerts a significant adaptive or compensatory effect within the context of varied bariatric surgical techniques. PMID:28076485
Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (DBS): Konzept, Umsetzung und Perspektiven für eine umfassende Datenbasis zum Bibliothekswesen in Deutschland : 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Ronald M. Schmidt, Leiter der DBS
Bauer, Bruno; Schmidt, Ronald M.
The DBS, Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (German Library Statistics, http://www.bibliotheksstatistik.de), reports since 1974. Around 9000 libraries file data on facilities, equipment, holdings, usage, budget and staff. Data collection, evaluation, and presentation today are carried out online only. Aim of DBS is the formation of a national data pool containing statistical data on all types of libraries. The interview informs about the concept of DBS and its differentation of public, unive...
Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors. A compact introduction to history, development, and theory of solid-state physics. 2. ed.; Leiter, Halbleiter, Supraleiter. Eine kompakte Einfuehrung in Geschichte, Entwicklung und Theorie der Festkoerperphysik
Huebener, Rudolf [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik
The present book is a strongly revised and supplemented edition of the title: ''Kristalle: Spiefeld der Elektronen'', published scarcely ten years ago by the same author. Especially the physical contents are explained by the mathematically formulated foundations. The book appeals to students of natural sciences and especially of physics as well as to engineers as introduction to the wide field of solid-state physics, so to speak as motivating prestage to the established and very extensive textbooks. Beside the physical contents the book treats the important role of numerous important and often still very young scientists. By corresponding supplements in this book it is tried to present the fundamental developments in their wide environment.
Brandon, J. A.
For my thesis research, I study marine debris, specifically in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, colloquially known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Marine debris in general, and the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in particular, are marine pollution issues that have captured considerable public and media attention. Especially in the late 2000s, there were significantly more popular media articles about marine debris and the Great Pacific Garbage Patch than scientific journal articles. Due to this popular attention and lag in scientific publication, there are a lot of exaggerated facts and prevalent myths about marine debris in the public consciousness today. As a graduate student at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, I have been given many opportunities to speak to diverse audiences about marine debris. These groups vary in their base knowledge of the issue, from very knowledgeable, to unknowledgeable, to knowledgeable but misinformed about the issue. Over my three years in graduate school, building off a base presentation from a previous graduate student and techniques learned from the education department at Birch Aquarium, I have developed ways to correct some misinformation while not making the audience feel insulted. I correct misinformation while building up a correct base knowledge. This knowledge can be very depressing, as many modern scientific problems can be, but I end the presentation with ways in which the audience can feel empowered and can continue to educate themselves. Hopefully they leave with both knowledge and applicable lessons that they can implement into their lives.
Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark; van Mourik, Carien
We report on a case study of high Japanese student failure rates in an online MBA programme. Drawing on interviews, and reviews of exam and assignment scripts we frame the problems faced by these students in terms of a "language as social practice" approach and highlight the students' failure to understand the specific language games…
Colman, Anthony John
This thesis examines the process of water sector reform in Botswana, focusing on barriers to effective delivery of clean water and improved sanitation services (WSS) to all, and water resource management (WRM), in a water insecure country, dependent for surface water on international river basin organisations. The study provides a crtitical analysis of policy change in progress. The impact of the water reforms on the poor and the process of centralising control of WSS, from both tribal and lo...
Earl, Tara R; Fortuna, Lisa Roxanne; Gao, Shan; Williams, David R; Neighbors, Harold; Takeuchi, David; Alegría, Margarita
. To examine racial-ethnic differences in the endorsement and attribution of psychotic-like symptoms in a nationally representative sample of African-Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, and Latinos living in the USA. Data were drawn from a total of 979 respondents who endorsed psychotic-like symptoms as part of the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). We use a mixed qualitative and quantitative analytical approach to examine sociodemographic and ethnic variations in the prevalence and attributions of hallucinations and other psychotic-like symptoms in the NLAAS and NSAL. The lifetime presence of psychotic-like symptoms was assessed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) psychotic symptom screener. We used logistic regression models to examine the probability of endorsing the four most frequently occurring thematic categories for psychotic-like experiences by race/ethnicity (n > 100). We used qualitative methods to explore common themes from participant responses to open ended questions on their attributions for psychotic-like symptoms. African-Americans were significantly less likely to endorse visual hallucinations compared to Caribbean Blacks (73.7% and 89.3%, p supernatural, ghosts/unidentified beings, death and dying, spirituality or religiosity, premonitions, familial and other. Respondents differed by race/ethnicity in the attributions given to psychotic like symptoms. Findings suggest that variations exist by race/ethnicity in both psychotic-like symptom endorsement and in self-reported attributions/understandings for these symptoms on a psychosis screening instrument. Ethnic/racial differences could result from culturally sanctioned beliefs and idioms of distress that deserve more attention in conducting culturally informed and responsive screening, assessment and treatment.
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
Promotion of healthy eating in some Danish public school settings has become a preferred option to counteract the growing rates of obesity among young people. The purpose of study was to explore how these Danish school meal programs are shaped in their local communities. The study analyses...
Severtson, Dolores J.; Vatovec, Christine
Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. We report results from thirteen cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw ...
Severtson, Dolores J; Vatovec, Christine
Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. The authors report results from 13 cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw and the meaning of what they saw as they viewed 3 formats of water test results for private wells (choropleth map, dot map, and a table). The unit of perception, color, proximity to hazards, geographic distribution, and visual salience had substantial influences on what participants saw and their resulting risk beliefs. These influences are explained by theoretical factors that shape what is seen, properties of features that shape cognition (preattentive, symbolic, visual salience), information processing (top-down and bottom-up), and the strength of concrete compared with abstract information. Personal relevance guided top-down attention to proximal and larger hazards that shaped stronger risk beliefs. Meaning was more local for small perceptual units and global for large units. Three aspects of color were important: preattentive "incremental risk" meaning of sequential shading, symbolic safety meaning of stoplight colors, and visual salience that drew attention. The lack of imagery, geographic information, and color diminished interest in table information. Numeracy and prior beliefs influenced comprehension for some participants. Results guided the creation of an integrated conceptual framework for application to future studies. Ethics should guide the selection of map features that support appropriate communication goals.
Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (DBS): Konzept, Umsetzung und Perspektiven für eine umfassende Datenbasis zum Bibliothekswesen in Deutschland: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Ronald M. Schmidt, Leiter der DBS / Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (DBS): Concept, implementation and prospect for a comprehensive database on library statistics in Germany: 10 questions interview with Ronald M. Schmidt, head of DBS, by Bruno Bauer
Schmidt, Ronald M.; Bauer, Bruno
The DBS, Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (German Library Statistics, http://www.bibliotheksstatistik.de), reports since 1974. Around 9000 libraries file data on facilities, equipment, holdings, usage, budget and staff.Data collection, evaluation, and presentation today are carried out online only. Aim of DBS is the formation of a national data pool containing statistical data on all types of libraries.The interview informs about the concept of DBS and its differentation of public, university an...
Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (DBS: Konzept, Umsetzung und Perspektiven für eine umfassende Datenbasis zum Bibliothekswesen in Deutschland: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Ronald M. Schmidt, Leiter der DBS / Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (DBS: Concept, implementation and prospect for a comprehensive database on library statistics in Germany: 10 questions interview with Ronald M. Schmidt, head of DBS, by Bruno Bauer
Schmidt, Ronald M.
Full Text Available The DBS, Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (German Library Statistics, http://www.bibliotheksstatistik.de, reports since 1974. Around 9000 libraries file data on facilities, equipment, holdings, usage, budget and staff.Data collection, evaluation, and presentation today are carried out online only. Aim of DBS is the formation of a national data pool containing statistical data on all types of libraries.The interview informs about the concept of DBS and its differentation of public, university and specialised libraries. It covers at length the increasing important topic of data collection of holdings and usage in digital libraries. The DBS process of data evaluation and publication will be described and connections between DBS and the library benchmark index BIX will be explained. Finally international cooperation options for DBS will be discussed.
Etap Hotel Augsburg City with green technology. VRV heat recovery technology in low-budget hotels: 2-conductor and 3-conductor systems; Etap Hotel Augsburg City mit gruenen Extras. VRV-Technologie in Low-Budgets-Hotels in 2- und 3-Leiter Ausfuehrung
Graupensberger, Thomas; Huhn, Ole [Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)
Etap Hotel, the low-budget hotels of the Accor Group and the European leader in this segment, opened a new hotel in Augsburg city on 1 March 2010. the building was constructed according to ecological criteria and boasts state-of-the-art technology. The contribution presents details.
Full Text Available Bryan S. Turner, “Max Weber ve İslam” adlı eserinde Weber’in İslam’a ve İslam toplumlarına yaklaşırken kendi yorumcu sosyolojisinin ölçütlerine uymadığını belirtmektedir. Ona göre Weber’in İslam’a yönelik değerlendirmeleri Marx’ınkinden pek de farklı değildir. Turner, Weber’in doğuya özgü bir toplum modeli olarak tasarımladığı patrimonyalizm kuramına sık sık atıfta bulunmaktadır. Bu düşüncenin, Weber’in oryantalist bir ön yargıya derin bağlılığından kaynaklandığını düşünmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu yazıda, bilim felsefesinde kendisine büyük bir taraftar ve izleyici kitlesi ve geniş hacimli bir tartışma alanı açan Kartezyen felsefenin kısa bir açıklama ve tartışması yapılmaktadır. ‘Batı Aklı’nın düştüğü çıkmazların bir örneği üzerinde durulmaktadır. Weber’in bilim anlayışı hakkında bir değerlendirme yapılmaktadır. İslam toplumlarını incelerken, pozitivist paradigmanın pek de dışına çıkamadığını dile getiren Turner’in eseri üzerinden de bir tartışma yürütülmektedir. Weber’in de kapıldığı düşünülen bu düalizm açmazı ele alınmaktadır.
United States as a framework for organizing citizens to be more prepared. Using an appreciative inquiry approach, this thesis investigated how LAFD...established the first Community Emergency Response Training (CERT) Program in the United States as a framework for organizing citizens to be more prepared...50 4. How Social Media Influences Volunteers ........................................53 5. The World Wide Web and LAFD CERT
Carlos K. B. Ferrari
Full Text Available En todas partes del mundo han surgido epidemias de enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos (ETA sobre las que no existe suficiente información para guiar las acciones de las instituciones de salud pública. El presente estudio se hizo con objeto de contribuir a la diseminación de información sobre esas enfermedades, sus agentes etiológicos y su epidemiología y control. Se utilizaron datos de 61 estudios, entre ellos revisiones, descripciones de brotes y sistematización de datos. De los resultados obtenidos se pudo concluir que hay un gran problema de subregistro y falta de datos sobre estas enfermedades en los diversos países, pero los virus constituyen la segunda causa más importante de ETA en los Estados Unidos de América. Dos agentes, el virus Norwalk y el de la hepatitis A, ocuparon el quinto y sexto lugares, respectivamente, entre las causas principales de ETA, aunque el primero ocupó el primer puesto en 1982 y el segundo lugar como causa principal de enfermedades de transmisión hídrica durante el período de 1986 a 1988. A pesar de la escasez de datos al respecto, los rotavirus, poliovirus, virus de la hepatitis E, astrovirus y pequeños virus gastroentéricos también tienen importancia como agentes de ETA. En el artículo se discute también la importancia de las zoonosis víricas, especialmente de las fiebres hemorrágicas transmitidas por excretas de roedores y las encefalitis víricas transmitidas por garrapatas (fiebre difásica de la leche. Asimismo se presenta la polémica sobre la enfermedad de las vacas locas y su posible transmisión por los alimentos, además de los cuidados alimentarios relacionados con el sida y otras infecciones víricas. Por último, se describen los procedimientos de prevención y control de las ETA víricas.Throughout the world there have been several epidemics of food-borne diseases (FBD about which there is lack of sufficient information for public health institutions to take appropriate measures. This study was conducted for the purpose of contributing to the dissemination of information on these diseases and their etiologic agents, epidemiology, and control. The study was based on data from 61 sources, including review articles, reports of outbreaks, and databases. Results reveal considerable underregistration and lack of data on FBD throughout the various countries, with viruses being the second most important cause of FBD in the United States of America. Two agents, Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus, were the fifth and sixth most frequent causes, respectively, although the former was the single most frequent cause of FBD in 1982 and the second most frequent cause of water-borne diseases during the period from 1986 to 1988. Despite the scarcity of information on the problem, rotavirus, poliovirus, hepatitis E virus, astrovirus, and small gastroenteric viruses are also important causes of FBD. We also discuss the importance of viral zoonoses, especially hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by contact with rodent feces and tick-borne viral encephalitides (Lassa fever. There is discussion of the controversial mad cow disease and its potential transmission through food products, as well as of dietary aspects of the management of AIDS and other viral infections. Finally, measures for the prevention and control of FBD are described.
Full Text Available Die Textpraxis-Redaktion unterhält sich mit Michael Serrer über Literaturvermittlung in Zeiten der Digitalisierung, über Kanonisierung und die Rolle der Literatur in der Gesellschaft. Michael Serrer ist Leiter des Literaturbüros NRW und Feuilletonist.
Ritter, David R.
The Arthur Adaptation of the Leiter International Performance Scale, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Performance Section were administered to 31 children with mild to moderate hearing impairments. A comparison of test results indicated moderate convergent validity among the measures. (Author)
This article treats the state of affairs of the international SULTAN-project (SupraLeiter Test ANlage), in which ECN (Dutch Energy Research Foundation) collaborates with research institutes in Switzerland and Italy. The article is mainly concerned with the Dutch contribution in the domain of superconductors and superconducting magnet coils. (author). 7 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs
Wong, Venus W.; Ruble, Lisa A.; Yu, Yue; McGrew, John H.
Teacher stress and burnout have a detrimental effect on the stability of the teaching workforce. However, the possible consequences of teacher burnout on teaching quality and on student learning outcomes are less clear, especially in special education settings. We applied Maslach and Leiter's (1999) model to understand the direct effects of…
tested against the requirements imposed by the rapidly mounting complexity of national security problems." President Barack Obama himself...Committee (September 22, 2010); Michael Leiter, Director, National Counterterrorism Center, Statement before the Senate Homeland Securily and Governmental...particularly given the growing complexity and diversity of the homegrown terrorist threat. The challenges involve not just reforming or creating new
Soane, E.; Shantz, A.; Alfes, K.; Truss, C.; Rees, C.; Gatenby, M.
We theorized that absence from work is a resource-based process that is related to perceived meaningfulness of work, well-being, and engagement. Broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) and engagement theory (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter, & Taris, 2008; Kahn, 1990) were used to develop a
Bakker, A.B.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Lewig, K.A.; Dollard, M.F.
In the present study of 80 volunteer counselors who cared for terminally ill patients, the authors examined the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter, 1996) and the 5 basic (Big Five) personality factors (A. A. J.
Yang, P.; Jong, Y-J.; Hsu, H-Y.; Lung, F-W.
Background: As part of an ongoing clinical service programme for pre-school children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analysed the effect of three assessment tests, that is, Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II, Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…
Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J
on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...... and reasoning battery and the memory and attention battery, the latter including a memory screening. Additional two questionnaires, The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and EQ-5D-5 L, were filled out. RESULTS: We found IQ in the range of 30-81 in our cohort. The total equivalent age (mental age......) was significantly reduced, between 3-9 years old for the visual function and reasoning battery, between 2.3-10.2 years for the memory screening. Data suggested a specific developmental profile for AM with a positive intellectual development until the chronological age 10-12 years, followed by a static or slightly...
Medina Machín, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark
This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire (Medina & Beyebach, 2010), were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Higher scores in a variety of deficit-based beliefs and practices were associated with highe...
From left to right Mr Georg Jürgens, Counsellor at the German Mission in Geneva; MdB Klaus Hagemann, SPD; MdB Cornelia Pieper, FDP, Stellvertretende Ausschussvorsitzende, Delegationsleiterin; MdB Dr. Petra Sitte, DIE LINKE; MdB Ilse Aigner, CDU/CSU; MdB Carsten Müller, CDU/CSU; Mr Andreas Meyer, Leiter Ausschusssekretariat; MdB Jörg Tauss, SPD.
58 APPENDIX B: COVER LEITERS RxErV FRC4 LABOR AND SHIPPING ORGANIZATINS ................................ 70 LIST CF...result of a merger between the Coast Seamen’ s Union and the Pacific Steamship Sailors’ Union. The SUP was under the leadership of Mr. Andrew Furuseth... leadership to emerge on the West Coast. As this emerging leadership tried to make new gains on the East Coast, it began to cme in conflict with the old-line
Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.
Stockman, Ida J; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Swartzlander, Elaina; Morris, Lekeitha R
This study is a response to the need for evidence-based measures of spontaneous oral language to assess African American children under the age of 4 years. We determined if pass/fail status on a minimal competence core for morphosyntax (MCC-MS) was more highly related to scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn)-the measure of convergent criterion validity-than to scores on 3 measures of divergent validity: number of different words (Watkins, Kelly, Harbers, & Hollis, 1995), Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised (Shriberg, Austin, Lewis, McSweeney, & Wilson, 1997), and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997). Archival language samples for 68 African American 3-year-olds were analyzed to determine MCC-MS pass/fail status and the scores on measures of convergent and divergent validity. Higher IPSyn scores were observed for 60 children who passed the MCC-MS than for 8 children who did not. A significant positive correlation, rpb = .73, between MCC-MS pass/fail status and IPSyn scores was observed. This coefficient was higher than MCC-MS correlations with measures of divergent validity: rpb = .13 (Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised), rpb = .42 (number of different words in 100 utterances), and rpb = .46 (Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised). The MCC-MS has convergent criterion validity with the IPSyn. Although more research is warranted, both measures can be potentially used in oral language assessments of African American 3-year-olds.
Nielsen, Mette Strange
Employee engagement has long been capturing the attention of researchers and practitioners, (e.g. Bakker, Albrecht, & Leiter, 2011; Buckingham & Coffman, 1999) due to its positive impact on various measures of organizational performance (Gruman & Saks, 2011; Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002; Mone...... & London, 2010). To date, however, employee engagement has primarily been studied in private manufacturing firms leaving out a gap of research in a public service organization, such as eldercare organizations, although engagement according to Boselie (2010) is highly relevant in the specific context....... The purpose of the PhD project is to build a model explaining employee engagement in a public service organization. Research on work design theory (e.g. Hackman & Oldham, 1976) will be used, since it has often been applied to identify antecedents associated with engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Kahn...
Andersen, Vibeke; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
understandings and epistemological paradigms¸ the most refereed being Bourdieu and Putnam. Of interest in this paper is the way in which social capital, as suggested in Olesen et al.´s (2008) book Virksomhedens sociale kapital [The Company’s Social Capital], is the basis of a new era in which social capital......-faceted significance of the concept makes it difficult to contradict. Alvesson (2001) argues that there is a great degree of ambiguity associated with: 1) what counts as knowledge, 2) how individuals create knowledge, and 3) what are the results of knowledge. Alvesson (2001) suggests, “The ambiguity of knowledge....... (1978). The social psychology of organizations, 2nd ed., New York: Wiley. Lee, J. W., Rainey, H. G., & Chun, Y. H. (2009). Of politics and purpose: Political salience and goal ambiguity of US federal agencies. Public Administration, 87(3), 457–484. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001...
Almomani, Fidaa; Al-Momani, Murad O; Alsheyab, Nihayah; Al Mhdawi, Khader
Objectives To investigate factors related to reasoning skills in 434 school children aged 5-9 years. Methods The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised was used to assess reasoning skills. Demographic, work and family income data, information on child's daily behavior and school academic achievement were provided by the participating children's parents. Results Reasoning scores increased by 4.56 points with increasing subject's age, 1.71 points with increasing level of father's occupation, 1.86 points with each increase in the subject's GPA, 1.13 points with consumption of breakfast at home and 1.81 points when child slept more hours. Having a father who smoked and living in a rural area decreased scores in reasoning. Conclusions for Practice Screening of reasoning and associated factors is essential for a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the child's abilities and limitations. Understanding the child's reasoning abilities is critical for establishing intervention goals and planning therapeutic activities.
Perrin, Maxine; Robillard, Manon; Roy-Charland, Annie
This study examined eye movements during a visual search task as well as cognitive abilities within three age groups. The aim was to explore scanning patterns across symbol grids and to better understand the impact of symbol location in AAC displays on speed and accuracy of symbol selection. For the study, 60 students were asked to locate a series of symbols on 16 cell grids. The EyeLink 1000 was used to measure eye movements, accuracy, and response time. Accuracy was high across all cells. Participants had faster response times, longer fixations, and more frequent fixations on symbols located in the middle of the grid. Group comparisons revealed significant differences for accuracy and reaction times. The Leiter-R was used to evaluate cognitive abilities. Sustained attention and cognitive flexibility scores predicted the participants' reaction time and accuracy in symbol selection. Findings suggest that symbol location within AAC devices and individuals' cognitive abilities influence the speed and accuracy of retrieving symbols.
Full Text Available Diese am 5. März 2015 in Graz gehaltene Antrittsvorlesung eines Praxisprofessors, der im Hauptberuf Leiter des Völkerrechtsbüros im österreichischen Außenministerium ist, beschäftigt sich mit dem Begriff der Herrschaft des Rechts in den internationalen Beziehungen (Rule of Law und mit den Möglichkeiten Österreichs, zur Stärkung der Rule of Law und zur Lösung aktueller Probleme beizutragen. Dabei werden insbesondere die Mitwirkung an Kodifikationsbemühungen und an der Verbesserung der Einhaltung des humanitären Völkerrechts, die Umsetzung der Menschenrechte (auch in Österreich und Fragen der internationalen Gerichtsbarkeit angesprochen.
Craig, Francesco; Lorenzo, Alessandro; Lucarelli, Elisabetta; Russo, Luigi; Fanizza, Isabella; Trabacca, Antonio
This study aimed to investigate the association between motor competency and social communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with children with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Motor competency, ASD symptoms, and nonverbal Intelligent Quotient (IQ) were investigated through the following tests: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2), Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) and Leiter International Performances Scale Revised (Leiter-R). The ASD + ID and ID groups had lower MABC-2-manual dexterity mean scores, MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores, MABC-2-static and dynamic balance mean scores and MABC-2-TTS compared with the TD group (P < 0.05). In addition, the ASD + ID group had lower MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores compared with the ID group. In the ASD + ID group, we found a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between MABC-2-aiming and catching scores with SCQ scores, nonverbal IQ and ACSF:SC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the common neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social communication and motor deficits in ASD. Multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD and ID, however deficits involving the ability to integrate motor and social cues are somewhat specific to ASD. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This study highlighted the specificity of motor impairment in ASD comparing performances on a frequently used measure of motor impairment between clinical groups (ASD + ID and ID) and a non-clinical group. While previous research has suggested that multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD, our findings suggest that deficits in tasks involving the ability to integrate visual and motor cues (aiming and catching task) are somewhat specific to
Problems with earth fault detecting relays assigned to parallel cables or overhead lines; Probleme bei der Erdschlussortung mit wattmetrischen Erdschlussrichtungsrelais bei parallelen Kabeln oder Leitungen
Birkner, P.; Foerg, R. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)
For practical conditions one can find currents in underground electrical conductors like cable coverings earthed on both sides. As an example these currents are due to the alternating current system of the railroad or to the alternating current system of a Peterson coil, that tries to find a minimum resistance way from the transformer station to the place of the earth fault. Currents like these create a series voltage in the cable by inductive coupling. The voltage depends on the type and the length of the cable. The series voltages of all three phases form a zero sequence system. Taking into consideration that two cable systems running parallel to another, under certain circumstances it is possible to achieve a circulating zero sequence current. Additionally there is a shift voltage between the neutral point and the earth in the case of an earth fault in another place in the grid. The combination of these two factors can cause a malfunction of the earth fault detecting relays that are assigned to the parallel cable system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Erdreich vorhandene elektrische Leiter, z.B. die beidseitig geerdeten Schirme von Energiekabeln, werden in der Praxis nicht selten von Stroemen beaufschlagt. Dabei kann es sich z.B. auch um den Wechselstrom einer Petersenspule, der sich im Erdschlussfall einen widerstandsminimierten Weg vom Umspannwerk zur Fehlerstelle sucht, handeln. Ueber induktive Einkopplung entsteht im Leiter des Kabels eine Laengsspannung. Deren Hoehe ist vom Kabeltyp und der Kabellaenge abhaengig. Liegt als Netzkonfiguration eine Doppelleitung vor, die parallel betrieben wird, so koennen sich unter gewissen Randbedingungen kreisende Nullstroeme ausbilden. Diese wiederum koennen bei Vorhandensein einer Verlagerungsspannung zu einem Fehlansprechen von wattmetrischen Erdschlussrichtungsrelais fuehren. (orig.)
Craig, Francesco; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Margari, Francesco; Matera, Emilia; Simone, Marta; Margari, Lucia
Recent studies support several overlapping traits between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), assuming the existence of a combined phenotype. The aim of our study was to evaluate the common or distinctive clinical features between ASD and ADHD in order to identify possible different phenotypes that could have a clinical value. We enrolled 181 subjects divided into four diagnostic groups: ADHD group, ASD group, ASD+ADHD group (that met diagnostic criteria for both ASD and ADHD), and control group. Intelligent quotient (IQ), emotional and behavior problems, ADHD symptoms, ASD symptoms, and adaptive behaviors were investigated through the following test: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Leiter International Performances Scale Revised, Child Behavior Checklist, Conners' Rating Scales-Revised, SNAP-IV Rating Scale, the Social Communication Questionnaire, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. The ASD+ADHD group differs from ADHD or ASD in some domains such as lower IQ mean level and a higher autistic symptoms severity. However, the ASD+ADHD group shares inattention and hyperactivity deficit and some emotional and behavior problems with the ADHD group, while it shares adaptive behavior impairment with ASD group. These findings provide a new understanding of clinical manifestation of ASD+ADHD phenotype, they may also inform a novel treatment target. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.
Berard, Philippe; Lecoix, Geraldine; Menetrier, Florence; Menetrier, Florence; Leiterer, Alexandra; Gremy, Olivier; Mougnard, Philippe; Gonin, Michele; Paquet, Francois; Davesne, Estelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Metivier, Henri; Abergel, Rebecca
The Research and Health Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the radiation protection aspects of dismantlement, from the dismantling work to the risk, the measurement of body contamination, the potentially harmful health effects, the available medical treatments, the actual needs and the developments in progress. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Situation: what radionuclides, what situations? (Philippe BERARD, CEA); 2 - Dismantling workplace experience feedback with internal contamination hazard (Philippe MOUGNARD, AREVA); 3 - Experience feedback on internal exposure monitoring at power plants in France (Michele GONIN, EDF); 4 - Evolution of routine and intervention measurement methods (Geraldine LECOIX, CEA); 5 - Evolution of radiation dose calculation models (Francois PAQUET, IRSN); 6 - Taking uncertainties into account in internal contamination monitoring protocols (Estelle DAVESNE, IRSN); 7 - Radionuclides behaviour and effects in men (Florence MENETRIER, CEA); 8 - The plutonium case (Henri METIVIER, SFRP); 9 - Cesium-137 and internal contamination: status and perspectives (Jean-Marc BERTHO, IRSN); 10 - Iodine and thyroid (Florence MENETRIER, CEA); 11 - Actual treatments and research pathways (Alexandra LEITERER, CEA); 12 - Radionuclide contamination treatment: new developments in the US (Rebecca ABERGEL, Berkeley USA); 13 - Internal contaminations treatment: French recent effort for its improvement (Olivier GREMY, CEA)
Pohling, Rico; Buruck, Gabriele; Jungbauer, Kevin-Lim; Leiter, Michael P
Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS; Leiter & Maslach, 2004) on presenteeism. We examined mental and physical health as the underlying process of this relationship and assessed 2 presenteeism outcome measures and their relationship to each other-that is, the frequency of acts of presenteeism and work productivity. Using a cross-sectional design, the study was conducted in a sample of 885 employees from German public service. Results showed that the influence of some, but not all, areas of work life (workload, control, reward, and values) on both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity was mediated by health indicators (well-being and musculoskeletal complaints). Moreover, we found a relationship between health-related lost productivity and acts of presenteeism. The present research clarifies the importance of work-related factors as antecedents of sickness presenteeism. The findings of our study also emphasize the necessity to include both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity in presenteeism research and prevention. Presenteeism should be included as a measure in health prevention interventions because it reflects a crucial part of employee health that is not covered by other measures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Um die Einstellungen von Landwirten hinsichtlich der Nachhaltigkeit in der Landtechnikherstellung und des Nachhaltigkeitsengagements der Landtechnikhersteller zu ermitteln, wurden im Rahmen einer empirischen Untersuchung 273 Fragebögen (39 % von 700 versandten Fragebögen ausgewertet. Bei den Teilnehmern der Befragung handelt es sich um Kunden der Landmaschinenfabrik Rauch GmbH und Leiter landwirtschaftlicher Ausbildungsbetriebe (z. T. Nicht- Kunden. Insgesamt wird das Engagement der Unternehmen hinsichtlich der Nachhaltigkeit von den Landwirten positiv bewertet. Insbesondere werden dabei Aspekte, die der sozialen Säule der Nachhaltigkeit zuzuordnen sind, mit Nachhaltigkeitsengagement in Verbindung gebracht, wie beispielsweise Maßnahmen zur Mitarbeiterausbildung. Darüber hinaus werden aus dem Bereich der ökonomischen Säule der Nachhaltigkeit die Zukunfts- und Innovationsorientierung besonders hervorgehoben. Bezüglich ihrer Einschätzung hinsichtlich nachhaltiger Landmaschinen stehen für die Landwirte insbesondere die Qualität der Maschine, die Nachrüstbarkeit und die Qualität der mit der Maschine getätigten Arbeiten im Vordergrund.
Durlak, Wojciech; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Urbanik, Andrzej; Klimek, Małgorzata; Karcz, Paulina; Dutkowska, Grażyna; Nitecka, Magdalena; Kwinta, Przemko
Very low birth weight is associated with long term neurodevelopmental complications. Macroscopic brain abnormalities in prematurity survivors have been investigated in several studies. However, there is limited data regarding local cerebral metabolic status and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between proton magnetic resonance spectra in basal ganglia, frontal white matter and frontoinsular gray matter, neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed with the Leiter scale and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and selected socioeconomic variables in a cohort of very low birth weight children at the age of four. Children were divided in three groups based on the severity of neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no differences in spectroscopy in basal ganglia and frontal white matter between the groups. Lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and myoinositol (mI) were observed in the frontoinsular cortex of the left hemisphere in children with neurodevelopmental impairment compared to children with normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Higher parental education, daycare attendance and breastfeeding after birth were associated with more favorable neurodevelopmental prognosis, whereas rural residence was more prevalent in children with moderate and severe impairment. Our study demonstrates the role of long term neurometabolic disruption in the left frontoinsular cortex and selected socioeconomic variables in determination of neurodevelopmental prognosis in prematurity survivors.
Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Lach, Lucy; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert
The aim of this study is to describe motivation in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and factors associated with motivation level. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) measures motivation in mastering challenging tasks and expressive elements. It was completed by 153 parents and 112 adolescents with CP. Adolescents (GMFCS in n=146 - I:50, II:43, III:13, IV:15, V:25) were assessed using the Leiter IQ and Gross Motor Function Measure. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Motivation scores were highest for mastery pleasure and social persistence with adults and lowest for gross motor and object-oriented persistence. Socio-demographic factors were not strongly correlated with DMQ. Higher gross motor ability (r=0.24-0.52) and fewer activity limitations (r=0.30-0.64, pProsocial behaviors correlated with high motivation (r=0.39-0.53, pmotivation scores were higher than parents' scores. Adolescents with CP express high mastery pleasure, not related to abilities. High motivation was associated with fewer activity limitations and prosocial behaviors and aspects of family environment. Findings elucidate those at-risk for low motivation, which can influence treatment adherence and participation in challenging but meaningful activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andela, Marie; Truchot, Didier
The aim of the present study was to better understand the relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout by exploring the buffering effects of re-evaluation and team reflexivity. The study was conducted with a sample of 445 nurses and healthcare assistants from a general hospital. Team reflexivity was evaluated with the validation of the French version of the team reflexivity scale (Facchin, Tschan, Gurtner, Cohen, & Dupuis, 2006). Burnout was measured with the MBI General Survey (Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, & Jackson, 1996). Emotional dissonance and re-evaluation were measured with the scale developed by Andela, Truchot, & Borteyrou (2015). With reference to Rimé's theoretical model (2009), we suggested that both dimensions of team reflexivity (task and social reflexivity) respond to both psychological necessities induced by dissonance (cognitive clarification and socio-affective necessities). Firstly, results indicated that emotional dissonance was related to burnout. Secondly, regression analysis confirmed the buffering role of re-evaluation and social reflexivity on the emotional exhaustion of emotional dissonance. Overall, results contribute to the literature by highlighting the moderating effect of re-evaluation and team reflexivity in analysing the relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Leiter, Michael P
To test a theoretical model of professional nurse work environments linking conditions for professional nursing practice to burnout and, subsequently, patient safety outcomes. The 2004 Institute of Medicine report raised serious concerns about the impact of hospital restructuring on nursing work environments and patient safety outcomes. Few studies have used a theoretical framework to study the nature of the relationships between nursing work environments and patient safety outcomes. Hospital-based nurses in Canada (N = 8,597) completed measures of worklife (Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Scale), and their report of frequency of adverse patient events. Structural equation modeling analysis supported an extension of Leiter and Laschinger's Nursing Worklife Model. Nursing leadership played a fundamental role in the quality of worklife regarding policy involvement, staffing levels, support for a nursing model of care (vs medical), and nurse/physician relationships. Staffing adequacy directly affected emotional exhaustion, and use of a nursing model of care had a direct effect on nurses' personal accomplishment. Both directly affected patient safety outcomes. The results suggest that patient safety outcomes are related to the quality of the nursing practice work environment and nursing leadership's role in changing the work environment to decrease nurse burnout.
Argentero, Piergiorgio; Dell'Olivo, Bianca
Burnout phenomenon emerges from a constellation of factors which cannot be described in terms of cause-effect relationships. This study investigated levels of burnout in nurses working in Critical Care Units with a systemic approach, giving evidence of relation between nurses staff burnout and psychosocial workplace factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job burnout in emergency and intensive care nurse with specific areas of work life in their organizations, using Maslach and Leiter work life model . A cross-sectional survey was designed using the Italian version of the "Organizational Checkup System" in a sample of 180 Italian nurses. Results showed that high burnout levels were strongly related to high demands, low control, low fairness, lack of social support, and individual disagreement on values in the workplace. High professional efficacy levels were instead correlated to professional reward and leadership involvement. The article concludes by suggesting the possible areas for intervention in order to prevent job burnout and building job engagement.
Canzi, Elena; Rosnati, Rosa; Miller, Laurie C
Following initial adversities, most internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but research about risk or protective factors is still limited. Even less is known about the relationship between growth recovery and the quality of the family environment. 28 children in 26 adoptive families were involved in this longitudinal study. A comprehensive evaluation (including anthropometry, cognitive assessment [using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised], and completion by both parents of the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form) was done at arrival of the child, and 1 year later. Results evidenced that on arrival nearly half of children had growth measurements in the normal range. All the children showed a significant recovery in height and weight at 6 and 12 months post-placement. Initial and follow up growth measurements correlated strongly. Growth recovery was related to the age of the child at adoption, the proportion of time the child had resided in institutional care, as well as parenting stress. Results suggested that the higher the parenting stress experienced the less improvements occurred in children: for mothers for height and weight, for fathers for all the growth indicators. Results suggested the critical importance of family factor in influencing children's growth recovery.
Berger, F.H.; Hantel, M. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorologisches Observatorium, Lindenberg (Germany)
This contribution gives a short overview of 100 years aerological observation at Lindenberg Observatory. It describes the geographical location and the climatological characteristics of the observatory. The first part of the paper is a short version of the chronicle: It starts with the opening ceremony on October 16, 1905 and considers the main scientific achievements of the observatory from 1905 to 2005, characterized by its directors Assmann, Hergesell, von Ficker, Marten, Koschmieder, Hearth, Beelitz, Robitzsch, Dubois, Gloede, Leiterer, Schwirner, Neisser and Berger. In the second part of the paper we present the results of a time series of the 100 years period for temperature and relative humidity measured by tethered kite and balloon techniques and radiosondes. For both atmospheric parameters we find a positive trend in the lower and a negative trend in the upper troposphere. Finally we discuss our plans, aims, and the difficulties in creating a homogeneous 100 year time series of significant meteorological parameters in the free atmosphere for detailed scientific investigations. (orig.)
Leiter, Michael P; Price, Sheri L; Spence Laschinger, Heather K
The first research objective was to replicate the finding of Leiter et al. [(2008)Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 100-109.] of Generation X nurses (n=338) reporting higher levels of distress than Baby Boomer nurses (n=139). The second objective was to test whether Generation X nurses reported more negative social environments at work than did Baby Boomer nurses. Negative social environments can influence the quality of work and the experience of distress for nurses. Generational differences in the experience of distress and collegiality have implications for the establishment of healthy workplaces, recruitment and retention. A questionnaire survey of nurses was organized by generation. Analyses of variance contrasted the scores on burnout, turnover intention, physical symptoms, supervisor incivility, coworker incivility and team civility. The results confirmed the hypotheses of Generation X nurses reporting more negative experiences than did Baby Boomer nurses on all measures. The negative quality of social encounters at work contributes to nurses' experience of distress and suggest conflicts of values with the dominant culture of their workplaces. Proactive initiatives to enhance the quality of collegiality can contribute to retention strategies. Building collegiality across generations can be especially useful. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Andreas J. Kumin
Full Text Available Bei diesem für die Schriftfassung geringfügig adaptierten Artikel handelt es sich um die am 5. März 2015 in Graz gehaltene Antrittsvorlesung eines Praxisprofessors, der im Hauptberuf Leiter der Abteilung für Europarecht im Völkerrechtsbüro des österreichischen Außenministeriums ist. Im Anschluss an den Beitrag von Helmut Tichy (in ALJ 1/2015, 176–185, der sich auf das Völkerrecht und die internationalen Beziehungen konzentriert, setzt sich der vorliegende Artikel mit aktuellen Herausforderungen und Chancen der EU als „Union des Rechts“ auseinander. Dabei wird auf die Stärkung der Wahrung der Grundwerte und Rechtsstaatlichkeit in den EU-Mitgliedstaaten, den EU-Beitritt zur Europäischen Menschenrechtskonvention, die Sicherung einer wirksamen und leistungsfähigen EU-Gerichtsbarkeit sowie die Gewährleistung einer angemessenen demokratischen Mitbestimmung auf allen Stufen der Rechtsetzung eingegangen.
Interkulturelle Kompetenz in der Facharztausbildung von Psychiatern in Deutschland: Ergebnisse einer Umfrage [Intercultural competence in the psychiatric training curriculum in Germany: Results of a survey
Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie in Deutschland. Methodik: Es wurde ein semistrukturierter Fragebogen mit 30 Fragen (davon 28 strukturiert, 2 mit Freitextangaben entwickelt, der sich an den „Local Survey of Realities in Transcultural Psychiatry“ der (APA anlehnt und für Deutschland modifiziert wurde. Dieser wurde an die Leiter aller psychiatrischen Weiterbildungsinstitutionen in Deutschland verschickt (n=450. Als psychiatrische Weiterbildungsinstitutionen wurden diejenigen klinischen Einrichtungen definiert, deren Leiter über eine Ermächtigung zur Facharztweiterbildung durch die Landesärztekammern verfügen. Der Rücklauf erfolgte nicht anonymisiert. Ergebnisse: Die Rücklaufquote betrug 25,5% (Gesamt-N=114. In 71,7% der Weiterbildungsinstitutionen (n=81/113 gültige Fälle wurden in der klinikinternen Weiterbildung Themen aus dem Gebiet der transkulturellen Psychiatrie selten oder gar nicht angesprochen. 83,3% der Weiterbildungsleiter (n=70/84 gültige Fälle formulierten Bedarf an Weiterbildung in transkultureller Psychiatrie für die jeweils eigene Institution, 94,5% (n=69/73 gültige Fälle sahen den Bedarf grundsätzlich auch für das Curriculum der Facharztausbildung in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie. Die am häufigsten genannten Themen betrafen eine allgemeine Schulung kultureller Kompetenz sowie kulturspezifische Aspekte seelischer Erkrankungen. Schlussfolgerungen: Im Rahmen der Weiterbildungsordnung zum Facharzt für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie sind aktuell in keinem Bundesland entsprechende Inhalte aus dem Bereich der transkulturellen Psychiatrie verankert. Angesichts des formulierten Bedarfs muss die Implementierung eines entsprechenden Curriculums in die Weiterbildungsordnung zum Facharzt für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie diskutiert werden.
Edwards, Lindsey; Aitkenhead, Lynne; Langdon, Dawn
This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital. The hearing participants were recruited from the same schools as those attended by the implanted adolescents. Participants were 18 cochlear implant users and 14 hearing controls, aged between 12 and 18 years. All used English as their main language and had no significant learning disability or neuro-developmental disorder. Short-term memory capacity was assessed in the auditory modality using Forward and Reverse Digit Span from the WISC IV UK, and visually using Forward and Reverse Memory from the Leiter-R. Individual word reading, reading comprehension and pseudoword decoding were assessed using the WIAT II UK. A series of ANOVAs revealed that the adolescents with cochlear implants had significantly poorer auditory short-term memory capacity and reading skills (on all measures) compared with their hearing peers. However, when Forward Digit Span was entered into the analyses as a covariate, none of the differences remained statistically significant. Deficits in immediate auditory memory persist into adolescence in deaf children with cochlear implants. Short-term auditory memory capacity is an important neurocognitive process in the development of reading skills after cochlear implantation in childhood that remains evident in later adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development and testing of high temperature-vector-SQUID conductor-magnetometers for the electro-magnetic exploration of our deposits. Final report; SQUID-Anwendungen - Entwicklung und Erprobung von Hochtemperatur-Vektor-Supraleiter SQUID-Magnetometern fuer die elektromagnetische Exploration von Lagerstaetten. Abschlussbericht
Matzander, U.; Friedrichs, B.
Aim of the was the development of a prototype of a 3 axis HTc SQUID magnetometer for the geophysical exploration. The prototype was tested during the project in Germany and in China. Metronix task was the supervision of the development with the direction that the sensor can be used for field measurements and that the manufacturing costs will be acceptable. For magnetotelluric measurements (MT/CSAMT) further development is required to enhance the drift and noise properties of the sensor. The advantages in the geophysical TEM exploration are: greater sounding depth and good conductors (ore bodies) can be penetrated completely; the thickness of the resource can be estimated this way. At the same time the measuring time can be reduced tremendously because of the better signal to noise ratio. The productivity of the measuring campaign increases. If due to further developments coils systems can be replaced in total by the SQUID, SQUID systems will dominate the TEM market. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war es, einen Prototyp eines 3-achsigen HTc SQUIDS zur Verfuegung zu haben, welcher die Anforderungen fuer geophysikalische Messungen erfuellt. Dieser Prototyp wurde im Laufe des Projektes in Deutschland und China getestet. Die Rolle der Firma Metronix in diesem Projekt war die Einflussnahme auf die Entwicklung in der Form, dass zum einen die aus der Feldmesstechnik resultierenden Anforderungen beruecksichtigt werden, zum anderen auf eine spaetere kostenguenstige Herstellung geachtet wird. Bei magnetotellurischen Messungen (MT/CSAMT) besteht weiterer Bedarf an Verbesserungen hinsichtlich der Drift- und Rauscheigenschaften des Sensors. Fuer die geophysikalische Exploration in der TEM ergeben sich folgende Vorteile: die Erkundungstiefe ist groesser und gute Leiter (Erzkoerper) koennen vollstaendig durchteuft werden; damit kann die Maechtigkeit des Vorkommens bestimmt werden. Gleichzeitig kann auf Grund des besseren Signal / Rauschverhaeltnisses die Messzeit deutlich
Jensen, Craig L; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Peters, Sarika U; Prager, Thomas C; Zou, Yali L; Rozelle, Judith C; Turcich, Marie R; Fraley, J Kennard; Anderson, Robert E; Heird, William C
We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women were assigned to receive identical capsules containing either a high-DHA algal oil (∼200 mg/d of DHA) or a vegetable oil (containing no DHA) from delivery until 4 months postpartum. Primary outcome variables at 5 years of age were measures of gross and fine motor function, perceptual/visual-motor function, attention, executive function, verbal skills, and visual function of the recipient children at 5 years of age. There were no differences in visual function as assessed by the Bailey-Lovie acuity chart, transient visual evoked potential or sweep visual evoked potential testing between children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo. Children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo performed significantly better on the Sustained Attention Subscale of the Leiter International Performance Scale (46.5 ± 8.9 vs 41.9 ± 9.3, P DHA supplementation versus placebo for the first 4 months of breastfeeding performed better on a test of sustained attention. This, along with the previously reported better performance of the children of DHA-supplemented mothers on a test of psychomotor development at 30 months of age, suggests that DHA intake during early infancy confers long-term benefits on specific aspects of neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cejas, Ivette; Mitchell, Christine M; Hoffman, Michael; Quittner, Alexandra L
To make longitudinal comparisons of intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and typical hearing peers from early in development to the school-age period. Children with additional comorbidities and CIs were also evaluated. To estimate the impact of socioeconomic status and oral language on school-age cognitive performance. This longitudinal study evaluated nonverbal IQ in a multicenter, national sample of 147 children with CIs and 75 typically hearing peers. IQ was evaluated at baseline, prior to cochlear implantation, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and the Leiter International Performance Scale. School-age IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. For the current study, only the Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed indices were administered. Oral language was evaluated using the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. Children in the CI group scored within the normal range of intelligence at both time points. However, children with additional comorbidities scored significantly worse on the Processing Speed, but not the Perceptual Reasoning Index. Maternal education and language were significantly related to school-age IQ in both groups. Importantly, language was the strongest predictor of intellectual functioning in both children with CIs and normal hearing. These results suggest that children using cochlear implants perform similarly to hearing peers on measures of intelligence, but those with severe comorbidities are at-risk for cognitive deficits. Despite the strong link between socioeconomic status and intelligence, this association was no longer significant once spoken language performance was accounted for. These results reveal the important contributions that early intervention programs, which emphasize language and parent training, contribute to cognitive functioning in school-age children with CIs. For families from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, who are at
Maria de Lourdes Campos
Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout Syndrome, in the twenty-first century, appears among the most common mental disorder among teachers resulting from the interaction between individual aspects and the working environment, interpreted as a response to chronic job stress. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome and quality of life of higher education teachers in the city of Cajazeiras, Paraíba, Brazil. Method: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed with 174 teachers from institutions of higher education. Results: The burnout syndrome was observed in only 3.4% of teachers. However, the recorded data require a closer look at the health of the teachers investigated, since a considerable part of them are in the score limit for disease development. Regarding the quality of life of teachers who presented the manifestations of the syndrome, the physical and psychological domains were shown to be the worst for most subjects. Conclusion: There are teachers in higher education, executing their profession, affected by burnout syndrome, suggesting a relationship between this psychosocial phenomenon and the labor context, permeating the three dimensions proposed by Maslach and Leiter: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and the lack of personal fulfillment. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3823/2512
Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter
the aim of this study was to describe and identify factors associated with motivation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). children with CP were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Children were assessed using the Leiter Intelligence Test, the Gross Motor Function Measure, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Parents completed the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) and questionnaires on demographics, child behaviour, and family functioning. the parents of 74 children (46 males, 28 females; mean age 9y 2mo, SD 2y 1mo, range 5y 10mo-12y 11mo) completed the DMQ. Just over half of the children (39/74) were classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I, with 13 classified at GMFCS level II, one at level III, six at level IV, and 14 at level V; one child was not classified. The most common diagnoses were spastic hemiplegia and quadriplegia (23 each), followed by diplegia (14). The highest motivation scores were obtained for the dimensions of mastery pleasure and social persistence and the lowest for persistence with motor or cognitive tasks. Age and sex were not predictive of scores on the DMQ. Higher IQ (r=0.41), better motor ability (r=0.43), and fewer limitations in self-care, communication, and socialization (r=0.44-0.53) were positively associated with motivation total score. A negative impact of the child's disability on the family was associated with lower motivation (r=-0.44). Positive social behaviours were positively correlated with motivation (r=0.38-0.66), whereas hyperactivity and peer problems were negatively associated. high motivation was associated with fewer activity limitations and behavioural problems and reduced family burden. Low motivation may adversely influence a child's functional potential and the effectiveness of interventions. Strategies focusing on the child, peers, adults, or activities are proposed to enhance the children's motivation to engage in more challenging activities.
Full Text Available Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli,1 Lucia Margari,1 Francesco Craig,1 Maria Gloria Campa,1 Domenico Martinelli,2 Adriana Pastore,3 Marta Simone,1 Francesco Margari3 1Child and Adolescence Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences; University of Foggia, Foggia, 3Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organ, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical and neurobiological markers of neurodevelopmental impairments and early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Methods: A sample of 36 patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis was compared to a control sample of 36 patients with migraine. We assessed early childhood neurodevelopmental milestones using a modified version of the General Developmental Scale, general intellectual ability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Revised or Leiter International Performance Scale–Revised for patients with speech and language abnormalities, and neurological soft signs with specific regard to subtle motor impairment. Results: Subjects with early-onset psychosis had a higher rate of impaired social development (P=0.001, learning difficulties (P=0.04, enuresis (P=0.0008, a lower intelligence quotient (P<0.001, and subtle motor impairments (P=0.005 than control subjects. Conclusion: We suggest that neurodevelopment in early-onset psychosis is characterized by a global impairment of functional and adaptive skills that manifests from early childhood, rather than a delay or limitation in language and motor development. The current evidence is based on a small sample and should be investigated in larger samples in future research. Keywords: early-onset psychosis, early-onset schizophrenia, neurodevelopment, social cognition
Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Masuda, Shinya
Japanese nurses have increasingly experienced "burnout" in the past several years. Studies on Japanese nurses are required in order to explore how to prevent nursing burnout. The objectives of this report were to: (i) introduce the concept, definition, and measurement of burnout; (ii) look at an overview of the prevalence, possible causes, and consequences of burnout among Japanese nurses; and (iii) explore how to prevent burnout among nurses. The authors and co-researchers have been studying burnout among Japanese workers for more than 15 years. Therefore, previously performed studies were reviewed and summarized. In Japan, approximately 36% of human services professionals, such as nurses, were burned out compared to 18% of civil servants, and 12% of company employees. It was quite obvious that nurses are prone to burnout. The possible causes and consequences of burnout among Japanese nurses were reviewed. Excessive workloads and interpersonal conflict in the workplace were possible causes of burnout among Japanese nurses. The consequences of nurse burnout are potentially very serious, including medical accidents/errors. Issues to prevent nursing burnout were then reviewed. Enhancement of cognitive coping skills for female nurses and problem-solving skills for male nurses could contribute to prevention of burnout in nurses. The authors' previous study revealed that the new model of the organizational context of burnout developed by Leiter and Maslach could be applied to Japanese. Further examination is needed. This report supports the call to scale up burnout prevention strategy for Japanese nurses. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Full Text Available Orientation: Workplace incivility holds consequences for both individuals and organisations. Managers are becoming increasingly aware of this phenomenon. Currently, there is no workplace incivility scale validated for use within the South African context. Research purpose: To investigate the reliability and validity of the adapted workplace incivility scale by Leiter and colleagues for use within South Africa. Motivation for the study: As it is currently difficult to measure workplace incivility within the South African context because of the lack of a valid and reliable scale, it is necessary to validate such a scale. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was used for the study. Convenience sampling (N = 345 was used within the South African banking industry. Specifically, the factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and predictive validity were investigated in order to establish the overall validity of the scale. Main findings: The results confirmed that the scale showed a three-factor structure as bestfitting with acceptable reliability coefficients. Furthermore, discriminant validity could be shown between workplace incivility and workplace bullying, that is, supporting that these two constructs are not the same phenomenon. In terms of relationships, colleague incivility did not significantly predict any of the outcome variables and instigated incivility only being a negative predictor of job satisfaction and a borderline statistically significant negative predictor of work engagement. However, supervisor incivility predicted all the outcomes negatively. Practical/Managerial implications: Based on the results, workplace incivility should be addressed because of the harmful effects it can have, not only on employees but also on organisations. It is therefore necessary for managers to create awareness of workplace incivility in order to ensure that it does not integrate within the
Full Text Available Nachdem man im Bereich psychischer Gesundheit zu zahlreichen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen gekommen ist, ist es heutzutage völlig klar, dass die Achtung der Rechte psychiatrischer Patienten und die Bedingungen derer Unterbringung in psychiatrischen Anstalten einerseits und der Erfolg in der Behandlung, Deinstitutionalisierung und Destigmatisierung von Patienten andererseits direkt miteinander verbunden sind. In den letzten Jahren aber weisen die Berichte der Bürgerbeauftragten und der Beauftragten für Behinderte sowie auch zahlreiche Urteile des Europäischen Gerichtshofs für Menschenrechte hinsichtlich der Beschwerden von Personen mit seelischen Störungen auf schlechte Bedingungen der Unterbringung und Behandlung von Patienten in psychiatrischen Anstalten der Republik Kroatien hin. Deshalb stellte sich als rechtfertigend heraus, das Ausmaß der Verwirklichung der Rechte psychiatrischer Patienten sowie auch die Bedingungen derer Behandlung zu erforschen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde die Forschung in der Klinik für Psychiatrie „Vrapče“, im psychiatrischen Krankenhaus Rab, im Neuropsychiatrischem Krankenhaus „Dr. Ivan Barbot“ Popovača und im Psychiatrischen Krankenhaus Ugljan durchgeführt, den einzigen psychiatrischen Krankenhäusern in der Republik Kroatien mit Abteilungen für schuldunfähige Personen, welchen nach der Entscheidung des Strafgerichts eine Verwahrung angeordnet wurde. Dabei wurden zwei Fragebögen benutzt: der Basisfragebogen für die Leiter von psychiatrischen Anstalten und der anonyme Fragebogen für eine Patientengruppe von 80 Patienten. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die durch Fragebogen aufgezeigten Ergebnisse zu analysieren.
Egger, H. [FAS Berndorf GmbH and Co. KG, Berndorf (Austria); Lugschitz, H. [Verbund-Austrian Power Grid GmbH, Wien (Austria)
Overhead transmission lines are under increased public discussion. One method to minimize their influence on the environment and therefore to increase their acceptance is to camouflage lines by coating their components. Towers, conductors and fittings of a line which was erected recently in the Austrian Alps are coated in dark green colour to make the structure less visible against the background. For further reduction of visibility the line is constructed as compact line. The smaller tower size was achieved by use of short insulator strings and by oversized conductors with special advantageous mechanical properties. This paper explains the consideration which led to the configuration as compact line and for the decision to coate the complete line. It also presents long term experience with in-factory-coating of towers. Factory-coated supports were introduced 1982 in the company's network, first with the main goal to ease maintenance and second to reduce impacts on the environment. The first complete 'camouflage line' (coloured supports and coloured conductors) in the Austrian grid was set into operation end of the year 1995. (orig.) [German] Freileitungen stehen unter zunehmender oeffentlicher Diskussion. Eine der Methoden, ihren Einfluss auf die Umwelt zu reduzieren und damit ihre Akzeptanz zu erhoehen, ist, die Tarnung von Leitungen durch Faerbung ihrer Komponenten. Maste, Leiter, Erdseile und Armaturen einer in den Oesterreichischen Alpen errichtenden Leitungen wurden in dunkelgruener Farbe beschichtet, um die Anlage gegenueber dem Hintergrund geringer sichtbar zu machen. Zur weiteren Reduktion der Sichtbarkeit ist die Leitung als 'Kompaktleitung' ausgefuehrt. Die geringeren Mastabmessungen wurden durch die Verwendung von kuerzeren Isolatorenketten und Leiterseilen mit besonders vorteilhaften mechanischen Eigenschaften erreicht. Die Verfasser erklaeren die Ueberlegungen, die zu der Ausfuehrung als Kompaktleitung und zur Beschichtung der
Di Nuovo, Alessandro G; Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino
The estimation of a person's intelligence quotient (IQ) by means of psychometric tests is indispensable in the application of psychological assessment to several fields. When complex tests as the Wechsler scales, which are the most commonly used and universally recognized parameter for the diagnosis of degrees of retardation, are not applicable, it is necessary to use other psycho-diagnostic tools more suited for the subject's specific condition. But to ensure a homogeneous diagnosis it is necessary to reach a common metric, thus, the aim of our work is to build models able to estimate accurately and reliably the Wechsler IQ, starting from different psycho-diagnostic tools. Four different psychometric tests (Leiter international performance scale; coloured progressive matrices test; the mental development scale; psycho educational profile), along with the Wechsler scale, were administered to a group of 40 mentally retarded subjects, with various pathologies, and control persons. The obtained database is used to evaluate Wechsler IQ estimation models starting from the scores obtained in the other tests. Five modelling methods, two statistical and three from machine learning, that belong to the family of artificial neural networks (ANNs) are employed to build the estimator. Several error metrics for estimated IQ and for retardation level classification are defined to compare the performance of the various models with univariate and multivariate analyses. Eight empirical studies show that, after ten-fold cross-validation, best average estimation error is of 3.37 IQ points and mental retardation level classification error of 7.5%. Furthermore our experiments prove the superior performance of ANN methods over statistical regression ones, because in all cases considered ANN models show the lowest estimation error (from 0.12 to 0.9 IQ points) and the lowest classification error (from 2.5% to 10%). Since the estimation performance is better than the confidence interval of
Hess, Christi; Zettler-Greeley, Cynthia; Godar, Shelly P; Ellis-Weismer, Susan; Litovsky, Ruth Y
Growing evidence suggests that children who are deaf and use cochlear implants (CIs) can communicate effectively using spoken language. Research has reported that age of implantation and length of experience with the CI play an important role in a predicting a child's linguistic development. In recent years, the increase in the number of children receiving bilateral CIs (BiCIs) has led to interest in new variables that may also influence the development of hearing, speech, and language abilities, such as length of bilateral listening experience and the length of time between the implantation of the two CIs. One goal of the present study was to determine how a cohort of children with BiCIs performed on standardized measures of language and nonverbal cognition. This study examined the relationship between performance on language and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) tests and the ages at implantation of the first CI and second CI. This study also examined whether early bilateral activation is related to better language scores. Children with BiCIs (n = 39; ages 4 to 9 years) were tested on two standardized measures, the Test of Language Development and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, to evaluate their expressive/receptive language skills and nonverbal IQ/memory. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to evaluate whether BiCI hearing experience predicts language performance. While large intersubject variability existed, on average, almost all the children with BiCIs scored within or above normal limits on measures of nonverbal cognition. Expressive and receptive language scores were highly variable, less likely to be above the normative mean, and did not correlate with Length of first CI Use, defined as length of auditory experience with one cochlear implant, or Length of second CI Use, defined as length of auditory experience with two cochlear implants. All children in the present study had BiCIs. Most IQ scores were either at or above that
Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2013 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on strategies for medical libraries. Head librarians of medical libraries from Berlin, Bochum, Graz, Mainz, Mannheim, Münster and Vienna present their individual approaches for a successful future. The authors in this issue are Ulf Paepcke (Development of the journal holdings at the Medical Library of the Charité 2005–2013, Annette Kustos (The new Academic Health Sciences, Nursing and Therapeutics Library of the Hochschule für Gesundheit (hsg Bochum - interim report of a strategically oriented planning, Ulrike Kortschak (Library mainstream versus the challenge of developing a profile?, Stefanus Seizer (Strategic development of medical libraries from the perspective of a department library, Martina Semmler-Schmetz & Maria-Inti Metzendorf (Opening up new tasks through cooperation and networking – service development in the Library for the Medical Faculty of Mannheim, Oliver Obst ((No strategy for medical libraries? and Bruno Bauer (Medical libraries boost innovations for the digital library: The university library of the Medical University Vienna as an example for the metamorphosis of scientific libraries.[german] Das Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2013von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information lautet Strategien für Medizinbibliotheken. Bibliotheksleiterinnen und -leiter aus Berlin, Bochum, Graz, Mainz, Mannheim, Münster und Wien stellen ihre individuellen Überlegungen für eine erfolgreiche Zukunft vor. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Ulf Paepcke (Die Entwicklung des Zeitschriftenbestands an der Medizinischen Bibliothek der Charité in den Jahren 2005–2013, Annette Kustos (Die neue Hochschulbibliothek für Gesundheitswissenschaften der Hochschule für Gesundheit (hsg Bochum – Zwischenbericht einer strategisch angelegten Planung, Ulrike Kortschak (Bibliothekarischer Mainstream oder Profilbildung
Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille
The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....
Schreck, S.; Sant, T.; Micallef, D.
Wind turbine structures and components suffer excessive loads and premature failures when key aerodynamic phenomena are not well characterized, fail to be understood, or are inaccurately predicted. Turbine blade rotational augmentation remains incompletely characterized and understood, thus limiting
This work focuses on the licensing conditions and logical structure of understood-argument constructions, or complement-drop constructions, in English. There are two main types of such arguments: Indefinite Understood Arguments (IUA) and Definite Understood Arguments (DUA). IUA readings occur in such cases in "He ate, He cooked". In such cases,…
with a CI, had auditory neuropathy; one child showed total cochlear ossification bilaterally due to meningitis; and one child had profound hearing loss with cochlear fractures after a head injury. Twelve of these children had multiple associated psychomotor handicaps. The retrosigmoid approach was used in all children. Intraoperative electrical auditory brainstem responses (EABRs) and postoperative EABRs and electrical middle latency responses (EMLRs) were performed. Perceptual auditory abilities were evaluated with the Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech (EARS) battery - the Listening Progress Profile (LIP), the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS), the Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) - and the Category of Auditory Performance (CAP). Cognitive evaluation was performed on seven children using the Leiter International Performance Scale - Revised (LIPS-R) test with the following subtests: Figure ground, Form completion, Sequential order and Repeated pattern. No postoperative complications were observed. All children consistently used their devices for >75% of waking hours and had environmental sound awareness and utterance of words and simple sentences. Their CAP scores ranged from 1 to 7 (average =4); with MAIS they scored 2-97.5% (average =38%); MUSS scores ranged from 5 to 100% (average =49%) and LIP scores from 5 to 100% (average =45%). Owing to associated disabilities, 12 children were given other therapies (e.g. physical therapy and counselling) in addition to speech and aural rehabilitation therapy. Scores for two of the four subtests of LIPS-R in this study increased significantly during the first year of auditory brainstem implant use in all seven children selected for cognitive evaluation.
Exercise ''contact point for persons from the neighborhood of a nuclear power station after a severe accident''; Uebung ''Kontaktstelle fuer Personen aus der Umgebung eines Kernkraftwerkes nach einem schweren Unfall''
Stuerm, R.P. [SafPro AG, Ausbildung und Beratung in Strahlenschutz, Basel (Switzerland); Schubiger, V.; Voegtli, M. [Abt. Militaer und Bevoelkerungsschutz des Kantons Aargau (Switzerland)
an und sind auch keine Auskunftszentren fuer die Medien. Rund 1'000 Personen sollen pro 24 Stunden auf einer Kontaktstelle betreut werden, wobei rund 500 Personen mit Dosen von weniger als 50 mSv (Gruppe D), rund 300 Personen mit Dosen zwischen 50 und 500 mSv (Gruppen C und B) und knapp 200 Personen mit Dosen ueber 500 mSv (Gruppe A) erwartet werden. Unter diesen 1'000 Personen duerfte es 30 schwangere Frauen (Gruppe E) haben. Mittels eines einfachen Leitsystems sollen die Ratsuchenden in die Gruppen A bis E eingeteilt werden. Diese Einteilung erfolgt durch Selbstdeklaration (Aufenthaltsort waehrend der Wolkenphase), die bei der Gruppe A durch geschultes Personal mittels Integrationsberechnungen der Ortsdosisleistung individuell verifiziert wird. Die uebrigen Besucher der Kontaktstellen werden in Gruppen durch Aerzte und Strahlenphysiker informiert und psychologisch betreut. Mitglieder der Eidgenoessischen Kommission fuer AC-Schutz, der Abteilung Militaer und Bevoelkerungsschutz, der Nationalen Alarmzentrale, der Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit von Kernanlagen sowie Kantonsaerzte (Leiter des Aerztlichen Dienstes der Landesgesundheitsbehoerde) hatten ein Konzept fuer solche Kontaktstellen ausgearbeitet. Am 26.10.00 fand eine Uebung im Massstab 1:10 mit 85 Figuranten und knapp 100 Beuebten statt, um dieses Konzept auf seine Machbarkeit zu pruefen. (orig.)
the Army? question understood (1) - gramatically correct (1) no rephrasing/repetition (1) 8. Why are you taking this English Language Course...question understood (1) gramatically correct (1) no rephrasing/repetition (1) 9. Do you think you will use English when you are no longer in the Arnfy...How will you use English?) question understood (1) - gramatically correct (1) -_ no rephrasing/repetition (1) E-4 Page 2 PATROL SCENE Now we want to show
Varga, Tania Elke
Colour Scheme examines the potential for colour to be understood as a relational and therefore, indeterminate space. The CMYK process colour model is reworked to investigate the idea of colour as an indeterminate space. In proposing that process colour can be understood as a fluid and relational system I draw attention to the unquantifiable and qualitative nature of colour. Colour can be understood as a verb, and as such may be thought of as an active substance. This understanding of col...
... resources) is minimized, collection instruments are clearly understood, and the impact of collection...), report delinquency, collections (accounts receivable), the audit function, and the detection of employer...
Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education presents energy concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions.
Kalinin Vladimir V.
Full Text Available Introduction. The role of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, as an interaction between immunity and clinical and neurobiological variables is not properly understood.
.... Agronomists, on the other hand, recommend minimal soil compaction because compacted soils are widely understood to impede the growth and development of crops, forests, and native plant communities...
Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education presents energy concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions.
Thompson, Douglas R.; Siegler, Robert S.
Two experiments examined development of economic understanding among 5-, 7- and 9-year-olds. Found that most 5-year-olds understood the goal of acquiring desired goods, and most 7- and 9-year-olds also understood the goals of seeking profits, acquiring goods inexpensively, and competing successfully with other sellers. Results suggest that older…
This chapter investigates how human dignity might be understood as a normative concept for the regulation of technologies. First, various distinctions that are relevant for the way human dignity can be understood are discussed. It is argued that it is particularly important that we should see human
Violent crime in South Africa is sometimes said to be unusual, because it is perceived to frequently be gratuitous. This article engages with the question of how to define gratuitous violence. If the term gratuitous is understood to mean 'for nothing', gratuitous violence should be understood as violence that is 'low on ...
DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.
Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…
This paper argues against the view that the Freudian unconscious can be understood as an extension of ordinary belief-desire psychology. The paper argues that Freud\\'s picture of the mind challenges the paradigm of folk psychology, as it is understood by much contemporary philosophy of psychology and cognitive ...
Sumner, Helen; Woodcock, Ashley; Kolsum, Umme
Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood.......Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood....
The observations of spectrum-variability and light-variability of Ap stars are reviewed. It is shown that these variations are interpretable as due to the changing aspect of the spotted surface as the star rotates. It is stressed that the geometry of the phenomenon is understood fairly well but the physics is very far from being understood. (Auth.)
White, James; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Batty, G David
Recent reports have linked cognitive ability (IQ) with alcohol dependency, but the relationship with illegal drug use is not well understood.......Recent reports have linked cognitive ability (IQ) with alcohol dependency, but the relationship with illegal drug use is not well understood....
Lincoln, Don; Morrow, Greg; Kasper, Peter
In this paper, a common calorimeter calibration scheme is explored and a hidden bias found. Since this bias mimics a non-linearity in response in the calorimeter, it must be understood and removed from the calibration before true non-linearities are investigated. The effect and its removal are explored and understood through straightforward calculus and algebra. ((orig.))
In the context of educational practice and research, the individual is often understood in terms of autonomy. From this point of view, we will see our experience as cumulative, as inside of us, and as strengthening us against others. It means that the conception of experience tends to be understood primarily in relation to usefulness. In search of…
Despite renewed interest in moral role-modelling and its emotional underpinnings, further conceptual work is needed on the logical geography of the emotions purportedly driving it, in particular, admiration, emulation and elevation. In this article, I explore admiration (as understood by Linda Zagzebski), emulation (as understood by Aristotle) and…
I argue that the etiological approach, as understood in terms of control theory, suffers from a problem of symmetry, by which function can equally well be placed in the environment as in the organism. Focusing on the autonomy view, I note that it can be understood to some degree in terms of control theory in its version called ...
Hof, A.J.; Holleman, J.; Woerlee, P.H.
In current CMOS processing both n+-poly and p+-poly gates are used. The I-V –relationship and reliability of n+-poly devices are widely studied and well understood. Gate currents and reliability for p+-poly PMOS devices under gate injection conditions are not well understood. In this paper, the
Ericsson, Ylva B; Roos, Ewa M.; Frobell, Richard B
The additional effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on muscle strength and physical performance after a structured exercise programme is not well understood.......The additional effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on muscle strength and physical performance after a structured exercise programme is not well understood....
This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project.......This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project....
Boman, John H., IV; Krohn, Marvin D.; Gibson, Chris L.; Stogner, John M.
While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control…
Evaluations using cost/benefit analysis and the ALARA principle should take account of psychological as well as material considerations. Safety is a basic human need which has to be met. It is also subjective and therefore has to be understood by the individual. The professional health physicist has a duty to see that radiation safety is understood by the general public. (author)
Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn
Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…
Halamandaris, Pandelis G.
On the basis of the grammatical theory developed by Noam Chomsky, it is reasonable to presume that the different parts of a sentence may not all be understood with equal facility and speed. One purpose of this study was to determine whether some of the grammatical relations within a sentence were understood more readily than others. Sentences of…
Two solitary waves launched, by way of incidence, into an optical fibre from a single pulse if the pulses are in-phase as understood from results of inverse scattering transform method applied to the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations, (CNLSE\\'s). The single CNLSE is then understood to describe evolution of coupled ...
Monsson, Christian Kjær
Christian Kjær Monsson suggests that the peri-urban economy should be understood as a metaphor of a mosaic.......Christian Kjær Monsson suggests that the peri-urban economy should be understood as a metaphor of a mosaic....
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number and gender. 211.103 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.103 Number and gender. In this part, words in the singular will be understood to include the plural, and words in the masculine gender will be understood to...
Theorists as diverse as Plato, Rousseau, Freire, Apple, and the New London Group have understood education as a practice that "makes" humans. Positing education as a practice of humanization has long been understood to be the highest, most lofty good. By drawing on feminism, critical race studies, and postcolonial studies, the author of…
Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard
While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…
Typically corporate governance is analyzed and understood on the basis of agency theory. This theory is not only the dominant one in academic research, it is also understood as the dominant lens by which policy makers and practitioners ought to see the field. Nevertheless, in order to provide more
Nyholm, S.R.; O'Neill, E.R.H.
One of the topics that often comes up in ethical discussions of deep brain stimulation (DBS), is the question of what impact DBS has, or might have, on the patient’s self. This is often understood as a question of whether DBS poses a “threat” to personal identity, which is typically understood as
This article analyses the theoretical and methodological structure of Goldhagen's book Hitler's Willing Executioners. It argues that the paradoxical success of HWE can better be understood when its paradoxical implicit theory and method are understood. Although Goldhagen claims that HWE embodies an
Suggests that working beyond the academy should be understood not as an abandonment of the academic job market, a response to failure, or a curse: instead, it should be understood as a new avenue for intellectual work, one that neither graduate-school programs nor the Modern Language Association would be wise to ignore. (RS)
Irimia, José M; Rovira, Jordi; Nielsen, Jakob N
Glycogen-depleting exercise can lead to supercompensation of muscle glycogen stores, but the biochemical mechanisms of this phenomenon are still not completely understood.......Glycogen-depleting exercise can lead to supercompensation of muscle glycogen stores, but the biochemical mechanisms of this phenomenon are still not completely understood....
Haraldsson, Bjarki Thor; Langberg, Henning; Aagaard, Per
Overuse tendon injuries are frequent. Corticosteroid injections are commonly used as treatment, although their direct effects on the material properties of the tendon are poorly understood.......Overuse tendon injuries are frequent. Corticosteroid injections are commonly used as treatment, although their direct effects on the material properties of the tendon are poorly understood....
Damsted-Petersen, Christina; Boyer, Stéphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F
Vulvodynia, or chronic vulvar pain, is a common but poorly understood condition. Although its etiology is not well understood, it appears to be multifactorial. As such, treatment options are targeted to reduce singular symptoms in a piecemeal fashion. A number of randomized, controlled trials have...
Jørgensen, Ole Have
The study is aimed at describing the types of counter narratives evolving in a city brand process, how they are understood and dealt with and how they may influence brand mangement.......The study is aimed at describing the types of counter narratives evolving in a city brand process, how they are understood and dealt with and how they may influence brand mangement....
Hansen, Lone Hersted; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl
This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational u...... understanding of communication and leading. The chapter ends with a discussion of how leadership communication can be understood as polyphony of voices.......This chapter highlights how communication, especially leadership communication, can be understood and practised within a relational perspective. An analysis of a specific example of communication forms the basis for a discussion of six central themes that we consider significant in a relational...
Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted
We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where...... artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....
..., or other methods). The Privacy Act Statement consists of the elements set forth in paragraph (d)(2)of... easily understood. (4) The Privacy Act statement may appear as a public notice (sign or poster...
Bilde, T.; Maklakov, Alexei A.; Meisner, Katrine
Background Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA) have been proposed, but these ideas have...
The interaction between long rods and ceramics is only partially understood; however, this understanding is essential in the design of improved performance of impact-resistant materials and armor system design applications...
Chavali, Raghu V. K.; De Wolf, Stefaan; Alam, Muhammad A.
The device physics of commercially dominant diffused-junction silicon solar cells is well understood, allowing sophisticated optimization of this class of devices. Recently, so-called passivating-contact solar cell technologies have become prominent
... easily understood and to fix typographical and grammatical errors and the like. B. Governing or... representative from each of the following categories to be members of the Advisory Committee: (i) A broker-dealer...
Swartout, W; Gratch, J; Hill, R; Hovy, E; Lindheim, R; Marsella, S; Rickel, J; Traum, D
... from the entertainment industry. The idea was that much more compelling simulations could be developed if researchers who understood state-of-the-art simulation technology worked together with writers and directors who knew...
Premise of the Research: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae) is an emerging but underutilized crop whose pollination is poorly understood. We present a multidimensional investigation of the reproductive biology and chemical ecology of jackfruit and a putative pollinator, Clinodiplosis ult...
The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate and respond to daily changes in ambient temperature. Mechanisms establishing the timing of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana through temperature entrainment remain unclear. Also incompletely understood is the temperature compensation mechanism ...
Moulton, D.E.; Goriely, A.; Chirat, R.
. However, the developmental mechanisms underlying shell coiling are largely not understood and the ubiquitous presence of ornamentation such as ribs, tubercles, or spines presents yet another level of difficulty. Here we develop a general model for shell
Full Text Available In laser metal deposition (LMD), good bonding between two similar or dissimilar materials can be achieved if the interrelationships between the processing parameters are well understood. LMD was conducted by varying the scanning speed and keeping...
Wetland creation, enhancement, and restoration activities are commonly implemented to compensate for wetland loss or degradation. However, functional equivalence in restored and created wetland habitats is often poorly understood. In estuarine habitats, changes in habitat qualit...
Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland loss. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands is poorly understood. We compared a 20-yr chrono...
Viral determinants involved in systemic infection of hosts by monocot-infecting plant viruses are poorly understood. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) exclusively infects monocotyledonous crops such as wheat, oat, barley, maize, triticale, and rye. Previously, ...
Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Gosens, Reinoud; Halayko, Andrew J.; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman
Rationale: Airway remodeling, including increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and contractility, contributes to airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. The mechanisms driving these changes are, however, incompletely understood. Recently, an important role for extracellular matrix proteins in
Zhu, Xiuping; Tokash, Justin C.; Hong, Yiying; Logan, Bruce E.
Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power overshoot, resulting in inaccurate estimation of MFC performance at high current densities. The reasons for power overshoot are not well understood, but biofilm acclimation
Hoffman, David P.; Lee, Olivia P.; Millstone, Jill E.; Chen, Mark S.; Su, Timothy A.; Creelman, Mark; Frechet, Jean; Mathies, Richard A.
Interfacial electron transfer between sensitizers and semiconducting nanoparticles is a crucial yet poorly understood process. To address this problem, we have used transient absorption (TA) and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS
The groundwater flow system at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is complex. To evaluate proposed remedial alternatives, interaction of the local groundwater flow system with the present contamination control systems must be understood...
Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Although research has repeatedly demonstrated a link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and sexual attitudes, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. More specifically, studies have pointed to a mediating role of perceived realism,
responsible for this benefit are not fully understood, exercise is known to have ... smokers, alcoholic, diabetic, other cardiac, renal, respiratory disease patients were ..... rehabilitation should feel confident in the use of this mode of training in the ...
The adaptation of insect populations to insecticidal control is a continual threat human health and sustainable agriculture practices, but many complex genomic mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. A systems approach was applied to investigate the interconnections between structural and func...
O'Regan, Philip; O'Donnell, David
Intellectual capital and the management and use of an organization's intellectual resources can be understood from the perspective of Habermas' theory of communicative action. The systematic and reciprocal relations of communicative action create value through the mechanisms of exchange. (SK)
Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.
Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental
Right ear advantage (REA) exists in many land vertebrates in which the right ear and left hemisphere preferentiallyprocess conspecific acoustic ... selection have been widely studied, the brain networks involved are still poorly understood.
Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.
Gupta, V.K.; Scheunemann, L.; Eisenberg, T.; Mertel, S.; Bhukel, A.; Koemans, T.S.; Kramer, J.M.; Liu, K.S.; Schroeder, S.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; Sinner, F.; Magnes, C.; Pieber, T.R.; Dipt, S.; Fiala, A.; Schenck, A.; Schwaerzel, M.; Madeo, F.; Sigrist, S.J.
Age-dependent memory impairment is known to occur in several organisms, including Drosophila, mouse and human. However, the fundamental cellular mechanisms that underlie these impairments are still poorly understood, effectively hampering the development of pharmacological strategies to treat the
Goudriaan, A.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Beurs, de P.; Brink, van den W.
Aims Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling have relevance for the aetiology and treatment of this disorder, yet are poorly understood. This study therefore investigated neurocognitive impairments of executive functions in a group of carefully screened Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
Duvivier, R.; Stalmeijer, R.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.
BACKGROUND: Hospital clerkships are considered crucial for acquiring competencies such as diagnostic reasoning and clinical skills. The actual learning process in the hospital remains poorly understood. This study investigates how students learn clinical skills in workplaces and factors affecting
This report discusses some of the recent developments in the study of one supernova mechanism, the neutrino transport mechanism, and indicates what future developments are needed before this model can be adequately understood. (Auth.)
...) through both DoD and non-DoD providers. This network of ET&D providers and users constitutes a multi-organizational, multi-stakeholder system that is at present loosely coordinated and incompletely understood...
Homberg, Judith R; De Boer, Sietse F; Raasø, Halfdan S; Olivier, Jocelien D A; Verheul, Mark; Ronken, Eric; Cools, Alexander R; Ellenbroek, Bart A; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; De Vries, Taco J; Cuppen, Edwin
RATIONALE: While individual differences in vulnerability to psychostimulants have been largely attributed to dopaminergic neurotransmission, the role of serotonin is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the rewarding and motivational properties of cocaine in the serotonin transporter knockout
... large dramatic outbreak can occur, related to a restaurant or a contaminated food or water source.Â ... understood this disclaimer. Copyright © 2007 James N. George . Design by Andreas Viklund . Last update: 4-6-2015 ...
Aquatic insects provide a critical nutrient subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated relationships between aquatic (resource utilization) and contaminant exposure for a riparian invert...
Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma hae...
Koelmans, Bart; Kooi, Merel; Law, Kara Lavender; Sebille, van Erik
Understanding the global mass inventory is one of the main challenges in present research on plastic marine debris. Especially the fragmentation and vertical transport processes of oceanic plastic are poorly understood. However, whereas fragmentation rates are unknown, information on plastic
Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi
van de Velde, Bob; Meijer, Albert; Homburg, Vincent
Social media are becoming increasingly important for communication between government organisations and citizens. Although research on this issue is expanding, the structure of these new communication patterns is still poorly understood. This study contributes to our understanding of these new
... Employment, and a 250 word essay on a commonly understood subject to demonstrate grammatical competence. The... by the Board will be based on the Candidate's demonstrated aptitude and fitness for a career in the...
The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...
The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures is not well understood. Currently, no comprehensive standard test methods exist for characterizing and quantifying product emissions. Exposures to diisocyanate compoun...
The etiology of the stress fractyre syndrome is incompetely understood but it is clear that skeletons with high peak bone quantity and quality will be better pretected against incurring this crippling condition...
Autism-spectrum disorder is increasingly recognised, with recent studies estimating that 1% of children in South London are affected. However, the biology of comorbid mental health problems in people with autism-spectrum disorder is poorly understood.
understood that the road map of any research or scientific project should be based ... be explained or defined by the framework of assumptions and concepts in .... As such, socialisation yields new tacit knowledge that is built through informal.
Hentze, Julie Lilith; Carlsson, Mikael A.; Kondo, Shu
Coordinating metabolism and feeding is important to avoid obesity and metabolic diseases, yet the underlying mechanisms, balancing nutrient intake and metabolic expenditure, are poorly understood. Several mechanisms controlling these processes are conserved in Drosophila, where homeostasis and en...
The relationship between population adaptive potential and extinction risk in a changing environment is not well understood. Although the expectation is that genetic diversity is directly related to the capacity of populations to adapt, the statistical and predictive aspects of ...
Zhu, Jianhua; Lee, Byeongha; Dellinger, Michael T.; Cui, Xinping; Zhang, Changqing; Wu, Shang; Nothnagel, Eugene A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang
Osmotic stress imposed by soil salinity and drought stress significantly affects plant growth and development, but osmotic stress sensing and tolerance mechanisms are not well understood. Forward genetic screens using a root-bending assay have
Mora Cordova, Angel; Liu, Jinxing; El Sayed, Tamer S.
In most metals and alloys, the evolution of voids has been generally recognized as the basic failure mechanism. Furthermore, stress triaxiality has been found to influence void growth dramatically. Besides strain intensity, it is understood
Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.
Background: Mutualistic interactions are wide-spread but the mechanisms underlying their evolutionary stability and ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Cultivation mutualisms in which hosts consume symbionts occur in phylogenetically diverse groups, but often have symbiont monocultures for
Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Tio, René A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Dunaeva, Marina; Ferreira, Carmen V.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Alves, Maria M.; Rezaee, Farhad; Spek, C. Arnold; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.
The major cause for plaque instability in atherosclerotic disease is neoangiogenic revascularization, but the factors controlling this process remain only partly understood. Hedgehog (HH) is a morphogen with important functions in revascularization, but its function in human healthy vessel biology
Matson, Kevin D.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; van der Velde, Marco; Tieleman, B. Irene
Relationships between avian physiology and bacterial assemblages in the cloaca are poorly understood. We used molecular techniques to analyze cloacal swabs from pigeons that were subjected to two immunological manipulations: lysozyme supplementation and endotoxin challenge. From the swabs, we
The impact of combustion aerosols on human health is well documented byepidemiological studies, however the effect of low concentrations of ultrafineparticles on the human lung are not yet fully understood. With the advent ofnovel measurement technologies for simultaneous charact...
Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.
When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)
Captive fish often display reproductive dysfunction associated with follicle maturation. Gonadotropins and the progestogen maturation-inducing hormones (MIH) are important regulators of follicle maturation; however, their actions including regulating follicle maturation are not fully understood. The...
The relative environmental toxicities of synthetic and biogenic surfactants used in oil spill remediation efforts are not well understood. Acute and chronic toxicities of three synthetic surfactants and three microbially produced surfactants were determined and compared in this s...
Selck, H.; Drouillard, K.; Eisenreich, K.; Koelmans, A.A.; Palmqvist, A.; Ruus, A.; Salvito, D.; Schultz, I.; Stewart, R.; Weisbrod, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.
In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls
Chauhan, Sakshi; Mandal, Papita; Tomar, Raghuvir S.
Proteolytic clipping of histone H3 has been identified in many organisms. Despite several studies, the mechanism of clipping, the substrate specificity, and the significance of this poorly understood epigenetic mechanism are not clear. We have
Lebrija Trejos, E.E.; Pérez-Garcia, E.A.; Meave, J.; Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.
Vegetation and environment change mutually during secondary succession, yet the idiosyncrasies of the vegetation effect on the understorey environment are poorly understood. To test whether the successional understorey environment changes predictably and is shaped by the structure and seasonality of
Adeolu Oluwaseyi Oyekan
Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK) ... understood in terms of laws, and that human action be comprehended in terms of ..... The fusion of individual and societal interests should therefore be ...
Van Son, S.T.J.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; De Schipper, M.A.; De Vries, S.; Duijnmayer, K.
Monitoring and understanding coastal processes is important for the Netherlands since the most densely populated areas are situated directly behind the coastal defense. Traditionally, bathymetric changes are monitored at annual intervals, although nowadays it is understood that most dramatic changes
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Driver understanding of flashing yellow arrow (FYA) indications for left turns has been studied extensively; however, the use of FYA for right-turn applications is an area that needs to be better understood through evaluations focused on actual drive...
Faust, J.; Harbers, I.
Variation in the behavior and preferences of subnational governments is one of the areas that remain poorly understood by students of comparative decentralization and federalism. Yet, evidence suggests that this variation plays an important role in shaping intergovernmental relations. Ecuador
M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)
textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress
Lutgendorff, Femke; Trulsson, Lena M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Timmerman, Harro M.; Franzen, Lennart E.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Soderholm, Johan D.; Sandstrom, Per A.
Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress,
Striegel, Jennifer L
.... forces to decisively prevail in the ensuing military action. Strategic culture is best understood as the impact of a unique historical, cultural, and national perspective in shaping a nation's strategic preferences on the use of force...
This paper addresses the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction as it is understood following the events of 11 September 2001 and the anthrax attacks directed at congressional and media offices...
Whole-genome amplification (WGA) has become an important tool to explore the genomic information of microorganisms in an environmental sample with limited biomass, however potential selective biases during the amplification processes are poorly understood. Here, we describe the e...
Jun 1, 2016 ... Mine production forecast is pertinent to mining as it serves production ... Besides the inability of this method to mimic the .... management and truck operators understood the ..... Mining Engineering Handbook, Hartman, H. L..
Michelle L Reitsma
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of chronic pain is poorly understood due to a paucity of longitudinal studies limiting the ability to develop prevention strategies for a condition resistant to many current therapies.
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.H.E. Koolman (Xander); V. Møller (Valerie); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractFew studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting the prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries. The compositional and contextual factors that affect health and disease patterns must be fully understood to successfully control tuberculosis. Experience
NREL Environment, Health, and Safety - Construction Subcontractors Documents Environment Environment, Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements are understood by construction subcontractors and with these requirements before submitting proposals and/or environment, health and safety plans for the
teachers. The journal invites articles in various branches of science, including topics relating to engineering and ... difficult to understand, new classroom experiments, .... manuscript, as understood by convention and established good practice.
Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.
Objective: Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)
.... Unfortunately, there is little evidence that the internal environment is as well understood; and this lack of knowledge about barriers and facilitators of change is problematic for program developers...
Schaapsmeerders, P.; Uden, I.W.M. van; Tuladhar, A.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Dijk, E.J. van; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Kessels, R.P.C.
Memory impairment after stroke in young adults is poorly understood. In elderly stroke survivors memory impairments and the concomitant loss of hippocampal volume are usually explained by coexisting neurodegenerative disease (e.g., amyloid pathology) in interaction with stroke. However,
Weusten, B. L.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanisms responsible for the development of symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to identify differences in spatiotemporal reflux characteristics (proximal extent and duration of reflux episodes, ascending
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is neither well understood nor commonly investigated in Hawaii, but it is recognized as a potential pollution source to coastal...
Understanding the linkage between the physicochemical (PC) properties of nanoparticles (NP) and their activation of biological systems is poorly understood, yet fundamental to predicting nanotoxicity, idenitifying mode of actions and developing appropriate and effective regul...
Teperino, Raffaele; Amann, Sabine; Bayer, Martina
Diabetes, obesity, and cancer affect upward of 15% of the world's population. Interestingly, all three diseases juxtapose dysregulated intracellular signaling with altered metabolic state. Exactly which genetic factors define stable metabolic set points in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we...
Hardison, A.K.; Canuel, E.A/; Anderson, I.C.; Tobias, C.R.; Veuger, B.; Waters, M.N.
Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae play an important role in system metabolism within shallow coastal bays. However, their independent and interactive influences on sediment organic matter (SOM) are not well understood. We investigated the influence of macroalgae and microphytobenthos on SOM
Kempkes, S. N.; Quelle, A.; de Morais Smith, C.
Topological insulators (superconductors) are materials that host symmetry-protected metallic edge states in an insulating (superconducting) bulk. Although they are well understood, a thermodynamic description of these materials remained elusive, firstly because the edges yield a non-extensive
Wall, Francis J
It must be emphasized that this is not a text book on statistics. Instead it is a working tool that presents data analysis in clear, concise terms which can be readily understood even by those without formal training in statistics...
McCrae, James; Singh, Karan; Mitra, Niloy J.
Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours
Oct 15, 2011 ... Although the policy interventions are well understood, the political economy ... case studies – representing diverse linguistic, geographic, political, legal and ... Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying ...
Mortensen, N. Asger
Plasmonics is commonly understood within classical electrodynamics with local-response constitutive relations. However, possibilities for nonlocal dynamics and quantum effects emerge with strong spatial confinement in plasmonic nanostructures. This talks reviews recent theory and experiments...
Nov 23, 2013 ... (obesity and overweight) is a major concern while in most developing nations under-nutrition predominates.6. Identified nutritional problems among adolescents ... childhood is well understood.5,12 In adulthood, there is a.
Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.
Lamb, Tracey J
.... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...
Full Text Available Natural fibre reinforced cement composites are promising potential materials for use in panelised construction. The structural properties of these composite materials are yet to be fully understood. As the role of the natural fibre is to reinforce...
P.K. Bajpe (Prashanth Kumar); J.A. van der Knaap (Jan); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); A. Bassett (Andrew); H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen); A.A. Travers (Andrew); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter)
textabstractProtein ubiquitylation plays a central role in multiple signal transduction pathways. However, the substrate specificity and potential developmental roles of deubiquitylating enzymes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Drosophila ubiquitin protease UBP64 controls cell fate
Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...
Gvozdjakova, Anna; Kucharska, Jarmila; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Babinska, Katarina; Nakladal, Dalibor; Crane, Fred L.
Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression) and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood.
Gasbjerg, Lærke S; Christensen, Mikkel B; Hartmann, Bolette
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone secreted postprandially from enteroendocrine K cells, but despite therapeutically interesting effects, GIP physiology in humans remains incompletely understood. Progress in this field could be facilitated b...
Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Pruis, Maurien Gm; Lendvai, Agnes; Verkade, Henkjan J; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael
Background: There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and
Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...
The principles governing metabolic flux are poorly understood. Because diverse organisms show similar metabolic flux patterns, we hypothesized that fundamental thermodynamic constraints might shape cellular metabolism. We developed a constraint-based model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae that included
Sep 12, 2014 ... described ultimate reality as 'thought' or 'mind' has fallen under the sledge ... This is a great departure from the old education system which .... of the scientist or technologist lives in the process of induction understood as.
Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Bartell, Paul A.
Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress
Autism and autistic spectrum disorders are still relatively poorly understood. This article outlines the results of new research into the prevalence of autism and into the causes of the condition and highlights implications for nurses from the findings.
Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik
The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP)-the time from onset of psychotic symptoms to the start of adequate treatment--is consistently correlated with better course and outcome, but the mechanisms are poorly understood....
Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and
Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.; Haridas, P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.
The physical and chemical forcing which drive the Arabian production is now fairly well understood. The main attributes, which contribute to the productivity are (1) the boundary processes which manifest as upwelling during summer monsoon and (2...
... or an appetite for oral feeding. Facilitation or promotion of hunger is understood to be primary in ... of trials. Oral Sensorimotor Stimulation Research supporting the importance of specific oral sensorimotor intervention procedures is limited. ...
Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a
Measures or signals of environmental quality or change recorded by individuals, ... The reasons for this devastation are still poorly understood, but the results are ... only one-sixth as much fresh water available per capita as the global average.
remains the major treatable organism and needs a specific work-up. It also remains the most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis in children and adolescents. The differences in evaluating children and adults need to be understood.
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk
Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W
BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect
José Luis Rivera
Full Text Available Here I propose an attempt for articulating two conditions related to the claims of justice in public institutions: the idea of justice understood as equality, and the requirements of free discussion involved in public argumentation.
Damare, V.; Raghukumar, S.
Thraustochytrid protists are often abundant in coastal waters. However, their population dynamics and substrate preferences in the oceanic water column are poorly understood.We studied the abundance and distribution of thraustochytrids, bacteria...
Objective. Factors associated with mineralization and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) are incompletely understood. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a mineralization inhibitor, have been associated clinically with conditions of abnormal calcification. We therefore evalua...
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a condition characterized by small intestine inflammation and abnormal gut permeability, is widespread in children in developing countries and a major cause of growth failure. The pathophysiology of EED remains poorly understood. We measured serum metabolite...
2,1kg infant was delivered vaginally with an APGAR score of. 10. The patient's blood ... arachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), cerebral oedema and acute hy- drocephalus. ... poorly understood. Intracranial .... hydrocephalus and eclampsia. Can Med ...
Bagger, Y Z; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Alexandersen, P
Epidemiological observations suggest links between osteoporosis and risk of acute cardiovascular events and vice versa. Whether the two clinical conditions are linked by common pathogenic factors or atherosclerosis per se remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether serum lipids...
Yu, Q.; Wu, W.; Liu, Z.; Verburg, P.H.; Xia, T.; Yang, P.; Lu, Z.; You, L.; Tang, H.
Although climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations have been studied extensively, how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and adapt their agricultural activities is poorly understood. Survey-based data (presents farmers' personal perceptions and adaptations to climate change)
Lorist, M.M.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.
Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of mental fatigue are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether error-related brain activity, indexing performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and strategic behavioural adjustments were modulated by mental fatigue, as induced
Lorist, MM; Boksem, MAS; Ridderinkhof, KR
Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of mental fatigue are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether error-related brain activity, indexing performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and strategic behavioural adjustments were modulated by mental fatigue, as induced
Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale
.... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...
Pöschl, J.; Lorenz, A.; Hartmann, W.; von Bueren, A. O.; Kool, M.; Li, S.; Peraud, A.; Tonn, J.-C.; Herms, J.; Xiang, M.; Rutkowski, S.; Kretzschmar, H. A.; Schüller, U.
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood, and development of targeted therapies is highly desired. Although the molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation are not fully understood, it is known that medulloblastomas may arise from cerebellar granule neuron
Preite, V.; Snoek, L.B.; Oplaat, C.; Biere, A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation variation, can generate heritable phenotypic variation independent of the underlying genetic code. However, epigenetic variation in natural plant populations is poorly documented and little understood. Here, we test if northward range expansion of
Almeida, Mathieu; Hebert, Agnes; Abraham, Anne-Laure
Background: Microbial communities of traditional cheeses are complex and insufficiently characterized. The origin, safety and functional role in cheese making of these microbial communities are still not well understood. Metagenomic analysis of these communities by high throughput shotgun sequenc...
Determination of erosion parameters in order to predict scour depth is imperative to designing safe, : economic, and efficient bridge foundations. Scour behavior of granular soils is generally understood, : and design criteria have been established b...
Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...
Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...
The failure behavior of concrete materials is not completely understood because conventional test methods fail to assess the : material response independent of the sample size and shape. : To study the influence of strength affecting test conditions,...
poorly understood whether a short bout of sport training can alter some salivary immune biomarkers. Aim: To investigate the .... er team for a major football club which is in the division ... Data analysis: Physical characteristics of the partici-.
Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...
Background/Questions/Methods Large-bodied invertebrates (bivalves, polychaetes, burrowing shrimps) are common to infaunal communities of NE Pacific estuaries, but their contribution to estuarine community structure, function and ecosystem services is poorly understood because ...
Large-bodied invertebrates (bivalves, polychaetes, burrowing shrimps) are common to infaunal communities of NE Pacific estuaries, but their contribution to estuarine community structure, function and ecosystem services is poorly understood because they are difficult to sample and...
Full Text Available Tannin concentrations fluctuate spatially and temporally within and among plant species, with con-sequences for forage quality of herbivores. The extent to which these fluctuations influence foraging activities of goats is not fully understood...
Gaensslen, Robert E.
Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)
foster sustainable human development. He urges ... consciousness of their own gender has deprived Igbo women of free expression of their rights ... Mangena and Ezra Chitando jointly reflect on the concept of Euthanasia as understood in the.
Sinding, M.F.; Berg, Lise Charlotte
Reason for performing study: The aetiological factors behind impinged or overriding of dorsal spinous processes ('kissing spine syndrome', KSS) are not clearly understood. Back conformation, breed, age, training and gender may play important roles in this condition. Radiographic changes vary...
Bakker, Mirte J.; van Dijk, J. Gert; Pramono, Astuti; Sutarni, Sri; Tijssen, Marina A. J.
The nature of culture-specific startles syndromes such as "Latah" in Indonesia and Malaysia is ill understood. Hypotheses concerning their origin include sociocultural behavior, psychiatric disorders, and neurological syndromes. The various disorders show striking similarities despite occurring in
Bakker, Mirte J.; van Dijk, J. Gert; Pramono, Astuti; Sutarni, Sri; Tijssen, Marina A. J.
The nature of culture-specific startles syndromes such as Latah in Indonesia and Malaysia is ill understood. Hypotheses concerning their origin include sociocultural behavior, psychiatric disorders, and neurological syndromes. The various disorders show striking similarities despite occurring in
.... These strategies are inspired by the maneuvers of moths flying upwind along a pheromone plume. Although moth maneuvers are well documented, the mechanisms underlying sensory perception and navigation are not fully understood...
This short review is concerned with a topic that has been neglected and is still very poorly understood: what the general public think and believe about biology (including health and medicine, and bioethics), and, in particular, about biotechnology.
Full Text Available ... not yet completely understood. We do know that the brains of people with depression are different from those ... National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top
Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Walker, Jeffrey P.
The influence of spatial resolution on the estimation of land surface heat fluxes from remote sensing is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of aggregation from fine (< 100 m) to medium (approx. 1. km) scales are investigated using high
Lichen desiccation tolerance is associated with cellular protection mechanisms directed against the oxidative stress produced during dehydration and/or rehydration, however, these mechanisms are not well understood. In other poikilohydric organisms, changes in the synthesis of proteins have bee...
van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Diks, Sander H.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Rygiel, Agnieskza M.; Milano, Francesca; Joore, Jos; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.
The precursor metaplastic mucosal lesion that predisposes for esophageal adenocarcinoma is Barrett's esophagus. Because the signal transduction events that occur in Barrett's esophagus are poorly understood, this study aimed at generating a comprehensive description of cellular kinase activity in
P. Vranckx (Pascal)
textabstractThe concern about how the effects of pharmacologic as well as device therapies are understood in clinical practice requires attention to the methods of randomized clinical trials, including the selection of meaningful clinical endpoints.
Pappas, Samuel S; Bonifacino, Juan; Danek, Adrian; Dauer, William T; De, Mithu; De Franceschi, Lucia; DiPaolo, Gilbert; Fuller, Robert; Haucke, Volker; Hermann, Andreas; Kornmann, Benoit; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Levin, Johannes; Neiman, Aaron M; Rudnicki, Dobrila D; Sibon, Ody; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Vonk, Jan J; Walker, Ruth H; Weisman, Lois S; Albin, Roger L
Chorea-Acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements, red blood cell pathology, and progressive neurodegeneration. Little is understood of the pathogenesis of ChAc and related disorders (collectively Neuroacanthocytosis). The Eighth
Basson, R.; Berman, J.; Burnett, A.; Derogatis, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fourcroy, J.; Goldstein, I.; Graziottin, A.; Heiman, J.; Laan, E.; Leiblum, S.; Padma-Nathan, H.; Rosen, R.; Segraves, K.; Segraves, R. T.; Shabsigh, R.; Sipski, M.; Wagner, G.; Whipple, B.
PURPOSE: Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent but not well defined or understood. We evaluated and revised existing definitions and classifications of female sexual dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary consensus conference panel consisting of 19 experts in female sexual
Brüll, A.; Wirth, T.M.; Lohrberg, F.; Kempenaar, Annet; Brinkhuijsen, M.; Godart, M.F.; Coppens, A.; Nielsen, M.
Landscapes can be understood as socialecological systems under constant change. In Europe various territorial dynamics pose persistent challenges to maintaining diverse landscapes both as European heritage and in their capacity to provide vital functions and services. Concurrently, under the
scenario still remain poorly understood. ... to test models with future observations. ... A popular scenario for the origin of radio halos assumes that relativis- ..... based on particle acceleration by merger-driven turbulence in galaxy clusters shows.
DULLAART, RPF; SLUITER, WJ; DIKKESCHEI, LD; HOOGENBERG, K; VANTOL, A
The mechanisms responsible for the decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels associated with obesity and insulin resistance are not well understood. Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factors in the esterification of
musculo-skeletal) diseases associated with the deposition of mineralized material within joints and periarticular soft tissues. Gout is the most common and pathogenetically best understood crystal arthropathy, followed by basic calcium ...
Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, H.F. de
Background and purpose Memory impairment after stroke is poorly understood as stroke rarely occurs in the hippocampus. Previous studies have observed smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes after stroke compared with controls. Possibly, these findings on macroscopic level are not the first
Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, F.E. de
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Memory impairment after stroke is poorly understood as stroke rarely occurs in the hippocampus. Previous studies have observed smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes after stroke compared with controls. Possibly, these findings on macroscopic level are not the first
Harms, Hauke A.; Té treault, Nicolas; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Stellacci, Francesco; Grä tzel, Michael
Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation
more clearly understood, programmatically consumable, and 95 Carmen Ferro, David Henry , and...Bassett, W. A. Buehring, M. J. Collins, D. C. Dickinson, L. K. Eaton, K. E. Wallace , R. G. Whitfield, and J. P. Peerenboom. Constructing a Resilience
Goltermann, Lise; Good, Liam; Bentin, Thomas
For almost half of a century, we have known that aminoglycoside antibiotics corrupt ribosomes, causing translational misreading, yet it remains unclear whether or not misreading triggers protein misfolding, and possible effects of chaperone action on drug susceptibilities are poorly understood...
Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Schneider, Fabien C; Kupers, Ron
Vision allows for obstacle detection and avoidance. The compensatory mechanisms involved in maintaining these functions in blind people using their remaining intact senses are poorly understood. We investigated the ability of congenitally blind participants to detect and avoid obstacles using...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental pollutants that produce neurotoxicity and neuroendocrine disruption. They affect the vasopressinergic system but their disruptive mechanisms are not well understood. Our group reported t...
Haak, Dale A
.... The biochemical significance of much of this structural variability is not well understood. The sphingolipids of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo the a-hydroxylation of the very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA...
Sep 1, 2012 ... nucleic acids and to provide a platform to invoke interest in young .... The large majority of students are very good and highly ... Continuous teacher training programme. ...... integrity in public service, understood and followed.
Results 7851 - 7860 of 9607 ... ... and how critical it is to reducing levels of youth delinquency and violence is not well understood. ... Plugging into the transformative impact of ICTs ... Community Work Programme reduces poverty and violence.
Jul 27, 2016 ... ... reducing levels of youth delinquency and violence is not well understood. ... Nicaragua, and Canada—seek to enhance community-based social capital ... illustrating the positive effect of investing in social capital formation ...
Results 7841 - 7850 of 9604 ... Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on social bonds in South African communities ... and how critical it is to reducing levels of youth delinquency and violence is not well understood.
Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Zaugg, Serge
BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms underlying very late stent thrombosis (VLST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) are incompletely understood. Using optical coherence tomography, we investigated potential causes of this adverse event. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August 2010 and Decemb...
... 32. “There were things that I told complete strangers because I knew that they understood where I ... the field of suicide prevention. Excellent website for cutting-edge information about suicide and suicide prevention. http: / / ...
Transportation corridor-planning processes are well understood, and consensus exists among practitioners : about common practices for stages and tasks included in traditional EIS approaches. However, traditional approaches do : not typically employ f...
The social sciences have made considerable inroads into exploring the politics of environment, land and resources throughout Southeast Asia, yet the social and political character of bioenergy development remains little understood. Current assumptions that bioenergy provides benefits to rural
Of the seven intelligence disciplines, OSINT is least appreciated, understood, or employed by staffs and organizations supporting the operational commander despite past successes at the strategic and tactical levels...
Piechnik, S.K.; Evans, J.; Bary, L.H.; Wise, R.G.; Jezzard, P.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides hydraulic suspension for the brain. The general concept of bulk CSF production, circulation, and reabsorption is well established, but the mechanisms of momentary CSF volume variation corresponding to vasoreactive changes are far less understood. Nine individuals
Anh, Ha Do Lien; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Nghiem, My Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hoang, Thanh Hang Thi; Do, Quang Ha; Le van, Tan; Tran, Tan Thanh; Wills, Bridget; van Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Vo, Minh Hien; Vo, Cong Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Dung; Farrar, Jeremy; Tran, Tinh Hien; de Jong, Menno D.
Background: The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to
Katterbauer, Klemens; Hoteit, Ibrahim
process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase
The general understood that although the contributions of the scientists were crucial, their work was only one of a host of critical components that made up the totality of the Manhattan Project. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
I.E. de Hooge (Ilona)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ For decades, shame has been understood as a negative, self-conscious feeling with mostly negative interpersonal consequences. As a result, shame is currently perceived as an ugly emotion that motivates social withdrawal, avoidance, and inhibition. The
sion sport such as rugby, using easily understood questions that cast the screening net wide .... at the time of questioning should preclude him or her from training .... tion statement on the management of sports-related concussion. Journal.
South African adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a qualitative exploration of their ... years) who had the defining characteristics of CF and were living in Gauteng province. ... The fundamental human need to be understood and to understand was ...
Nesterova, A.P.; Flack, A.; van Loon, E.E.; Bonadonna, F.; Biro, D.
Group members' individual experience can have important influences when navigating collectively. However, how exactly they structure group travel performance is still not fully understood. This study investigated how navigation and leadership dynamics are affected by the presence of an experienced
Fu, Thomas C; Fullerton, Anne M; Fu, Thomas K; Rice, James R; Hess, David E
... understood. Although modern computer controlled wavemakers provide the ability to generate regular sine waves, long crested multi-spectral waves, mixed seas of almost any sea spectra, and even freak" waves...
Liang, Yuan-Ke; Zeng, De; Xiao, Ying-Sheng; Wu, Yang; Ouyang, Yan-Xiu; Chen, Min; Li, Yao-Chen; Lin, Hao-Yu; Wei, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Yong-Qu; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Zhang, Guo-Jun
Tamoxifen resistance presents a prominent clinical challenge in endocrine therapy for hormone sensitive breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to tamoxifen resistance are not fully understood. In this study, we established a tamoxifen resistant MCF-7 cell line
.... At present, the physical basis for the Biefeld-Brown effect is not understood. The order of magnitude of the net force on the asymmetric capacitor is estimated assuming two different mechanisms of charge conduction between its electrodes...
Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees Jan; Spechler, Philip A.; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N.; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R.; Garavan, Hugh
Background Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Methods Impulsivity was estimated
Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN; Globoderarostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida Stone) and their interactions with potato plants are insufficiently understood to explain variations of population
Egoh, Benis N
Full Text Available of conservation interventions. The benefits of such integration are purported to include improvements in the justification and resources available for these interventions. Nevertheless, additional costs and potential trade-offs remain poorly understood...
Haraldsson, B T; Aagaard, P; Crafoord-Larsen, D
Overload tendon injuries are frequent in recreational and elite sports. The optimal treatment strategy remains unknown, but local administration of corticosteroids is one common treatment option. The direct effects of the corticosteroid administration on the tissue are not fully understood...
The Office of Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ODCSINT), U.S. Army, tasked RAND's Arroyo Center to examine how national power ought to be understood in the context of the technical and social changes taking place today...
Beijer, N.A.; Buck, H.M.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.; Meijer, E.M.
So far, the interactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) derivatives with dehydrogenases are not very well understood. This hampers the introduction of NAD+ analogues with improved characteristics concerning industrial application. We have developed an AMBER molecular mechanics model in
Coen, Janice L.; Douglas, Craig C.
Wildland fire behavior, particularly that of large, uncontrolled wildfires, has not been well understood or predicted. Our methodology to simulate this phenomenon uses high-resolution dynamic models made of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models
Jan 18, 2011 ... properly understood, and strategies for tackling them more appropriately designed. The clarification ..... the word of God makes the best possible use of the miracle of intelligent ... A lot of time, energy and resources are wasted.
Global aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is an important metric for assessing potential climate impacts of future emissions changes. However, the radiative consequences of emissions perturbations are not readily quantified nor well understood at the level of detail necessary...
Carson, Dennis A
.... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...
Carson, Dennis A
.... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...
Grandjean, Philippe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood....
.... Further, the nature and importance of the biophysical mechanisms of photon-tissue interaction at such pulse widths and irradiances are not understood at the fundamental cell and molecular level...
Uller, Tobias; While, Geoffrey M.; Cadby, Chloe D.; Harts, Anna; O'Connor, Katherine; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik
Plastic responses to temperature during embryonic development are common in ectotherms, but their evolutionary relevance is poorly understood. Using a combination of field and laboratory approaches, we demonstrate altitudinal divergence in the strength of effects of maternal thermal opportunity on
van Bergeijk, Petra; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C
The proper spatial arrangement of organelles underlies many cellular processes including signaling, polarization, and growth. Despite the importance of local positioning, the precise connection between subcellular localization and organelle function is often not fully understood. To address this,
Schraven, Daan; Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.
For some time, organisations have encountered challenges when implementing asset management, particularly when closing the gap between how the asset management is understood by employees and how they support it in practice. Maturity models, common applied evaluations for implementing asset
... causes this, and what can he do about it? Answers from Phillip A. Low, M.D. Micturition ( ... of micturition syncope isn't fully understood. But it may be related to opening (vasodilation) of the ...
This memorandum contains a large amount of technical detail. However, in significant contrast, : it addresses an easily-understood and fundamental need in surveillance and navigation systems : analysis quantifying the geometry of two locations re...
Exposure to fungal aerosols clearly causes human disease. However, methods for assessing exposure remain poorly understood, and guidelines for interpreting data are often contradictory. The purposes of this paper are to review and compare existing guidelines for indoor airborne...
Full Text Available Risk management is understood as a process supporting decision making through systemic assessment of possible courses of action, identification of hazards and benefits, and indication of the best way to carry out aviation tasks.
Verkooijen, K.T.; Nielsen, G.A.; Kremers, S.P.J.
Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern, sense of
BACKGROUND: Influenza peaks during the wintertime in temperate regions and during the annual rainy season in tropical regions – however reasons for the observed differences in disease ecology are poorly understood. We hypothesize that episodes of extreme precipitation also result...
The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471
Sabelli, Paolo A.; Liu, Yan; Dante, Ricardo Augusto; Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Nguyen, Hong N.; Brown, Sara W.; Klingler, John; Yu, Jingjuan; LaBrant, Evan; Layton, Tracy M.; Feldman, Max; Larkins, Brian A.
, and programmed cell death. Although manipulation of these processes could maximize grain yield, how they are regulated and integrated is poorly understood. We show that the Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) pathway controls key aspects of endosperm development
Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt
Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations
Moreira Lopes, Xenia; Bérubé, Martine; Berrow, Simon D.; Larsen, Finn; Haug, Tore; Hoekendijk, Jeroen; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Kot, Brian; Øien, Nils; Oosting, Tom; Pampoulie, Christophe; Ramp, Christian; Robbins, Jooke; Ryan, Conor; Sears, Richard; Simon, Malene; Skaug, H. J.; Verkuil, Yvonne; Vikingsson, G.A.; Witting, Lars; van der Zee, Jurjan; Palsboll, Per
The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is a globally-distributed species whose population ecology is poorly understood. Most knowledge about minke whale populations, including gender differences, originates from historical data collected during commercial harvests. Here we present results from
... the surface of their hosts’ cells; however, filovirus replication strategies are not completely understood. Filovirus history The ... first identified in 1976 when two outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) occurred in northern Zaire ( ...
Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade. Policymakers, businesspeople and civil society advocates need evidence-based research to react ... understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; ...
Klink, P. Christiaan; Jeurissen, Danique; Theeuwes, Jan; Denys, Damiaan; Roelfsema, Pieter R.
The richness of sensory input dictates that the brain must prioritize and select information for further processing and storage in working memory. Stimulus salience and reward expectations influence this prioritization but their relative contributions and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.
"The performance of bridges is critical to the overall performance of the highway transportation system in the United States. However, many critical aspects of bridge performance are not well understood. The reasons for this include the extreme diver...
Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Jeppesen, E.; Zanden, M. J. V.
Benthic community responses to lake eutrophication are poorly understood relative to pelagic responses. We compared phytoplankton and periphyton productivity along a eutrophication gradient in Greenland, U.S., and Danish lakes. Phytoplankton productivity increased along the phosphorus gradient (t...
Tiffin, Nicki; Meintjes, Ayton; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Rayner, Brian
appears more prevalent in people of indigenous African origin. The underlying genetics of salt-sensitive hypertension, however, are poorly understood. In this study, computational methods including text- and data-mining have been used to select
Full Text Available Governments, military forces and other organisations responsible for cybersecurity deal with vast amounts of data that has to be understood in order to lead to intelligent decision making. Semantic technologies is a knowledge representation paradigm...
Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Ceciel; Huitema, Rients; Braams, Olga; Veenstra, Wencke S.
Introduction Facial emotion recognition is essential for social interaction. The development of emotion recognition abilities is not yet entirely understood (Tonks et al. 2007). Facial emotion recognition emerges gradually, with happiness recognized earliest (Herba & Phillips, 2004). The recognition
Verkooijen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Gert A; Kremers, Stef P J
BACKGROUND: Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. PURPOSE: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern,...
J.M. Hartgerink (Jacqueline); J.M. Cramm (Jane); T.J.E.M. Bakker (Ton); A.M. van Eijsden (A.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractAim: To identify predictors of relational coordination among professionals delivering care to older patients. Background: Relational coordination is known to enhance quality of care in hospitals. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Design: This cross-sectional
Diosdado, B.; Buffart, T.E.; Watkins, R.; Carvalho, B.; Ylstra, B.; Tijssen, M.; Bolijn, A.S.; Lewis, F.; Maude, K.; Verbeke, C.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Grabsch, H.; Mulder, C.J.; Quirke, P.; Howdle, P.; Meijer, G.A.
PURPOSE: The molecular pathogenesis of small intestinal adenocarcinomas is not well understood. Understanding the molecular characteristics of small bowel adenocarcinoma may lead to more effective patient treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-eight small bowel adenocarcinomas (33 non-celiac disease
It is shown that ordinary baryons can be understood as solitons in current algebra effective lagrangiangs. The formation of color flux tubes can also be seen in current algebra, under certain conditions. (orig.)
Boudali, Lianne K
... of support in Europe. The alignment of the GSPC with al Qa ida represents a significant change in the group's strategy, however, its decision to join al Qa ida's global jihad should be understood as an act of desperation...
autonomy. In practice, however, the central govern- ment retains tight control ... research team, “is understood as: 'each state has to find ... tariffs, organize maintenance, and take part in decisions .... They also learned about successful literacy.
Quarkonia can be a very useful tool for understanding the medium in which they are produced and pass through. However, their usefulness as a tool depends on how well certain aspects of their behavior in cold matter are understood.
Childhood asthma is a multifactorial disease with a disturbingly high incidence in urbanized areas. The pathogenesis of asthma is poorly understood due to the complex relationship between genetic susceptibility and modulating environmental factors. The Mechanistic Indicators of C...
Sival, Deborah A.; Guerra, Montserrat; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Batiz, Luis F.; Alvial, Genaro; Castaneyra-Perdomo, Agustin; Rodriguez, Esteban M.
In human spina bifida aperta (SBA), cerebral pathogenesis [hydrocephalus, Sylvius aqueduct (SA) stenosis and heterotopias] is poorly understood. In animal models, loss of ventricular lining (ependymal denudation) causes SA stenosis and hydrocephalus. We aimed to investigate whether ependymal
Donker, RB; Asgeirsdottir, SA; Gerbens, F; van Pamus, MG; Kallenberg, CGM; Meerman, GJT; Aarnoudse, JG; Molema, G
OBJECTIVE: Systemic endothelial dysfunction is a central feature in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Its cell biologic and molecular basis is poorly understood. One leading hypothesis argues that endothelial dysfunction is caused by (at present largely unknown) circulating factors released from
Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred; Perugini, Marco; Johnson, Wendy; Blum, Gabriela; Borkenau, Peter; Costantini, Giulio; Denissen, J.J.A.; Fleeson, William; Grafton, Ben; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Kurzius, Elena; MacLeod, Colin; Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Robinson, Michael D.; Wood, Dustin; Wrzus, Cornelia
In this target article, we argue that personality processes, personality structure, and personality development have to be understood and investigated in integrated ways in order to provide comprehensive responses to the key questions of personality psychology. The psychological processes and
That current ideals of cognition impoverish experience is a classical observation, and complaint, of the early Frankfurt School. Adorno reacts to this phenomenon in several ways, among them his conception of metaphysical experiences. Metaphysical experiences are conventionally understood as
Davelaar, Akueni L.; Straub, Daniëlle; Buttar, Navtej S.; Fockens, Paul; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.
Objective. Molecular processes underlying Barrett's malignant development are poorly understood. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and malignant development. Therefore, active MMPs may have a role in early metaplasia development and Barrett's
Holmegard, Haya N; Theilade, Juliane; Benn, Marianne
BACKGROUND: Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology characterized by a variety of supraventricular arrhythmias with symptoms of syncope, palpitations, and dizziness. The mechanism underlying the abnormal rhythm is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: Because va...
Lubineau, Gilles; Sulaimani, Anwar Ali; El Yagoubi, Jalal; Mulle, Matthieu; Verdu, Jacques
Monitoring changes in electrical conductivity is a simple way to assess the water uptake from environmental moisture in polymers. However, the relation between water uptake and changes in conductivity is not fully understood. We monitored changes
Mitiku, Fikadu; Mey, de Yann; Nyssen, Jan; Maertens, Miet
Private sustainability standards are increasingly important in food trade with developing countries, but the implications for smallholder farmers are still poorly understood. We analyze the implications of different coffee certification schemes in Ethiopia using cross-sectional survey data, and
Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.
OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate
Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel
Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate
Hood, R.R.; Wiggert, J.D.; Naqvi, S.W.A.
a dynamically complex and highly variable system under monsoonal influence. The biogeochemical and ecological impacts of this complex physical forcing are not yet fully understood. Specific questions and hypotheses have emerged from recent studies...
Nygaard, Sanne; Braunstein, Alexander; Malsen, Gareth; Van Dongen, Stijn; Gardner, Paul P.; Krogh, Anders; Otto, Thomas D.; Pain, Arnab; Berriman, Matthew; McAuliffe, Jon; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Jeffares, Daniel C.
of these genomes. Although evolutionary processes have a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding portion of the genome. We use evolutionary methods
Guil, Noemi; Jørgensen, Aslak; Giribet, Gonzalo
Although morphological characters distinguishing echiniscid genera and species are well understood, the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa are not well established. We thus investigated the phylogeny of Echiniscidae, assessed the monophyly of Echiniscus, and explored the value of cuticular ...
Aghajani, Moji; Veer, Ilya M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; van der Wee, Nic J.
The personality traits neuroticism and extraversion are differentially related to socioemotional functioning and susceptibility to affective disorders. However, the neurobiology underlying this differential relationship is still poorly understood. This discrepancy could perhaps best be studied by
.... A number of related problems such as the paraunitary interpolation problem and the cyclic paraunitary factorizability problem can be understood in a unified way by using the realization matrix...
Stanic, N.; Salet, T.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.
The principle of structural behaviour of buried concrete pipes is fairly understood, except for how material deterioration affects structural behaviour and performance. Consequently, information on the structural behaviour of deteriorated sewer pipes will contribute to better understanding of the
Homminga, J.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Veldhuizen, A. G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Meijer, G.
During adolescent growth, vertebrae and intervertebral discs undergo various geometrical changes. Although such changes in geometry are well known, their effects on spinal stiffness remains poorly understood. However, this understanding is essential in the treatment of spinal abnormalities during
Concepts in probability can be more readily understood if students are first exposed to probability via experiment. Performing probability experiments encourages students to develop understandings of probability grounded in real events, as opposed to merely computing answers based on formulae.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), formerly called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is characterized by hepatic steatosis and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in liver cells. Its etiology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Some have suggested that the increased in...
Goodnight, G. Thomas; Poulakos, John
Notes that conspiracy charges have come to characterize mainstream political drama. Analyzes dimensions of the Watergate scandal so that the manner in which conspiracy rhetoric unfolds in political drama may be better understood. (PD)
Shanbhogue, V. V.; Mitchell, Deborah M; Rosen, C. J.
fractures. The mechanisms underlying skeletal fragility in diabetes are not completely understood, but are multifactorial and likely include effects of obesity, hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress, and accumulation of advanced glycation end products, leading to altered bone metabolism, structure, and strength...
O'Brien, W.; Gaetani, I.; Gilani, S.; Carlucci, S.; Hoes, P.; Hensen, J.L.M.
It is not evident that practitioners have kept pace with latest research developments in building occupant behaviour modelling; nor are the attitudes of practitioners regarding occupant behaviour modelling well understood. In order to guide research and development efforts, researchers,
Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Hansen, Claus; Kim, Hyung-Goo
Genome instability, epigenetic remodelling and structural chromosomal rearrangements are hallmarks of cancer. However, the coordinated epigenetic effects of constitutional chromosomal rearrangements that disrupt genes associated with congenital neurodevelopmental diseases are poorly understood. T...
Baud, Maxime O.; Parafita, Julia; Nguyen, Audrey; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean-Marie
© 2016 European Sleep Research Society. Sleep is viewed as a fundamental restorative function of the brain, but its specific role in neural energy budget remains poorly understood. Sleep deprivation dampens brain energy metabolism and impairs
van der Marel, D.; Golden, M.
A century ago, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity. And yet, despite the conventional superconductors being understood, the list of unconventional superconductors is growing — for which unconventional theories may be required.
Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia T
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients...
Wright, Jarrad G
Full Text Available understood wind (and solar) resource in South Africa combined with large geographical land-area and technology cost reductions globally and domestically for wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) has made these technologies more than competitive with alternatives...
While bicyclists and other active travelers obtain health benefits from increased physical activity, they also risk uptake of traffic-related air pollution. But pollution uptake by urban bicyclists is not well understood due to a lack of direct measu...
DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.
to the ocean and other resources in a way which negates their destruction but permits maximum utilization. Even though the coastal water body is the most utilized medium for waste disposal, the behaviour of all pollutants is not adequately understood...
Boukes, M.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Moorman, M.; de Vreese, C.H.
Opinionated news targets communities of likeminded viewers, relies on dramaturgical storytelling techniques, and shares characteristics with political satire. Accordingly, opinionated news should be understood as a specific form of political entertainment. We have investigated the mechanisms
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Composite structures are gaining importance for use in the aerospace industry. Compared to metallic structures their behavior is less well understood. This lack of...
Bocxlaer, Van B.; Strong, E.E.
The anatomy, functional morphology and evolutionary ecology of the Viviparidae, and the subfamily Bellamyinae in particular, are incompletely known. Partly as a result, genealogical relationships within the family remain poorly understood. Because of this lack in knowledge, few informed hypotheses
van der Pol, Barbara; Kwok, Cynthia; Pierre-Louis, Bosny; Rinaldi, Anne; Salata, Robert A.; Chen, Pai-Lien; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Mmiro, Francis; Mugerwa, Roy; Chipato, Tsungai; Morrison, Charles S.
Background. Trichomoniasis vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemicity. However, its impact as a cofactor for HIV acquisition is poorly understood. Methods.
Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated
gendered historical consciousness of colonialism and the post-colonial state in. Africa. ..... took over the growing and marketing of crops which were formerly understood .... Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of.
Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan
The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....
May 28, 2013 ... nursing care is still not well understood, nor applied meaningfully in practice. ... This study used a qualitative research design to explore and describe professional ... Context, population and sample. The research setting was ...
Hunt, Anton; Dimitrakopoulos, Georgios; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions
Feb 7, 2018 ... reported where the crucial diseases have been identified and understood very .... the core technology of the emerging multimedia stan- dards MPEG-4 ... scheme resistive against large scale compression, crop- ping and many ...
Mercury is a ubiquitous global environmental toxicant responsible for most US fish advisories. Processes governing mercury concentrations in rivers and streams are not well understood, particularly at multiple spatial scales. We investigate how insights gained from reach-scale me...
Duives, D.C.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
Whether pedestrian movements do or do not follow similar patterns as vehicular traffic while experiencing congestion is not entirely understood. Using data gathered during bottleneck experiments under laboratory conditions, the phenomenon of anticipation before entering congestion is studied. This
Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...
Franz, J.; Beutel, M.; Gevers, K.; Kramer, A.; Thyssen, J. P.; Kezic, S.; Riethmüller, C.
The skin barrier protects the organism against exogenous stressors and simultaneously prevents excessive water loss. While the delicate regulation of skin barrier is not completely understood, morphological and histological evaluation remain key features of clinical investigations. Here, we extended
Task 1 of this report drivers' knowledge of various bicycle warning signs and pavement markings were assessed. In general knowledge was high. Share the Road and Three Foot Minimum signs were generally more quickly understood and recognized in version...
Gröngröft, I.; Heil, P.H.; Matthys, R.; Lezuo, P.; Tami, A.E.; Perren, S.; Montavon, P.M.; Ito, K.
Delayed unions are a problematic complication of fracture healing whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Advanced molecular biology methods available with mice would be advantageous for investigation. In humans, decreased fixation rigidity and poor reduction are generally associated with
The religious sector networks' direct financial contribution to welfare, relief and development ..... 18 This statement should be understood within the context that: ..... Transforming the present — Protecting the future: Consolidated report. Preto-.
Although certain risk factors for breast cancer, such as never having giving birth, have been established, the biologic mechanisms by which these factors increase the risk of breast cancer is not well understood...
GaN community, particularly under the leadership of Drs. Wood, Win, and Litton, recognized that it is imperative that the extended, and point defects in GaN and related materials, and the mechanisms for their formation are understood...
... and interconnected global information infrastructure. These vulnerabilities, when exploited by those who would target civilians in order to inspire widespread fear in hopes of accomplishing a political agenda, can be understood as cyberterrorism...
Steinkellner, Thomas; Mus, Liudmilla; Eisenrauch, Birgit
Addiction to psychostimulants (ie, amphetamines and cocaine) imposes a major socioeconomic burden. Prevention and treatment represent unmet medical needs, which may be addressed, if the mechanisms underlying psychostimulant action are understood. Cocaine acts as a blocker at the transporters...
Meijer, Danielle; van Agthoven, Ton; Bosma, Peter T.; Nooter, Kees; Dorssers, Lambert C. J.
Antiestrogens, such as tamoxifen, are widely used for endocrine treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, as breast cancer progresses, development of tamoxifen resistance is inevitable. The mechanisms underlying this resistance are not well understood. To identify genes
... and residue build-up has resulted in detectable contamination of the environment—the consequences of which are not yet fully understood. It has been recovered from lake sediment, rivers, streams, wastewater, seawater, and has been found in ...
Veen, G. F. (Ciska); Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han; Schmid, Bernhard
Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales
Veen, G.F.; Geuverink, E.; Olff, H.
Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), known to form in the atmosphere from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by anthropogenic and biogenic sources, are a poorly understood but substantial component of atmospheric particles. In this study, we examined the chemic...
Ferrari, Raffaele; Wang, Yunpeng; Vandrovcova, Jana
BACKGROUND: Clinical, pathological and genetic overlap between sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested; however, the relationship between these disorders is still not well understood. Here we evaluated genetic overlap between...
Motherway, M.O.; Vos, de W.M.
Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with bifidobacteria being among the first colonizers of the sterile newborn gastrointestinal tract. To date, the genetic basis of Bifidobacterium colonization and persistence remains poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of the
Motherway, M.O.; Zomer, A.L.; Leahy, S.C.; Reunanen, J.; Bottacini, F.; Claesson, M.J.; O'Brien, F.; Flynn, K.; Casey, P.G.; Munoz, J.A.; Kearney, B.; Houston, A.M.; O'Mahony, C.; Higgins, D.G.; Shanahan, F.; Palva, A.; Vos, W.M. de; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Ventura, M.; O'Toole, P.W.; Sinderen, D. van
Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with bifidobacteria being among the first colonizers of the sterile newborn gastrointestinal tract. To date, the genetic basis of Bifidobacterium colonization and persistence remains poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of the
Sood, Subeena; Chelu, Mihail G.; van Oort, Ralph J.; Skapura, Darlene; Santonastasi, Marco; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wehrens, Xander H. T.
BACKGROUND: Although defective Ca(2+) homeostasis may contribute to arrhythmogenesis in atrial fibrillation (AF), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Studies in patients with AF revealed that impaired diastolic closure of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-release channels
Hooijman, P.E.; Beishuizen, A.; Witt, C.C.; de Waard, M.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Spoelstra-de Man, A.M.E.; Niessen, H.W.; Manders, E.; van Hees, H.W.H.; van den Brom, C.E.; Silderhuis, V.; Lawlor, M.W.; Labeit, S.; Stienen, G.J.M.; Hartemink, K.J.; Paul, M.A.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.
RATIONALE: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency, and increases morbidity and duration of hospital stay. To date, the nature of diaphragm weakness and its underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood.
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely i...
... a poorly understood neurologic disorder of unknown aetiology that affects children and adolescents in Africa. ... needs were considered as seizure control, management of behavioural and psychiatric difficulties, nursing care, nutritional and ...
Trøstrup, Hannah; Lerche, Christian Johann; Christophersen, Lars Jackie
The impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in chronic wounds and clinical implication for healing is receiving increased attention. However, the pathophysiology of host/pathogen interplay is not fully understood. By further revealing the mechanisms, necessary new treatment strategies...
Spreeuwenberg, M.A.; Verdonk, J.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
Compromising alterations in gastrointestinal architecture are common during the weaning transition of pigs. The relation between villous atrophy and epithelial barrier function at weaning is not well understood. This study evaluated in vitro transepithelial transport by Ussing metabolic chambers,
.... The armed forces of the United States have long understood these prescriptions and have amassed an array of technologies, techniques, analytic methods, and talented personnel to ensure intelligence superiority...
Bernabei, Michel; Van Dieen, Jaap H.; Maas, Huub
The functional consequences of differential muscle activation and contractile behavior between mechanically coupled synergists are still poorly understood. Even though synergistic muscles exert similar mechanical effects at the joint they span, differences in the anatomy, morphology and neural drive
It is declared understood in the pension laws that manage the Jubilations and Pensions Office of the Industry and Commerce the personnel that has lent or lend services in the Laboratories of Clinical analysis and in clinics radiological matters [es
Downs, Doneda D
.... Until a few years ago, most research on individual commitment and organizational cohesion has been based primarily on questionnaires and open observations on groups that desire to be understood...
Agarwal, Promila; Farndale, E.
Unimplemented creative ideas are potentially wasted opportunities for organisations. Although it is largely understood how to encourage creativity among employees, how to ensure this creativity is implemented remains underexplored. The objective of the current study is to identify the underlying
Passenier, D.F.; Mols, C.; Bím, J.; Sharpanskykh, A.
Safety culture is often understood as encompassing organizational members’ shared attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and values associated with safety. Safety culture theory development is fraught with inconsistencies and superficiality of measurement methods, because the dynamic and political nature
Passenier, D; Mols, C; Bim, J; Sharpans'kykh, Alexei
Safety culture is often understood as encompassing organizational members’ shared attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and values associated with safety. Safety culture theory development is fraught with inconsistencies and superficiality of measurement methods, because the dynamic and political nature
understood yet, however knowledge in this area of study. 9 is on the ..... Science and Technology, Norway), Prof. R. Heaton ... Carey. 12. Grosssman, L.R., and Zalewski, C. Hypertension and. Cognitive Functioning, (abstract) Journal of Clinical.
Enzyme kinetics; Monte Carlo; percolation; random walk; obstacle. .... enzyme E, P remains on the same site but S is converted to P with unit probability. ..... is then qualitatively understood with the help of diffusion and percolation theory.
Gjærde, Line Klingen; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Baker, Jennifer Lyn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebra...
... a review of the disease, management strategies and future research directions. ... Plants are infected either by insects through the inflorescence or by ... wilt is not fully understood but its impact on food security in the region is very significant.
Mccreight, Laura J.; Stage, Tore B.; Connelly, Paul
AIMS: Metformin intolerance symptoms are gastrointestinal in nature, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess potential causes of metformin intolerance including: altered metformin uptake from the intestine; increased anaerobic glucose utilisation and...
O'Brien, William D., Jr; Liu, Yuhui
The overall goal of this research was to develop an acoustic wave propagation model using well-understood and documented computational techniques that track and quantify an air-borne incident acoustic...
Although theory predicts that females should prefer the highest quality male, female mating preferences within populations often show pronounced variation. What causes and maintains this variation remains poorly understood. This thesis addresses the influence of rearing conditions both on female
Potassium (K+) homeostasis is essential for diverse cellular processes, although how various cation transporters collaborate to maintain a suitable K(+) required for growth and development is poorly understood. The Arabidopsis ("Arabidopsis thaliana") genome contains numerous cation:proton antiporte...
Potassium (K+) homeostasis is essential for diverse cellular processes, although how various cation transporters collaborate to maintain a suitable K+ required for growth and development is poorly understood. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains numerous cation:proton antiporters (...
Pangesti, N.P.D.; Pineda Gomez, A.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.
Selected strains of non-pathogenic rhizobacteria can trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants against aboveground insect herbivores. However, the underlying mechanisms of plant-mediated interactions between rhizobacteria and herbivorous insects are still poorly understood. Using
Cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as fine particulate matter and arsenic in drinking water. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental Qualit...
Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Dublin, Holly T.; Bhola, Nina; Reid, Robin S.
Natality and recruitment govern animal population dynamics, but their responses to fluctuating resources, competition, predation, shifting habitat conditions, density feedback and diseases are poorly understood. To understand the influences of climatic and land use changes on population dynamics, we
Vaanholt, L. M.; Jonas, I.; Doornbos, M.; Schubert, K. A.; Nyakas, C.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.
Objective: Increased dietary fat intake is a precipitating factor for the development of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Physically active individuals generally have a reduced risk of developing these unhealthy states, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the
The risk of climate change to governmental operations is not yet fully understood; : however, it is changing the way organizations think about the impact of their operations : on the environment. How MDOT addresses this issue is driven by a combinati...
Sterck, F.J.; Markesteijn, L.; Toledo, M.; Schieving, F.; Poorter, L.
Niche differentiation is a major hypothesized determinant of species distributions, but its practical importance is heavily debated and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Trait-based approaches have been used to infer niche differentiation and predict species distributions. For
Dong, Yixin; Isono, Kyo Ichi; Ohbo, Kazuyuki
Global histone hyperacetylation is suggested to play a critical role for replacement of histones by transition proteins and protamines to compact the genome during spermiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms for hyperacetylation- mediated histone replacement remains poorly understood. Here...
Acacio, Vanda; Holmgren, Milena; Jansen, Patrick A.; Schrotter, Ondrej
Lack of tree regeneration and persistency of species-poor shrublands represent a growing problem across Mediterranean evergreen oak forests. What constrains forest regeneration is poorly understood, and restoration attempts have been largely unsuccessful. We assessed the contribution of four
Holwerda, Tjalling Jan; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Tilburg, Theo G.; Stek, Max L.; Jonker, Cees; Schoevers, Robert A.
Background Known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include medical conditions, genetic vulnerability, depression, demographic factors and mild cognitive impairment. The role of feelings of loneliness and social isolation in dementia is less well understood, and prospective
Holwerda, T.J.; Deeg, D.; Beekman, A.T.F.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Stek, M.L.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R.A.
Background Known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include medical conditions, genetic vulnerability, depression, demographic factors and mild cognitive impairment. The role of feelings of loneliness and social isolation in dementia is less well understood, and prospective
Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Christensen, Peter Møller; Gether, Ulrik
The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic signaling and enables refilling of synaptic vesicles by mediating reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) released into the synaptic cleft. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT activity and surface expression are not fully understood...
Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chin A Paw, Mai; Singh, Amika
Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled
Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiologic events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflamm...
Historical aspects of electron reaction physics are presented. The presently understood picture of nuclear structure and the electron-nucleus interactions are discussed within the framework of the standard model
Tanvir Hassan, S.M.; Lubczynski, M.; Niswonger, R.G.; Su, Zhongbo
The structural and hydrological complexity of hard rock systems (HRSs) affects dynamics of surface–groundwater interactions. These complexities are not well described or understood by hydrogeologists because simplified analyses typically are used to study HRSs. A transient, integrated hydrologic